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Pharmacology

Summary of Medications
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Paracetamol 325mg/tab 1 tab q4 PRN for T 38 C


Cefuroxime (Profunex) 750mg IVTT q8h anst(-)
Salbutamol (Ventolin) nebule 1 nebule + 2cc NSS q8o
Alnix plus tab 1 tab OD q HS PO
Cefuroxime (Limex) 250mg/5ml susp BID PO

Paracetamol
Generic Name: Paracetamol
Brand Name: Biogesic
Classifications: Analgesics (Non-Opioid) & Antipyretics
Mechanism of Action: Paracetamol exhibits analgesic action by peripheral blockage of pain impulse generation. It produces antipyresis by inhibiting the
hypothalamic heat-regulating centre. Its weak anti-inflammatory activity is related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the CNS.
Indications: Mild to moderate pain and fever.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity, analgesic nephropathy, renal and hepatic impairment
Adverse Drug Reactions: Nausea, allergic reactions, skin rashes, acute renal tubular necrosis. Potentially Fatal: Very rare, blood dyscrasias (e.g. thrombocytopenia,
leucopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis); liver damage.
Dosage: 0.5-1 g 4-6 hrly as necessary. Max: 4 g daily.
Nursing Responsibilities:
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Assess for hypersensitivity to paracetamol, pregnancy, hepatic or kidney dysfunction.


May be taken with or without food.
3 Pregnancy Category B.
4 Monitor for adverse drug effects.
5 Monitor body temperature closely.

Cefuroxime
Generic Name: Cefuroxime
Brand Name: Kefurox, Zinacef, Profunex, Cimex
Classifications: Antibiotic, Cephalosporin (second generation)
Mechanism of Action: Bactericidal: inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall, causing cell death.
Indications: Pharyngitis, tonsillitis, Otitis media, Lower respiratory tract infections, UTIs, Dermatologic infections, including impetigo, Uncomplicated and
disseminated gonorrhea, Perioperative prophylaxis, Bone and joint infections
Contraindications: Allergy to cephalosporins or penicillins, renal failure, lactation
Adverse Drug Reactions: Headache, dizziness, lethargy, paresthesias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, abdominal pain, flatulence, Hypersensitivity ranging
from rash to fever to anaphylaxis, serum sickness reaction, Local pain, abscess at injection site; phlebitis, inflammation at IV site
Dosage: Tablets--125, 250, 500 mg; suspension--125, 250 mg/5 ml; powder for injection--750 mg, 1.5, 7.5 g; injection--750 mg, 1.5 g, 250 mg bid. For severe
infections, may be increased to 500 mg bid., 1.5 g IV ---1 h prior to initial incision; then 750 mg IV or IM q8h for 24 h after surgery.
Nursing Responsibilities:
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Assess for liver and kidney dysfunction, lactation, pregnancy, skin status, liver and kidney function test, culture of affected area, sensitivity tests
The following side effects may occur: stomach upset or diarrhea.
Avoid alcohol while on this drug and for 3 days after because severe reactions often occur.
Report severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing, unusual tiredness or fatigue, pain at injection site.
Give oral drug with food to decrease GI upset and enhance absorption.
Have vitamin K available in case hypoprothrombinemia occurs.
Discontinue if hypersensitivy reaction occurs.

Salbutamol
Generic Name: albuterol sulfate
Brand Name: Ventolin, Salbutamol
Classifications: Bronchodilator (therapeutic); adrenergics (pharmacologic); Antasthmatic; Beta2-selective adrenergic agonist,
Mechanism of Action: It relieves nasal congestion and reversible bronchospasm by relaxing the smooth muscles of the bronchioles. In low doses, acts relatively
selectively at beta2-adrenergic receptors to cause bronchodilation and vasodilation; at higher doses, beta2 selectivity is lost, and the drug acts at beta2 receptors to
cause typical sympathomimetic cardiac effects.
Indications: To control and prevent reversible airway obstruction caused by asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), Quick relief for
bronchospasm, Long-term control agent for patients with chronic or persistent bronchospasm, For the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to adrenergic amines, Hypersensitivity to fluorocarbons
Adverse Drug Reactions: Nervousness, restlessness, tremor, headache, insomnia, chest pain, palpitations, angina, hypertension
Dosage: PO (Adults and Children more than 12 years): 2-4 mg 3-4 times a day or 4-8 mg of extended dose tablets twice a day., Inhalation (Adults and children more
than 4 years of age): 2 inhalations every 4-6 hours, Inhalation (Children 2-12 years old): 0.1-0.15 mg/kg/dose 3-4 times a day
Nursing Responsibilities:
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Assess lung sounds, PR and BP before drug administration and during peak of medication.

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Observe for paradoxical spasm and withhold medication and notify physician if condition occurs.

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Administer PO medications with meals to minimize gastric irritation.

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Extended-release tablet should be swallowed-whole. It should not be crushed or chewed.

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If administering medication through inhalation, allow at least 1 minute between inhalation of aerosol medication.

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Advise the patient to rinse mouth with water after each inhalation to minimize dry mouth.

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Inform the patient that Albuterol may cause an unusual or bad taste.

ALNIX
Generic Name: cetirizine dihydrochlroride
Brand Name: Alnix 10 mg tablet
Classification: Antihistamines, 2nd Generation, Antiallergics
Mechanisms of Action: Cetirizine, a human metabolite of hydroxyzine, is an antihistamine; its principal effects are mediated via selective inhibition of peripheral
H1 receptors.
Indications: Relief of clogged nose; sneezing; runny itchy nose; and itchy, watery eyes associated with allergic rhinitis.
Contraindications: hypersensitivity to Cetirizine hydrochloride or any of its ingredients or hydroxyzine, pregnant or breastfeeding
Adverse Drug Reactions: Drowsiness, sleepiness, sore throat, headache, nausea, dry mouth, stomach pain, cough, diarrhea, bronchospasm, vomiting
Dosage: Tab: Adults & childn > 12 yrs- 1 tab every 12 hrs. Syr: 2 to 5 yrs- 2.5 mL; 6 to 12 yrs - 5 mL. To be taken every 12 hrs. Or as directed.
Nursing Responsibilities:
1. Assess for any allergic reactions.
2. Instruct to take this medication with meal and water.
3. Instruct patient to consult doctor for any discomfort.
4. Instruct to avoid or work with when driving a car or working with risky machinery when taking this medication.