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1.4.5.Step4:SettingUptheCFDSimulationinANSYSFLUENT

1.4.5.Step4:SettingUptheCFDSimulationinANSYSFLUENT
Nowthatyouhavecreatedacomputationalmeshfortheelbowgeometry,inthisstepyouwillsetupaCFD
analysisusingANSYSFLUENT,thenreviewthelistoffilesgeneratedbyANSYSWorkbench.
1. StartANSYSFLUENT.
IntheANSYSWorkbenchProjectSchematic,doubleclicktheSetupcellintheelbowfluidflow
analysissystem.YoucanalsorightclicktheSetupcelltodisplaythecontextmenuwhereyoucanselect
theEdit...option.
WhenANSYSFLUENTisfirststarted,theFLUENTLauncherisdisplayed,enablingyoutoviewand/or
setcertainANSYSFLUENTstartupoptions.

Note:TheFLUENTLauncherallowsyoutodecidewhichversionofANSYS
FLUENTyouwilluse,basedonyourgeometryandonyourprocessingcapabilities.
Figure1.16:FLUENTLauncher

a. Ensurethattheproperoptionsareenabled.

Important:NotethattheDimensionsettingisalreadyfilledinandcannotbe
changed,sinceANSYSFLUENTautomaticallysetsitbasedonthemeshorgeometry
forthecurrentsystem.
i. EnsurethatSerialfromtheProcessingOptionslistisenabled.
ii. EnabletheDisplayMeshAfterReading,EmbedGraphicsWindows,andWorkbench
ColorSchemeoptions.

Note:Anoptionisenabledwhenthereisacheckmarkinthecheckbox,and
disabledwhenthecheckboxisempty.Tochangeanoptionfromdisabledto
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1.4.5.Step4:SettingUptheCFDSimulationinANSYSFLUENT

enabled(orviceversa),clickthecheckboxorthetext.
iii. EnsurethattheDoublePrecisionoptionisdisabled.

Note:FLUENTwillretainyourpreferencesforfuturesessions.
b. ClickOKtolaunchANSYSFLUENT.

Note:TheANSYSFLUENTsettingsfile(FFF.set)iswrittenassoonasANSYS
FLUENTopens.
Figure1.17:TheANSYSFLUENTApplication

2. SetgeneralsettingsfortheCFDanalysis.

Note:SelectGeneralinthenavigationpanetoperformthemeshrelatedactivitiesandto
chooseasolver.

General

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a. Changetheunitsforlength.
BecauseyouwanttospecifyandviewvaluesbasedonaunitoflengthininchesfromwithinANSYS
FLUENT,changetheunitsoflengthwithinANSYSFLUENTfrommeters(thedefault)toinches.

Important:NotethattheANSYSMeshingapplicationautomaticallyconvertsand
exportsmeshesforANSYSFLUENTusingmeters(m)astheunitoflength
regardlessofwhatunitswereusedtocreatethem.Thisissoyoudonothavetoscale
themeshinANSYSFLUENTunderANSYSWorkbench.

GeneralUnits...
ThisdisplaystheSetUnitsdialogbox.

i. SelectlengthintheQuantitieslist.
ii. SelectinintheUnitslist.
iii. Closethedialogbox.
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1.4.5.Step4:SettingUptheCFDSimulationinANSYSFLUENT

Note:Now,allsubsequentinputsthatrequireavaluebasedonaunitoflengthcan
bespecifiedininchesratherthanmeters.
b. Checkthemesh.
GeneralCheck

Note:ANSYSFLUENTwillreporttheresultsofthemeshcheckintheconsole.
DomainExtents:
xcoordinate:min(m)=2.032000e01,max(m)=2.032000e01
ycoordinate:min(m)=2.286000e01,max(m)=2.032000e01
zcoordinate:min(m)=2.332952e18,max(m)=5.080000e02
Volumestatistics:
minimumvolume(m3):1.236631e10
maximumvolume(m3):5.543948e08
totalvolume(m3):2.633948e03
Faceareastatistics:
minimumfacearea(m2):2.155477e07
maximumfacearea(m2):3.423963e05
Checkingmesh.........................
Done.

Note:Theminimumandmaximumvaluesmayvaryslightlywhenrunningon
differentplatforms.Themeshcheckwilllisttheminimumandmaximumxandy
valuesfromthemeshinthedefaultSIunitofmeters.Itwillalsoreportanumberof
othermeshfeaturesthatarechecked.Anyerrorsinthemeshwillbereportedatthis
time.EnsurethattheminimumvolumeisnotnegativeasANSYSFLUENTcannot
beginacalculationwhenthisisthecase.
c. Reviewthemeshquality.
GeneralReportQuality

Note:ANSYSFLUENTwillreporttheresultsofthemeshqualitybelowtheresults
ofthemeshcheckintheconsole.
MeshQuality:
OrthogonalQualityrangesfrom0to1,wherevaluescloseto0correspondtolowquality.
MinimumOrthogonalQuality=3.03883e01
MaximumAspectRatio=1.92309e+01

Note:Thequalityofthemeshplaysasignificantroleintheaccuracyandstabilityof
thenumericalcomputation.Checkingthequalityofyourmeshis,therefore,an
importantstepinperformingarobustsimulation.Minimumcellorthogonalityisan
importantindicatorofmeshquality.Valuesfororthogonalitycanvarybetween0and
1withlowervaluesindicatingpoorerqualitycells.Ingeneral,theminimum
orthogonalityshouldnotbebelow0.01withtheaveragevaluesignificantlylarger.
Thehighaspectratiocellsinthismesharenearthewallsandarearesultofthe
boundarylayerinflationappliedinthemeshingstep.Formoreinformationaboutthe
importanceofmeshqualityrefertoMeshQualityintheUsersGuide.
3. SetupyourmodelsfortheCFDsimulation.
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Models

a. Enableheattransferbyactivatingtheenergyequation.
Models

EnergyEdit...

Note:Youcanalsodoubleclickalistiteminordertoopenthecorrespondingdialog
box.
i. EnabletheEnergyEquationoption.
ii. ClickOKtoclosetheEnergydialogbox.
b. Enablethe turbulencemodel.
Models

ViscousEdit...

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i. SelectkepsilonfromtheModellist.

Note:TheViscousModeldialogboxwillexpand.
ii. UsethedefaultStandardfromthekepsilonModellist.
iii. SelectEnhancedWallTreatmentfortheNearWallTreatment.

Note:ThedefaultStandardWallFunctionsaregenerallyapplicableifthefirst
cellcenteradjacenttothewallhasay+largerthan30.Incontrast,the
EnhancedWallTreatmentoptionprovidesconsistentsolutionsforally+
values.EnhancedWallTreatmentisrecommendedwhenusingthekepsilon
modelforgeneralsinglephasefluidflowproblems.Formoreinformation
aboutNearWallTreatmentsinthekepsilonmodelrefertoSettingUpthek
ModelintheUsersGuide.
iv. ClickOKtoacceptthemodelandclosetheViscousModeldialogbox.
4. SetupyourmaterialsfortheCFDsimulation.
Materials

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1.4.5.Step4:SettingUptheCFDSimulationinANSYSFLUENT

a. CreateanewmaterialcalledwaterusingtheCreate/EditMaterialsdialogbox(Figure1.18:The
Create/EditMaterialsDialogBox).
Materials

FluidCreate/Edit...

i. TypewaterforName.
ii. EnterthefollowingvaluesinthePropertiesgroupbox:
Property
Density
(SpecificHeat)

Value
1000

4216

ThermalConductivity

0.677

Viscosity

8e04

Figure1.18:TheCreate/EditMaterialsDialogBox

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iii. ClickChange/Create.

Note:AQuestiondialogboxwillopen,askingifyouwanttooverwriteair.
ClickNosothatthenewmaterialwaterisaddedtotheFLUENTFluid
Materialslistofmaterialsthatoriginallycontainedonlyair.

Extra:Youcouldhavecopiedthematerialwaterliquid(h2o<l>)fromthe
materialsdatabase(accessedbyclickingtheANSYSFLUENTDatabase...
button).Ifthepropertiesinthedatabasearedifferentfromthoseyouwantto
use,youcaneditthevaluesinthePropertiesgroupboxintheCreate/Edit
MaterialsdialogboxandclickChange/Createtoupdateyourlocalcopy.The
originalcopywillnotbeaffected.
iv. Ensurethattherearenowtwomaterials(waterandair)definedlocallybyexaminingthe
FLUENTFluidMaterialsdropdownlist.

Note:BoththematerialswillalsobelistedunderFluidintheMaterialstask
page.
v. ClosetheCreate/EditMaterialsdialogbox.
5. SetupthecellzoneconditionsfortheCFDsimulation.
CellZoneConditions
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a. Setthecellzoneconditionsforthefluidzone.
i. SelectfluidintheZonelistintheCellZoneConditionstaskpage,thenclickEdit...toopen
theFluiddialogbox.

Note:Youcanalsodoubleclickalistiteminordertoopenthecorresponding
dialogbox.

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ii. IntheFluiddialogbox,selectwaterfromtheMaterialNamedropdownlist.
iii. ClickOKtoclosetheFluiddialogbox.
6. SetuptheboundaryconditionsfortheCFDanalysis.
BoundaryConditions

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a. Settheboundaryconditionsatthecoldinlet(velocityinletlarge).
BoundaryConditions

velocityinletlargeEdit...

ThisopenstheVelocityInletdialogbox.

Tip:Ifyouareunsureofwhichinletzonecorrespondstothecoldinlet,youcanuse
themousetoprobeformeshinformationinthegraphicswindow.Ifyouclickthe
rightmousebuttonwiththepointeronanynodeinthemesh,informationaboutthe
associatedzonewillbedisplayedintheANSYSFLUENTconsole,includingthe
nameofthezone.ThezoneyouprobedwillbeautomaticallyselectedfromtheZone
selectionlistintheBoundaryConditionstaskpage.
Alternatively,youcanclicktheprobebutton( )inthegraphicstoolbarandclick
theleftmousebuttononanynode.Thisfeatureisespeciallyusefulwhenyouhave
severalzonesofthesametypeandyouwanttodistinguishbetweenthemquickly.
Theinformationwillbedisplayedintheconsole.

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i. SelectComponentsfromtheVelocitySpecificationMethoddropdownlist.

Note:TheVelocityInletdialogboxwillexpand.
ii. Enter0.4

forXVelocity.

iii. Retainthedefaultvalueof0

forbothYVelocityandZVelocity.

iv. SelectIntensityandHydraulicDiameterfromtheSpecificationMethoddropdownlistin
theTurbulencegroupbox.
v. Enter5 forTurbulentIntensity.
vi. Enter4inchesforHydraulicDiameter.

Note:Thehydraulicdiameter

isdefinedas:

whereisthecrosssectionalareaandisthewettedperimeter.
vii. ClicktheThermaltab.
viii. Enter293.15forTemperature.
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ix. ClickOKtoclosetheVelocityInletdialogbox.
b. Inasimilarmanner,settheboundaryconditionsatthehotinlet(velocityinletsmall),usingthe
valuesinthefollowingtable:
BoundaryConditions

velocityinletsmallEdit...

VelocitySpecificationMethod

Components

XVelocity

YVelocity

1.2

ZVelocity

SpecificationMethod

Intensity&HydraulicDiameter

TurbulentIntensity

HydraulicDiameter

1in

Temperature

313.15

c. Settheboundaryconditionsattheoutlet(pressureoutlet),asshowninthePressureOutletdialog
box.
BoundaryConditions

pressureoutletEdit...

Note:ANSYSFLUENTwillusethebackflowconditionsonlyifthefluidisflowing
intothecomputationaldomainthroughtheoutlet.Sincebackflowmightoccurat
somepointduringthesolutionprocedure,youshouldsetreasonablebackflow
conditionstopreventconvergencefrombeingadverselyaffected.
7. SetupsolutionparametersfortheCFDsimulation.

Note:Inthestepsthatfollow,youwillsetupandrunthecalculationusingthetaskpages
listedundertheSolutionheadinginthenavigationpane.
a. ChangetheGradientmethod.
SolutionMethods
IntheSpatialDiscretizationsectionoftheSolutionMethodspane,changetheGradienttoGreen
GaussNodeBased.Thisgradientmethodissuggestedfortetrahedralmeshes.
b. Examinetheconvergencecriteriafortheequationresiduals.
Monitors

ResidualsEdit...

i. EnsurethatPlotisenabledintheOptionsgroupbox.
ii. KeepthedefaultvaluesfortheAbsoluteCriteriaoftheResiduals,asshownintheResidual
Monitorsdialogbox.
iii. ClickOKtoclosetheResidualMonitorsdialogbox.

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Note:Bydefault,allvariableswillbemonitoredandcheckedbyANSYS
FLUENTasameanstodeterminetheconvergenceofthesolution.
c. Createasurfacemonitorattheoutlet(pressureoutlet)
Itisgoodpracticetomonitorphysicalsolutionquantitiesinadditiontoequationresidualswhen
assessingconvergence.
Monitors(SurfaceMonitors)Create...

i. Retainthedefaultentryofsurfmon1fortheNameofthesurfacemonitor.
ii. EnablethePlotoptionforsurfmon1.
iii. SetGetDataEveryto3byclickingtheuparrowbutton.
ThissettinginstructsANSYSFLUENTtoupdatetheplotofthesurfacemonitorandwritedata
toafileafterevery3iterationsduringthesolution.
iv. SelectMassWeightedAveragefromtheReportTypedropdownlist.
v. SelectTemperature...andStaticTemperaturefromtheFieldVariabledropdownlists.
vi. SelectpressureoutletfromtheSurfacesselectionlist.
vii. ClickOKtosavethesurfacemonitorsettingsandclosetheSurfaceMonitordialogbox.
ThenameandreporttypeofthesurfacemonitoryoucreatedwillbedisplayedintheSurface
MonitorsselectionlistintheMonitorstaskpage.
d. Initializetheflowfield.
SolutionInitialization
i. KeepthedefaultofHybridInitializationfromtheInitializationMethodsgroupbox.
ii. ClickInitialize.
e. Checktoseeifthecaseconformstobestpractices.
RunCalculationCheckCase
i. ClicktheModelsandSolvertabsandexaminetheRecommendationineach.These
recommendationscanbeignoredforthistutorial.Theissuestheyraisewillbeaddressedin
latertutorials.
ii. ClosetheCaseCheckdialogbox.
8. Calculateasolution.
a. Startthecalculationbyrequesting300iterations.
RunCalculation

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i. Enter300forNumberofIterations.
ii. ClickCalculate.

Important:NotethattheANSYSFLUENTsettingsfile(FFF.set)isupdated
beforethecalculationbegins.

Important:Notethatwhiletheprogramiscalculatingthesolution,thestatesofthe
SetupandSolutioncellsinthefluidflowANSYSFLUENTanalysissystemin
ANSYSWorkbencharechanging.Forexample:
ThestateoftheSetupcellbecomesUptoDateandthestateoftheSolution
cellbecomesRefreshRequiredaftertheRunCalculationtaskpageisvisited
andthenumberofiterationsisspecified.
ThestateoftheSolutioncellisUpdateRequiredwhileiterationsaretaking
place.
ThestateoftheSolutioncellisUptoDatewhenthespecifiednumberof
iterationsarecomplete(orifconvergenceisreached).

Note:Asthecalculationprogresses,thesurfacemonitorhistorywillbeplottedinthe
graphicswindow(Figure1.19:ConvergenceHistoryoftheMassWeightedAverage
Temperature).

Note:ThesolutionwillbestoppedbyANSYSFLUENTwhentheresidualsreach
theirspecifiedvaluesorafter300iterations.Theexactnumberofiterationswillvary
dependingontheplatformbeingused.AnInformationdialogboxwillopentoalert
youthatthecalculationiscomplete.ClickOKintheInformationdialogboxto
proceed.
Becausetheresidualvaluesvaryslightlybyplatform,theplotthatappearsonyour
screenmaynotbeexactlythesameastheoneshownhere.
Figure1.19:ConvergenceHistoryoftheMassWeightedAverageTemperature

Youcandisplaytheresidualshistory(Figure1.20:ResidualsfortheConvergedSolution),by
selectingitfromthegraphicswindowdropdownlist.
Figure1.20:ResidualsfortheConvergedSolution

b. Examinetheplotsforconvergence(Figure1.20:ResidualsfortheConvergedSolutionand
Figure1.19:ConvergenceHistoryoftheMassWeightedAverageTemperature).

Note:Therearenouniversalmetricsforjudgingconvergence.Residualdefinitions
thatareusefulforoneclassofproblemaresometimesmisleadingforotherclassesof
problems.Thereforeitisagoodideatojudgeconvergencenotonlybyexamining
residuallevels,butalsobymonitoringrelevantintegratedquantitiesandcheckingfor
massandenergybalances.
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Therearethreeindicatorsthatconvergencehasbeenreached:
Theresidualshavedecreasedtoasufficientdegree.
ThesolutionhasconvergedwhentheConvergenceCriterionforeachvariable
hasbeenreached.Thedefaultcriterionisthateachresidualwillbereducedtoa
valueoflessthan,excepttheenergyresidual,forwhichthedefaultcriterionis
.
Thesolutionnolongerchangeswithmoreiterations.
Sometimestheresidualsmaynotfallbelowtheconvergencecriterionsetinthe
casesetup.However,monitoringtherepresentativeflowvariablesthrough
iterationsmayshowthattheresidualshavestagnatedanddonotchangewith
furtheriterations.Thiscouldalsobeconsideredasconvergence.
Theoverallmass,momentum,energy,andscalarbalancesareobtained.
Youcanexaminetheoverallmass,momentum,energyandscalarbalancesin
theFluxReportsdialogbox.Thenetimbalanceshouldbelessthan0.2ofthe
netfluxthroughthedomainwhenthesolutionhasconverged.Inthenextstep
youwillchecktoseeifthemassbalanceindicatesconvergence.
9. ViewthelistoffilesgeneratedbyANSYSWorkbench.
ViewFiles
Figure1.21:ANSYSWorkbenchFilesViewfortheProjectAfterGeneratingaSolution

NotethatthestatusoftheSolutioncellisnowuptodate.

Release14.5SASIP,Inc.Allrightsreserved.

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