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UNIT 8: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Part 1

Unit Structure

8.0

Overview

8.1

Learning Objectives

8.2

Second Law of Thermodynamics Direction of Processes

8.3

Thermal Energy Reservoirs

8.4

Heat Engines
8.4.1 Thermal Efficiency
8.4.2 Kelvin Planck Statement

8.5

Refrigerators and Heat Pumps


8.5.1 Coefficient of Performance for Refrigerators
8.5.2 Heat Pumps
8.5.3 Coefficient of Performance for Heat Pumps
8.5.4 Clausius Statement

8.6

Tutorial sheet

8.7

Summary

8.8

Answers to Activities and Tutorial Sheet

8.0

OVERVIEW

The purpose of this unit is to make you familiar with the second law of
Thermodynamics, which asserts that processes occur in a certain direction. Thermal
energy reservoirs, heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps will be introduced.
You will also learn about two classical statements derived from the 2nd law of
thermodynamics, known as the Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements.
You will then calculate thermal efficiencies and coefficient of performance of devices
such as heat engines and refrigerators.

Unit 8

8.1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of this Unit, you will be able to do the following:1. Explain the 2nd law of Thermodynamics.
2. Understand the heat engine, refrigerators and heat pumps.
3. Determine the thermal efficiency of heat engines.
4. Determine the Coefficient of Performance of refrigerators and heat pumps.

8.2

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS DIRECTION


OF PROCESSES

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy is always conserved for any
system. No process is known to have taken place in violation of the first law of
Thermodynamics. However, satisfying the first law alone does not ensure that the
process will take place as the following examples illustrate.

Example 1:

Statement: A cup of hot coffee cools when left in ambient air

Process A

According to the 1st law of Thermodynamics,


amount of energy lost by coffee amount of energy gained by air.
The reverse process would also be true according to the 1st law:
amount of energy gained by coffee amount of energy lost by ambient air
leading to
hot coffee gets hotter when exposed to air

Process B

Thus even if the1st law is satisfied, process B will never take place. Satisfying the first
law does not ensure that the process will occur.

Unit 8

Example 2:

Statement: Heating of a room by passage of current through electric resistor.

According to the first law of Thermodynamics,:


amount of electrical energy supplied amount of energy transferred to room as
heat.

Reverse Process: Heating the wires will not cause an equivalent amount of electrical
energy to be generated.

The above two examples show that processes proceed in a certain direction and not in
the reverse direction, even if the first law is not violated.
Therefore, the second law places a restriction on the direction of spontaneous
processes. A process will never occur unless it satisfies both the 1st and 2nd law of
thermodynamics.

8.3

THERMAL ENERGY RESERVOIRS

Before expressing the Second Law of Thermodynamics, let us look at some


definitions. A thermal energy reservoir is a hypothetical body with large thermal
energy capacity that can absorb or supply finite amounts of energy without
undergoing any change itself.

SOURCE is known as a reservoir supplying energy as heat.


SINK is known as a reservoir absorbing energy as heat.

Examples of Sources are furnaces, nuclear reactors, solar energy


Examples of Sinks : atmospheres, lakes, rivers.
A body needs not be large to be considered as a reservoir. For example, the air in a
room can be treated as a reservoir in the analysis of heat dissipation from a television
set since the amount of heat transfer from the TV set to the air is not large enough to
have a noticeable effect on the temperature of the air in the room.
Unit 8

8.4

HEAT ENGINES

We have seen earlier in Unit 4 that work can be converted directly to heat. But
converting other forms of energy (heat) directly to work is not easy and can only be
done by devices called HEAT ENGINES. A heat engine is an engine which converts
heat to work.

All heat engines can be characterised by the following:


1.

They receive heat from a high temperature source.

2.

They convert part of this heat to work.

3.

They reject the remaining heat to a low temperature sink.

4.

They involve a fluid to and from which heat is transferred while undergoing a
cycle. The fluid is called a working fluid.

5.

They operate on cycles.

Applying 1st law of thermodynamics to the heat engine, a closed system operating on
a cycle where the net heat supplied is equal to the net work done,

then

Qin Qout = Wnet

Equation 8.1

Qin : heat received from source


Qout : heat rejected to sink
Wnet : net work output

Heat Engines can be schematically represented as in figure 8.1.

Unit 8

SOURCE

Qin

Heat
Engine

Wnet

Qout

SINK

Figure 8.1: Heat Engine

8.4.1 Thermal Efficiency


Thermal efficiency, denoted by nth is a measure of how efficiently a heat engine
converts the heat that it receives to work. Thermal efficiency is also referred to as
performance of a heat engine.

Thermal efficiency, nth can be defined as the ratio of desired output to the required
input, as follows

nth =
For a heat engine,

desired output
required input

desired output
required input

net work output


amount of heat supplied.

Using equation 8.1: Qin Qout = W net

nth =

Wnet
Q Qout
Q
= in
= 1 out
Qin
Qin
Qin

Since cyclic devices work between high temperature reservoirs (TH) supplying heat
QH and low temperature reservoirs (TL) receiving heat QL as shown in figure 8.2 then,

n th =

W net
QH

= 1

QL

Equation 8.2

QH

From equation 8.2, nth for a heat engine is always less than 1
Unit 8

TH

QH

Wnet
HE
QL

TL

Figure 8.2: Heat Engine

QH : magnitude of heat transfer between the cyclic device and the high temperature
medium, TH
QL : magnitude of heat transfer between the cyclic device and the low temperature
medium, TL

Typical values of nth are as follows:-

For spark ignition engines, nth = 20%, that is, 20% of the heat received is converted to
work.
For diesel engines, nth = 30%, that is, 30% of the heat received is converted to work.
Activity 1

Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a furnace at a rate of 80 MW. If the rate of
waste heat rejection to a nearby river is 50 MW, determine the net power output and
the thermal efficiency for this heat engine.

8.4.2 2nd Law of Thermodynamics -Kelvin Planck Statement


Experiments have been conducted and it has been seen that
IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY DEVICE THAT OPERATES
ON A CYCLE TO RECEIVE HEAT FROM A SINGLE
RESERVOIR AND PRODUCE A NET AMOUNT OF WORK.
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This is known as the Kelvin-Plank statement and can also be expressed as


No heat engine can have a thermal efficiency of 100%, that is, all heat cannot be
converted to work and QL can never be equal to zero. Even under ideal conditions, a
heat engine must reject heat to a low temperature sink to keep operating.

8.5

REFRIGERATORS AND HEAT PUMPS

From experience, it is known that heat flows in the direction of decreasing


temperature, that is, from high temperature media to low temperature ones.

The reverse process cannot occur by itself and the transfer of heat from a lowtemperature medium to a high temperature one requires special devices called
REFRIGERATORS. Such a device can be represented schematically as in Figure

8.3.
TH

QH

Wnet
REF
QL

TL

Figure 8.3: Refrigerators

Refrigerators, like heat engines, are cyclic devices. They can be characterised as
follows :
1.

Heat is removed from sink.

2.

Heat is rejected to source

3.

A certain amount of work has to be supplied (Wnet)

Unit 8

4.

A refrigerator works on a cycle and the working fluid used is a refrigerant.

Operation of a refrigerator

In a household refrigerator, the sink is the freezer compartment, the


source is the ambient air in the kitchen. The objective or desired
output is to keep the freezer compartment cool. To accomplish this, a
work input of Wnet is required.

8.5.1 Coefficient of Performance


The efficiency of a refrigerator is expressed in terms of the coefficient of performance
(COP), denoted by COPR. The coefficient of performance is defined as the ratio of
desired output to required input.
For a refrigerator, the desired output is to keep the freezer cold and the required input
is the work input by the compressor in the refrigerator.
Therefore :Required Input : Work done by refrigerant, (Wnet).
Desired Output : Amount of heat removed from low temperature
reservoir, TL (QL).

COPR =

QL
desired output
=
required input
Wnet

Since the refrigerator works on a cyclic device,


Q H Q L = W net

COPR =

QL
1
=
QH QL QH QL 1

Equation 8.3

The value of COPR can be greater than one that is the amount of heat removed from
the refrigerated space can be greater than the amount of the work input.

Unit 8

8.5.2 Heat Pumps


Another device that transfers heat from a low temperature medium to a high
temperature one is called the Heat Pump.

Refrigerators and Heat Pumps operate on the same cycle but differ in objectives. The
objective of a refrigerator is to maintain the refrigerated space (TL) at low temperature
by removing heat from it and rejecting heat to a high temperature source (TH).
The objective of a heat pump is to maintain a heated space at a high temperature (TH).
This is accomplished by absorbing heat from a low temperature (TL) source such as
cold outside air in winter and supplying this heat to the high temperature medium
such as a house.

8.5.3 Coefficient of Performance for Heat Pumps (COPHP)


For a heat pump, the desired output is to keep the warm space hot and the required
input is the work input by the heat pump.

The coefficient of performance of the heat pump can be written as


COPHP =
COPHP

desired output QH
=
required input Wnet

Equation 8.4

QH
1
=
=
QH QL 1 QL QH
TH

QH

Wnet

HP
QL

TL

Figure 8.4: Heat Pump

Unit 8

Activity 2

Show that COPHP = COPR + 1

8.5.4 2nd Law of Thermodynamics -Clausius Statement


The Clausius statement is related to refrigerators or heat pumps, and is expressed as
follows:-

IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO CONSTRUCT A DEVICE THAT


OPERATES IN A CYCLE AND PRODUCES NO EFFECT
OTHER THAN THE TRANSFER OF HEAT FROM A LOWER
TEMPERATURE BODY TO A HIGHER TEMPERATURE
BODY.

Both the Kelvin-Planck and the Clausius statements of the second law are equivalent
statements except that Kelvin Planck applies to heat engines and Clausius applies to
heat pumps and refrigerators.

Activity 3

Determine whether air conditioners work as refrigerators or heat pumps.

8.6 TUTORIAL SHEET


1.

A car engine with a power output of 65 hp has a thermal efficiency of 24%.


Determine the fuel consumption rate of this car if the fuel has an energy
content of 19000 Btu/lbm.

Data

1 hp = 745 W
1 Btu = 1054 J
1 lbm = 0.454 Kg

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2.

The food compartment of a refrigerator is maintained at 40C by removing heat


from it at a rate of 360 kJ/min. If the required power input is 2 kW, determine

3.

a.

COPR

b.

Rate of heat discharge to room

A heat pump is used to meet heat requirements of a house and maintain it at


200C. On a day when the outdoor air temperature drops to 20C, the house is
estimated to lose heat at a rate of 80000 kJ/hr. If the heat pump has a COP of
2.5, determine
a.

power consumed by heat pump

b.

rate at which heat is extracted from cold outdoor air.

8.7 SUMMARY
This unit has shown that the Second law of Thermodynamics gives the direction of
spontaneous processes. A process will not occur unless it satisfies both the first and
second laws of Thermodynamics.

Bodies that can absorb or reject finite amounts of heat isothermally are called thermal
energy reservoirs or just thermal reservoirs.

Work can be converted to heat directly, but heat can be converted to work only by
some devices called HEAT ENGINES. The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is
defined as
nth = 1

QL
QH

where QH = heat supplied to Heat Engine, QL = heat rejected by Heat Engine.


Refrigerators and Heat Pumps are devices that absorb heat from low-temperature
media and reject it to higher temperature ones. The performance is expressed in
terms of the coefficient of performance defined as

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COPR =

QH

COPHP =

1
QL 1

1
1 QL QH

There are two classical statements derived from the second law of thermodynamics
known as the Kelvin Planck and Clausius statements.
The Kelvin Planck statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that no
device can produce a net amount of work while exchanging heat with a single
reservoir only. It is applicable to heat engines.

The Clausius statement of the second law states that no device can transfer heat from
a cooler body to a warmer one without leaving an effect on the surroundings. It is
applicable to refrigerators and heat pumps.

In the next unit, you will see the most efficient heat engine, that is the Carnot heat
engine.

8.8 ANSWERS TO ACTIVITIES AND TUTORIAL SHEET


Activity 1

Net Power = 30 MW
Thermal Efficiency, nth =

30
=0.375
80

QH=80 MW

Wnet,output
HE
QL=50 MW

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Activity 2
COPR =
COPHP =

QH

QL
1
=
QL 1 QH QL

QH
Q QL + QL
1
=
H
QL QH QL
QH QL
1
QH

=1+

QL
= 1 + COPR
QH QL

Activity 3

Air conditioners remove heat from a cold room and reject the heat to the outside hot
air. Since its objective is to keep the room cold, it functions as a refrigerator.

Outside Air

QH

Air
Conditioner

Wnet
QL

Cold Room

Tutorial Sheet

1.

Fuel Consumption Rate :4.5 g/s

2.

COPR=3
Heat discharge rate = 8 kW

3.

Power consumed by heat pump = 32000 kJ/hr. Rate at which heat is extracted =
48,000 kJ/hr.

Unit 8

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