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POLYTECHNICS

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

MODULE J3010

MECHANICS OF MACHINES 1

Harisa Mohamad Saad (POLIMAS)

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J3010 Mechanics Machines

Name

Address

:

:

Telephone No. :

Qualifications :

Position

Name

Address

:

:

Telephone No. :

Qualifications :

Position

Mechanical Engineering Department

Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim

Muadzam Shah, Bandar Darulaman

06000 Jitra

Kedah Darulaman

04-9174701 ext.407

B Sc Mech. Eng.(UTM)

Diploma Mech. Eng (UTM)

Cert.Education

Polytechnic Lecturer

Mechanical Engineering Department

Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim

Muadzam Shah, Bandar Darulaman

06000 Jitra

Kedah Darulaman

04-9174701 ext.822

B Eng. Agricultural (Food and Process)

(UPM)

Masters in Education (ITTHO)

Polytechnic Lecturer

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Title of Module:

Module Code :

Students Name:

Registration No. :

Course:

Module Writers:

Please use the following scale for your evaluation:

4

3

2

1

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

A. FORMAT

The pages are organized in an interesting manner.

The font size makes it easy for me to read the module.

The size and types of pictures and charts used are suitable for

the input.

The pictures and charts are easy to read and understand.

The tables used are well-organised and easy to understand.

The arrangement of the Input makes it easy for me to follow.

All the instructions are displayed clearly.

B. CONTENTS

I understand all the objectives clearly.

I understand the ideas conveyed.

The ideas are presented in an interesting manner.

All the instructions are easy to understand.

I can carry out the instructions in this module.

I can answer the questions in the activities easily.

I can answer the questions in the self-assessment.

The feedback section can help me identify my mistakes.

The language used is easy to understand.

The way the module is written makes it interesting to read.

I can follow this module easily.

Each unit helps me understand the topic better.

I have become more interested in the subject after using this

module.

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SCALE

1

CURRICULUM GRID

The curriculum grid of this module is based on the curriculum used by Malaysian

polytechnics.

No.

TOPIC

UNIT

Total

Hours

General

Dynamics

1

( 9 H)

9 Hours

Moment

Inertia

2

( 6 H)

6 Hours

Hoisting

system

3

(6H)

6 Hours

Friction

4

(6H)

6 Hours

Screw

5

(6 H )

6 Hours

Belting

6

(9H)

9 Hours

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UNIT 1

GENERAL DYNAMICS

1.2 Equation for linear, uniformly accelerated motion

1.3 Relationship between linear speed and angular speed

1.4 Relationship between linear acceleration

and angular acceleration

1.5 Work done by a constant force

1.6 Power

1.7 Energy and conservation of energy

1.8 Momentum and conservation of momentum

UNIT 2

MOMENT OF INERTIA

2.1 Moment of Inertia

2.2 Theorem of Parallel axes

2.3 Theorem of Perpendicular axes

2.4 Moment of Inertia in a few simple cases

2.5 Torque and Angular Acceleration

2.6 Angular Momentum

2.7 Angular impulse

2.8 Work done by a torque

2.9 Angular kinetic energy

2.10

Kinetic energy of a torque

UNIT 3

HOISTING SYSTEM

3.2 Accelerated Shaft

3.3 Shaft being brought to rest

3.4 Load raised and with accelerating upward

3.5 Load falling and accelerating downwards (No driving

torque acting)

3.6 Load falling and being brought to rest

3.7 Load rising: Coming to rest under friction only

3.8 Load balancing system

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UNIT 4

FRICTION

4.1 Motion up the plane: pull P parallel to plane

4.2 Motion down the plane: Pull P parallel to plane

4.3 The angle of friction and total reaction

4.4 Application of angle of friction to motion on the

inclined plane

UNIT 5

SCREW

5.2 The V- thread screw

5.3 Raising Load

5.4 Load being lowered

5.2 Overhauling of a screw

UNIT 6

BELTING

6.1 Length of an open belt drive

6.2 Length of cross belt drive

6.3 Power transmitted by a belt

6.4 Ratio of tensions

6.5 Centrifugal tension

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MODULE GUIDELINES

To achieve maximum benefits in using this module, students must follow

the instructions carefully and complete all the activities.

1.

2.

Each page is numbered according to the subject code, unit and page number.

J3010 / UNIT 1 / 5

3.

The general and specific objectives are given at the beginning of each unit.

4. The activities in each unit are arranged in a sequential order and the

following symbols are given:

OBJECTIVES

The general and specific objectives for each learning topic are

stated in this section.

INPUT

This section introduces the subject matter that you are going to learn.

ACTIVITIES

The activities in this section test your understanding of the

subject matter. You have to complete this section by following

the instructions carefully.

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FEEDBACK

Answers to the questions in the activity section are given here

SELF-ASSESSMENT

Self-assessment evaluates your understanding of each unit.

FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT

This section contains answers to the activities in the self-assessment.

5.

6.

You may proceed to the next unit after successfully completing the unit

and you are confident of your achievement.

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GENERAL AIMS

This module is prepared for students in the third or fourth semester who are

undergoing the Certificate/Diploma programmes in Malaysian Polytechnics. It aims

to expose students to the mechanics of machines concept in each unit and to lead

them towards self-directed learning or with guidance from their lecturers.

The pre-requisite for this module is at least a pass in Mathematic at the SPM

level and the successful completion of the Engineering Science module in the

first semester.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

know method and procedures to solve problem of mechanics machines.

understand facts and principles all of these topics.

solve problem in relation to hoisting and friction.

solve problem of raising and lowering load for square and Vee threaded screw.

find the values of Belting by using a calculator.

1.

Calculator

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REFERENCES

1. John Hannah and M.J. Hillier (1971). Applied Mechanics; New

Zealand Pitman: Publishing Limited.

2. W. Madill (1984). Applied Mechanics Level 3; Longman Inc.,

New York: Longman Group Limited.

3. D Humphrey and J Topping (1971). A Shorter Intermediate

Mechanics; London: Longman Group Ltd.

4. George E. Drabble (1971). Applied Mechanics; London: W.H. Allen &

Co. Ltd.

5. R.S. Khurmi (1988). A Text Book Of Applied Mechanics;New

Delhi: S. Chand & Company (Pvt) Ltd.

6.

7.

8.

Thomson Litho Ltd.

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UNIT 1

GENERAL DYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to :

> relate linear and angular velocity, linear and angular acceleration.

> solve problem using equation uniformly accelerated and

angular motion.

> describe tangent acceleration and centripetal acceleration, centripetal

and centrifugal force, work and power.

> explain the principle conservation of energy and momentum.

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INPUT

1.1

INTRODUCTION.

A vector quantity requires a number and a direction to specify it completely; that is, a

vector has magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors are velocity, acceleration

and force.

of object or bodies, as

we shall call them, when

subjected to force.

1.1

Velocity

The velocity of a body may be defined as its rate of change of displacement,

with respect to its surroundings, in a particular direction. As the velocity is

always expressed in a particular direction, it is also a vector quantity.

Acceleration

The acceleration of a body may be defined as the rate of change of its velocity. It

is said to be positive, when the change in velocity of a body increases with time,

and negative when the velocity decreases with time. The negative acceleration is

also called retardation.

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In general, the term acceleration is used to denote the rate at which the velocity

is changing. It may be uniform or variable.

1.2

Suppose a body moving in a straight line has an initial speed u and that it undergoes

uniform acceleration a for time t considering, let the final speed be v and the

distance traveled in the time t be s. The speed time curve will be show in fig.1.1

Acceleration a is uniform, its magnitude is

a = change in speed

change in time

= vuIt

a

or t = v u

or v = u + at

(1.1)

In this case, the average speed will be the speed at time tI2.

Further, since distance travel = average speed x t then s = 1 2( u + v)t

Substituting for v from (1.1) into (1.2) gives

s=

2 ( u + u + at )I t

1 at2

Or s = u t +

2

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(1.2)

s = 1 2( u + v ) (v - u )I a

2 2

or 2as = v - u

or v

= u + 2as

Example 1.1

A workman drops a hammer from the top of scaffolding. If the speed of sound in air

is 340 mIs, how long does the workman have before shouting to another workman 60

m vertically below him if his warning is to arrive before the hammer. Neglect air

resistance.

60 = 0 + (9.81)

t = 3.50s

Solution 1.1

60

For hammer

hammertakes 3.50 s to fall 60 m. The sound takes 340 = 0.18 to travel the same

The

distance so the workman has (3.50 0.18) = 3.32 s before shouting if the sound is

Inertial

= 0hammer.

mIs.

to

arrivespeed

before the

Acceleration = 9.81 mIs2.

Distance = 60 m

1 at2

s = ut +

2

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1.3

If a point P moves round in a circle with a of radius r with constant linear speed v

then the angular speed will be constant and

(1.3)

where t is the time to move from Q to P along the arc QP of the curve. Fig 1.2

However, arc length QP is r when is measured in radians and hence linear

speed v is

V = arc QP = r

t

t

Using (1.3) and (1.4) leads to

V = r for circular motion.

Or linear speed = radius x angular speed.

(1.4)

(1.5)

Example 1.2

What is the peripheral speed of the tread on a tire of a motor car if the wheel spins

about the axle with an angular velocity of 6 radianl second. Diameter of tires is 0.7 m.

Solution 1.2

V= r

= 0.35 x 6

V = 2.1 mls

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ACCELERATION

d

By equation = dt

Hence =

However

Hence =

and V = r

= 1 dv since r is constant

v

r dt

dt

r

dv

dt is linear acceleration a

a

Or a = r

Or linear acceleration = radius x angular acceleration

Example 1.3

A grinding wheel is accelerated uniformly from rest to 3000 revlmin in 3 seconds.

Find it angular and linear acceleration. If the wheel diameter is 200 mm, find the

final linear speed of a point on its rim.

Solution 1.3

t =3s

= 0 radls

= 3000 revlmin = 2N160

2 X X 3000

=

60

= 314.16 radls

t

314.16 0

=

3

2

= 104.72 radls

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=r

= 0.1 x 104.72

a = 10.47 mls

V= r2

= 0.1 x 314.16

= 31.42 mls

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Activity 1A

INPUT!

1.1 Which of the following is a Vector quantity?.

A. density

B. speed

C. area

D. acceleration

1.2 Velocity is the rate of change with time of

A. displacement B. acceleration

C. speed D. distance

1.3 When a body moVes round a circle with radius r at uniform speed V,

the angular speed is

A. Vr

B. Vlr

C. V lr

D. 2V

2

A. 0.5

B. 2

C. 12.5

D. 2000

1.5 A car traVel along a straight road at a steady speed of 13 mls, accelerates

uniformly for 15 s until it is moVing at 25 mls. Find its acceleration.

the Velocity and displacement of the particle after 20 seconds.

2

1.5 mls . What will its Velocity be after it has moVed 3 meters?

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S = ( u + v) t

V = u + at

2

2

V = u + 2as

S = Ut + at.

Feedback to Activity 1A

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

1.1

D. acceleration

1.2

A. displacement

1.3

B. Vlr

1.4 A. O.5

2

1.5

O.8 mls

1.6

4O mls; 4OO m.

1.7 3 mls.

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INPUT

1.5

Unit of work is joule (J) or

Kilojoule (kJ)

When the point at which a force acts moVes, the force is said to haVe done work.

When the force is constant, the work done is defined as work done = force x distance

moVed in the direction of the force. It is a scalar qUantity.

If a constant force F moVes a body from A to B then distance moVed in the

direction of F is s cos 0 fig.1.3. The work done by a constant force is thUs:

Work done = F s cos 0

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If the body moVes in the same direction as the force, where by = 0 and

0

work done is Fs. Work done is zero if direction force = 90 . If F is in Newton and

s is in meters, the work done will be measUred in joUles (J)

Example 1.4

How mUch work is done when a force of 5 KN moVes its point of application 600

mm in the direction of the force.

SolUtion. 1.4

Work done = force x distance

3

= 5 X 10 X 600 X10

= 3000 J

= 3 KJ.

1.6

-3

POWER

Power is the rate of doing work, i.e. the work done in Unit time. The SI Unit of

power is the watt; it is 1 joUle per second and is written 1 W. The British Unit of

power Use earlier was the Horse- Power, and is eqUiValent to aboUt 746 watts . If a

force of F Newton keeps its point of application moVing in the direction of the force

with Uniform speed v meters per second, the work done per second is Fv joUles, and

is the power is Fv watts.

Example 1.5

The total mass of an engine and train is 200 Mg; what is the power of the engine if it

1

can jUst keep the train moVing at a Uniform speed of 100 kmlh on the leVel, the

1

of the weight of the train.

200

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SolUtion 1.5

Since the speed is Uniform, the pUll of the engine is eqUal to the total

resistance, i.e. 1000g N.= 1000 x 9.81 = 9810 N.

1

The speed is

The work per second

= 1000 x 9.8 x 1000136 J

Power = 105 x 2.72 W

= 272 kW

1.7

ENERGY

The energy may be defined as the capacity to do work. It exists in many form e.g.

Mechanical, electrical, chemical, heat, light etc. BUt in applied Mechanics, we

shall deal in Mechanical Energy only. The Unit for energy is the same as those of

work i.e. example joUles.

1.7.1

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Energy cannot be created or destroyed bUt can be transformed from one

to another form of energy. For instance water stored in a dam possesses

potential energy which changes to kinetic energy as it flows downwards

throUgh a tUnnel to tUrn tUrbines, which in tUrn changes to electric

energy which can be Used to prodUce heat energy.

1.7.2

POTENTIAL ENERGY

The potential energy of a body may be defined as the amoUnt of work it can

do when it moVes from its actUal position to the standard position chosen.

The work done lifting a load of mass M and weight W = Mg

throUgh a height h is Wh. This is known as the potential energy of the load

referred to its original position and its Unit in that energy,

i.e. the basic Unit is the joUle (J).

Potential energy = Wh = Mgh (zero at earths surface)

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Example 1.6

What is the potential energy of a 10 kg mass?

(a) 100 m aboVe the sUrface of the earth.

(b) at the bottom of a Vertical mine shaft 1000 m deep.

SolUtion 1.6

(a)

(b)

= 10 x 9.81 x 100 J

= 9.81 KJ.

Potential Energy = -10 x 9.81 x 1000 J

= -9.81 x 10

= -98.1 KJ.

A body may possess energy dUe to its motion as well as dUe to its position. For

example, when a hammer is Used to driVe in a nail, work is done on the nail by

the hammer, hence it mUst haVe possessed energy. Also a rotating flywheel

possess energy dUe its motion. These are example of the form of energy

call kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy may be described as energy dUe to motion. Only linear motion

amoUnt of work it can do before being broUght to rest.

1.7.4

Let a body of mass m moVing with a speed V be broUght to rest with a

Uniform retardation by constant force P in a distance s.

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= u + 2 as

2

0 = v - 2 as since a is negatiVe

or s = v 2

2a

work done = force x distance

= Ps

=

Ps 2

2a

HoweVer P =

ma And Hence

2

2

= Y mv

The kinetic energy is thUs giVen

2

by Kinetic energy = Y mv

The work done in compressing or stretching a spring is stored as strain energy

in the spring proVided that there is no permanent deformation (oVer

stretching). The stiffness of a spring is the load per Unit extension and is

approximately constant within the working range of the spring; thUs if S is the

stiffness, the load P reqUired to prodUce an extension X is giVen by

P=SX

SUppose a load is gradUally applied to a spring so that it Varies from zero

to maximUm ValUe P and prodUce a maximUm extension X. Then

Work done = aVerage load x extension

= YPxX

= Y SX x X

2

= Y SX

since strain energy

U = Work done

ThUs U = Y P x

2

= Y SX

The Units of strain energy are same as those of work, i.e. joUles (J)

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Example 1.7

A wagon of mass 12 tone traVeling at 16 kmlh strikes a pair of parallel

spring-loaded stops. If the stiffness of each spring is 600 KNlm, calcUlate

the maximUm compression in bringing the wagon to rest.

SolUtion 1.7

V = 16 kmlh = 3.6

16 m

= Y x 12 x 1000 x

3.6

16 2

= 118,500 J

This kinetic energy may be assUmed to be absorbed eqUally by the

two springs. Strain energy stored per spring is

Y x 118,500 = 59,250 J

ThUs X is the maximUm compression of the springs,

2

Y SX = 59,250

2

Or Y x 600 x 1,000 X = 59,250

X = 0.446 m = 446 mm

1.8.1 MOMENTUM

The momentUm of a particle is the prodUct of the mass of the particle and its

Velocity. If m is the mass of the particle and v its Velocity the momentUm is m v.

The Unit of momentUm is eqUiValent, i.e. Ns = kg mls.

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If two bodies collide then the sUm of the momentUm before the collision is eqUal to

the sUm of the momentUm after collision measUred in the same direction.

m1U1 + m2U2 = m1V1 + m2V2

Where

m2 = mass of the second body

U1 = initial Velocity of the first body

U2 = initial Velocity of the second body

V1 = final Velocity of the first body

V2 = final Velocity of the second body

Example 1.8

A 750 kg car collided head on with a 1 tone car. If both cars are traVel at 16 kmlh at

the time of impact and after impact the second car reboUnds at 3 kmlh, find the

Velocity of the first car after collision (assUme perfect elastic collision)

SolUtion 1.8

By the conserVation of momentUm and assUming that the first car also reboUnd.

m1U1 + m2U2 = m1V1 + m2V2

+

750 x (+16) + 100 x (-16) ) = 750 x (-V1) + ( 1000 + ( +3) )

3

3

3

12 x 10 16 x 10 = -750 V1 + 3 x 10

3

(12 16 3) x 10 = -750 V1

-7 x 10

V1

= -750 V1

=

7000

750

V1 = 9.333 kmlh

Where m1= 750 kg ; m2 = 1 tone = 1000 kg ; U1= + 16 kmlh ; U2 = -16 kmlh; V2 = + 3kmlh

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Activity 1B

INPUT!

1.8 A flywheel rotating at 1200 reVlmin slow down at a constant rate of 900 reVlmin

in 30 seconds. Find:

a. the initial angUlar speed

b. the final angUlar speed

c. the angUlar acceleration

d. the initial speed of a point on the rim of the flywheel if its diameter is 1.1 m.

1.9 A constant force of 2 kN pUlls a crate along a leVel floor for a distance of 10 m

in 50 seconds. What power was Used?.

1.10

A car of mass 1000 kg traVeling at 30 mls has its speed redUced to 10 mls by constant

breaking force oVer a distance of 75 meter. Find the initial and final kinetic energy and the

breaking force.

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Power =

work done

=

Fv time taken

Feedback to Activity 1B

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

b.

94.2 radis

c. -1.05 radis

d.

69.1 mis

1.9

400 W

1.10

0.5 x 10 J, 5333 N

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SELF-ASSESSMENT 1

YoU are approaching sUccess. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and

check yoUr answers with those giVen in the Feedback on Self-Assessment 1 giVen on the

next page. If yoU face any problems, discUss it with yoUr lectUrer. Good lUck.

1. The spin drier in a washing machine is a cylinder with a diameter of 500 mm. It spins at

900 reVimin. Find the speed and acceleration of a point on the side of the drUm.

2.

Find the work done in raising 100 kg of water throUgh a Vertical distance of 3 m.

3. A cyclist, with his bicycle, has a total mass 80 kg. He reaches the top of the hill, with a

slope 1 in 2 measUred along the slope, at a speed of 2 mis. He then free-wheels to the

bottom of the hill where his speed has increased to 9 mis. How mUch energy has been

lost on the hill which is100 m long?

4. An electric motor is rated at 400 W. If its efficiency is 80%, find the maximUm

torqUe which it can exert when rUnning at 2850 reVimin.

5. The engine of a car has a power oUtpUt of 42 KW. It can achieVe a maximUm speed

of 120 kmih along the leVel. Find the resistance to motion. If the power oUtpUt and

resistance remained the same, what woUld be the maximUm speed a car coUld

achieVe Up an incline of 1 in 40 along the slope if the car mass is 900 kg?

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Feedback to Self-Assessment 1

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now.

1.

2.

2943J

3.

844 J

4.

1.07Nm

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..

May success be with you

always.

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UNIT 2

MOMENT OF INERTIA

OBJECTIVES

Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to :

define moment inertia of mass

describe definition torque and angular acceleration

explain moment inertia for thin ring and rectangular.

explain the moment of couple and kinetic energy.

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INPUT

2.1 INTRODUCTION.

The moment of inertia of a body, about a given axis, is a measure of its resistance to

Angular. An acceleration and is given by the product of its mass times radius squared.

second moment of mass is also

called moment of inertia

2.1

MOMENT OF INERTIA:

Moment of inertia is the product of mass and the square of a distance. The unit which it

2

is measured is one kilogram meter squared (kgm ). It should also be noted that

2

m r is a scalar quantity.

The moment of inertia is also called the second moment of area of the body.

2

If the moment of inertia be equal to Mk , then k is called the radius of gyration of

the body about the axis.

2.1.1

4

is measured in kilograms and distances in meter, the M.I of mass will be

2

kg- metre units.

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2.2

The moment of inertia of a lamina about any axis in the plane of the lamina equals

the sum of the moments of inertia about a parallel centrically axis in the plane of

lamina together with the product of the area of the lamina and the square of the

distance between the two axes.( fig. 2.1)

Let A = Area of the plane figure.

Ix = moment of inertia of the area A about an axis XX in the plane of the

area passing through G, the C.G ( Centre of Gravity) of the area.

Iy = moment of inertia of the area A about an axis YY in the plane of the area

parallel to XX.

r = distance between XX and YY.

Then

Iy = Ix + Ar

.P

Y

x

r

X

Fig. 2.1

Example 2.1

Find the moment of inertia of the uniform rod in the fig.2.2 about axis XY and XY.

Y

Y

1

1

X

M

Fig.2.2

Solution 2.1

M = mass of rod

M1 2

IXY = 3

12

and IXY = M

3+1

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4M1 2

Example 2.2

Find the moment of inertia for the rectangular section shown in fig.2.3 about (i) the

axis XX, (ii) axis YY, (iii) the value of Izz

Y

B

600 mm

X

G200 mm

D

300 mm

Y

Fig. 2.3

Solution 2.2

bd 3

12

600 x 2003

=

12

IXX =

4.

= 4 x 10 mm

db 3

12

200 x 6003

=

12

IYY =

= 3.6 x 10 mm

Izz = I CG + Ac

4

4

In this case I CG = IXX = 4 x 10 mm and c = 300 mm

4

2

Thus Izz = 4 x 10 + 200 x 600 x 300

6

= 1.12 x 10 mm

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2.3

If the moments of inertia of lamina about two perpendicular axes in its plane which

meet at O are A and B the moment of inertia about an axis through O perpendicular

to the plane of the lamina is A + B.

Let OX, OY (figure 2.4) be the two perpendicular axes n the plane of the

lamina, and Oz an axis perpendicular to the lamina.

If m is the mass of a particle of the lamina at P, where as OP = r, the moment of

2

Oxyr

P

Figure 2.4

But if (x, y) are the coordinates of P referred to OX, OY as axes,

2

r =x +y

2

2

2

Mr = mx + my

2

Now mx is the moment of inertia about OY (=B), and my is the moment of inertia

about OX (=A); therefore the moment of inertia about Oz = A + B.

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Example 2.3

Find the moment of inertia of a uniform disc of radius a about an axis perpendicular

to its plane passing through a point on its circumference fig.2.5.

a

x

Y

Fig.2.5

Solution 2.3

m

= mass of uniform disc

2

Ixx

= ! ma

IYY = I ( d 2x + d y2 )

2

2

= !m(a +a )

2

= !ma

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2.4

Type of form

Model

M.I

Rectangular/square

bd 3

12

Thin rod

M = mass

Thin ring

Solid sphere

Triangle

Mr2

2 2

Mr

5

b 3

h

12

h

b

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2.5

2.5.1

TORQUE

Torque is the turning moment of tangential applied force (F) acting at distance (r)

from the axis rotation. The unit of torque is the Newton meter (Nm)

F

d

O

Fig.2.6 Moment of a force.

In the fig.2.6 the moment of F about the point 0 is Moment of a force = F d A

couple is a pair of equal and parallel but unlike forces as shown in fig 2.7.

F

Fig.2.7 Moment of a couple

It can easily be proved that the moment of a couple about any point in its plane is the

product of one force and perpendicular distance between them, that is

Moment of couple = F p

Examples of a couple include turning off a tap with finger and thumb and winding up a

clock with a key. The moment of a force or couple may be measured in Newton meter

(Nm). In engineering, the moment of a force or couple is called a torque.

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Example 2.4

Determine the torque created by the 225 N force acting on the gear teeth as shown.

Pitch Circle Diameter (P.C.D) 300 mm.

Solution 2.4

T=Fr

Where F = 225N

300

r=

2

= 150 mm

=0.15 m

= 225 x 0.15

= 33.75 Nm.

2.5.2

ANGULAR ACCELERATION

If the angular velocity of the point P in fig. 2.8 is changing with time,

then the angular acceleration a of P is the rate of change of its angular

velocity, that is

a = dt

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2

Angular acceleration may be measured in rad/s .

If the angular acceleration is uniform, then its magnitude is

t

if the angular speed changes from 1 to 2 in time t.

Example 2.5

The speed of flywheel is increased from 120 r/min to 300r/min in 30 seconds.

Calculate the angular acceleration of the flywheel before coming to rest.

Solution 2.5

= 2

t

(300 x 2 x22)

= 31.43 12.57

30

= - 18.30

30

= 31.43 rad/s

= - 0.6287 rad/s2

60 x 7

rad/s

o = 120 r/min

60 x 7

= 12.57 rad/s

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Activity 2A

INPUT!

2.1 A pulley attached to the motor shaft revolves at 1435 r/min. Determine the linear

velocity of pulley belt given the effective diameter of the pulley is 100 mm.

2.2 The angular velocity of a gear wheel uniformly increase from 15 r/min to 15 r/min

in 20 seconds. Determine the angular acceleration and angular displacement of the

gear teeth.

2.2 Calculate the moment of inertia, about the axis of rotation of the flywheel shown if the

3

dimensions in millimeter

2.4 A wheel and axle has the 8 kg mass attached to the axle by a light cord as show. The

mass is allowed to fall freely a vertical distance of 2 meters in 10 seconds. Calculate

the moment of inertia for the wheel and axle.

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given axis is

2

I=mr

2

Where I = moment of inertia (kg.m )

Feedback to Activity 2A

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

2

2

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INPUT

2.6

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

Momentum = mass x

velocity. = m x v

Angular momentum of a solid is given as the product of the moment of inertia of the

solid about axis of rotation and angular velocity.

When a body has motion of rotation, the momentum of the body is the product of

the moment of inertia of the body and its angular velocity.

momentum of rotating body = I

( v = r)

and momentum of a body having a motion of translation = m v

2

= (mr )

M = I

2.7

(I = mr )

ANGULAR IMPULSE

This is the change in momentum produced by the action of a force applied on a

body within an infinitely short interval of time. Donating impulse by I, we have

Impulse = Force x Time

I =Fxt

(2.1)

Let a be the acceleration generated by the force, then by Newtons second law, we

have F = ma

Equation (2.1) becomes I = mat = m(v u) or Ft = m(v u) ( v = u + at ) Hence,

when a force is constant, its impulse can be measured by the change in momentum

produced by it The unit of impulse is the same as that of momentum,

i.e. kg sec (kgs).

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2.8

Let a force F turns a light rod OA with length r through an angle to OB as shown

in fig. 2.9.

But s is the arc of a circle radius r. Hence

S = r

Where must be measured in

radians. Thus work done = Fr

Or work done = TQ

The work done by constant torque T Q is thus the product of the torque and the

angle turned through in radians. The work done will be in joules if TQ is in Nm.

Example 2.6

The force exerted on the end of a spanner 300 mm long used to tighten a nut is

constant 100 N. Find the torque exerted on the nut and the work done when the

nut turns through 300.

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Solution 2.6

Torque TQ = Pr

-3

= l00 x 300 x l0

= 30 Nm.

Work Done = TQ

= 30 x l6 ( in radians)

= l5.7 J.

Example 2.7

An electric motor is rated 400 W. If its efficiency is 80 %, find the maximum torque

which it can exert when running at 2850 revlmin.

Solution 2.7

Power = 2N TQ

N = 2850l60 = 47.5 revls

Power = 400 x 0.8 = 320 W

Torque TQ = 320l2 x 47.5

= l.07 Nm.

2.9

When a body has motion of rotation, it will have an energy due to this rotation. This

I 2

kinetic energy of a body due to its motion of rotation is given by = 2 g or

I 2 , where I = mass moment of inertia of the rotating body about the

2

axis of rotation and in the angular velocity of the body.

Work done

FxS

Power is rate doing work. Power =

=

Time taken

but

S

t = v Power = F x r

Power of any times is equal to the product of the force and the velocity of the point of

application is the direction of force.

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Example 2.8

A wheel has a 5.4 m long string wrapped round its shaft. The string is pulled with a

constant force of 10 Newton, and it is observed that the wheel is rotating at 3

revolutions per second when the string leaves the axle. Find the moment of inertia of

the wheel about its axis.

Solution 2.8

Given, length of string

= 5.4 m

Force

P = 10 N

Speed of wheel, = 3 revisec = 2 x 3 = 6 radisec

Let

I = moment of inertia of the wheel about it axis.

We know that work done in pulling the string

= Force x Distance

= 10 x 5.4 = 54 Nm

E = I = I ( 6 ) Nm 2

2

g 2 x 9.81

= 18.1 I Nm

Now equating work done and the kinetic energy,

18.1 I = 54

54

2

I = 18.1 = 2.98 Nm

Example 2.9

A fly wheel weighing 8 tones starts from rest and gets up a speed of 180 rpm in 3

minutes. Find the average torque exerted on it, if the radius of gyration of the fly

wheel is 60 cm. Take

2

g = 9.81 misec .

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Solution 2.9

Given, weight of the fly wheel

= 8 t = 8,000 kg

mass of the fly wheel, m

= 8,000 kg

Initial revolution, No = 0

Initial velocity,

o = 0

Final revolution = 180 rpm.

Final velocity, = 2 x 180 = 6 radisec

60

Time taken,

t = 3 min = 3 x 60 = 180 sec

Radius of gyration,

K = 60 cm = 0.6 m

Let

= Constant angular acceleration, and

T = Average torque exerted on the fly wheel.

We know that the mass2 moment of inertia of the fly wheel,

2

I = mK = 8,000 x 0.62 = 2,880 kgm .

Using the relation,

= o + t with usual notations.

6 = 0 + x 180

6

180 = 30 radisec

Now using the relation,

=

I

T=

with usual notations.

g

= 2,880 x = 30.7 kg m

9.81

30

Example 2.10

A machine gun bullet of mass 25 gm is fired with a velocity of 400 misec. The bullet

can penetrate 20 cm in a given target. If the same target is 10 cm thick, what will be

the velocity of the bullet, when it comes out of the target?

Solution 2.10

Given, Mass of bullet,

M = 25 gm = 0.025 kg

Velocity of bullet, v = 400 misec

Penetration of bullet,

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s = 20 cm = 0.2 m

let, v1 = velocity of the bullet after coming out from 10 cm thick target,

E = kinetic energy of the bullet, and

R = Resisting force of the target

Using the relation,

2

my

0.025 x 400 2

=

= 204 kgm

2 x 9.81

A little consideration will show, that the total kinetic energy is spent in penetrating

20cm into the target.

P x 0.2 = 204

or

0.2

The energy spent in penetrating 10 cm (i.e. 0.1 m) thick target

= P x s = 1020 x 0.1 = 102 kg m

Balance kinetic energy in the bullet after coming out from 10 cm thick target

= 204 102 = 102 kg m

Again using the relation,

my 2

E

=

with usual notations

2g

0.025 x y 2

2

102 =

1 = 0.00128 y 1

2 x 9.81

102

R =

= 282.3 m i sec

0.00128

2.10

P =

y2

= m (r )

( v = r )

= (m r )

2

2

=I

i.e. kinetic energy K.E = I

(I=mr )

2

= angular velocity ( radisec)

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Example 2.11

2

energy.

Solution 2.11

Given,

2

I = 50 kg m and = 4 radis

2

Kinetic Energy = I

2

= x 50 x 4

= x 800

= 400 J

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Activity 2B

INPUT!

2.5.Calculate the moment of inertia, taken around the axis of rotation of the flat metal disc. If

the 11 kg disc revolves around its axis of rotation with an angular acceleration of

2

2.6.

Calculate the moment of inertia and torque which must be applied to bring the flywheel

to rest in 10 seconds.

calculate the torque which must be applied to the flywheel to bring it to rest in 20

seconds.

2.8.

Calculate the kinetic energy stored in a 2.5 tones flywheel which is rotating at180

rimin. The radius of gyration of the flywheel is 0.8 meter. If the velocity of the flywheel

is reduced to 15 rimin in one minute find the rate at which the flywheel gives out

energy (i.e. the power output).

2.9 A flywheel loses kinetic energy amounting to 640 J when its angular speed falls from 7

radis to 3 radis. What is the moment of inertia of the flywheel?

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Feedback to Activity 2B

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

2

2.6 45 kg m ; 23.57 Nm

2.7 19.9 Nm.

2.8 284.5 k J; 4.708 k W.

2.9 32 kg m

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SELF-ASSESSMENT 2

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and

check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment 2 given on

the next page. If you face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. A 75 kg flat disc, with a diameter of 0.5 meter revolves about an axis perpendicular to its

circular surface at10 rimin. What is the angular momentum of the disc and the retarding

torque needed to bring the disc to rest in 5 seconds?

2. Calculate the time taken to bring a flywheel from rest to velocity of 450 rimin given the

2

3. A 7 kg gear wheel with radius of gyration of 0.3 meter is rotating at 200rimin. This gear

wheel meshes with a stationary 4.5 kg gear wheel. If the radius of gyration of the second

gear wheel also 0.3 meter, calculate the common speed of rotation after connection and

loss in kinetic energy of the system.

= 200 rimin

= 0 (stationary)

2

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Feedback to Self-Assessment 2

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now.

2. 15.7 s.

3. 121.7 rimin; 54.47 J

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..

May success be with you

always.

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UNIT 3

HOISTING

OBJECTIVES

Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to:

> apply basic principle on which all these machines are based.

> recognize the effect of combining a hoist drum of moment inertia

I with a hanging load of mass M and weight W = mg.

> sketch and recognize all force and torque that involve on these

machines.

> use suitable concepts to solve related problem.

> calculate all these topic questions correctly.

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INPUT

3.1 INTRODUCTION

We study the effect of combining a hoist drum of moment of inertia with a

hanging load of mass M and Weight W = Mg.

concerned in dynamics of

rotation.

Comparing the formulae P = Ma and T = I , it is seen that moment of inertia

I plays the same part in a change of angular motion as mass M does in

change of linear motion. By analogy with the idea of inertia force we may

regard the torque T as being balanced by inertia couple, I , which sense is

opposite to that of the angular acceleration , (Fig. 3.1). The problem is then

in effect reduced to a static one.

The reality of the effect of an inertia couple will be appreciated by anyone

who has tried to accelerate a bicycle wheel rapidly by hand. Although the

weight may carried wholly by the bearings an effort is required to set the

wheel spinning. An inertia couple is, of course, reactive.

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Fig. 3.1

Example 3.1

A 30 kg flywheel, revolving at 5.24 radls has a radius of gyration of one

meter. Calculate the torque which must be applied to bring the flywheel to

rest in 10 seconds.

Solution 3.1

Moment of inertia of the flywheel, I = mk 2

= 30x12

I = 30kgm2

Deceleration,

1 = 0 + t

0 = 5.24 + ( )10

= 0.524rad l s 2

Torque,

T = I

= 30x0.524

T = 15.72Nm

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Consider a shaft (Fig. 3.2) carrying a rotor having a moment of inertia about

the shaft axis.

Fig. 3.2

If the bearing friction is equivalent to a couple Tf .

Then, in order to accelerate the shaft and rotor the driving torque T must

balance both the inertia couple I and the friction couple Tf .

Thus,

T = I + T f

Example 3.2

2

acceleration of the wheel due to a torque of 8 Nm if the bearing friction

is equivalent to a couple of 3 Nm.

Solution 3.2:

Given:

I = 10 kgm

T = 8 Nm

T = I + T f

I = T T f

I = 8 3 Nm

I = 5 Nm

= 10 radls2

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Tf = I = 3 Nm

If the shaft is being brought to rest by a braking torque T the friction couple

Tf assist the braking action so that T and Tf together must balance the inertia

couple I ; is now a retardation its sense being opposite to that of the

motion (Fig.3.3).

Fig. 3.3

Thus,

T + T f = I

If there is no braking torque, the friction couple alone brings the shaft to rest.

Then,

T f = I

Note, in both cases, that

(a) the friction couple T f opposes the motion.

(b) the inertia couple I opposes the change of motion.

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Example 3.3

A flywheel together with its shaft has a total mass of 300 kg and its radius of

gyration is 900 mm. If the effect of bearing friction is equivalent to a couple

of 70 Nm, calculate the braking torque required to bring the flywheel to rest

from a speed of12 revis in 8 s.

Solution 3.3

Given:

Thus,

Retardation,

=

t

=

75.4

8

= 9.42 radis

I of flywheel and shaft = Mk

= 300 x 0.9

2

2

= 243 kg m

Inertia Couple

= 1

= 243 x 9.42

= 2290 Nm

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Activity 3A

NEXT 1NPUT!

2

3.1 A drum rotor has the moment of inertia 31.8 kg.m . Find the time taken

for the rotor to reach a speed of 3600 revimin from rest if the driving force

torque is 55 Nm and the friction torque is 5 Nm.

3.2

The rotating table of the vertical boring machines has a mass of 690 kg and a

radius of gyration of 700 mm. Find the torque required to accelerate the table to 60

revimin in three complete revolutions from rest.

3.3 A light shaft carries a turbine rotor of mass 2 tonnes and a radius of gyration

of 600 mm. The rotor required a uniform torque of 1.2 kNm to accelerate it

from rest 6000 revimin in 10 min. Find:

(i) the friction couple,

(ii) the time taken to come to rest when steam is shut off.

3.4 A winding drum of mass 200 tonne has a radius of gyration of 3 m. Find the

constant torque required to raise the speed from 40 to 80 revimin in 60

seconds if the friction torque is 15 kNm. If the wheel is rotating freely at 80

revimin and a brake is applied bringing it to rest in 120 rev. Find the brake

torque assuming uniform retardation.

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Feedback To Activity 3A

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

3.1

240s

3.2

354 Nm

3.3

3.4

(i)

446 Nm,

(ii)

16.9 min

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INPUT

THE HOIST

Four cases will be considered: the load is rising or falling, being accelerated or

brought to rest. In every case two equations can be written down:

(a) the equation for the balance of couples at the hoist drum

(b) the equation for the balance of forces at the load.

In every case we recall that the friction couple at the bearing or rope will oppose

the rotation and the inertia couple will oppose the change of rotation.

For acceleration, a is upwards, hence the inertia force is downwards. If angular

acceleration, is anticlockwise, the inertia couple is clockwise. If rotation of the

drum is anticlockwise the friction couple acts clockwise.

For rotation of the hoist drum the driving torque T must balance the friction

couple Tf, , the inertia couple I and the torque Pr due to the tension P in the

rope at the drum.

Fig. 3.4

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Thus,

Angular Motion:

T = I + Pr + Tf

For Linear motion of the load, the tension P in the rope at the load must

balance both the dead weight and the inertia force Ma.

Thus,

Linear Motion:

P = Mg + Ma

Example 3.4

2

A hoist drum has a moment of inertia of 85 kgm and is used to raised a lift

2

of mass 1 tonne with an upward acceleration of 1.5 mis . The drum diameter

is 1 m.

Determine:

(a) the torque required at the drum

(b) the power required after accelerating for 3 seconds from rest.

Solution 3.4

(a)

1.

2.

3.

torque Wr required to hold the dead weight of the lift.

torque Mar required to accelerate the lift.

M = 1000kg

= r = 0.5

W = Mg

= 1000 x 9.8

= 98000 N

.5

= 3rad i s 2

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I = 85 kgm

Thus,

Total torque = I + Wr + Mar

= (85 x 3) + (9800 x 0.5) + (1000 x 1.5 x 0.5)

= 5905 Nm

(b) After 3 seconds, the lift speed.

v

= at

= 1.5 x 3

= 4.5 mis

= r = 0.5

4.5

= 9rad i s

= T

= 5905 X 9

=53.15 Kw

This the power required at the instant after 3 seconds.

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DRIVING TORQUE ACTING)

The load is allowed to fall freely, resisted only by friction and inertia force

and couples. The rotation of the hoist drum, the accelerating torque Pr due to

rope tension must balance both the friction couple Tf and the inertia couple

I.

Fig. 3.5

Thus,

Angular Motion:

Pr = Tf + I

For linear motion of the load the accelerating force due to the weight must

balance the upward tension P in the rope and the inertia force Ma.

Thus,

Linear Motion:

P = Mg - Ma

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Example 3.5

A hoist drum has a mass of 360 kg and a radius of gyration of 600 mm. The

drum diameter is 750 mm. A mass of 1 tonne hangs from a light cable

wrapped round the drum and is allowed to fall freely. If friction couple at the

bearings is 2.7 k Nm. Calculate the runaway speed of the load after falling

for 2 seconds from rest.

Solution 3.5

Given:

Md = 360 kg

k = 600 mm = 0.6 m

Dd = 750 mm = 0.75 m

Rd = 0.375 m

M = 1 tonne = 1000 kg

0 = 0 radis

I = Mk

Tf = 2700 Nm

t=2s

Linear Motion:

P = Mg - Ma = M(g - a)

P = 1000(9.81 - r) = 9810 - 75

Angular Motion:

Pr = Tf + I = 2700 + 129.6

P = 2700 + 129.6

0.375

= 3.62 radis

Then,

1 = 0 + t = 0 + 3.62 (2)

= 7.24 radis

v

= r 1

= (0.375) 3.62

= 2.71 mis

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a = r

We now consider the braking of the hoist drum as the load falls. The

accelerations are therefore reversed as compared with the previous case. For

rotation of the drum the braking torque T is assisted by the friction couple to

balance the accelerating torque Pr due to the rope tension and the inertia

couple I.

Fig. 3.6

Thus,

Angular Motion:

T + Tf = Pr + I

Linear Motion:

P = Mg + Ma

Example 3.6

The maximum allowable pull in a hoist cable is 200 kN. Calculate maximum

2

load in tones which can be brought to rest with a retardation of 5 mis . The

2

hoist drum has a moment of inertia of 840 kgm and a diameter of 2.4 m.

What is the corresponding braking torque on the drum?

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Solution 3.6

3

a = - 5 mis

Dd = 2.4 m

Pmax = 200 x 10 Nm

Given:

I = 840 kgm

rd = 1.2 m

a = r

= r = 1 .2 = 4.16 radis

Linear Motion:

P = Mg + Ma

3

200 x 10 = M (g + a)

= M (9.81 + 5)

200x10

M=

kg

14.81

M = 13.5 tonne

Angular Motion:

T + Tf = Pr + I

3

There is no braking torque, Tf = I

3

T = 240 k Nm

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Since there is no braking torque applied, the drum is retarded by the torque Pr

due to the rope tension and the friction couple Tf . These two couples must

balance the inertia couple of the drum.

Fig. 3.7

Thus,

Angular Motion:

I = Tf + Pr

Linear Motion:

P + Ma = Mg

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Example 3.7

In an experiment, a hoist drum has a diameter is 500 mm. It is used to raised

load 50 kg and coming to rest under friction. The upward acceleration is 3.0

2

mis . The friction couple is 0.35 Nm. Find the moment of inertia of the

drum.

Solution 3.7

a = r

For the linear motion,

a

= r

3

= 0.25

= 12 radis

P + Ma = Mg

P = Mg Ma

P = M (g - a)

P = 50 (9.81 3)

P = 340.5 N

I = Tf + Pr

I = 0.35 + 340.5 (0.25)

I = 0.35 + 85.12

I = 85.47

I = 85.47

12

2

I = 7.12 kgm

NOTE:

1.

2.

3.

the inertia couple opposes the change of rotation

the inertia force opposes the change of linear motion.

It may remarked also that in every case the direction of the rope tension P

and the load weight W is unaltered, although their effect may be to accelerate

or to retard the load.

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Activity 3B

NEXT INPUT!

2

3.5

by means of a light cable passing over a hoist drum of 2 m diameter. The drum has a

mass of 1 tonne and a radius of gyration of 750 mm. Find the torque required at the

drum if friction is neglected. What is the power exerted after 4 seconds from rest.

3.6

using a hoist drum of 1.5 m diameter. The drums mass is 750 kg and its radius of

gyration is 600 mm. The effect of bearing friction is equivalent to a couple of 3 kNm

at the hoist drum. What is the power required when the load has reached a velocity

of 6 mis? What is the power required at a uniform velocity of 6 mis?.

3.7 A hoist has a winding drum 0.9 m effective diameter and a radius of gyration

of 0.35 m, the mass of the drum being 100 kg. A load of 320 kg is to be

raised 36 m, the mass of the lifting rope being 1 kgim. If the acceleration is

2

1.8 mis until a constant velocity of 6 mis is reached, find the power

necessary just at the end of the acceleration.

3.8

A winding drum raises a cage of mass 500 kg through a height of 120 m. The

winding drum has a mass of 250 kg and an effective radius of 0.5 m and a radius of

gyration of 0.36 m. The mass of the rope is 3 kgim. The cage has at first an

2

acceleration of 1.5 mis until a velocity of 9 mis is reached after hich the velocity is

constant until the cage nears the top, when the final retardation

2

is 6 mis . Find :

(i) the time taken for the cage to reach the top

(ii) the torque which must be applied to the drum at starting

(iii)

the power at the end of the acceleration period.

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/

Feedback To Activity 3B

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

3.5

87.8 kN m, 386.4 kW

3.6

3.7

25.45 kW

3.8

(i)

17.08 s

(ii)

4957 Nm

(iii) 82.2 kW

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/

INPUT

We shall now consider some simple cases of the motion of two masses

connected by a light inextensible string. We note that a string connecting two

masses in motion is in a state of tension and that the string exerts forces on

the masses equal to the tensions at its ends.

If the string is light (that is, if its weight is neglected) the tension is the same

throughout its length. On the other hand, if the string is heavy the tension will

in general vary from point to point, depending upon the weight per unit

length. If the string is extensible the tension will vary with the extension.

Also, if the string passes round a pulley the tension is only the same on the

two sides if the pulley is smooth and the string is light. Otherwise the tension

in the string where it leaves the pulley depends upon the coefficient of

friction and the length of string in contact. In such an ideal case the tension

throughout the string will be constant.

Example 3.8

A load of mass 230kg is lifted by means of a rope which is wound several

times round a drum and which then supports a balance mass of 140 kg. As

the load rises the balance mass falls. The drum has a diameter of 1.2 m and a

radius of gyration of 530 mm and its mass is 70 kg. The frictional resistance

to the movement of the load is 110 N, and that to the movement of the

balance mass 90 N. The frictional torque on the drum shaft is 80 Nm.

Find the torque required on the drum, and also the power required at an

instant when the load has an upward velocity of 2.5 mis and an upward

2.

acceleration of 1.2 mis

http://modul2poli.blogspot.com/

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