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MALAYSIAN

POLYTECHNICS
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

MODULE J3010
MECHANICS OF MACHINES 1

Zainol Hashim (POLIMAS)


Harisa Mohamad Saad (POLIMAS)

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BIODATA OF MODULE WRITERS


J3010 Mechanics Machines

Name
Address

:
:

Telephone No. :
Qualifications :

Position

Name
Address

:
:

Telephone No. :
Qualifications :

Position

Zainol Bin Hashim


Mechanical Engineering Department
Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim
Muadzam Shah, Bandar Darulaman
06000 Jitra
Kedah Darulaman
04-9174701 ext.407
B Sc Mech. Eng.(UTM)
Diploma Mech. Eng (UTM)
Cert.Education
Polytechnic Lecturer

Harisa Bt Mohamad Saad


Mechanical Engineering Department
Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim
Muadzam Shah, Bandar Darulaman
06000 Jitra
Kedah Darulaman
04-9174701 ext.822
B Eng. Agricultural (Food and Process)
(UPM)
Masters in Education (ITTHO)
Polytechnic Lecturer

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A. FORMAT
The pages are organized in an interesting manner.
The font size makes it easy for me to read the module.
The size and types of pictures and charts used are suitable for
the input.
The pictures and charts are easy to read and understand.
The tables used are well-organised and easy to understand.
The arrangement of the Input makes it easy for me to follow.
All the instructions are displayed clearly.
B. CONTENTS
I understand all the objectives clearly.
I understand the ideas conveyed.
The ideas are presented in an interesting manner.
All the instructions are easy to understand.
I can carry out the instructions in this module.
I can answer the questions in the activities easily.
I can answer the questions in the self-assessment.
The feedback section can help me identify my mistakes.
The language used is easy to understand.
The way the module is written makes it interesting to read.
I can follow this module easily.
Each unit helps me understand the topic better.
I have become more interested in the subject after using this
module.

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SCALE
1

CURRICULUM GRID
The curriculum grid of this module is based on the curriculum used by Malaysian
polytechnics.
No.

TOPIC

UNIT

Total
Hours

General
Dynamics

1
( 9 H)

9 Hours

Moment
Inertia

2
( 6 H)

6 Hours

Hoisting
system

3
(6H)

6 Hours

Friction

4
(6H)

6 Hours

Screw

5
(6 H )

6 Hours

Belting

6
(9H)

9 Hours

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UNIT 1

GENERAL DYNAMICS

1.1 Velocity and Acceleration


1.2 Equation for linear, uniformly accelerated motion
1.3 Relationship between linear speed and angular speed
1.4 Relationship between linear acceleration
and angular acceleration
1.5 Work done by a constant force
1.6 Power
1.7 Energy and conservation of energy
1.8 Momentum and conservation of momentum

UNIT 2

MOMENT OF INERTIA
2.1 Moment of Inertia
2.2 Theorem of Parallel axes
2.3 Theorem of Perpendicular axes
2.4 Moment of Inertia in a few simple cases
2.5 Torque and Angular Acceleration
2.6 Angular Momentum
2.7 Angular impulse
2.8 Work done by a torque
2.9 Angular kinetic energy
2.10
Kinetic energy of a torque

UNIT 3

HOISTING SYSTEM

3.1 Inertia Couple


3.2 Accelerated Shaft
3.3 Shaft being brought to rest
3.4 Load raised and with accelerating upward
3.5 Load falling and accelerating downwards (No driving
torque acting)
3.6 Load falling and being brought to rest
3.7 Load rising: Coming to rest under friction only
3.8 Load balancing system

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UNIT 4

FRICTION
4.1 Motion up the plane: pull P parallel to plane
4.2 Motion down the plane: Pull P parallel to plane
4.3 The angle of friction and total reaction
4.4 Application of angle of friction to motion on the
inclined plane

UNIT 5

SCREW

5.1 The square thread screw


5.2 The V- thread screw
5.3 Raising Load
5.4 Load being lowered
5.2 Overhauling of a screw

UNIT 6

BELTING
6.1 Length of an open belt drive
6.2 Length of cross belt drive
6.3 Power transmitted by a belt
6.4 Ratio of tensions
6.5 Centrifugal tension

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MODULE GUIDELINES
To achieve maximum benefits in using this module, students must follow
the instructions carefully and complete all the activities.
1.
2.

This module is divided into 6 units.


Each page is numbered according to the subject code, unit and page number.
J3010 / UNIT 1 / 5

Subject Unit 1 Page Number 5


3.

The general and specific objectives are given at the beginning of each unit.
4. The activities in each unit are arranged in a sequential order and the
following symbols are given:

OBJECTIVES
The general and specific objectives for each learning topic are
stated in this section.

INPUT
This section introduces the subject matter that you are going to learn.

ACTIVITIES
The activities in this section test your understanding of the
subject matter. You have to complete this section by following
the instructions carefully.

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FEEDBACK
Answers to the questions in the activity section are given here

SELF-ASSESSMENT
Self-assessment evaluates your understanding of each unit.

FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT
This section contains answers to the activities in the self-assessment.

5.
6.

You have to follow the units in sequence.


You may proceed to the next unit after successfully completing the unit
and you are confident of your achievement.

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GENERAL AIMS
This module is prepared for students in the third or fourth semester who are
undergoing the Certificate/Diploma programmes in Malaysian Polytechnics. It aims
to expose students to the mechanics of machines concept in each unit and to lead
them towards self-directed learning or with guidance from their lecturers.

PRE REQUISITE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE


The pre-requisite for this module is at least a pass in Mathematic at the SPM
level and the successful completion of the Engineering Science module in the
first semester.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES

At the end of this module, students should be able to:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

know principles and fundamental concept of general dynamics.


know method and procedures to solve problem of mechanics machines.
understand facts and principles all of these topics.
solve problem in relation to hoisting and friction.
solve problem of raising and lowering load for square and Vee threaded screw.
find the values of Belting by using a calculator.

TEACHING AIDS AND RESOURCES NEEDED


1.

Calculator

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REFERENCES
1. John Hannah and M.J. Hillier (1971). Applied Mechanics; New
Zealand Pitman: Publishing Limited.
2. W. Madill (1984). Applied Mechanics Level 3; Longman Inc.,
New York: Longman Group Limited.
3. D Humphrey and J Topping (1971). A Shorter Intermediate
Mechanics; London: Longman Group Ltd.
4. George E. Drabble (1971). Applied Mechanics; London: W.H. Allen &

Co. Ltd.
5. R.S. Khurmi (1988). A Text Book Of Applied Mechanics;New
Delhi: S. Chand & Company (Pvt) Ltd.
6.

R.K. Mullis (1983). Engineering Mechanics; Longman Cheshire Pty.

7.

S.B.Mathur (1979). Applied mechanics; Delhi: Khanna Publishers.

8.

L.Bostock and S.Chandler (1979). Applied Mathematics; Scotland:


Thomson Litho Ltd.

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UNIT 1
GENERAL DYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the concept of general dynamics


Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to :
> relate linear and angular velocity, linear and angular acceleration.
> solve problem using equation uniformly accelerated and
angular motion.
> describe tangent acceleration and centripetal acceleration, centripetal
and centrifugal force, work and power.
> explain the principle conservation of energy and momentum.

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INPUT

1.1

INTRODUCTION.
A vector quantity requires a number and a direction to specify it completely; that is, a
vector has magnitude and direction. Examples of vectors are velocity, acceleration
and force.

Mechanics is the study


of object or bodies, as
we shall call them, when
subjected to force.

1.1

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION


Velocity
The velocity of a body may be defined as its rate of change of displacement,
with respect to its surroundings, in a particular direction. As the velocity is
always expressed in a particular direction, it is also a vector quantity.
Acceleration
The acceleration of a body may be defined as the rate of change of its velocity. It
is said to be positive, when the change in velocity of a body increases with time,
and negative when the velocity decreases with time. The negative acceleration is
also called retardation.

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In general, the term acceleration is used to denote the rate at which the velocity
is changing. It may be uniform or variable.
1.2

EQUATION FOR LINEAR, UNIFORMLY ACCELERATED MOTION


Suppose a body moving in a straight line has an initial speed u and that it undergoes
uniform acceleration a for time t considering, let the final speed be v and the
distance traveled in the time t be s. The speed time curve will be show in fig.1.1

Fig. 1.1 Uniform accelerated linear motion.


Acceleration a is uniform, its magnitude is

a = change in speed
change in time
= vuIt
a
or t = v u
or v = u + at

(1.1)

In this case, the average speed will be the speed at time tI2.

Hence average speed = 2 ( u + v)


Further, since distance travel = average speed x t then s = 1 2( u + v)t
Substituting for v from (1.1) into (1.2) gives
s=

2 ( u + u + at )I t
1 at2
Or s = u t +
2

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(1.2)

Substituting for t from (1.1) into (1.2) gives


s = 1 2( u + v ) (v - u )I a
2 2
or 2as = v - u
or v

= u + 2as

Example 1.1
A workman drops a hammer from the top of scaffolding. If the speed of sound in air
is 340 mIs, how long does the workman have before shouting to another workman 60
m vertically below him if his warning is to arrive before the hammer. Neglect air
resistance.

60 = 0 + (9.81)
t = 3.50s
Solution 1.1
60
For hammer
hammertakes 3.50 s to fall 60 m. The sound takes 340 = 0.18 to travel the same
The

distance so the workman has (3.50 0.18) = 3.32 s before shouting if the sound is
Inertial
= 0hammer.
mIs.
to
arrivespeed
before the
Acceleration = 9.81 mIs2.
Distance = 60 m
1 at2
s = ut +
2

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1.3

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINEAR SPEED AND ANGULAR SPEED


If a point P moves round in a circle with a of radius r with constant linear speed v
then the angular speed will be constant and

(1.3)
where t is the time to move from Q to P along the arc QP of the curve. Fig 1.2

Fig. 1.2 Circular motion


However, arc length QP is r when is measured in radians and hence linear
speed v is
V = arc QP = r
t
t
Using (1.3) and (1.4) leads to
V = r for circular motion.
Or linear speed = radius x angular speed.

(1.4)

(1.5)

Example 1.2
What is the peripheral speed of the tread on a tire of a motor car if the wheel spins
about the axle with an angular velocity of 6 radianl second. Diameter of tires is 0.7 m.
Solution 1.2
V= r
= 0.35 x 6
V = 2.1 mls

where r = 0.35 m and = 6 radls

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1.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINEAR ACCELERATION AND ANGULAR


ACCELERATION
d
By equation = dt
Hence =

However
Hence =

and V = r

= 1 dv since r is constant
v
r dt
dt

r

dv
dt is linear acceleration a
a

Or a = r
Or linear acceleration = radius x angular acceleration

Example 1.3
A grinding wheel is accelerated uniformly from rest to 3000 revlmin in 3 seconds.
Find it angular and linear acceleration. If the wheel diameter is 200 mm, find the
final linear speed of a point on its rim.

Solution 1.3
t =3s

= 0 radls
= 3000 revlmin = 2N160
2 X X 3000
=
60
= 314.16 radls

t
314.16 0
=
3

2
= 104.72 radls

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=r
= 0.1 x 104.72

a = 10.47 mls

V= r2
= 0.1 x 314.16
= 31.42 mls

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Activity 1A

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT


INPUT!
1.1 Which of the following is a Vector quantity?.
A. density
B. speed
C. area
D. acceleration
1.2 Velocity is the rate of change with time of
A. displacement B. acceleration
C. speed D. distance
1.3 When a body moVes round a circle with radius r at uniform speed V,
the angular speed is
A. Vr

B. Vlr

C. V lr

D. 2V

1.4 A 5 kg block, at rest on a smooth horizontal surface, is acted on by a


2

resultant force of 2.5 N parallel to the surface. The acceleration, in mls is


A. 0.5

B. 2

C. 12.5

D. 2000

1.5 A car traVel along a straight road at a steady speed of 13 mls, accelerates
uniformly for 15 s until it is moVing at 25 mls. Find its acceleration.

1.6 A particle moVes from rest with an acceleration of 2 mls . Determine


the Velocity and displacement of the particle after 20 seconds.

1.7 A parcel, starting at rest, is moVed by conVeyor belt with an acceleration of


2

1.5 mls . What will its Velocity be after it has moVed 3 meters?

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S = ( u + v) t
V = u + at
2
2
V = u + 2as
S = Ut + at.

Feedback to Activity 1A
Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

1.1

D. acceleration

1.2

A. displacement

1.3

B. Vlr
1.4 A. O.5
2

1.5

O.8 mls

1.6

4O mls; 4OO m.
1.7 3 mls.

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INPUT

1.5

WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE

Work done = Force x distance.


Unit of work is joule (J) or
Kilojoule (kJ)

When the point at which a force acts moVes, the force is said to haVe done work.
When the force is constant, the work done is defined as work done = force x distance
moVed in the direction of the force. It is a scalar qUantity.
If a constant force F moVes a body from A to B then distance moVed in the
direction of F is s cos 0 fig.1.3. The work done by a constant force is thUs:
Work done = F s cos 0

fig. 1.3 Notation for the work done

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If the body moVes in the same direction as the force, where by = 0 and
0
work done is Fs. Work done is zero if direction force = 90 . If F is in Newton and
s is in meters, the work done will be measUred in joUles (J)

Example 1.4
How mUch work is done when a force of 5 KN moVes its point of application 600
mm in the direction of the force.

SolUtion. 1.4
Work done = force x distance
3

= 5 X 10 X 600 X10
= 3000 J
= 3 KJ.

1.6

-3

POWER
Power is the rate of doing work, i.e. the work done in Unit time. The SI Unit of
power is the watt; it is 1 joUle per second and is written 1 W. The British Unit of
power Use earlier was the Horse- Power, and is eqUiValent to aboUt 746 watts . If a
force of F Newton keeps its point of application moVing in the direction of the force
with Uniform speed v meters per second, the work done per second is Fv joUles, and
is the power is Fv watts.

Example 1.5
The total mass of an engine and train is 200 Mg; what is the power of the engine if it
1

can jUst keep the train moVing at a Uniform speed of 100 kmlh on the leVel, the

resistances to friction, amoUnting to

1
of the weight of the train.
200

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SolUtion 1.5
Since the speed is Uniform, the pUll of the engine is eqUal to the total
resistance, i.e. 1000g N.= 1000 x 9.81 = 9810 N.
1

100 km1h = 1000136 m1s


The speed is
The work per second
= 1000 x 9.8 x 1000136 J
Power = 105 x 2.72 W
= 272 kW

1.7

ENERGY
The energy may be defined as the capacity to do work. It exists in many form e.g.
Mechanical, electrical, chemical, heat, light etc. BUt in applied Mechanics, we
shall deal in Mechanical Energy only. The Unit for energy is the same as those of
work i.e. example joUles.

1.7.1

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy cannot be created or destroyed bUt can be transformed from one
to another form of energy. For instance water stored in a dam possesses
potential energy which changes to kinetic energy as it flows downwards
throUgh a tUnnel to tUrn tUrbines, which in tUrn changes to electric
energy which can be Used to prodUce heat energy.

1.7.2

POTENTIAL ENERGY
The potential energy of a body may be defined as the amoUnt of work it can
do when it moVes from its actUal position to the standard position chosen.
The work done lifting a load of mass M and weight W = Mg
throUgh a height h is Wh. This is known as the potential energy of the load
referred to its original position and its Unit in that energy,
i.e. the basic Unit is the joUle (J).
Potential energy = Wh = Mgh (zero at earths surface)

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Example 1.6
What is the potential energy of a 10 kg mass?
(a) 100 m aboVe the sUrface of the earth.
(b) at the bottom of a Vertical mine shaft 1000 m deep.

SolUtion 1.6
(a)

(b)

Potential energy = mgh


= 10 x 9.81 x 100 J
= 9.81 KJ.
Potential Energy = -10 x 9.81 x 1000 J
= -9.81 x 10
= -98.1 KJ.

1.7.3 KINETIC ENERGY


A body may possess energy dUe to its motion as well as dUe to its position. For
example, when a hammer is Used to driVe in a nail, work is done on the nail by
the hammer, hence it mUst haVe possessed energy. Also a rotating flywheel
possess energy dUe its motion. These are example of the form of energy
call kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy may be described as energy dUe to motion. Only linear motion

will be considered. The kinetic energy of a body may be defined as the


amoUnt of work it can do before being broUght to rest.

1.7.4

FORMULA FOR KINETICS ENERGY


Let a body of mass m moVing with a speed V be broUght to rest with a
Uniform retardation by constant force P in a distance s.

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= u + 2 as
2

0 = v - 2 as since a is negatiVe
or s = v 2
2a
work done = force x distance
= Ps
=

Ps 2

2a

HoweVer P =
ma And Hence
2

Work done = mav l2a


2
= Y mv
The kinetic energy is thUs giVen
2

by Kinetic energy = Y mv

1.7.5 STRAIN ENERGY


The work done in compressing or stretching a spring is stored as strain energy
in the spring proVided that there is no permanent deformation (oVer
stretching). The stiffness of a spring is the load per Unit extension and is
approximately constant within the working range of the spring; thUs if S is the
stiffness, the load P reqUired to prodUce an extension X is giVen by
P=SX
SUppose a load is gradUally applied to a spring so that it Varies from zero
to maximUm ValUe P and prodUce a maximUm extension X. Then
Work done = aVerage load x extension
= YPxX
= Y SX x X
2

= Y SX
since strain energy
U = Work done
ThUs U = Y P x
2

= Y SX
The Units of strain energy are same as those of work, i.e. joUles (J)

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Example 1.7
A wagon of mass 12 tone traVeling at 16 kmlh strikes a pair of parallel
spring-loaded stops. If the stiffness of each spring is 600 KNlm, calcUlate
the maximUm compression in bringing the wagon to rest.
SolUtion 1.7
V = 16 kmlh = 3.6

16 m

Kinetic energy of wagon = Y Mv

= Y x 12 x 1000 x

3.6

16 2

= 118,500 J
This kinetic energy may be assUmed to be absorbed eqUally by the
two springs. Strain energy stored per spring is
Y x 118,500 = 59,250 J
ThUs X is the maximUm compression of the springs,
2

Y SX = 59,250
2
Or Y x 600 x 1,000 X = 59,250
X = 0.446 m = 446 mm

1.8 MOMENTUM AND CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM


1.8.1 MOMENTUM
The momentUm of a particle is the prodUct of the mass of the particle and its
Velocity. If m is the mass of the particle and v its Velocity the momentUm is m v.
The Unit of momentUm is eqUiValent, i.e. Ns = kg mls.

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1.8.2 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM


If two bodies collide then the sUm of the momentUm before the collision is eqUal to
the sUm of the momentUm after collision measUred in the same direction.
m1U1 + m2U2 = m1V1 + m2V2
Where

m1 = mass of the first body


m2 = mass of the second body
U1 = initial Velocity of the first body
U2 = initial Velocity of the second body
V1 = final Velocity of the first body
V2 = final Velocity of the second body

Example 1.8
A 750 kg car collided head on with a 1 tone car. If both cars are traVel at 16 kmlh at
the time of impact and after impact the second car reboUnds at 3 kmlh, find the
Velocity of the first car after collision (assUme perfect elastic collision)

SolUtion 1.8
By the conserVation of momentUm and assUming that the first car also reboUnd.
m1U1 + m2U2 = m1V1 + m2V2
+
750 x (+16) + 100 x (-16) ) = 750 x (-V1) + ( 1000 + ( +3) )
3
3
3
12 x 10 16 x 10 = -750 V1 + 3 x 10
3
(12 16 3) x 10 = -750 V1
-7 x 10

V1

= -750 V1
=

7000
750

V1 = 9.333 kmlh
Where m1= 750 kg ; m2 = 1 tone = 1000 kg ; U1= + 16 kmlh ; U2 = -16 kmlh; V2 = + 3kmlh

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Activity 1B

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT


INPUT!

1.8 A flywheel rotating at 1200 reVlmin slow down at a constant rate of 900 reVlmin
in 30 seconds. Find:
a. the initial angUlar speed
b. the final angUlar speed
c. the angUlar acceleration
d. the initial speed of a point on the rim of the flywheel if its diameter is 1.1 m.

1.9 A constant force of 2 kN pUlls a crate along a leVel floor for a distance of 10 m
in 50 seconds. What power was Used?.

1.10

A car of mass 1000 kg traVeling at 30 mls has its speed redUced to 10 mls by constant
breaking force oVer a distance of 75 meter. Find the initial and final kinetic energy and the
breaking force.

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Power =

work done

=
Fv time taken

Feedback to Activity 1B
Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

1.8 a. 125.7 radis


b.

94.2 radis
c. -1.05 radis

d.

69.1 mis

1.9

400 W

1.10

0.5 x 10 J, 5333 N

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SELF-ASSESSMENT 1

YoU are approaching sUccess. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and
check yoUr answers with those giVen in the Feedback on Self-Assessment 1 giVen on the
next page. If yoU face any problems, discUss it with yoUr lectUrer. Good lUck.

1. The spin drier in a washing machine is a cylinder with a diameter of 500 mm. It spins at
900 reVimin. Find the speed and acceleration of a point on the side of the drUm.

2.

Find the work done in raising 100 kg of water throUgh a Vertical distance of 3 m.

3. A cyclist, with his bicycle, has a total mass 80 kg. He reaches the top of the hill, with a
slope 1 in 2 measUred along the slope, at a speed of 2 mis. He then free-wheels to the
bottom of the hill where his speed has increased to 9 mis. How mUch energy has been
lost on the hill which is100 m long?
4. An electric motor is rated at 400 W. If its efficiency is 80%, find the maximUm
torqUe which it can exert when rUnning at 2850 reVimin.

5. The engine of a car has a power oUtpUt of 42 KW. It can achieVe a maximUm speed
of 120 kmih along the leVel. Find the resistance to motion. If the power oUtpUt and
resistance remained the same, what woUld be the maximUm speed a car coUld
achieVe Up an incline of 1 in 40 along the slope if the car mass is 900 kg?

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Feedback to Self-Assessment 1

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now.

1.

23.6 mis; 2230 mis

2.

2943J

3.

844 J

4.

1.07Nm

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
May success be with you
always.

5. 1260 N; 102 kmih

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UNIT 2

MOMENT OF INERTIA

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the concept of moment inertia


Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to :
define moment inertia of mass
describe definition torque and angular acceleration
explain moment inertia for thin ring and rectangular.
explain the moment of couple and kinetic energy.

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INPUT

2.1 INTRODUCTION.
The moment of inertia of a body, about a given axis, is a measure of its resistance to
Angular. An acceleration and is given by the product of its mass times radius squared.

The second moment of area or


second moment of mass is also
called moment of inertia

2.1

MOMENT OF INERTIA:
Moment of inertia is the product of mass and the square of a distance. The unit which it
2
is measured is one kilogram meter squared (kgm ). It should also be noted that
2
m r is a scalar quantity.
The moment of inertia is also called the second moment of area of the body.
2
If the moment of inertia be equal to Mk , then k is called the radius of gyration of
the body about the axis.

2.1.1

UNIT OF MOMENT INERTIA (M.I).


4

The moment of inertia of an area is measured in metre or ft . If the body


is measured in kilograms and distances in meter, the M.I of mass will be
2
kg- metre units.

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2.2

THEOREM OF PARALLEL AXES


The moment of inertia of a lamina about any axis in the plane of the lamina equals
the sum of the moments of inertia about a parallel centrically axis in the plane of
lamina together with the product of the area of the lamina and the square of the
distance between the two axes.( fig. 2.1)
Let A = Area of the plane figure.
Ix = moment of inertia of the area A about an axis XX in the plane of the
area passing through G, the C.G ( Centre of Gravity) of the area.
Iy = moment of inertia of the area A about an axis YY in the plane of the area
parallel to XX.
r = distance between XX and YY.
Then

Iy = Ix + Ar

.P

Y
x

r
X

Fig. 2.1
Example 2.1
Find the moment of inertia of the uniform rod in the fig.2.2 about axis XY and XY.
Y
Y
1
1
X

M
Fig.2.2

Solution 2.1
M = mass of rod
M1 2
IXY = 3

12

and IXY = M

3+1

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4M1 2

Example 2.2
Find the moment of inertia for the rectangular section shown in fig.2.3 about (i) the
axis XX, (ii) axis YY, (iii) the value of Izz
Y
B
600 mm
X

G200 mm

D
300 mm
Y

Fig. 2.3

Solution 2.2
bd 3
12
600 x 2003
=
12

IXX =

4.

= 4 x 10 mm
db 3
12
200 x 6003
=
12

IYY =

= 3.6 x 10 mm

Izz = I CG + Ac
4
4
In this case I CG = IXX = 4 x 10 mm and c = 300 mm
4
2
Thus Izz = 4 x 10 + 200 x 600 x 300
6

= 1.12 x 10 mm

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2.3

THEOREM OF PERPENDICULAR AXES


If the moments of inertia of lamina about two perpendicular axes in its plane which
meet at O are A and B the moment of inertia about an axis through O perpendicular
to the plane of the lamina is A + B.
Let OX, OY (figure 2.4) be the two perpendicular axes n the plane of the
lamina, and Oz an axis perpendicular to the lamina.
If m is the mass of a particle of the lamina at P, where as OP = r, the moment of
2

inertia of the lamina about Oz is mr .

Oxyr
P

Figure 2.4
But if (x, y) are the coordinates of P referred to OX, OY as axes,
2

r =x +y
2
2
2
Mr = mx + my
2

Now mx is the moment of inertia about OY (=B), and my is the moment of inertia
about OX (=A); therefore the moment of inertia about Oz = A + B.

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Example 2.3
Find the moment of inertia of a uniform disc of radius a about an axis perpendicular
to its plane passing through a point on its circumference fig.2.5.

a
x

Y
Fig.2.5
Solution 2.3
m
= mass of uniform disc
2
Ixx
= ! ma
IYY = I ( d 2x + d y2 )
2
2
= !m(a +a )
2
= !ma

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2.4

MOMENT OF INERTIA IN SIMPLE CASES:


Type of form

Model

M.I

Rectangular/square

bd 3
12

Thin rod

M = mass

Thin ring

Solid sphere

Triangle

Mr2

2 2
Mr
5

b 3
h
12

h
b

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2.5

TORQUE AND ANGULAR ACCELERATION


2.5.1

TORQUE

Torque is the turning moment of tangential applied force (F) acting at distance (r)
from the axis rotation. The unit of torque is the Newton meter (Nm)
F

d
O
Fig.2.6 Moment of a force.
In the fig.2.6 the moment of F about the point 0 is Moment of a force = F d A
couple is a pair of equal and parallel but unlike forces as shown in fig 2.7.

F
Fig.2.7 Moment of a couple
It can easily be proved that the moment of a couple about any point in its plane is the
product of one force and perpendicular distance between them, that is
Moment of couple = F p
Examples of a couple include turning off a tap with finger and thumb and winding up a
clock with a key. The moment of a force or couple may be measured in Newton meter
(Nm). In engineering, the moment of a force or couple is called a torque.

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Example 2.4
Determine the torque created by the 225 N force acting on the gear teeth as shown.
Pitch Circle Diameter (P.C.D) 300 mm.

Solution 2.4
T=Fr

Where F = 225N
300
r=
2
= 150 mm
=0.15 m

= 225 x 0.15
= 33.75 Nm.

2.5.2

ANGULAR ACCELERATION

If the angular velocity of the point P in fig. 2.8 is changing with time,
then the angular acceleration a of P is the rate of change of its angular
velocity, that is

a = dt

Fig.2.8 Angular Motion

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in the sense of increasing 0.


2
Angular acceleration may be measured in rad/s .
If the angular acceleration is uniform, then its magnitude is

t
if the angular speed changes from 1 to 2 in time t.
Example 2.5
The speed of flywheel is increased from 120 r/min to 300r/min in 30 seconds.
Calculate the angular acceleration of the flywheel before coming to rest.

Solution 2.5

= 2

Where = 300 r/min


t

(300 x 2 x22)

= 31.43 12.57
30

= - 18.30
30

= 31.43 rad/s

= - 0.6287 rad/s2

60 x 7

rad/s

o = 120 r/min

= (120 x 2 x22) rad/s


60 x 7
= 12.57 rad/s

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Activity 2A

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NExT


INPUT!

2.1 A pulley attached to the motor shaft revolves at 1435 r/min. Determine the linear
velocity of pulley belt given the effective diameter of the pulley is 100 mm.
2.2 The angular velocity of a gear wheel uniformly increase from 15 r/min to 15 r/min
in 20 seconds. Determine the angular acceleration and angular displacement of the
gear teeth.
2.2 Calculate the moment of inertia, about the axis of rotation of the flywheel shown if the
3

density of the flywheel material is 7600 kg/m .

dimensions in millimeter
2.4 A wheel and axle has the 8 kg mass attached to the axle by a light cord as show. The
mass is allowed to fall freely a vertical distance of 2 meters in 10 seconds. Calculate
the moment of inertia for the wheel and axle.

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The moment of inertia of a body, about a


given axis is
2
I=mr
2
Where I = moment of inertia (kg.m )

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Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

2.1 7.515 mIs


2

2.2 O.O524 radIs ; 41.9 radians


2

2.3 11.8 kgm

2.4 1.22 kgm

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INPUT

2.6

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

Momentum = mass x
velocity. = m x v

Angular momentum of a solid is given as the product of the moment of inertia of the
solid about axis of rotation and angular velocity.
When a body has motion of rotation, the momentum of the body is the product of
the moment of inertia of the body and its angular velocity.
momentum of rotating body = I
( v = r)
and momentum of a body having a motion of translation = m v
2
= (mr )
M = I
2.7

(I = mr )

ANGULAR IMPULSE
This is the change in momentum produced by the action of a force applied on a
body within an infinitely short interval of time. Donating impulse by I, we have
Impulse = Force x Time
I =Fxt
(2.1)
Let a be the acceleration generated by the force, then by Newtons second law, we
have F = ma
Equation (2.1) becomes I = mat = m(v u) or Ft = m(v u) ( v = u + at ) Hence,
when a force is constant, its impulse can be measured by the change in momentum
produced by it The unit of impulse is the same as that of momentum,
i.e. kg sec (kgs).

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2.8

WORK DONE BY A TORQUE


Let a force F turns a light rod OA with length r through an angle to OB as shown
in fig. 2.9.

Fig.2.9 Work done by a torque

The torque TQ exerted about O is force times perpendicular distance from O or T Q = Fr

Now work done by F is F times distance moved. Hence Work Done = Fs


But s is the arc of a circle radius r. Hence
S = r
Where must be measured in
radians. Thus work done = Fr
Or work done = TQ
The work done by constant torque T Q is thus the product of the torque and the
angle turned through in radians. The work done will be in joules if TQ is in Nm.
Example 2.6
The force exerted on the end of a spanner 300 mm long used to tighten a nut is
constant 100 N. Find the torque exerted on the nut and the work done when the
nut turns through 300.

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Solution 2.6
Torque TQ = Pr
-3
= l00 x 300 x l0
= 30 Nm.
Work Done = TQ
= 30 x l6 ( in radians)
= l5.7 J.
Example 2.7
An electric motor is rated 400 W. If its efficiency is 80 %, find the maximum torque
which it can exert when running at 2850 revlmin.
Solution 2.7
Power = 2N TQ
N = 2850l60 = 47.5 revls
Power = 400 x 0.8 = 320 W
Torque TQ = 320l2 x 47.5
= l.07 Nm.
2.9

ANGULAR KINETIC ENERGY


When a body has motion of rotation, it will have an energy due to this rotation. This
I 2
kinetic energy of a body due to its motion of rotation is given by = 2 g or
I 2 , where I = mass moment of inertia of the rotating body about the
2
axis of rotation and in the angular velocity of the body.
Work done
FxS
Power is rate doing work. Power =
=
Time taken
but

S
t = v Power = F x r

Power of any times is equal to the product of the force and the velocity of the point of
application is the direction of force.

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Example 2.8
A wheel has a 5.4 m long string wrapped round its shaft. The string is pulled with a
constant force of 10 Newton, and it is observed that the wheel is rotating at 3
revolutions per second when the string leaves the axle. Find the moment of inertia of
the wheel about its axis.
Solution 2.8
Given, length of string

= 5.4 m
Force
P = 10 N
Speed of wheel, = 3 revisec = 2 x 3 = 6 radisec
Let
I = moment of inertia of the wheel about it axis.
We know that work done in pulling the string
= Force x Distance
= 10 x 5.4 = 54 Nm

and kinetic energy of the wheel,

E = I = I ( 6 ) Nm 2
2

g 2 x 9.81
= 18.1 I Nm
Now equating work done and the kinetic energy,
18.1 I = 54
54
2
I = 18.1 = 2.98 Nm

Example 2.9
A fly wheel weighing 8 tones starts from rest and gets up a speed of 180 rpm in 3
minutes. Find the average torque exerted on it, if the radius of gyration of the fly
wheel is 60 cm. Take
2
g = 9.81 misec .

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Solution 2.9
Given, weight of the fly wheel
= 8 t = 8,000 kg
mass of the fly wheel, m
= 8,000 kg
Initial revolution, No = 0
Initial velocity,
o = 0
Final revolution = 180 rpm.
Final velocity, = 2 x 180 = 6 radisec
60
Time taken,
t = 3 min = 3 x 60 = 180 sec
Radius of gyration,
K = 60 cm = 0.6 m
Let
= Constant angular acceleration, and
T = Average torque exerted on the fly wheel.
We know that the mass2 moment of inertia of the fly wheel,
2
I = mK = 8,000 x 0.62 = 2,880 kgm .
Using the relation,
= o + t with usual notations.
6 = 0 + x 180
6

180 = 30 radisec
Now using the relation,
=
I
T=
with usual notations.
g
= 2,880 x = 30.7 kg m
9.81

30

Example 2.10
A machine gun bullet of mass 25 gm is fired with a velocity of 400 misec. The bullet
can penetrate 20 cm in a given target. If the same target is 10 cm thick, what will be
the velocity of the bullet, when it comes out of the target?
Solution 2.10
Given, Mass of bullet,
M = 25 gm = 0.025 kg
Velocity of bullet, v = 400 misec
Penetration of bullet,

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s = 20 cm = 0.2 m
let, v1 = velocity of the bullet after coming out from 10 cm thick target,
E = kinetic energy of the bullet, and
R = Resisting force of the target
Using the relation,
2
my

E = 2 g with usual notations.


0.025 x 400 2
=
= 204 kgm
2 x 9.81
A little consideration will show, that the total kinetic energy is spent in penetrating
20cm into the target.
P x 0.2 = 204
or

204 = 1020 kg.


0.2
The energy spent in penetrating 10 cm (i.e. 0.1 m) thick target
= P x s = 1020 x 0.1 = 102 kg m
Balance kinetic energy in the bullet after coming out from 10 cm thick target
= 204 102 = 102 kg m
Again using the relation,
my 2
E
=
with usual notations
2g
0.025 x y 2
2
102 =
1 = 0.00128 y 1
2 x 9.81
102
R =
= 282.3 m i sec

0.00128

2.10

P =

KINETIC ENERGY OF A TORQUE

Kinetic energy K.E = m


y2

= m (r )

( v = r )

= (m r )
2

2
=I
i.e. kinetic energy K.E = I

(I=mr )

Where KE = Kinetic energy (J)


2

I = moment of inertia (kg.m )


= angular velocity ( radisec)

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Example 2.11
2

A flywheel whose moment of inertia is 50 kg m is rotating at 4 radis. Find its kinetic


energy.
Solution 2.11
Given,
2
I = 50 kg m and = 4 radis
2
Kinetic Energy = I
2
= x 50 x 4
= x 800
= 400 J

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Activity 2B

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NExT


INPUT!
2.5.Calculate the moment of inertia, taken around the axis of rotation of the flat metal disc. If
the 11 kg disc revolves around its axis of rotation with an angular acceleration of
2

10 radis , what torque is acting?.

2.6.

A 45 kg flywheel, revolving at 50 rimin, has a radius of gyration of one meter.


Calculate the moment of inertia and torque which must be applied to bring the flywheel
to rest in 10 seconds.

2.7 A 20 kg flywheel is revolving at 450rimin. If the radius of gyration is 0.65 meter,


calculate the torque which must be applied to the flywheel to bring it to rest in 20
seconds.
2.8.

Calculate the kinetic energy stored in a 2.5 tones flywheel which is rotating at180
rimin. The radius of gyration of the flywheel is 0.8 meter. If the velocity of the flywheel
is reduced to 15 rimin in one minute find the rate at which the flywheel gives out
energy (i.e. the power output).

2.9 A flywheel loses kinetic energy amounting to 640 J when its angular speed falls from 7
radis to 3 radis. What is the moment of inertia of the flywheel?

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Kinetic energy ( K.E) = mv

Potential energy (P.E) = mgh

Feedback to Activity 2B

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2.5 0.3438 kg m ; 2.438 Nm


2

2.6 45 kg m ; 23.57 Nm
2.7 19.9 Nm.
2.8 284.5 k J; 4.708 k W.
2.9 32 kg m

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SELF-ASSESSMENT 2

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and
check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment 2 given on
the next page. If you face any problems, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. A 75 kg flat disc, with a diameter of 0.5 meter revolves about an axis perpendicular to its
circular surface at10 rimin. What is the angular momentum of the disc and the retarding
torque needed to bring the disc to rest in 5 seconds?
2. Calculate the time taken to bring a flywheel from rest to velocity of 450 rimin given the
2

moment of inertia is 8 kg.m and the applied torque is 24 N m.


3. A 7 kg gear wheel with radius of gyration of 0.3 meter is rotating at 200rimin. This gear
wheel meshes with a stationary 4.5 kg gear wheel. If the radius of gyration of the second
gear wheel also 0.3 meter, calculate the common speed of rotation after connection and
loss in kinetic energy of the system.

= 200 rimin

= 0 (stationary)
2

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Feedback to Self-Assessment 2

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now.

1. 2.456 kg m is; 0.4912 Nm.


2. 15.7 s.
3. 121.7 rimin; 54.47 J

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
May success be with you
always.

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UNIT 3

HOISTING

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the concept of dynamics of rotation.


Specific Objectives : At the end of this unit you should be able to:
> apply basic principle on which all these machines are based.
> recognize the effect of combining a hoist drum of moment inertia
I with a hanging load of mass M and weight W = mg.
> sketch and recognize all force and torque that involve on these
machines.
> use suitable concepts to solve related problem.
> calculate all these topic questions correctly.

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INPUT

3.1 INTRODUCTION
We study the effect of combining a hoist drum of moment of inertia with a
hanging load of mass M and Weight W = Mg.

In this topic we are


concerned in dynamics of
rotation.

3.1 INERTIA COUPLE


Comparing the formulae P = Ma and T = I , it is seen that moment of inertia
I plays the same part in a change of angular motion as mass M does in
change of linear motion. By analogy with the idea of inertia force we may
regard the torque T as being balanced by inertia couple, I , which sense is
opposite to that of the angular acceleration , (Fig. 3.1). The problem is then
in effect reduced to a static one.
The reality of the effect of an inertia couple will be appreciated by anyone
who has tried to accelerate a bicycle wheel rapidly by hand. Although the
weight may carried wholly by the bearings an effort is required to set the
wheel spinning. An inertia couple is, of course, reactive.

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Fig. 3.1
Example 3.1
A 30 kg flywheel, revolving at 5.24 radls has a radius of gyration of one
meter. Calculate the torque which must be applied to bring the flywheel to
rest in 10 seconds.

Solution 3.1
Moment of inertia of the flywheel, I = mk 2
= 30x12
I = 30kgm2
Deceleration,

1 = 0 + t
0 = 5.24 + ( )10

= 0.524rad l s 2
Torque,

T = I
= 30x0.524
T = 15.72Nm

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3.2 ACCELERATED SHAFT


Consider a shaft (Fig. 3.2) carrying a rotor having a moment of inertia about
the shaft axis.

Fig. 3.2
If the bearing friction is equivalent to a couple Tf .
Then, in order to accelerate the shaft and rotor the driving torque T must
balance both the inertia couple I and the friction couple Tf .
Thus,
T = I + T f

Example 3.2
2

A flywheel has a moment of inertia of 10 kg.m . Calculate the angular


acceleration of the wheel due to a torque of 8 Nm if the bearing friction
is equivalent to a couple of 3 Nm.
Solution 3.2:
Given:

I = 10 kgm

T = 8 Nm

T = I + T f
I = T T f
I = 8 3 Nm
I = 5 Nm

= 10 radls2

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Tf = I = 3 Nm

3.3 SHAFT BEING BROUGHT TO REST


If the shaft is being brought to rest by a braking torque T the friction couple
Tf assist the braking action so that T and Tf together must balance the inertia
couple I ; is now a retardation its sense being opposite to that of the
motion (Fig.3.3).

Fig. 3.3
Thus,
T + T f = I

If there is no braking torque, the friction couple alone brings the shaft to rest.
Then,
T f = I
Note, in both cases, that
(a) the friction couple T f opposes the motion.
(b) the inertia couple I opposes the change of motion.

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Example 3.3
A flywheel together with its shaft has a total mass of 300 kg and its radius of
gyration is 900 mm. If the effect of bearing friction is equivalent to a couple
of 70 Nm, calculate the braking torque required to bring the flywheel to rest
from a speed of12 revis in 8 s.
Solution 3.3
Given:
Thus,

N = l2 rev/s = l2 x 2 = 75.4 rad/s


Retardation,

=
t
=

75.4
8

= 9.42 radis
I of flywheel and shaft = Mk

= 300 x 0.9

2
2

= 243 kg m
Inertia Couple

= 1

= 243 x 9.42
= 2290 Nm

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Activity 3A

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE


NEXT 1NPUT!
2

3.1 A drum rotor has the moment of inertia 31.8 kg.m . Find the time taken
for the rotor to reach a speed of 3600 revimin from rest if the driving force
torque is 55 Nm and the friction torque is 5 Nm.
3.2

The rotating table of the vertical boring machines has a mass of 690 kg and a
radius of gyration of 700 mm. Find the torque required to accelerate the table to 60
revimin in three complete revolutions from rest.
3.3 A light shaft carries a turbine rotor of mass 2 tonnes and a radius of gyration
of 600 mm. The rotor required a uniform torque of 1.2 kNm to accelerate it
from rest 6000 revimin in 10 min. Find:
(i) the friction couple,
(ii) the time taken to come to rest when steam is shut off.
3.4 A winding drum of mass 200 tonne has a radius of gyration of 3 m. Find the
constant torque required to raise the speed from 40 to 80 revimin in 60
seconds if the friction torque is 15 kNm. If the wheel is rotating freely at 80
revimin and a brake is applied bringing it to rest in 120 rev. Find the brake
torque assuming uniform retardation.

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Feedback To Activity 3A

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3.1

240s

3.2

354 Nm
3.3

3.4

(i)

446 Nm,

(ii)

16.9 min

140.5 kNm, 68.8 kNm.

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INPUT

THE HOIST
Four cases will be considered: the load is rising or falling, being accelerated or
brought to rest. In every case two equations can be written down:
(a) the equation for the balance of couples at the hoist drum
(b) the equation for the balance of forces at the load.
In every case we recall that the friction couple at the bearing or rope will oppose
the rotation and the inertia couple will oppose the change of rotation.
For acceleration, a is upwards, hence the inertia force is downwards. If angular
acceleration, is anticlockwise, the inertia couple is clockwise. If rotation of the
drum is anticlockwise the friction couple acts clockwise.

3.4 LOAD RAISED AND WITH ACCELERATING UPWARD


For rotation of the hoist drum the driving torque T must balance the friction
couple Tf, , the inertia couple I and the torque Pr due to the tension P in the
rope at the drum.

Fig. 3.4

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Thus,
Angular Motion:
T = I + Pr + Tf
For Linear motion of the load, the tension P in the rope at the load must
balance both the dead weight and the inertia force Ma.
Thus,
Linear Motion:
P = Mg + Ma

Example 3.4
2

A hoist drum has a moment of inertia of 85 kgm and is used to raised a lift
2
of mass 1 tonne with an upward acceleration of 1.5 mis . The drum diameter
is 1 m.
Determine:
(a) the torque required at the drum
(b) the power required after accelerating for 3 seconds from rest.

Solution 3.4
(a)

The torque required at the hoist drum is made up of three parts.

1.
2.
3.

torque I required to accelerate the drum


torque Wr required to hold the dead weight of the lift.
torque Mar required to accelerate the lift.
M = 1000kg

= r = 0.5

W = Mg
= 1000 x 9.8
= 98000 N

.5

= 3rad i s 2

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I = 85 kgm

Thus,
Total torque = I + Wr + Mar
= (85 x 3) + (9800 x 0.5) + (1000 x 1.5 x 0.5)
= 5905 Nm
(b) After 3 seconds, the lift speed.
v

= at
= 1.5 x 3

= 4.5 mis

(This is the speed of the drum circumference)

Therefore angular velocity of the drum,

= r = 0.5

4.5

= 9rad i s

Power required = torque x angular velocity


= T
= 5905 X 9
=53.15 Kw
This the power required at the instant after 3 seconds.

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3.5 LOAD FALLING AND ACCELERATING DOWNWARDS (NO


DRIVING TORQUE ACTING)
The load is allowed to fall freely, resisted only by friction and inertia force
and couples. The rotation of the hoist drum, the accelerating torque Pr due to
rope tension must balance both the friction couple Tf and the inertia couple
I.

Fig. 3.5
Thus,
Angular Motion:
Pr = Tf + I
For linear motion of the load the accelerating force due to the weight must
balance the upward tension P in the rope and the inertia force Ma.
Thus,
Linear Motion:
P = Mg - Ma

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Example 3.5
A hoist drum has a mass of 360 kg and a radius of gyration of 600 mm. The
drum diameter is 750 mm. A mass of 1 tonne hangs from a light cable
wrapped round the drum and is allowed to fall freely. If friction couple at the
bearings is 2.7 k Nm. Calculate the runaway speed of the load after falling
for 2 seconds from rest.
Solution 3.5
Given:
Md = 360 kg

k = 600 mm = 0.6 m

Dd = 750 mm = 0.75 m

Rd = 0.375 m

M = 1 tonne = 1000 kg

0 = 0 radis

I = Mk

Tf = 2700 Nm
t=2s

= 360(0.6) = 129.6 kgm

Linear Motion:

P = Mg - Ma = M(g - a)
P = 1000(9.81 - r) = 9810 - 75

Angular Motion:
Pr = Tf + I = 2700 + 129.6

P = 2700 + 129.6
0.375

= 3.62 radis
Then,

1 = 0 + t = 0 + 3.62 (2)
= 7.24 radis
v

= r 1
= (0.375) 3.62
= 2.71 mis

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a = r

3.6 LOAD FALLING AND BEING BROUGHT TO REST


We now consider the braking of the hoist drum as the load falls. The
accelerations are therefore reversed as compared with the previous case. For
rotation of the drum the braking torque T is assisted by the friction couple to
balance the accelerating torque Pr due to the rope tension and the inertia
couple I.

Fig. 3.6
Thus,
Angular Motion:
T + Tf = Pr + I

Linear Motion:
P = Mg + Ma

Example 3.6
The maximum allowable pull in a hoist cable is 200 kN. Calculate maximum
2
load in tones which can be brought to rest with a retardation of 5 mis . The
2
hoist drum has a moment of inertia of 840 kgm and a diameter of 2.4 m.
What is the corresponding braking torque on the drum?

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Solution 3.6
3

a = - 5 mis

Dd = 2.4 m

Pmax = 200 x 10 Nm

Given:

I = 840 kgm

rd = 1.2 m
a = r

= r = 1 .2 = 4.16 radis

Linear Motion:
P = Mg + Ma
3

200 x 10 = M (g + a)
= M (9.81 + 5)
200x10
M=

kg

14.81

M = 13.5 tonne
Angular Motion:
T + Tf = Pr + I
3

T = Pr + I - Tf = 200 x 10 (1.2) + 840 (4.16) Tf


There is no braking torque, Tf = I
3

T = 200 x 10 (1.2) + 3494.4 3494.4

T = 240 k Nm

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3.7 LOAD RISING: COMING TO REST UNDER FRICTION ONLY


Since there is no braking torque applied, the drum is retarded by the torque Pr
due to the rope tension and the friction couple Tf . These two couples must
balance the inertia couple of the drum.

Fig. 3.7
Thus,
Angular Motion:

I = Tf + Pr
Linear Motion:
P + Ma = Mg

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Example 3.7
In an experiment, a hoist drum has a diameter is 500 mm. It is used to raised
load 50 kg and coming to rest under friction. The upward acceleration is 3.0
2
mis . The friction couple is 0.35 Nm. Find the moment of inertia of the
drum.
Solution 3.7
a = r
For the linear motion,

a
= r

3
= 0.25

= 12 radis

P + Ma = Mg
P = Mg Ma
P = M (g - a)
P = 50 (9.81 3)
P = 340.5 N

For the angular motion,

I = Tf + Pr
I = 0.35 + 340.5 (0.25)
I = 0.35 + 85.12
I = 85.47

I = 85.47
12
2

I = 7.12 kgm
NOTE:

Students are required to grasp firmly the following rules:


1.
2.
3.

the friction couple opposes the rotation


the inertia couple opposes the change of rotation
the inertia force opposes the change of linear motion.
It may remarked also that in every case the direction of the rope tension P
and the load weight W is unaltered, although their effect may be to accelerate
or to retard the load.

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Activity 3B

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE


NEXT INPUT!
2

3.5

A load of mass 8 tonne is to be raised with a uniform acceleration of 1.1 mis


by means of a light cable passing over a hoist drum of 2 m diameter. The drum has a
mass of 1 tonne and a radius of gyration of 750 mm. Find the torque required at the
drum if friction is neglected. What is the power exerted after 4 seconds from rest.

3.6

A mine cage of mass 4 tonne is to be raised with an acceleration of 1.5 mis


using a hoist drum of 1.5 m diameter. The drums mass is 750 kg and its radius of
gyration is 600 mm. The effect of bearing friction is equivalent to a couple of 3 kNm
at the hoist drum. What is the power required when the load has reached a velocity
of 6 mis? What is the power required at a uniform velocity of 6 mis?.

3.7 A hoist has a winding drum 0.9 m effective diameter and a radius of gyration
of 0.35 m, the mass of the drum being 100 kg. A load of 320 kg is to be
raised 36 m, the mass of the lifting rope being 1 kgim. If the acceleration is
2

1.8 mis until a constant velocity of 6 mis is reached, find the power
necessary just at the end of the acceleration.
3.8

A winding drum raises a cage of mass 500 kg through a height of 120 m. The
winding drum has a mass of 250 kg and an effective radius of 0.5 m and a radius of
gyration of 0.36 m. The mass of the rope is 3 kgim. The cage has at first an
2

acceleration of 1.5 mis until a velocity of 9 mis is reached after hich the velocity is
constant until the cage nears the top, when the final retardation
2

is 6 mis . Find :
(i) the time taken for the cage to reach the top
(ii) the torque which must be applied to the drum at starting
(iii)
the power at the end of the acceleration period.

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Feedback To Activity 3B

Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now

3.5

87.8 kN m, 386.4 kW

3.6

299.5 kW, 259 kW

3.7

25.45 kW
3.8

(i)

17.08 s

(ii)

4957 Nm

(iii) 82.2 kW

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INPUT

3.8 LOAD BALANCING SYSTEM


We shall now consider some simple cases of the motion of two masses
connected by a light inextensible string. We note that a string connecting two
masses in motion is in a state of tension and that the string exerts forces on
the masses equal to the tensions at its ends.
If the string is light (that is, if its weight is neglected) the tension is the same
throughout its length. On the other hand, if the string is heavy the tension will
in general vary from point to point, depending upon the weight per unit
length. If the string is extensible the tension will vary with the extension.
Also, if the string passes round a pulley the tension is only the same on the
two sides if the pulley is smooth and the string is light. Otherwise the tension
in the string where it leaves the pulley depends upon the coefficient of
friction and the length of string in contact. In such an ideal case the tension
throughout the string will be constant.

Example 3.8
A load of mass 230kg is lifted by means of a rope which is wound several
times round a drum and which then supports a balance mass of 140 kg. As
the load rises the balance mass falls. The drum has a diameter of 1.2 m and a
radius of gyration of 530 mm and its mass is 70 kg. The frictional resistance
to the movement of the load is 110 N, and that to the movement of the
balance mass 90 N. The frictional torque on the drum shaft is 80 Nm.
Find the torque required on the drum, and also the power required at an
instant when the load has an upward velocity of 2.5 mis and an upward
2.
acceleration of 1.2 mis

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