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their lengths to:

Medium: from 80 km to 240 km

Long: longer than 240 km

16:28

16:28

Is

Vs

Vs = VR + ZI R

Is = IR

16:28

Is

IR

VR

IR

Two-port

Vs

A = D =1

B=Z

C=0

network

Vs = AVR + BI R

I s = CVR + DI R

16:28

VR

Example 1, Solution

Example 1

Z = ( r + jL)l = 6 + j 20

The receiving voltage per

phase is:

VR =

IR =

SR

= 1000 36.87

3VR

VS ( L L) = 3VS = 250kV

PR = 3 220 1000 cos(36.8) = 304.8MW

Ps =16:283 250 1000 cos(4.93 + 36.8) = 322.8MW

2200

= 1270

3

VS = VR + ZI R = 144.34.93kV

250 220

= 13.6%

220

304.8

=

= 94.4%

322.8

VR =

Example 2

A three phase 60 Hz, completely transposed 345kV, 200 km

line has two 795,000 cmil 26/2 ACSR conductors per bundle

and the following positive sequence line constants:

z = 0.032 + j0.35 /km, y = j4.2*10-6 S/km. Full load at the

receiving end of the line is 700 MW at 0.99 power factor

leading and at 95% of rated voltage. Find the following:

km long. The resistance per phase is 0.15

per km and the inductance per phase is 1.3263

mH per km. Use the short line model to find

the voltage and power at the sending end,

voltage regulation and efficiency when the

line is supplying a three phase load of 381

MVA at 0.8 power factor lagging at 220 kV.

16:28

16:28

Sending end voltage Vs, current Is and power Ps.

Percent voltage regulation.

Thermal limit.

Transmission line efficiency at full load.

V Y YZ

Vs = VR + Z I R + R = 1 +

VR + ZI R

2

2

Is = IR +

VRY VsY

+

, subsitute the value of Vs

2

2

YZ

YZ

I s = Y 1 +

VR + 1 +

I R

4

2

16:28

A = D = 1+

YZ

2

B=Z

YZ

C = Y 1 +

Example 2, Solution

From the table in the previous note, the current carrying capacity is:

d)

Example 2, Solution

Z = zl = 70.2984.78

a)

Y = yl = 8.4 10 90

PS = 730.5 MW

e)

700

= 95.8%

730.5

c)

16:28

Example 3, Solution

Example 3

A

= 820 88.8

C

B

= = 20078

A

Z OC =

Z SC

Then solve for A, B and C and proceed like the previous example.

16:28

VS

= 356.3

A

356.3 327.8

VR =

= 8.7%

327.8

VRNL =

16:28

VS AVr + BI r

=

I S CVr + AI r

16:28

C = 8.277 10 4 90.08

0.95 345

= 189.20

3

700 cos 1 0.99

IR =

= 1.2468.11 kA

3 (0.95 345)(0.99)

VR =

b)

A = D = 0.970.159

B = Z = 70.2984.78

VS = AVR + BI R = 199.6026.14

I S = CVR + DI R = 1.24115.5 kA

V ( x + x) = V ( x) + ( zx) I ( x)

I ( x + x ) = I ( x) + ( yx )V ( x + x)

V ( x + x) V ( x )

= zI ( x)

x

I ( x + x ) I ( x )

= yV ( x + x)

x

Taking the limit as x approaches zero :

dI ( x )

= yV ( x)

dx

dV ( x)

= zI ( x)

dx

d 2V ( x)

dI ( x)

=z

= zyV ( x )

dx 2

dx

Let : 2 = zy

d 2V ( x )

zyV ( x) = 0

dx 2

z = R + jL /m

y = G + jC S/m

d 2V ( x)

2V ( x) = 0

dx 2

16:28

16:28

V ( x) = A1ex + A2 e x

VR + Z C I R x VR Z C I R x

e +

e

2

2

VR

VR

+ IR

IR

Z

Z

I ( x) = C

ex + C

e x

2

2

V ( x) =

dV ( x)

= A1ex A2e x = zI ( x)

dx

I ( x) =

e x + e x

ex e x

V ( x) =

VR + Z C

IR

2

2

1 ex e x

ex + e x

I ( x) =

VR +

IR

2

2

ZC

V ( x) = cosh(x)VR + Z c sinh(x ) I R

I ( x) =

1

sinh(x )VR + cosh(x) I R

Zc

Zc =

(A e

1

z

y

A2e x =

1

sinh(x)

Zc

B = Z c sinh(x )

C=

y

A ex A2 e x

A1e x A2 e x = 1

z

Zc

A = cosh(x) = D

16:28

= + j

A1 =

16:28

A1 - A 2

Zc

VR + Z c I R

V Zc I R

and A2 = R

2

2

Example 4, Solution

ZC =

Example 4

0.3387.14

= 266.1 1.43

4.674 10 6 90

el = e0.0093 e j 0.373 = 1.00940.373

sinh(l ) = 0.364588.63

cosh(l ) = 0.93130.209

For example B is calculated as follows:

765kV, 300 km line has the following positive

sequence line constants:

z = 0.0165 + j0.3306 /km, y = j4. 674*10-6

S/km. Calculate the exact ABCD parameters.

Compare the exact B parameter with that of

the nominal circuit.

16:28

16:28

Lossless lines

Lossless lines

ABCD Parameters

A( x) = cosh(x) = D ( x)

A( x) =

e j x + e j x

= cos(x)

2

When line losses are neglected, simpler expressions for the line

parameters are obtained.

B = Z c sinh( x )

sinh( x) = sinh( j x) =

e jx e jx

= j sin( x )

2

C=

1

j sin( x)

sinh(x) =

Zc

Zc

B = jZ c sin( x )

z = jL /m

y = jC S/m

Wavelength

A wavelength is the distance required to change the phase of the voltage or

current by 2.

2

2

1

=

=

=

LC f LC

v=

16:28

1

LC

Zc =

z

y

jL

L

=

jC

C

surge impedance and is pure real

= zy = ( jL)( jC ) = j LC = j

Velocity of propagation

16:28

imaginary

Example 5, solution

Example 5

inductance is 0.97 mH/km and its capacitance is

0.0115 F/km per phase. Assume a lossless line:

Determine the line phase constant , the surge

impedance Zc, velocity of propagation and the line

wavelength.

The receiving end rated load is 800 MW, 0.8 power

factor lagging at 500 kV, determine the sending end

quantities.

ZC =

L

= 290.43

C

1

= 2.994 105 km/s

LC

v=

a)

v

= 4990 km

f

The receiving end

current is:

16:28

IR =

VR =

5000

= 288.670 kV

3

800 106

cos 1 (0.8) = 1154.7 36.87 A

3 500 103 0.8

16:28

Surge impedance loading (SIL) is the power delivered by a lossless line to a

load resistance equal to the surge impedance Zc.

V

IR = R

Zc

b)

SIL = 3VR I R = 3

VR

Zc

Example 5, solution

The sending end voltage is:

VS = cos( l )VR + jZ C sin( l ) I R = 356.516.1 kV

IS = j

V

V ( x ) = cos( x )VR + jZ c sin( x) R

Zc

V ( x) = VR

16:28

16:28

1

sin( l )VR + cos(l ) I R = 902.3 17.9 A

ZC

Transmission Lines

Vs = AVR + BI R

IR =

Let

A = A A

VS = VS

And

B = B B

loading conditions

-At no-load, IRNL=0 and

VR = VR 0

VNL(x)=cos(l) * VRNL

VS A A VR 0

S R = 3VR I * R

B B

from VS=cos(l) * VRNL at the

sending end to VRNL at the

receiving end.

2

PR =

profile is constant at SIL.

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) cos( B ) A VR ( L L ) cos( B A )

B

PR =

16:28

Transmission Lines

The reactive power at the receiving end of the line is:

16:28

Transmission Lines

So the maximum power that can be delivered will be

Pmax =

QR =

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( B ) A VR ( L L ) sin( B A )

B

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )

X

cos( )

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )

X

This value is called the steady-state stability limit of a lossless line. If an attempt

was made to exceed this limit, then synchronous machines at the sending end

would lose synchronism with those at the receiving end.

QR =

voltage will drop depends on

the loading conditions.

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( )

VR ( L L )

X

cos( l )

16:28

Example 6

315 km from a source of power. For a preliminary line design assume the

following parameters:

Vs = 1 per unit, VR = 0.9 per unit, =5000 km, Zc=320 and =36.87

a) Based on the practical line loadability equation determine a nominal

voltage level for the transmission line.

PR =

PR =

Example 7

It is required to transmit 9000 MW to a load center 500 km from the plant based

on practical line loadability criteria,

Determine the number of three phase, 60 Hz lines to transmit this power with

345 kV and 765 kV lines and surge impedance = 297 and 266 ohm

respectively. Assume the sending voltage is 1.0 per unit, the receiving voltage

= 0.95 per unit and =35.

For planning and other purposes, it is very useful to express the power

transfer formula in terms of SIL.

maximum power that can be transferred by the transmission line.

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( )

X = Z C sin( l )

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) (Vrated )2 sin( )

Vrated Vrated

Z C sin( l )

PR =

sin( l )

Example 6, solution

The line phase constant is:

l =

2l

rad =

360

(315) = 22.68o

5000

1 0.9 SIL

sin( 22.68)

PR =

sin( l )

sin(36.87)

Pmax =

Z C sin( l )

16:28

700 =

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( )

PR =

16:28

sin( l )

= 1167 MW

sin( )

SIL = 499 MW

sin( )

Line Compensation

A transmission line loaded to its surge impedance loading has no net reactive

flow into or out of the line and will have a flat voltage profile along its length.

Example

On long transmission lines, light loads less than SIL result in a rise of a

voltage at the receiving end and heavy load greater than SIL will produce

a large dip in voltage.

Shunt reactors are widely used to reduce high voltages under light load

or open line conditions.

the required power if there are two

intermediate substations that divide each line

into three 167 km line sections, and if one line

section is out of serivce.

control and synchronous motors are used to improve voltage, increase

power transfer and improve system stability.

16:28

16:28

Example 8

Shunt Reactors

a) Calculate the receiving end voltage when the line is terminated in an open

circuit and energized with 500 kV at the sending end.

b) Determine the reactance and the Mvar of a three phase shunt reactor to

be installed at the receiving end to the keep the no-load receiving voltage

at the rated value.

Shunt reactors are applied to compensate for the undesirable voltage effects

associated with line capacitance.

IR =

And

VR

jX Lsh

X Lsh =

For VS = VR

Also

16:28

16:28

I S = I R (

VS = VR (cos l +

ZC

sin l )

X Lsh

sin l

ZC

VS

cos l

VR

X Lsh =

sin l

ZC

1 cos l

1

sin( l ) X Lsh + cos l )

ZC

IS = -IR

Shunt capacitors are used lagging power factor circuits created by heavy loads.

The objective is to supply the needed reactive power to maintain the receiving

end voltage at a satisfactory level.

Example 8, solution

The line is energized with 500 kV at the sending end, so the phase voltage is:

VS =

5000

= 288.7 kV

3

From previous examples, ZC = 290.43, l = 21.64. When the line is open IR = 0 and

VR will be:

VR ( nl ) =

VS

= 310.57 kV

cos l

X Lsh =

Q=

(kVLrated )2

X Lsh

1519.5

2

16:28

16:28

Example 9

The transmission line of example 5 supplies a load of 1000 MVA, 0.8 power

factor lagging at 500 kV:

Series capacitors are used to reduce the series reactance between the load and

the supply.

end to keep the receiving end voltage at 500 kV when the line is

energized with 500 kV at the sending end.

This results in improved transient and steady state stability, more economical

loading and minimum voltage dip on load buses.

P3 =

16:28

10

sin l

sin 21.64

ZC =

290.43 = 1519.5

1 cos l

1 cos 21.64

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )

X ' X Cser

sin

Example 9, solution

From previous examples, ZC = 290.43, l = 21.64 so the equivalent line reactance

for a lossless line is given by: X = Z sin l = 107.1

C

For the above operating condition, the power angle is obtained from:

800 =

500 500

107.1

= 20.04o

sin( )

QR =

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )

X

cos( )

VR ( L L )

X

16:28

11

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