You are on page 1of 11

Transmission lines and cables

Transmission lines are classified according to


their lengths to:




Short: less than 80 km


Medium: from 80 km to 240 km
Long: longer than 240 km

16:28

16:28

Short transmission lines

Transmission lines and cables

Is
Vs

Vs = VR + ZI R

Is = IR
16:28

Transmission Line Model

Is

IR
VR

IR
Two-port

Vs

A = D =1
B=Z
C=0

network

Vs = AVR + BI R
I s = CVR + DI R
16:28

VR

Example 1, Solution

Example 1

Z = ( r + jL)l = 6 + j 20
The receiving voltage per
phase is:

VR =

IR =

SR
= 1000 36.87
3VR

VS ( L L) = 3VS = 250kV
PR = 3 220 1000 cos(36.8) = 304.8MW
Ps =16:283 250 1000 cos(4.93 + 36.8) = 322.8MW

2200
= 1270
3

VS = VR + ZI R = 144.34.93kV
250 220
= 13.6%
220
304.8
=
= 94.4%
322.8

VR =

Example 2
A three phase 60 Hz, completely transposed 345kV, 200 km
line has two 795,000 cmil 26/2 ACSR conductors per bundle
and the following positive sequence line constants:
z = 0.032 + j0.35 /km, y = j4.2*10-6 S/km. Full load at the
receiving end of the line is 700 MW at 0.99 power factor
leading and at 95% of rated voltage. Find the following:

A 220 kV, three phase transmission line is 40


km long. The resistance per phase is 0.15
per km and the inductance per phase is 1.3263
mH per km. Use the short line model to find
the voltage and power at the sending end,
voltage regulation and efficiency when the
line is supplying a three phase load of 381
MVA at 0.8 power factor lagging at 220 kV.

16:28

Medium transmission lines







16:28

ABCD parameters of the nominal circuit


Sending end voltage Vs, current Is and power Ps.
Percent voltage regulation.
Thermal limit.
Transmission line efficiency at full load.

V Y YZ

Vs = VR + Z I R + R = 1 +
VR + ZI R
2
2

Is = IR +

VRY VsY
+
, subsitute the value of Vs
2
2

YZ
YZ
I s = Y 1 +
VR + 1 +
I R
4
2

16:28

A = D = 1+

YZ
2

B=Z
YZ
C = Y 1 +

Example 2, Solution
From the table in the previous note, the current carrying capacity is:

d)

Example 2, Solution
Z = zl = 70.2984.78

a)

Y = yl = 8.4 10 90

2*0.9 = 1.8 kA which is less than the actual current

PS = 730.5 MW

e)

700
= 95.8%
730.5

c)

16:28

Example 3, Solution

Example 3

A
= 820 88.8
C
B
= = 20078
A

Z OC =
Z SC

Then solve for A, B and C and proceed like the previous example.

16:28

VS
= 356.3
A
356.3 327.8
VR =
= 8.7%
327.8

VRNL =

16:28

VS AVr + BI r
=
I S CVr + AI r

16:28

C = 8.277 10 4 90.08

0.95 345
= 189.20
3
700 cos 1 0.99
IR =
= 1.2468.11 kA
3 (0.95 345)(0.99)

VR =
b)

A = D = 0.970.159
B = Z = 70.2984.78

VS = AVR + BI R = 199.6026.14
I S = CVR + DI R = 1.24115.5 kA

Long transmission lines, cont.


V ( x + x) = V ( x) + ( zx) I ( x)

I ( x + x ) = I ( x) + ( yx )V ( x + x)

V ( x + x) V ( x )
= zI ( x)
x

I ( x + x ) I ( x )
= yV ( x + x)
x
Taking the limit as x approaches zero :
dI ( x )
= yV ( x)
dx

Taking the limit as x approaches zero :


dV ( x)
= zI ( x)
dx

d 2V ( x)
dI ( x)
=z
= zyV ( x )
dx 2
dx

Let : 2 = zy

Long transmission lines

d 2V ( x )
zyV ( x) = 0
dx 2

z = R + jL /m
y = G + jC S/m

d 2V ( x)
2V ( x) = 0
dx 2

16:28

16:28

Long transmission lines, cont.

Long transmission lines, cont.


V ( x) = A1ex + A2 e x

VR + Z C I R x VR Z C I R x
e +
e
2
2
VR
VR
+ IR
IR
Z
Z
I ( x) = C
ex + C
e x
2
2

V ( x) =

dV ( x)
= A1ex A2e x = zI ( x)
dx
I ( x) =

e x + e x
ex e x
V ( x) =
VR + Z C
IR
2
2
1 ex e x
ex + e x
I ( x) =
VR +
IR
2
2
ZC

V ( x) = cosh(x)VR + Z c sinh(x ) I R
I ( x) =

1
sinh(x )VR + cosh(x) I R
Zc

Zc =

(A e
1

z
y

A2e x =

1
sinh(x)
Zc

is called the characteristic impedance.

B = Z c sinh(x )
C=

y
A ex A2 e x
A1e x A2 e x = 1
z
Zc

Since VR = V(0) = A1 +A 2 and I R = I(0) =

A = cosh(x) = D

16:28

= zy is called the propagatio n constant


= + j

A1 =
16:28

A1 - A 2
Zc

VR + Z c I R
V Zc I R
and A2 = R
2
2

Example 4, Solution
ZC =

Example 4


0.3387.14
= 266.1 1.43
4.674 10 6 90

l = (0.3387.14) (4.67 10 4 90) 300 = 0.37388.57


el = e0.0093 e j 0.373 = 1.00940.373

el = e 0.0093 e j 0.373 = 0.9907 0.373


sinh(l ) = 0.364588.63

cosh(l ) = 0.93130.209

Then from this find the A, B, C and D parameters


For example B is calculated as follows:

A three phase 60 Hz, completely transposed


765kV, 300 km line has the following positive
sequence line constants:
z = 0.0165 + j0.3306 /km, y = j4. 674*10-6
S/km. Calculate the exact ABCD parameters.
Compare the exact B parameter with that of
the nominal circuit.

B = 266.1 1.43 0.364588.63 = 97.087.2

Busing model = Z = 99.387.14

16:28

16:28

Lossless lines

Lossless lines

ABCD Parameters
A( x) = cosh(x) = D ( x)
A( x) =

e j x + e j x
= cos(x)
2

When line losses are neglected, simpler expressions for the line
parameters are obtained.

B = Z c sinh( x )
sinh( x) = sinh( j x) =

e jx e jx
= j sin( x )
2

C=

1
j sin( x)
sinh(x) =
Zc
Zc

For lossless line, R=G=0 and hence:

B = jZ c sin( x )

z = jL /m
y = jC S/m

Wavelength
A wavelength is the distance required to change the phase of the voltage or
current by 2.
2
2
1
=
=
=
LC f LC
v=
16:28

1
LC

Zc =

z
y

jL
L
=
jC
C

The characteristics impedance is called the


surge impedance and is pure real

= zy = ( jL)( jC ) = j LC = j
Velocity of propagation
16:28

The propagation constant is pure


imaginary

Example 5, solution

Example 5

a) For a lossless line:

A three phase 60 Hz, 500kV, 300 km. The line


inductance is 0.97 mH/km and its capacitance is
0.0115 F/km per phase. Assume a lossless line:
Determine the line phase constant , the surge
impedance Zc, velocity of propagation and the line
wavelength.
The receiving end rated load is 800 MW, 0.8 power
factor lagging at 500 kV, determine the sending end
quantities.

= LC = 2 60 0.97 0.0115 109 = 0.001259 rad/km


ZC =

L
= 290.43
C

1
= 2.994 105 km/s
LC

v=

a)

v
= 4990 km
f

b) The receiving end voltage is:


The receiving end
current is:
16:28

IR =

VR =

5000
= 288.670 kV
3

800 106
cos 1 (0.8) = 1154.7 36.87 A
3 500 103 0.8
16:28

Surge Impedance Loading


Surge impedance loading (SIL) is the power delivered by a lossless line to a
load resistance equal to the surge impedance Zc.

V
IR = R
Zc

b)

SIL = 3VR I R = 3

VR
Zc

Example 5, solution
The sending end voltage is:
VS = cos( l )VR + jZ C sin( l ) I R = 356.516.1 kV

IS = j

V ( x ) = cos( x)VR + jZ c sin( x ) I R

V
V ( x ) = cos( x )VR + jZ c sin( x) R
Zc

V ( x ) = (cos( x) + j sin( x ) )VR


V ( x) = VR
16:28

16:28

1
sin( l )VR + cos(l ) I R = 902.3 17.9 A
ZC

Complex Power Flow Through


Transmission Lines
Vs = AVR + BI R
IR =

Let

A = A A

VS = VS

And

B = B B

Voltage Profile under different


loading conditions
-At no-load, IRNL=0 and

VR = VR 0

VNL(x)=cos(l) * VRNL

VS A A VR 0

S R = 3VR I * R

B B

The no-load voltage increases


from VS=cos(l) * VRNL at the
sending end to VRNL at the
receiving end.

The real power at the receiving end of the line is:


2

PR =

-From previous slide, voltage


profile is constant at SIL.

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) cos( B ) A VR ( L L ) cos( B A )
B

-For short circuit, VR=0

For a lossless line, B=jX, A=0, B=90

PR =

16:28

Complex Power Flow Through


Transmission Lines
The reactive power at the receiving end of the line is:

16:28

Complex Power Flow Through


Transmission Lines
So the maximum power that can be delivered will be

Pmax =

QR =

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( B ) A VR ( L L ) sin( B A )
B

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )
X

cos( )

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )
X

This value is called the steady-state stability limit of a lossless line. If an attempt
was made to exceed this limit, then synchronous machines at the sending end
would lose synchronism with those at the receiving end.

For a lossless line, B=jX, A=0, B=90

QR =

-For full load, the receiving


voltage will drop depends on
the loading conditions.

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( )

VR ( L L )
X

cos( l )

16:28

Example 6

Power Transmission Capabilities

A three phase power of 700 MW is to be transmitted to a substation located


315 km from a source of power. For a preliminary line design assume the
following parameters:
Vs = 1 per unit, VR = 0.9 per unit, =5000 km, Zc=320 and =36.87
a) Based on the practical line loadability equation determine a nominal
voltage level for the transmission line.

PR =

For a lossless line:

PR =

Example 7
It is required to transmit 9000 MW to a load center 500 km from the plant based
on practical line loadability criteria,
Determine the number of three phase, 60 Hz lines to transmit this power with
345 kV and 765 kV lines and surge impedance = 297 and 266 ohm
respectively. Assume the sending voltage is 1.0 per unit, the receiving voltage
= 0.95 per unit and =35.

For planning and other purposes, it is very useful to express the power
transfer formula in terms of SIL.

b) For the transmission voltage obtained in (a) calculate the theoretical


maximum power that can be transferred by the transmission line.

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( )

X = Z C sin( l )

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) (Vrated )2 sin( )
Vrated Vrated
Z C sin( l )

PR =

VSpu VRpu SIL


sin( l )

Example 6, solution
The line phase constant is:

l =

2l

rad =

360
(315) = 22.68o
5000

The practical line loadability:

1 0.9 SIL
sin( 22.68)

PR =

VSpu VRpu SIL


sin( l )

sin(36.87)

kVL = ( Z C )( SIL) = (320)(499.83) = 400 kV

Pmax =

Z C sin( l )

16:28

700 =

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L ) sin( )

PR =

16:28

VSpu VRpu SIL


sin( l )

= 1167 MW

sin( )
SIL = 499 MW

sin( )

Line Compensation
A transmission line loaded to its surge impedance loading has no net reactive
flow into or out of the line and will have a flat voltage profile along its length.

Example


On long transmission lines, light loads less than SIL result in a rise of a
voltage at the receiving end and heavy load greater than SIL will produce
a large dip in voltage.
Shunt reactors are widely used to reduce high voltages under light load
or open line conditions.

Can five instead of six 765 kV lines transmit


the required power if there are two
intermediate substations that divide each line
into three 167 km line sections, and if one line
section is out of serivce.

If the transmission line is heavily loaded, shunt capacitors, static var


control and synchronous motors are used to improve voltage, increase
power transfer and improve system stability.
16:28

16:28

Example 8

Shunt Reactors

For the transmission line of example 5:


a) Calculate the receiving end voltage when the line is terminated in an open
circuit and energized with 500 kV at the sending end.
b) Determine the reactance and the Mvar of a three phase shunt reactor to
be installed at the receiving end to the keep the no-load receiving voltage
at the rated value.

Shunt reactors are applied to compensate for the undesirable voltage effects
associated with line capacitance.

IR =
And

VR
jX Lsh

X Lsh =

For VS = VR

Also
16:28

16:28

I S = I R (

VS = VR (cos l +

ZC
sin l )
X Lsh

sin l
ZC
VS
cos l
VR
X Lsh =

sin l
ZC
1 cos l

1
sin( l ) X Lsh + cos l )
ZC

IS = -IR

Shunt Capacitor Compensation


Shunt capacitors are used lagging power factor circuits created by heavy loads.
The objective is to supply the needed reactive power to maintain the receiving
end voltage at a satisfactory level.

Example 8, solution
The line is energized with 500 kV at the sending end, so the phase voltage is:
VS =

5000
= 288.7 kV
3

From previous examples, ZC = 290.43, l = 21.64. When the line is open IR = 0 and
VR will be:
VR ( nl ) =

VS
= 310.57 kV
cos l

For VR = VS, then:

X Lsh =

The reactor rating is:

Q=

(kVLrated )2
X Lsh

(500) = 164.5 Mvar


1519.5
2

16:28

16:28

Example 9

Series Capacitor Compensation

The transmission line of example 5 supplies a load of 1000 MVA, 0.8 power
factor lagging at 500 kV:

Series capacitors are used to reduce the series reactance between the load and
the supply.

a) Determine the Mvar of the shunt capacitors to be installed at the receiving


end to keep the receiving end voltage at 500 kV when the line is
energized with 500 kV at the sending end.

This results in improved transient and steady state stability, more economical
loading and minimum voltage dip on load buses.

P3 =

16:28

10

sin l
sin 21.64
ZC =
290.43 = 1519.5
1 cos l
1 cos 21.64

16:28

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )
X ' X Cser

sin

Example 9, solution
From previous examples, ZC = 290.43, l = 21.64 so the equivalent line reactance
for a lossless line is given by: X = Z sin l = 107.1
C

S = 1000 cos 1 (0.8) = 800 + j 600 MVA

The receiving end power is:

For the above operating condition, the power angle is obtained from:

800 =

500 500
107.1

= 20.04o

sin( )

So the net reactive power at the receiving end is:


QR =

VS ( L L ) VR ( L L )
X

cos( )

VR ( L L )
X

cos( l ) = 23.15 Mvar

So the required Mvar will be: SC = j23.15 j600 = -j576.85 Mvar


16:28

11