You are on page 1of 36

TITLE

Improving Year 2 Pupils Pronunciation Of sh and chThrough The sh And The ch


Goes. Song

1.0 INTRODUCTION
As Malaysia moves further towards modernisation, the government began to place
bigger expectations and aspirations towards education in Malaysia. As such, the mastery of
the English Language is greatly emphasized as stated in the National Educational Blueprint
in order to create future bilingual citizens with the capability of thinking critically and
creatively. The main purpose of teaching English is to enable learners to use English in
everyday and work situation as well as to persue high education.
The English Language Curriculum is developed in line with the way is English use in
society in everyday life when interacting with people, getting information and even when
enjoying the book or television programme. So, learners then will be able to use the
language for various of purposes. It is also to equip learners with the basic skills and
knowledge of the English language and to enable them to communicate, orally and in
writing, in and out of school.
According to the Malaysian English Language Curriculum for Primary School (2013),
the main objective of teaching reading is to enable pupils to read and comprehend a range
of English text for information and enjoyment. Reading for enjoyment and pleasure is
seeking information and knowledge should be inculcated in pupils. Difficulties in reading will
effect pupils abilities to attempt a successful future as they more likely to pay attention
during teaching and learning process which result in poor academic process (Callard,2008).
Reading could enhance learners teaching and learning activity in the classroom,
benefiting pupils in the end. So, pupils must know how to read and teacher must be
committed to doing whatever they can to help pupils achieve reading mastery.

1.1 REFLECTION OF PAST TEACHING EXPERIENCE


Based on my teaching experience more than 10 years in primary school, I found out that
most of the pupils had difficulties in pronouncing words either phase one or phase two
pupils. For this year, I was assigned to teach English subject to year 2 pupils and the class is
the last. From my observation, most of them unable to pronounce the words accurately, long
pauses and looked afraid when they were asked by the teacher to read sentences, text and
even simple words. They were shy to read aloud and normally they were unwilling to
participate in reading activity. They used to read with incorrect pronunciation and intonation.
They tend to pronounce the words exactly like reading in Malay. I always received complaint
from my pupils that English was hard and they had confused the pronunciation words in
Malay.Whitehurst (2007) states that children who are having reading difficulties in the early
stages are going to continue to have real difficulties as they progress through school. I
exactly agree with the statement because I can see most of my previous pupils academic
performance in English were not really good and many of them failed in the test.
As a teacher, I also have my own problem like lack of time to prepare the teaching
aids or materials that suits to my pupils level. Nowadays, teacher tend to do a lot of works
that not related with teaching and learning process such as clerical works. Sometimes I do
pity my pupils because I used the old style teaching chalk and talk. Other than that, my
pupils problems were most of them were from low socio-economic background which is their
main spoken language is Malay. They did not have the support from their family because
they do not have the English basic. From my observation in the teaching and learning
process, the pupils have low self-confidence and self-esteem especially when I asked them
to read or pronounce words. They just stood and did not want to try to pronounce the words.
My school have limited used of ICT. If the teacher needed to use the ICT like LCD or
smart TV, we have booked the computer laboratory and have to ensure the lab was

vacantand sometimes we have to fight with other teachers. The library also have limited
stock of English book. So, it will be a problem not just for me but the other English teacher
also complaint about that. Pupils will choose the Malay book when we brought them to the
library. This is one of the problems why the pupils did not want to read English book. Other
problem that me as a teacher have to face is the classrooms need more materials while
funding is getting low and parents are not willing to help. Some of teaching materials are not
suitable with the pupils level of proficiency either they are too easy or quite difficult for the
pupils. The teaching materials provided also not enough to suit the new curriculum. Most of
the tome, I need to be creative to design my own materials and some of them were tome
consuming to be done.

1.2 THEORY /DEFINITION OF TERMS


1.2.1.1 THEORY
1. Behaviorism
Behaviorism (also called the behaviorist approach) was the primary paradigm in
psychology between 1920s to 1950s and is based on a number of underlying assumptions
regarding methodology and behavioral analysis. This theory needs to be supported by
empirical data obtained through careful and controlled observation and measurement of
behavior. Watson (1913) stated that psychology as a behaviorist views it is a purely
objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is prediction and
control (p.158).Some reading theories in tandem with this belief include the Phonemic
theory. The theory postulates that the English language is phonemically regular. It is also
noted that once a child has learned the phonemic elements, he or she can master the
pronunciation of the word by putting the letters together to form sounds in blended
sequence. Subsequently meaning is attached to the whole word being read. In relation on
the phonemic theory the keywords system to reading is acknowledge. Keywords are words
that a reader can recognise and understand on sight as a result of prior exposure via
vocabulary association or drilling. Overtime learners will possess a large store of keywords
3

then serve as the basis for reading. By using song for my intervention, I will help to improve
my pupils pronunciation.
2. Cognitivism
The next important theory related to the teaching of reading and language skills is cognitive
psychology. Indeed theories and reviews on language learning and teaching are closely
associated with the development of cognition (Brown,1973; Carroll &Freedle, 1972; Hayes,
1970). Cognitive psychologists assume that learners are active participants in understanding
and producing the language and they proposed that language is a holistic manifestation of
general development and one aspect of cognitive and affective ability to deal with the
learning environment as well as interaction. Cognitive theories suggest that mastery of
language skills is an active mental process. The mental process involve learners ability to
think, analyse, organise information and knowledge (Ausubel, 1978; Piaget, 1963;
Schunk,1996). During my implementation using my intervention, my pupils need to think on
how to pronounce the words with sh and ch sound and they also have to know how to read
the words by recalling the song that I used.

3. Multiple Intelligence Theory


In 1983, Howard Gardner, a psychology professor of Havard University, presented his
Multiple Intelligence theory based on many years of research. Gardners has claimed that
there is not just one intelligence, but different forms of it. This theory recognized eight
forms of intelligence and has influenced the way that teaching and learning are
approached. Teachers are now more aware of the need to offer a variety of activities in
the classroom to full fill pupils need. Development of musical intelligence can be greatly
aided by the use of song throughout the curriculum. Listening to songs takes advantage

of different learning styles pupils have and by carrying out the activities with music, pupils
can practice the language the way they prefer.
1.2.1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Improving
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2011) defines the meaning of improving
is to become better than before.

2. Pronunciation
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2011) defines the meaning of
pronunciation is the way in which a language or a particular words or sound is pronounced.
Hornby (1995:928) says that pronunciation is the way in which a language is spoken; the
way in which a word is pronounced; the way a person speaks the words of a language.
3. Song
According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2011) defines the meaning of song is a
piece of music with words
4. Year 2IbnuSina
Year 1IbnuSina is one of the three classes at SK Sultan Yahya Petra 1, Kuala Krai. In this
class, there are 25 pupils who are mixed ability pupils. This class has the pupils of average
proficiency compared than the other two classes. However, after looked through their past
LINUS test and suggestion from the other teacher, I only picked four participants who do not
have good enough in pronuncing of sh and ch sounds

1.2.2

PAST RESEARCHERS

There are some previous studies conducted research that song can help learners
to learn about pronunciation.

Fawn Whittakers (Stansell, 2005 as cited Iswanti&Sefrizal, 2010) outlined


the uses of music in class through an effective literature review. She
asserts that songs aid in all four major language-learning areas in
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Presenting a new song to her
class, First she plays the song as students silently look at the words. Then
she has students repeat the words without singing them. After that, she
points out new vocabulary, idioms, grammar items, and give needed
pronunciation cues. Next, she plays the song again, letting the students
join in when they feel confident about singing along.

Thalib( 2001)state that pronunciation can be integrated with others


activities to make learners fun. Song has already proved as a technique
that can make students fun to learn (Agaito, 1998). Song as a fun activity
can answer the integrated fun activities which can make students learn
easily. Using a song treatment in the language teaching has been proven
very effective in accelerating students performance in their pronunciation
and fluency (Iswanti&Sefrizal, 2010) in their case of study EL-4.

Singing songs not only help many students remember important


information but it also make the classroom learning more lively, as stated
by Campbell, Campbell & Dickinson (1996). Most of the past researchers
revealed that using songs give a great influence in educational settings.
Aksnes (1996), find out that the use of different stimuli to improve
language acquisition is a paramount strategy.Teaching language through

music enhances not only linguistic competence and performance, but also
perception skills.

The following study was carried out by the Florida Centre for Reading Research. 156
preschool students were chosen from a variety of diverse homes to participate in this
study. The study was carried out to determine areas that are variables in determining
vocabulary and literary development in pre-schoolers. Students were assessed on
phonemic developments at the beginning and end of the study. Video observations
were recorded of students, and teacher questionnaires were compiled. The results
revealed many factors that increase phonemic awareness in pre-schoolers. One
large factor in mastering letter and word skill growth was small group instruction.
Students who were taught alphabet and word skills in a small group grew ten times
the amount of those students who were taught the same concepts in whole class
settings. These sessions were not tailored to the students ability levels, but still
raised achievement levels because of the extra explicit instruction from the teacher in
a small group setting. (McDonald Connor et al, 2006)

2.0 FOCUS OF INVESTIGATION


2.1 Research issue
My focus investigation is related to my pupils pronunciation of /ch and /sh/. During my
teaching and learning process in year 1 class, I found that most of my pupils have problem
to pronounce the words correctly. When they were given words or simple sentences, they
were not able to pronounce the words or read the sentences. The Malaysian Education
Curriculum state the importance of these year 2 pupils to master basic phonic before
entering year 3. Most of them will read the words or sentences like reading in Malay. I also
noticed that they spell the words in syllable, also like spelling in Malay. It is problem for me
because if the pupils cannot read the sentences, even the simple words they will failed in

their LINUS test. For me, if the pupils mastered the basic phonics, it will increase the pupils
confident level and the percentage of the school also will be increase either in the public
examination or internal examination.
This issue happened in my class among the pupils. Itwas from my observation during
teaching and learning process. I noticed this problem happened in the reading session and
from the Linus 2.0 test result. It will reflect my teaching performance as the pupils cannot
read in English well, it will make my lesson not effective and the objectives could not be
achieved, so my focus for this research is improving my pupils pronunciation. I decided to
investigate this matter because it is interesting to help the pupils who are struggling with oral
reading especially phase one pupils. Most of the pupils were refused to participate in reading
session. I have decided to focus on this issue because it is relevant and the easy way to
carry out the intervention in classroom.
I consider children song is the suitable way to make my pupils progress in pronunciation.
Most of the children songs are authentic and easily accessible. The rhymes of songs provide
pupils as listeners with repetition of similar sounds. So, pupils will often choose to listen to
songs over and over again, indirectly exposing them to these sounds.
Hence, to make the lessons easier, fun and less drilling-like, it is encouraged that
the teaching of phonics is done through song. It is mentioned in previous research that, the
students familiarity with the sounds of the letters would help them in decoding the words as
they listen, speak and read. Although drilling does help the students to memorize the
sounds, it quickly grow old and make the lesson appeared dull and redundant. On the other
hand, teaching phonics through songs incorporate fun and interactive factors into the
lessons so the students will be more eager and motivated to learn. Drilling through songs are
considered more effective because the music, rhythm and movement performed in the
songs helped the students to better learn and memorize their lesson. Incidentally, young
students loved singing and dancing, thus the chances of them growing bored of the same
routine is lesser compared to using drilling methods.
8

It is relevance for me to overcome this issue. As an English teacher, I must ensure


that my pupils can pronounce the words or read sentences correctly. It can help them to
increase the performance in English. I had thought this pupils since year one, so it easy for
me to carry out my intervention.
Besides, I think it is manageable for me to carry out this issue because pupils can do
the activities and listen the song in my classroom at least thrice a week. Pupils will have the
opportunity to practise pronouncing the words or reading the sentences in one lesson. I can
also prepare the materials and suitable method during reading lesson to keep pupils engage
in the teaching and learning process. Moreover, this issue is compatible with KSSR syllabus
to have the pupils reading adequately. Pupils must be taught this skills that allow them to
decode the words and construct the meaning, so that the objective of the reading can be
achieve. But, I have to face some problem in term of time constraints and work load. The
lack of facilities also be one of my problem to overcome this issue.
I can use song as a part of my teaching technique. I will take half to one hour for my
implementation. My colleague gave me the softcopy of the children songs and I choose the
tune of The Wheel On The Bus Goes as my intervention with the new lyrics that suit with
my pupils level. My administrators allowed me to use the computer lab during the
implementation. My colleague also will help in data collection as observer and interviewee.

2.2 Preliminary Investigation And Analysis Of Research Issue


This research was done to help the pupils to improve their pronunciation on sh and ch
sounds. In order to prove the pupils problem, I used a few instrument to collect the data
such as observation during teaching and learning process, the past test and interview with
my colleague.
2.2.1 Observation

I found out most of my pupils are having a problem in pronouncing words accurately. They
refused to participate in reading activity even in pronouncing the simple words and they kept
complaining that reading sentences in English is difficult. During the teaching and learning
process, my pupils tend to read the word like pronouncing Malay words. Their pronunciation
werewrong even the simple words that only have one syllable.
For example a word cheap, they pronounce it as kep Most of they were not able to
understand the sentences or the text that they read. Callard (2008:38)documented, basic
reading involved the identification of letters and words in a text.My pupils always avoid to
read especially in reading activity. They were shy as they pronounce the word with incorrect
pronunciation.
2.2.2 Past test result
From the past Linus test, most of the pupils in Year 2IbnuSina only can pronounce or read
one word correctly out of five words.I also found that my pupils have the problem in
pronunciation based on last year assessment. When I looked back their personal file, most
of them did not get the full marks for reading assessment or they did not master with the
letter sounds. I had identified my pupils weaknesses to pronounce the sh and ch sounds
during teaching and learning session on topic Chad The Milkman and Lets Go Shopping.
The pupils could not pronounce the words with sh and ch sounds correctly as they do not
have adequate knowledge in pronouncing words.
2.2.3 Interview
My friend, who was teachingBahasaMelayu in the same class, told me the same
problem. The pupils did not want to try to read the even the simple sentences. My colleague
told me that most of the pupils have lack of confidence and they were more comfortable to
use their mother tongue. This problem may cause the pupils in pronouncing English words.
So, from my observation, my interview with my colleague and the past test result, I know that
most of my pupils have pronunciation problem, either for phonemes, digraphs or diphthong.
10

3.0 RESEARCH QUESTION


3.1 Research objectives
To improve Year 2Pupils pronunciation of sh and ch through The sh And The ch
Goes. Song

3.2 Research questions


How does The sh And The ch Goes. Song improveyear 2pupils pronunciationof sh
and ch?

4.0 RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS


This research focuses on year 2 pupils.Two males and two females. They are chosen
because of their low performance in the past Linus test and form my observation during my
teaching and learning session. The four pupils chosen come from low socio background and
their main spoken language is Malay. These pupils also have limited exposure to the English
language at home. They are placed in the last class hence their academic performance is
extremely low. The results of the investigations will help enlightened the issue on whether
songs will helped them learnt phonics better.
Research Participants 1
Syahmi (not real name) comes from family with low socio economic status. His father is a
police officer while his mother is a housewife. He has three siblings and he is the eldest. He
lives with his family at the police quaters. At home, his family used Malay to communicate
with each other.
Academically, his performance in English language is quite low. He always get low marks in
English test and also do not complete his exercise.He is very talkative boy and often

11

disturbed his friends. His homework always not completed and sometimes he does not bring
any English books. He tells me that he did not like English subject because he cannot
understand what I am teaching or saying.

Research Participants 2
Fakrul (not real name) is a quiet boy. His father is a security guard while his mother sells
nasilemak every morning nearby his home. He lives with his parents and has 6 siblings.He
is the third in his family. Like Syahmi, Fakrul uses Malay to communicate with his family.
Academically, Fakrul is quite low in every subject in his classroom. From the two past test
result, Fakrul got the last number in his classroom. When the class has a reading session, it
was very hard to hear his voice even in BahasaMelayu class.

Research Participants 3
Shira (not real name) is a good pupil because she always volunteer to pronounce the words
or to read sentences although she pronounces incorrectlybut she is always absent.
Sometimes, she attends the class once for a week. His father is a lorry driver and workes in
Kuantan. She lives with his mother and two sisters. She is the youngest.
Academically, from the two past tests, Shira gets number 19 and 20. My colleague told me
that Shiral can gets the better result if she always comes to school. She did show interest in
English because of her active participate during my lesson.

Research Participants 4

12

Lisa (not real name) is a shy girl in the class but has a good responsibility. As the class
assistant monitor, she will find the teacher if the teacher was late or absent. She will ask the
administrators for the relief teacher. Her father passed away two years ago and she lives
with her mother. She likes Science and always get a good results in Science test.
Socially, I can see she has less interaction with her classmates and always keep quiet
especially in English lesson. When I asked her to read, she spelled the word like Malay
words and also has a long pauses. But she is diligent pupils compared the other participants.

5.0 INTERVENTION
There are many reasons why children songs are good for English pronunciation. It has many
contributions in pronunciation teaching in example children songs are funny because they
promote mimic, gestures which are associated to the meaning. They also help children
remember things more easily and draw children more deeply into lesson. Children like
something different, with their interest in children song, will make the process of teaching
English pronunciation easier.
For my intervention, I had chosen a children song entitle The Wheels On The Bus Goes
and I changed the title into The sh And The ch Goes. with new lyrics that suits with
my pupils level and my research title. It consists seven lines and three stanzas for each
sound. This song will start with the sh sound and followed by the ch sound. It took one
minute and fifty-four seconds for the whole song. The word of sh was colored by blue and
the word of ch was colored by red. ( refer to the lyric )

The intervention The sh And The ch Goes. Song was done two times a week.
Usually the intervention session was done during English class such as on Monday and
Thursday either at the Self Access Learning room, at a computer room and remedial room.
For me, this adapted song will help my pupils to improve their pronunciation.

13

5.1 Budget
. Then I asked them to do some actions while pronouncing these words. As for the
or sounds I asked them to bend themselves backward while for the ur sounds I
asked them to This budget had been prepared according to the intervention that I
had carried out,All the things below were included in the budget that were used to
produce the word cards for Throw Me In game.

No

Items

1
2

A4 Coloured Papers
A4 laminating films

3
4
5

Rubber balls
Wooden pole
Paper boxes

Price Per
Unit (RM)
10.00
1.50
2.00
5.00
1.00

Quantity

Total cost

1
10

(RM)
10.00
15.00

10
1
1
Total

20.00
5.00
1.00
56.00

5.2 Game Description


The implementation of the intervention was carried out in two cycles which is I took 2 weeks
to complete the both cycles. The first step of the process was explanation to my pupils why
they were chosen for this research and told them the activities only focused on pronouncing
the words with or and ur sounds. Then, I gave them pre- test that consisted 10 words. The
words are born, for, horn, torch,short,burn,fur,hurt,turn and surf. All these words are being
14

repeated for several times . The pupils had to pronounce the words while the teacher ticked
the correct pronunciation in the other form. This test had been done individually bend
forward. This took them several times to make them able to distinguish the sounds. I also did
the actions while pronouncing the words accurately, so my pupils followed after me and I
stressed on the words for a few times.
Then, I gave them the post-test followed by the worksheet. The worksheet consisted ten
words. I gave them five minutes to practice pronounced the words. I called them individually
and ticked for the correct pronunciation on the other form. In the second cycle, I still used the
same pre-test, post-test and worksheet but I reorder the words and decreased the numbers of
words for the worksheet from ten words became 8 words.
I asked my colleague as an observer for the both cycles. I gave her checklist for observing my
pupils behavior toward the implementation process, I also used the interview questions to
know my pupils responses in this process.
5.3 Game Procedure
The word cards were printed in striking coloured papers to capture the pupils
attention towards the game. All the word cards have been laminated so they will
last longer and easy to hold.
To start the game,, each pupil took 10 rubber balls and threw the them alternately.
They threw the rubber balls according to the word sounds they heard. They stood
at the line of the wooden pole about 2 metres from the 2 boxes. When the teacher
pronounced the words each of them threw the rubber balls into the appropriate
boxes. The player needed to pronounce the word accurately to the sound they
heard. The player that managed to throw the most balls into the appropriate boxes
was the winner of the game.
Before playing this game, teacher should show the word cards and teach the
participants to pronounce the words for several times. The participants must
15

pronounce accurately the words with correct enunciation. To make the game more
enjoyable and fun , the teacher could give reward to the winner such as praise or
small gifts like candies and cookies. Therefore, the players would focus on the
game by listening to another player pronunciation and correct their friends
mistakes. Playing game with peer would make the participants learning more
meaningful and fruitful. In this game, the teachers role is to be a facilitator.
Teacher just needed to explain and observe the participants play the game.

Day / Date
Cycle 1

Activity
Teacher told pupils the activities focus on the the

sounds /or/ and /ur/.


Pupils did the pre-test individually, teacher ticked the

correct pronunciation.
Teacher do some actions with the pupils by bending

forward and backward to pronounce the words


Pupils repeated after the teacher pronouncing the words

accurately while doing the actions.


Pupils did the post test individually, teacher ticked the

correct pronunciation.
Teacher pronounce the words again for several times
Teacher distributed worksheet and gave pupils 5 minutes

to practice pronounced the words.


Teacher called the participants individually to pronounce
the words and ticked the correct pronunciation in the

other form
Interview session
Other teacher assessed the pupils participation through
the checklist form

Cycle 2

Teacher called the 2 participants who did not achieve the


16

objectives
Pupils did the pre-test individually, teacher ticked the

correct pronunciation.
Teacher pronounced the words for several times while
doing some actions of bending forward and backward.
Pupils did the post test individually, teacher ticked the

correct pronunciation. .
Teacher distributed worksheet and gave pupils 5 minutes

to practice pronounced the words.


Teacher called the participants individually to pronounce

the words and ticked the correct pronunciation in the


-

other form
Interview session
Other teacher assessed the pupils participation through

the checklist form


Table 1: implementation procedure

DATA COLLECTION

This research was done to help year 2 pupils to improve their pronunciation on or and ur
sounds. I used a few instruments to collect the required data. The data collected in form of
document analysis, interview and observation. The data gained from the activity served as
proofs to show the participants progress. It also determined the effectiveness of the
intervention used.

1. Interview
Macintyre (2000) defines an interview as getting information from the respondents through
face to face interaction and for this research an in depth interview was conducted with the
pupils to provide information on the activities. I chose to use the structured interview to
17

collect data from my research participants because it is more organized and make the data
collection become easier. I prepared 4 questions that related to the activities they had done
before and used the merit sticker. I interviewed the participants individually right after the
intervention by asking them a list of questionaires (bilingual); Awak suka tak bermain
sambil belajar Bahasa Inggeris?, Permainan bahasa yang awak mainkan tadi best ke tidak?
Pupils will circle the paste the merit sticker either happy or not after I asked them the
questions. The interview session had been done in the both cycle and the feedback received
was analyzed to get clearer opinions from the participants on what they thought of my
intervention.

2. Document analysis
For this research, I also analyzed my research participants performance through the pre-test,
post-test and the worksheet. These items are called the document analysis and it is one of the
quantitative method. I used pre-test and post-test to compare the pupils understanding of the
letter sounds and the participants had made an improvement within the period in between. In
this test, I called the participants individually and asked them to pronounce the words given
while I ticked the correct pronunciation in the other form. The objectives for the pre-test and
post-test was the participants are able to pronounce 6 out of 6 words correctly. I distributed
the pre-test before the intervention to know my participants ability. In first cycle, there were
no participants got the full marks but in the cycle 2, 3 out of 4 participants got full marks.
The post-test was administered after I implementing the intervention used. It was to compare
the participants achievement before and after the intervention used. I used the pre-test and

18

post-test in the both cycles. From the data collected, I did the comparison on how the
participants improving themselves after each cycle.
The worksheet helped me to know my participants achievement of the or and ur
pronunciation after they listened to the words for a few times. The worksheet was consisted
10 words . The objective the worksheet was participants are able to pronounce 8 out of 10
words correctly. I did this activity individually, so the participant sat separately with the
others and they cannot imitate what his/her friend pronounced. I ticked the correct
pronunciation in the other form. In cycle 2, I reduced the numbers of words into 8 because
during the interview session in cycle 1, 2 of the participants said the words were too much.
3. Observation
According to Bell (1999), observing enables documentation and reflection classroom. I used
the checklist to investigate pupils attitudes towards reading. I choose to use the structured
observation because it will help me to collect the data from the participants. Rosinah (2013),
suggests that using structured observation is easy as teacher already has a focus on what
items or components that she/he wants to observe. I prepared a checklist (see appendix 5) as
an instrument to collect data through this method. The checklist focused the pupils attitude
during the lesson; i.e pupils attention, participation and worked cooperatively with friends. It
helped me to see either the pupils like or not with the lesson or intervention that I used.
Checklist helped me to indicate whether the pupils achieve the objectives if this research. For
this method. I asked my colleague to sit behind the classroom and used the checklist to
evaluate my pupils performance and participation in the lesson.
Explanation on how triangulation have done
Triangulation involves the conscious combination of quantitative and qualitative
methodologies as a powerful solution to strengthen a research design where the logic is based
19

on the fact that a single method can never adequately solve the problem of rival causal factors
(Denzin 1978; Patton 1990; De Vos 1998).
For my research, I used checklists, interview and worksheet. Based on those methods that I
used, 3of my participants were able to achieve the objectives. The or and the ur Throw
Me In language game was helping them to recognize the letter sounds and can pronounced
the words given correctly. 3 of them got the highest marks for the pre-test, post-test and
worksheet. They also showed a good respond when answered the interview questions and my
colleague told me that they were excited and showed the good attitude when I did the
implementation in the classroom.

DATA ANALYSIS

The collected data needed to be analyzed and interpreted so that the researcher can make a
research report based on the finding evidence. For the pre-test, post-test and worksheet, the
data gathered at the end of the lesson where I will see the progress through the marks or how
well can they do the handouts given. From the data collected, I made comparison on how the
pupils get improve after each implementation.
The interview data will be analyzed by the end of the implementation process where it will
conclude the pupils respond throughout the implementation process. It will be transcribed,
summarized and interpreted. I will compare the respond for each person from the same
interview questions to show what the pupils think about the implementation session. The used
of checklist, took the pupils performance and behavior during learning process.
From the data collection, I analyzed all the data in order to know the finding of my action
research. I triangulate the data from document analysis, interview and observation checklist. I
20

analyzed all the data to get the result of the both cycles of the intervention. All the data below
showed the result from the both cycles of the intervention that was conducted among the
participants.
7.3 Cycle one
Cycle one is the first implementation of my plan to improve the participants pronunciation of
or and ur sounds. I carried the intervention and the results of the cycle one were analyzed
as below.

7.3.1

Document Analysis

For this data type, I had chosen the participants pre-test, post-test and worksheet to be
analyzed in order to see the improvement after two sessions of intervention.
Participant 1 Akif , did not achieve the objectives for all tests. In pre-test, he only
pronounced 2 out of 6 words correctly which is the words number 1and 3. He increased the
numbers to 3 in the post-test which is words number 1, 3 and 5. For the worksheet, Akif
could pronounced 4 out of 10 words correctly. The words were born, horn, short, and
hurt.
Participant 2, Fadly could pronounce only 1 word during the pre-test and the post-test which
is the same word born. As I said before, it was hard to hear his voice, so I needed to sit
beside him. For the worksheet, Fadly could pronounce 3 out of 10 words correctly. 2 words
were the or sound; born and horn and the other word was fur. For me, it was a good
effort because he did pronounce the words.
Participant 3,Sara did the cycle 1 session 2 days after the other participants because of she
was absent on the day that I made the session for cycle 1. I did the same procedure although
21

she was alone on the session. She could pronounce 4 words correctly in the pre-test; words
number 1,2,3 and 5 and 5 words in the post-test; words number 1,2,3,4 and 5. After I
pronounced the words while doing the actions for a few times, she could pronounce 6 out of
10 words on the given worksheet. The words were born, for, horn, torch, burn and
fur. I thought the session was given advantages to her because she could hear the words
clearly.
Participant 4, Nurul Ain showed the good result in the cycle 1 session. She could pronounce 5
words correctly in the pre-test except fur. She pronounced all words in the post-test very
well. Meaning, Nurul Ain had achieved the objectives for the post test. Nurul Ain showed a
good achievement in completing the worksheet. She could pronounce 10 out of 10 words
correctly. It was surprised because I thought nobody could pronounce all the words in the
worksheet correctly and I noticed Lisa was interested with my intervention.
In conclusion, the data I gathered from the document analysis; pre-test, post-test and
worksheet showed one of the participants had achieved the objectives after I used the
intervention. The table and the bar graph showed the results of all the tests used.

No. Of
Questions /

No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6

born

horn

short

fur

burn

hurt

Pre

Post

Pre

Post Pre

Post Pre

Post Pre

Post Pre

Total

Marks
Post Pre Post

Words/
Participant
s
Akif
Sara
Fadly
Nurul Ain

/
/
/
/

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
Table 2: Participants achievement before and after intervention

2
1
4
5

3
1
5
6

22

6
5
4
Pre-test

Column1

2
1
0
Akif

Fadly

Sara

Lisa

Graph 1 : Participants result for pre-test and post-test

7.3.2

Interview

For the interview session in cycle 1, I had prepared 3 questions that related with the
intervention and the activities during the implementation. I explained to my participants on
how to answer the interview questions because I used the smiley face. I told them to color the
face they liked and did not lies to me. My first interview questions was Did you understand
what the teacher have taught just now?. I did the interview questions in Bahasa Melayu to
facilitate the participants in giving out their responses and it was done right after the session
ended. There were 3 columns in the interview sheet; first column contained the questions,
second column contained the merit stickers and reason at the last column. 3 of my
participants were pasted 1 merit sticker for the first question, and when I asked them why, the
answered was
susoh lar nok sebut..tok reti susoh la BI ni
23

(Akif & Sara, interview cycle 1)


ooolodoh kito kerah ticerpayoh weii nok sebut
( Fadly interview cycle 1)
sakit pingge kito ticer nok sebut perkataan dioskali nok suroh tunduk depeskali nok
suruh bengkok tubuh ko blake.
( Nurul Ain, interview cycle 1)
I wrote the participants responses on the third column. So, from their answer, 3 of them gave
the negative response as they could not understand what I have taught them before. Luckily,
Nurul Ain always showed a positive response. When I asked them the second questions Do
you think this language game help you to pronounce the words correctly?,Akif, Fadly and
Sara pasted 1 merit sticker, but Nurul Ain pasted 4 merit stickers. Akif and Fadly told me
they did not understand what the language game is about. Sara said she liked pronouncing
and doing the actions but she still did not understand how to pronounce the words
accuratelybut Nurul Ain always make me relieved of her positive responses.
..kito tok pehe wehlagu mano nok sebut molek perkataan ni..
(Akif ,Fadly l&Sara, interview cycle 1)
.. saya suko ticer perkataan yang ticer wi tadibele sebut bele wat aksibaru mudoh
(Nurul Ain, interview cycle 1)
The answer that they gave showed 3 of them; Akif, Fadly and Sara seems not to be interested
with the intervention and showed low motivation because of the hard words in the . Nurul
Ain was could deal with the words she had pronounced before and for me it was good
because she can gave the good reason and responses for this interview questions.

24

The last questions was How do you feel whenyou had pronounced the words after you did
the actions?. Like before, Lisa pasted 4 merit stickers but other participants pasted 1 or 2
merit sticker. Nurul Ain reason was;
mudoh jah.. ticer sebut perkataan bele-bele wat aksi tunjuk depe pah bengkok bade ko
blake..sene la nok ingat
( Nurul Ain, interview cycle 1)
The other participants answers were;
payoh la ticer perkataan tu banyok sangat..sampai 10..payoh kito nok ingat so-so
( Akif &Sara, interview cycle 1)
Fadly nodded his head meaning he agreed with his friends reasons. After I analyzed the
responses and reasons of all participants, three of them; Akif, Fadly and Sara could not
understand the use of the intervention. So, I thought, for the cycle 2 session, I had to reduce
the words in the worksheet and did not use the pre-test and post-test.

7.3.3

Observation Checklist

The observation checklist was designed with the purposed of checking the pupils behavior.
In every session, I asked my colleague to be an observer in observing the pupils behavior
during the session. The analysis of observational checklist for cycle 1 as shown in the table
below.
Theme /

understandin

Participant

Akif
Fadly

X
X

Attention

X
X

Interest

X
X

Participatio

Misbehaviou

X
X

/
/
25

Sara
Nurul Ain

X
/
X
/
/
/
/
/
Table 3: Analysis of participants behavior in cycle 1

X
X

From the observation checklist above, Akif and Fadly showed they did not understand and
interested with the intervention. Both of the also did not focused while I was using the
intervention and not give full commitment and participation in the activities I did in cycle one
session. They also disturbed their friends and talked to each other while the intervention.
Shira showed that she did not interested with the intervention because of she did not
understand the used of the song. But, Sara gave a good attention and she participated in the
activities well although she cannot pronounce the words correctly, but she had the effort to
try. Nurul Ain showed very good attitude during the session. She was actively took part in the
activities planned like volunteering to start pronounced the words after the intervention.
After analyzed all the data collected; document analysis, interview session and observational
checklist, there were three participants did not achieve the objectives and improvement, I
decided to do second cycle and they were Akif, Fadly and Sara. In cycle 2, I still used the
same intervention The or and ur word sounds but I reduced 2 words from the worksheet.
The words were fur and short, and the numbers of the words for cycle 2 was 8. I did not
used the pre-test and post-test because in cycle 1, they quite confusing even to pronounce the
same words.

7.1.2 Cycle two


The data collections used in the second cycle were worksheet, interview questions and
observational checklist. I made an improvement in the worksheet . In cycle one, the
worksheet consisted 10 words but in cycle 2 there was only 7 words. It was because in
interview session, 2 of my participants told me the words in the worksheet were too much.
26

The second cycle was held a week after the cycle one session. It was held in the SAL room. It
was more comfortable and conducive for learning session and my participants could listen the
words clearly more than in classroom.
7.1.2.1 Document analysis worksheet
The worksheet consisted of 7 words and I put them in random. It is to motivate my
participants to pronounce the words correctly as they seem not interested when completed the
worksheet in cycle 1. The participants were evaluated on the scores that they gained and they
were considered able to achieve the objective stated if they could pronounce all words
correctly. The words I had choose for the second cycle were born, for, horn, burn, fur
and hurt.
Through the worksheet, Akif and Sara had successfully results where both of them could
pronounce all words correctly. It showed that Akif and Sara really understood my lesson
through the use of intervention. It showed their improvement and efforts from the cycle one
session by increasing the numbers of the words they could pronounce correctly.
On the other hand, Fadly also showed an improvement but still did not achieve the objective
stated. He could pronounce 4 out of 7 words correctly and the words were born, torch,
burn and fur. One of the reason that Fadly could not achieve the objective was he did not
have effort to try again and very low self-confidence of himself. The marks from the cycle 1
and cycle 2 were compared in the bar graph below.

27

10
9
8
7
6
cycle 1 (10 words

Column1

4
3
2
1
0
Syahmi

Fakrul

Shira

Lisa

Graph 2: Partcipants results in cycle 1 and cycle 2


In conclusion, 2 out of 3 participants were achieved the objective stated and one participants
did not passed in this session. From the data analysis in graph 2, one participant could
understand the used of the intervention in the first session, and three participants showed their
improvement in the second session but one of them, Fadly did not achieve the objectives well
because he could not gained full marks in the worksheet given.
7.2.1.2 Interview
In the second cycle, the same questions were asked to all participants after a few
modifications to the worksheet. For the all questions, Akif and Sara showed good and
positive responses where they colored the happy face for all interview questions. During the
intervention session, I noticed both of them showed their interested and high motivation and
they also tried to pronounce the words even they have to try for a few times. They sang the
song and told me that they wanted to pronounce the words again for the words with the
28

wrong pronunciation. With their effort and confidence, they could achieve the objectives in
cycle 2 very well. They told me that they understood what I taught them and the song really
helped them to pronounce the words.
sayo pehe la ticersebut hok torch tu kae ticer?
( Sara, responses Q1, cycle 2)
sebut bele-bele wat aksi pun best kito buleh bezo caro nok sebut doh sene jah ari
tu tok pehehehe
( Sara, responses Q2 & 3 , cycle 2)
kito pong pehe doh ticer..kalu sebut or tu bunyi mace ore sedawo dih ticer
(Akif, responses Q1 cycle 2)
perkataan hok ticer bagi tu ado ticer tepek dip ape notis dale klas kitobuleh doh kito
sebut koho-koho
(Akif, responses Q2 & 3 cycle 2)
All the responses above showed that my intervention had helped them to improve their
pronunciation in or and ur sounds better than before.
With the same answers in interview session during cycle 1, Fadly still did not understand the
use of the intervention and he had choosen the sad face for all interview questions.
tok pehe-pehe kito ticerpayoh la
( Fadly, response Q1 cycle 2)
nok sebut so-so perkataan bele-bele wat aksi jadi kekkok pulok kito ticerr.
( Fadly, response Q2 & 3 cycle 2)

29

Based on Fadly responses above, I thought his confidence level was low and no motivated in
both cycle and my intervention did not help him to improve his pronunciation.
In conclusion, during the interview session in the second cycle, 2 of 3 participants showed
good responses and they liked the intervention

7.2.1.3 Observation checklist


With the same procedures and checklist, I asked my colleague to be an observer during the
intervention in second cycle. Through the observation made, Akif and Sara showed
understanding towards the intervention song played. They paid full attention during the
session by giving positive responses to the questions posted by the teacher. My colleague told
me, both of the participants were paying full attention and showed their interest to the
intervention during the session.Akif and Sara also participated actively in the activity planned
for this session. They also showed good behavior during the session.
Meanwhile, Fadly.did not show good behavior during the session seem he did not interest in
the intervention. He played with his eraser and sometimes disturbed his friend, Akif. As
conclusion, from the data gathered, 2 of 3 participants were achieved the objectives by
showing an improvement in the worksheet, gave positive responses in interview session and
showed good behavior for the observation checklist in cycle 2 and one participant did
successfully achievement in cycle 1.
Form the data gathered, I will look into the relationship between variables and its effect on
pupils behavior.
Pupil/ Data

Pre test

Post test

Worksheet C

Worksheet D

Worksheet E

Collection/

( 1st

(1st

(3rd session)

(3rd session)

(4th session)

30

Date
Pupil 1
Pupil 2
Pupil 3
Pupil 4

session)
4/8
2/8
2/8
5/8

session)
7/8
6/6
6/6
4/8
2/6
4/6
4/8
3/6
3/6
9/8
5/6
6/6
Table 2: Data analysis of teacher made tests

8/8
3/8
2/8
8/8

From the table above, pupil 1 and pupil 4 have achieved the objectives that I planned for my
pupils. Both of them get the highest marks for each test. For pupil 2 and pupil 3, they did not
want to try when I asked them to redo the test. I can see they have very low confidence and
did not pay their attention when I did my implementation.

Pupil/ Data
Q2

Happy
Not Happy
Not Happy
Happy
50% like

Happy
Happy
Happy
Happy
100% like the

Happy
Not Happy
Not Happy
Happy
50% like the

Happy
Happy
Not Happy
Happy
75% like the

English

song

reading test

activities

Collection/
Date
Pupil 1
Pupil 2
Pupil 3
Pupil 4
Analysis

Interview Questions
Q3
th
4 Session

Q1

Q4

subject
session
Table 3: Data analysis of interview with the pupils
Pupil/ Data

Item

Yes

1
2
3
4
5
1

/
/

No

collection/ Date

Pupil 1

/
/
/
/
31

Pupil 2
Pupil 3

Pupil 4
Analysis

2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
60% from the checklist question was agreed by the pupils
and they showed the good attitude and respond and only
40% representative for not good respond during the
implementation process.
Table 4: Data analysis of observations

RESEARCH PLAN
8.1 Schedule

I am planning to carry out this research since in 6th semester after I faced a problem with
words pronunciation among my year 2 pupils. I identified this problem when I was teaching
them in reading session and the results of LINUS 2.0 test. After I had my last semester
examination, I began to search my participants and my focus to the specific phonemes. Then I
started to gather the information towards the problem.
On 27th June, I had my first Seminar KajianTindakan with TESL lecturers. They told us to
start thinking our research title and the intervention we wanted to use. I starting to write the
draft of my proposal by following the guidelines which is given from my supervisor. After
the Aidilfitri, I called my participants and began to carry out my intervention with them. I
took 4 days to complete the activities that I had planned.

32

In second week in August, I collected the data from the data method I used and analyzed the
data. I have to submit my proposal on the fourth interaction.
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13

Activities

May

June

July

Aug

Identifying problem
Gathering information
Briefing 1st Seminar KajianTindakan
Discussion with supervisor
Write draft of proposal
Submit draft for checking
Modify the draft
Write the proposal
Preparation of implementation
Implementation
- Introducing the research focus to pupils
- Pre and post test
- Implement the technique
- Pupils do the activities planned
- Interview
- Observation (checklist)
Monitor and collect data
Analyzed the data collected
Submit the proposal

8.3 - Budget
I am going to use a set of A4 paper that cost almost RM10.00 per unit. I want to use it for my
proposal, my pupils pre and post-test and also for handouts I prepared for them. I am going
to use it to print my observation checklist, the interview questions, the pictures and word
cards and as a support paper to jot down any notes of information when doing the interview.
I will also going to use the colored marker pens and the mahjong paper as I used to show my
participants the differences of the letter sounds. Both of the items cost RM10.00
No

Items

Price Per
Unit (RM)

Quantity

Total cost
(RM)
33

1
2
3
4
5
6

A4 Paper
CD
Stationery Set
Mahjong Paper
Marker Pens
Photocopy cost

10.00
3.00
7.00
1.00
2.00
0.05

2
1
4
5
5
24
Total

20.00
3.00
28.00
5.00
10.00
1.20
67.20

9.0REFERENCES

Brown, H.D. (2000), Principles Of Language Learning And Teaching, Pearson Education,
San Francisco.

Brown, H.D. (2001), Teaching By Principles An Interactive Approach To Language


Pedagogy, Pearson Education, San Francisco.

Goh, H.L. (2012), A practical Guide To Writing Your Action Research, Penerbitan
Multimedia, Puchong Selangor

Kholoud, A.M, Developing Young Learners Reading Skills In AN EFL Classroom, Retrieve
34

fromhttp://marifa.hct.ac.ae/.../Developing-Young-Learners-Reading-Skills-in-an-EFL
on; 11th August 2014

KPM. (2014), Linus 2.0 LiterasiBahasaInggeris (LBI) Teachers Module Book 2,Bahagian
Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kuala Lumpur

Lloyds, S. (2005),The Phonics Handbook: A Handbook for Teaching Reading, Writing and
Spelling (Jolly Phonics S). Jolly Learning Ltd. U.K

Nutall, C. (1996), Teaching Reading Skills In A Foreign Language, Oxford:


Heinemann.

OUM,(2009), HBEL2203 Teaching Of Reading, Meteor Doc. Sdn. Bhd. Selangor.

Singh, P. Chan, Y.F. Gurnam, K.S. (2006), A Comprehensive Guide To Writing A Research
Proposal, Venton Publishing, Batu Caves, Selangor.

Victoria, F., Robert, R., Nina, H. (2010), An Introduction To Language, Oxford.

35

10.0 APPENDICES

36