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BACHELOR OF TEACHING (PRIMARY EDUCATION) WITH HONOURS

MAJOR IN ENGLISH
SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2014
HBEL3203
TEACHING OF GRAMMAR

NAME

: CRISTINA JOHNNY

MATRICULATION NO.

: 781226125338001

IDENTITY CARD NO.

: 781226125338

TELEPHONE NO.

: 012-8661887

EMAIL

: mrskennyfred@rocketmail.com
crisfred@oum.edu.my

LEARNING CENTRE

: OUM TAWAU (TAWAU LEARNING CENTER)

TUTOR

: MR. SHARIDZUAN ABDULLAH

Page

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

1.0

Table of Content

2.0

Introduction

3.0

Data Collection Method

39

4.0

Description and Justification of Methods ofGrammar Instruction

10 12

5.0

Analysis of Essays: Use of Present Tense

13 15

6.0

Analysis of Essays: Use of Past Tense

16 18

7.0

Conclusion

19

8.0

References

20

9.0

Attachments

21 - 26

2.0

Introduction

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

The learners of English as a second language (ESL), especially here in Malaysia have one
common problem; they have difficulty in mastering the grammar of English, particularly in their
tenses.
Grammar has been defined by a number of scholars, and yet there has been not one, fully
accepted term to define it. Patrick Hartwell in his writing titled Grammar, Grammars and The
Teaching of Grammar, has divided grammar into 5 parts based on its definitions and functions.
Among those are; grammar as a set of formal patterns in which the words are arranged in order
to convey larger meanings and grammar as a branch of linguistic science concerned with the
description analysis and formulization of formal language patterns.
According to Associate Professor Dr. Arshad Abd. Samad, Dr. Mariam Md. Nor and
Abdul Halim Ibrahim, in the HBEL3203, Teaching of Grammar Module, English Language is a
living language which had gone through many changes, is still changing and will continue
changing following the evolution of mankind.
ESL students here in Malaysia often encounter a lot of grammatical problems specifically
in the consistency of their tenses. Tenses are the methods in which we are differentiating the
time; whether it is the present, the past of the future. There are a lot of reasons as to why the ESL
students face this common problem. One of the most basic reason is the fact that they are
uncertain of which tenses they should use. This uncertainty comes about due to their insufficient
knowledge of the grammar of English Language. This is where the method and approach of
teaching grammar comes in handy.

3.0

Data Collection Method

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

I have been taeching English for the past 14 years or so. Hence, it is fairly easy for me to collect
the data I need for this particular assignment, as I can use my experience to my advantage. I
chose my Year 6 Berlian students due to the fact that I had been teaching English them for two
years. Below is the personal datas of my 6 Berlian students.
No

Name

Race

Fathers Occupation

Mothers Occupation

.
1

Adriana

Fire Officer

Teacher

2
3
4
5

Kenny Fred
Azizah Baharuddin
Intan Nur Izzaty Karim
Jasma Abdul Kadil
Khairi
Abdullah

Bus Driver
Shop Worker
Government Worker
Bus Driver

Clerk
Housewife
Housewife
Housewife

Hamdan
Mohammad Fazli Bin Bajau

Police Officer

Police Officer

Rusdi
Mohammad

Shafiq Suluk

Self Employed

Housewife

Minggu
Mohammad Sudramin Bugis

Self Employed

Housewife

9
10

Suding
Mohd. Ikwan Roslie
Bugis
Muhammad
Badrun Bugis

Factory Worker
Vegetable Seller

Housewife
Housewife

11

Akbar Bin Bacho


Muhammad Idris Bin Pakistan

Shop Keeper

Housewife

12
13

Yousaf
Natalia Abdul Hamid
Nellster Agong

Lorry Driver
Government Officer

Housewife
Housewife

14

h
Nuraqilah Ilyana Abdul Bugis

Shop Keeper

Housewife

15

Rahman
Nur Farah Ain Abdul Bugis

Self Employed

Housewife

16
17

Wahab
Nurian Syah Sudirman Bugis
Nurkhairun
Nadia Bugis

Self Employed
Self Employed

Housewife
Housewife

18

Romi
Nurul

Self Employed

Housewife

Michelle Dusun
Bugis
Bisaya
Bajau
Suluk

Sungai
Lundaye

Faraheida Melayu

Ghazali
3

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19

Nurwalif

20

Qhazmel Melayu

Police Officer

Housewife

Alham Maulana
Nurzulayqah
Abdul Dusun

Self Employed

Housewife

21

Halim
Rabiatul Aqilah Ambo Bugis

Government Pensioner

Housewife

22
23
24

Mase
Nurfarahein Ahmad
Bajau
Su-Lhia Amirullah
Bugis
Ummi
Kalsum Pakistan

Self Employed
Self-Employed
Shop Keeper

Housewife
Housewife
Housewife

25
26
27
28
29
30

Bakshad
Yunus Lahamid
Nurul Atiqah Silley
Nurul Aini Jikry
Adzley Abirin
Hasanul Hafiz Tahang
Nur Aisyah Baharuddin

Self-Employed
Self-Employed
Self-Employed
Deceased
Bus Driver
Head Village

Housewife
Housewife
Housewife
Self-Employed
Housewife
Housewife

Bugis
Bajau
Bajau
Dusun
Bugis
Bajau

I recorded their marks for their compositions every week. Composition is evaluated in the
Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) in Paper 2, Section C. It is awarded 15 marks. So I
followed the same rule for the composition I gave them. The table below is the marking scheme
for the said question in the UPSR.
BAND
Excellent

DESCRIPTION
MARKS
13 - 15
Excellent and confident use of the
language.
Ideas conveyed clearly through a variety
of sentence structures.
Confident use of the new words to
express ideas.
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Ideas are well planned, relevant and


linked so as to sustain the interest of the
reader.
Overall
accurate
spelling
and
punctuations.
Credit
Proficient use of the language
throughout.
Attempts made to construct a variety of
sentence structure but occasional errors
occur.
Most ideas are well-organized, relevant
and conveyed clearly.
Punctuation and spelling errors may
occur occasionally but overall meaning
is still clear.
Achievement
Correct use of the language.
Simple sentences with minor errors but
meaning is still clear.
Satisfactory presentation of ideas.
Vocabulary is adequate to convey
meaning.
A few punctuation and spelling errors
may be found in the script.
Low Achievement
Poor use of the language.
Multiple errors found in sentences.
Ideas are incomprehensible even after a
few reading.
Limited and incorrect use of language.
Many spelling and punctuation errors.
Direct lifting.
No answer given
Table 3.0(ii) UPSR Marking Scheme for Paper 2 Section C

9 - 12

58

1-4

In the Section C, the students are required to compose a story to describe the three
pictures given. For each of the picture they will be given some words as their guidance to
compose their story.

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

For this section, I had taught my students to write their introduction in the present tense
form and then the body in the past tense form and for the closure, they can either write the moral
value of the story or the feelings of the characters in the story.
I kept a track record of all my students, especially my Year 6 pupils for two years, since I
had been their English teacher for two years. They had been having problems in writings more
than they have problems in all the other areas of the language, like listening, speaking and
reading. The problems in their writings are caused by their inability to use correct grammar,
especially in their tenses. Below are my students marks in the second semester examination
when they were in Year 5, 2013. I took them as their take-off marks for this year.
No.

Name

Take-Off Marks
(Section

C-

Paper II English
UPSR)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Adriana Michelle Kenny Fred


Azizah Baharuddin
Intan Nur Izzaty Karim
Jasma Abdul Kadil
Khairi Abdullah Hamdan
Mohammad Fazli Bin Rusdi
Mohammad Shafiq Minggu
Mohammad Sudramin Suding
Mohd. Ikwan Roslie
Muhammad Badrun Akbar Bin Bacho
Muhammad Idris Bin Yousaf
Natalia Abdul Hamid
Nellster Agong
Nuraqilah Ilyana Abdul Rahman
Nur Farah Ain Abdul Wahab
Nurian Syah Sudirman
Nurkhairun Nadia Romi
Nurul Faraheida Ghazali
Nurwalif Qhazmel Alham Maulana
Nurzulayqah Abdul Halim
Rabiatul Aqilah Ambo Mase
Nurfarahein Ahmad
Su-Lhia Amirullah
Ummi Kalsum Bakshad
6

/15 Marks
6
6
5
6
7
4
5
5
6
6
6
7
3
7
3
8
7
3
6
3
6
6
6
6

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25
26
27
28
29
30

Yunus Lahamid
Nurul Atiqah Silley
Nurul Aini Jikry
Adzley Abirin
Hasanul Hafiz Tahang
Nur Aisyah Baharuddin

5
3
3
3
3
3

In a week, I had 3 lessons with my students. Two of those lessons consisted of 2 periods
(60 minutes) and one consisted of 3 periods (90 minutes). I preferred to teach composition in the
one lesson which I had 3 periods with them because it gave me enough time to give them
guidance and they had enough time to finish their composition. I had also given them one
composition as their homework every week.
When I became their English teacher in the early year of 2013, I noticed that my students
could only get up until the achievement level marks and some were even getting marks in the
low achievement level. Their worst problem at time was their limited vocabulary knowledge.
Since then, I managed to strengthen their vocabulary knowledge but I noticed that they
still could not get to the excellent level for their composition due to their incorrect use of tenses.
Wrongly used tenses will distort the flow of their story, distort the relevancy of their story
and thus hinder them from getting the excellent level marks, which was a pity as they then had
wider vocabulary and they had great ideas for their composition.
I recorded my students marks monthly according to the topic of composition I gave
them. The table below is my students marks for the month of August prior to UPSR.
6 Berlian Composition Marks for August
No.

Name

Composition Topic
A Trip to National Day A Birthday A Trip to
the Beach

Celebration

Party

Tawau

Adriana Michelle Kenny 9

10

12

Fred
Azizah Baharuddin

11

11

8
7

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

3
4
5
6
7
8

Intan Nur Izzaty Karim


Jasma Abdul Kadil
Khairi Abdullah Hamdan
Mohammad Fazli Bin Rusdi
Mohammad Shafiq Minggu
Mohammad
Sudramin

9
8
10
9
8
9

10
9
10
10
9
10

12
10
12
11
10
10

9
10

Suding
Mohd. Ikwan Roslie
9
Muhammad Badrun Akbar 8

9
9

10
11

11
12

11

Bin Bacho
Muhammad

10

11

12

12
13
14

Yousaf
Natalia Abdul Hamid
10
Nellster Agong
8
Nuraqilah Ilyana Abdul 9

9
8
10

10
9
12

12
9
12

15

Rahman
Nur Farah

16
17
18
19

Wahab
Nurian Syah Sudirman
Nurkhairun Nadia Romi
Nurul Faraheida Ghazali
Nurwalif Qhazmel Alham

10
9
8
8

10
10
8
9

12
10
9
10

13
11
9
11

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Maulana
Nurzulayqah Abdul Halim
Rabiatul Aqilah Ambo Mase
Nurfarahein Ahmad
Su-Lhia Amirullah
Ummi Kalsum Bakshad
Yunus Lahamid
Nurul Atiqah Silley
Nurul Aini Jikry
Adzley Abirin
Hasanul Hafiz Tahang
Nur Aisyah Baharuddin

8
8
8
8
9
8
6
7
7
7
7

9
9
9
8
10
9
7
8
7
7
6

10
10
10
9
11
9
6
7
8
8
7

10
12
11
8
12
10
7
7
8
8
9

Idris

Ain

9
8
9
8
8
8

Bin 9

Abdul 8

As I had taught them on how to use correct tenses in their compositions since last year,
by August this year, most of my students could then get marks in the credit level marks.

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

4.0

Description and Justification of Methods of Grammar Instruction

There are two types of methods of grammar instruction which are usually opted by teachers to
teach ESL learners. They are known as the explicit method and implicit method. The table below
which was extracted from John Burgess and Sian Etherington (University of Salford UK), in
their paper reports titled, Focus on Grammatical Form: Explicit or Implicit?published on
http://www.finchpark.com/courses/grad-dissert/articles/grammar/grammar-exclicit-orimplicit.pdf , shows the difference of each method.

Explicit Method
Conscious learning
Explicit knowledge
Cognitive learning through explanation
Conceptualization and observation
Monitoring output through conscious

Implicit Method
Subconscious learning
Belief that language is too complex to
be fully described and understood in a

rules

conscious way
Behaviourist learning
Exposure to language in use

Explicit method of teaching grammar means that the teacher must make sure that the
students know that they are learning grammar. For example if the teacher wants the students to
learn about tenses then the teacher will write the topic on the whiteboard for all the students to
see.
The lesson on that day will also focus on that particular grammar item. The teacher will
have to explain the different types of tenses; present tense, past tense and future tense. The
teacher must also give exercise which will focus on the use of the correct tenses.
Drilling and repitition exercises are the sort of exercises which are used in teaching
grammar using explicit instructions as they will strengthen the students knowledge of grammar.
The students must have full consciousness that they are learning about grammar and not about
anything else. Explicit grammar instruction means that the students need to follow the rules

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

formally and marks given according to how well they answer in accordance with the formal rules
of grammar.
Some academians think that teaching grammar using explicit intsructions alone is not the
best way for ESL learners to learn the language. It is often boring because it puts rules and
formal learning above everything else. The learners who are learning the language as a second
language will find it hard to maintain focus because of the rigidity of the lesson. The focus on the
other language skills like listening and speaking during the teaching of grammar is also not given
attention to.
The implicit method of teaching grammar on the other hand focuses on the teaching of
grammar together with the teaching of other language skills. This means that ESL learners will
be learning grammar unconsciously.
Implicit grammar teaching advocates, believed that learning grammar is better when the
learners are using the language to communicate rather than in writings. The learners will learn all
the other language skills which all have grammar in them. Hence, the learners are also learning
grammar as well. This way, the learners will be able to acquire the language and learn the rules
of the language too.
Implicit teaching of grammar however often does not work with children who are
learning English as their second or foreign language. The problem with teaching grammar
through implicit instruction is the learners could not grasp it. How can they learn the science of
the English language when they could barely speak English in the class during English lesson, let
alone speak English outside of the class?
According to Larry Lynch in his article titled Grammar Teaching: Implicit or Explicit?,
published in the ESL Base Teach English Website, the use of either implicit method or explicit
method should depend on the teaching and learning conditions of an individual class.
Whether it is explicit or implicit method, the teaching of grammar depends on the teacher
and the learners themselves. The teacher will choose which method is better suited to cater to the
needs of his or her students.

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As for me, I prefer the method of teaching grammar explicitly in the beginning of the
lesson and then throw in some approaches which use the teaching of grammar implicitly. I prefer
to start with explicit method and end it with implicit method. I do not know how it works for
other people but for me, it had worked wonders as my students ability to learn grammar got
better as well as their other language skills, like listening and speaking.
I will make sure, that whenever I am teaching grammar, I let my students know about it.
My students even have their separate grammar books. The activity in the beginning of the lesson
will be focused on the science of the language which I want them to understand. For example,
when teaching article, I will explain to them, that there are three articles in English; a, an, the. I
will also give them explanation of the usage of each article. They will be given some drilling
exercise on the use of the article in writing. Then, I will throw in a role play exercise, of maybe,
a fruitseller and his costumer, having a conversation. The dialogue below is an example of how
the students use the article in their communication.
Fruit seller

: May I help you, sir?

Costumer

: Yes, I want to buy some fruits. How much is an apple?

Fruitseller

: RM1 each, sir.

Costumer

: What about the durian? How do you sell them?

Fruitseller

: Oh, I sell them individually, sir. A durian only costs RM5.

Costumer

: Well then, I would like to buy 5 apples and a durian please.

Fruitseller

: All right, sir. Here you are. That will be RM10 altogether sir. Thank you,
sir.

Costumer

: You are welcome.

The script for their role play will be provided and the underlined words will be left blank,
which the students will fill in with the correct articles which they have learn at the beginning of
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Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

the lesson. This is how I teach grammar to my students. I use explicit method in the beginning
and then use implicit method somewhere in the middle until the end.

5.0

Analysis of Essays: Use of Present Tense

The topic of the composition or essay that is given to us for this assignment is How I spent My
last School Holiday. It presented quiet a challenge for my students.
In fact, as we know thus far, it is compulsary for the students to use another character
(apart from themselves) in their story. My students had been used to introducing other people
that they find it difficult to introduce themselves, when in fact; it is just the same, only the use of
pronouns will be different.
That is why, I supposed, that most of my students didnt write the introductions for their
essays in the present tense form. Instead, they went into the body of the story straight away.
Instead of writing, I am Cristina. I am 12 years old. I am schooling in SK Kunak 1 but I
am originally from Ranau. , they wrote, Last school holiday, we went to.. or I spent my
last school holiday with my family at.
Nevertheless, some of my students had mistakenly used present tense form of verb and
modals in their story which is supposed to be written in the past tense form. I chose 5 students to
have their essays evaluated. Below is the analysis of the use of present tense in their essays.
No.

Name

Present Tense Use (in the Present Tense Use Analysis

Essay)
Adriana Michelle Kenny 1)After that, we sleep.

sleep is a verb in the

Fred

present tense. She should


have used slept.
2)We check out and went check is a verb in the
home.

present tense form. She


should have used checked.

3)Next time, I want to go The usage of the verb want


there again.
12

is correct. This indicates a

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

Nurul Atiqah Silley

1)The

book

cannot

future planning.
be The use of the modal

bought at other shops.

cannot is incorrect as it is
in the present tense form.
She

should

have

used

could not.
2)We sleep

sleep is verb in the present


tense form. She should
have used slept.

3)Next day, we wake up

wake up is a verb in the


present tense form. She
should have used woke up.

4) After all of my family bath is a present tense form


bath

verb. She should have used


bathed.

5) I am very sad

am is a verb to be in the
present tense form. She
should have used was.

6) next year, we will go to The modal will is used


correctly to indicate future
3

Nur Aliaa Bahriah Buhari

1)I shall never forget..

plan.
The modal shall is used
correctly.

2) The thing that I like

like is a verb in the present


tense form. She should

Su-Lhia Amirullah

1)We stay in

have used liked.


stay is a present tense form
verb. She should have used
stayed.

2)I can see

can is a modal in the


present tense form. She
should have used could.

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3)I feel so happy.

feel is a verb in the present


tense form. She should

Mimie Syafikah Gadapi

1)I miss them so much.

have used felt.


miss is a verb in the present
tense form. She should
have used missed.

2)We knock.

knock is a verb in the


present tense form. She
should have used knocked.

14

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6.0

Analysis of Essays: Use of Past Tense

To determine the types of tenses used in a composition or essay, the main verbs and modal
auxilliary verbs need to be correctly used.
My students in the essay titled How I Spent My Last Holiday wrote fairly good
compositions. Most of their past tense form usage was correct. The analysis of the usage of past
tense in their essays is as follows.
No.

Name

Adriana

Past Tense Use (in the Past


Essay)
Verbs

Verb-

Michelle 1)spent

To-Be
1)was

Kenny Fred

Tense

Use

Analysis

This student could

2)went

use the verb in the

3)took

past

4)stayed

correctly,

5)bought

regular or irregular

6)reached

verb.

7)ate

She also knew how

8)drank

to use the verb-to be

tense

form
be

it

form os a singular
thing in the past tense
2

Nurul Atiqah Silley

1)stayed

1)was

form.
This student could

2)arrived

2)were

use the verb in the

3)told

past tense form fairly

4)went

well

5)studied

make a few mistakes

6)brought

in

but

did

her

sentence

structure

hence

distorting
15

she

the

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

meaning.

For

instance, she used the


verb-to-be
together

were
with

the

verb studied, which


distort the meaning
3

Nur

Aliaa

Bahriah 1)spent

Buhari

1)were

of her sentence.
This student used

2)arrived

correct the

3)welcomed

verb form in the past

4)excited

tense form; regular

5)went

and irregular verb.

6)did

She also knew the


correct

correct

verb-to-be

form to use for things


4

Su-Lhia Amirullah

1)went

which are plural.


This student only

2)brought

wrote a simple essay.


She

managed

to

minised her errors in


5

Mimie
Gadapi

Syafikah 1)spent
2)excited

1)were

doing so.
This student could

2)was

use the correct form

3)went

of verb; irregular and

4)wanted

regularm in the past

5)bought

tense

6)reached

from e few errors her

7)cleaned

essay is very good.

8)packed

Nonetheless,

9)woke-up

made

10)helped

error in one sentence

11)surprised

which distorted it.


16

form.

Apart

she

structural

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12)called

7.0

Conclusion
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The teaching of grammar; whether it is using explicit or implicit method, depends on the teacher
and the learner of ESL. Every teacher knows his or her students best and thus whether he or she
is going to use implicit or explicit grammar instruction- will be decided on the fact that it suited
his or her students the best.
In my case, however, I prefer to use both implicit and explicit method in the teaching of
grammar to my students. I want my students to know and to be conscious that they are learning
grammar without being rigid to the point of boring my students with only learning the grammar
on its own. I want my students to be able to use grammar in their communication too.
The use of present tense and past tense, for primary school children depend mainly on
their correct use of the verbs and modal auxiliary verbs in their composition.

3180 words excluding graphic organisers.

8.0

References

18

Cristina Johnny 781226125338001

Arshad Abd Samad. Mariam Md Nor. Halim Ibrahim. (October/2011). HBEL3203 Teaching of
Grammar.Open University Malaysia. Meteor Doc SDN BHD. Selangor Darul Ehsan.

John Burgess. Sian Etherington. (2002). Focus on grammatical form; explicit or implicit?
University of Salford UK. http://www.finchpark.com/courses/graddissert/articles/grammar/grammar-exclicit-or-implicit.pdf

Larry Lynch. (21st November 2014). Grammar Teaching; Implicit or Explicit?


http://www.eslbase.com/articles/grammar-implicit-explicit

9.0

Attachment

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