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VIVA COLLEGE OF ARTS,COMMERCE AND SCIENCE

PROJECT REPORT ON
RESEARCH DESIGN
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE DEGREE AWARDED AT
M.COM PART-II (ACCOUNTANCY)
SEMESTER-III

SUBJECT NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

SUBMITTED TO
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2014 2015

SUBMITTED BY
NAME: RUKMINI .V. SHUKLA
ROLL NO: 48
VIRAR (WEST)
401303

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project titled RESEARCH DESIGN is an


original work prepared by me and is being submitted to University of
Mumbai in partial fulfillment of M.COM PART -II SEM -III
(ACCOUNTANCY) degree for the academic year 2014-2015.
To the best of my knowledge this report has not been submitted
earlier to the University of Mumbai or any other affiliated college for
the fulfillment of M.COM degree.

Date:

Name:

Place:

Place:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I RUKMINI .V. SHUKLA the student of VIVA College pursuing my


M.COM PARTII (ACCOUNTANCY), would like to pay the
credits, for all those who helped in the making of this project.
The first in accomplishment of this project is our Principal Dr. R.D
Bhagat, Vice-Principal Prof. Prajakta Paranjape, Course Coordinator Prof. NilimaBhagwat and Guide Prof PRAJAKTA
PARAJAPE& teaching & non teaching staff of VIVA college.
I would also like to thank all my college friends those who influenced
my project in order to achieve the desired result correctly.

INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN
Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue"
that holds all of the elements in a research project together. We often describe a
design using a concise notation that enables us to summarize a complex design
structure efficiently. What are the "elements" that a design includes.
A research design is defined as a logical and systematic plan prepared for
direction a research study.it specifies plan prepared for directing a research
study. It specifies the objectives of the study the methodologies and techniques to
be adopted for achieving the objectives. The research design is the ground plan
for conducting the research to help him to keep a track of his actions and to know
that the he is moving in the right direction in collection the data. Whatever may be
the nature of research problems? Research design is vital to the research as it
enables to collect the right data to achieving the research objectives.
research design is a systematic plan to study a scientific problem. The design of
a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlational, semi-experimental,
experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptivelongitudinal case study), research question, hypotheses, variables,
experimental, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical
analysis plan. Research design is the framework that has been created to seek
answers to research questions.A detailed outline of how an investigation will

take place. A research design will typically include how data is to be collected,
what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the
intended means for analyzinA detailed outline of how an investigation will take
place. A research design will typically include how data is to be collected,
what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the
intended means for analyzing data collected.

DEFINATION

Research design actually constitutes the blue print for the collection,
measurement and analysis of the data.

The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to
integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical
way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem;
it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of
data.

MEANING
A research design is defined as a logical and systematic plan prepared for
direction a research study.it specifies plan prepared for directing a research
study. It specifies the objectives of the study the methodologies and techniques to
be adopted for achieving the objectives. The research design is the ground plan
for conducting the research to help him to keep a track of his actions and to know
that the he is moving in the right direction in collection the data. Whatever may be
the nature of research problems? Research design is vital to the research as it
enables to collect the right data to achieving the research objectives. research
design is a systematic plan to study a scientific problem. The design of a study
defines the study type (descriptive, correlational, semi-experimental,
experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptivelongitudinal case study), research question, hypotheses, independent and
dependent variables,experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection
methods and a statistical analysis plan. Research design is the framework that
has been created to seek answers to research questions.
A detailed outline of how an investigation will take place. A research design will
typically include how data is to be collected, what instruments will be employed, how the
instruments will be used and the intended means for analyzinA detailed outline of how an
investigation will take place. A research design will typically include how data is to be
collected, what instruments will be employed, how the instruments will be used and the
intended means for analyzing data collected.

HISTORY
The Design Research Society was founded in the UK in 1966. The origins of the
Society lay in the Conference on Design Methods, held in London in 1962, which
enabled a core of people to be identified who shared interests in new approaches
to the process of designing.
The purpose of the DRS, as embodied in its first statement of rules, was to
promote the study of and research into the process of designing in all its many
fields'. This established the intention of being an interdisciplinary, learned society.
The DRS promoted its aims through a series of one-day conferences and the
publication of a quarterly newsletter to members.
However, within a few years, fruitless attempts to establish a published journal,
and equally fruitless internal debate about the Society's goals led to inactivity. The
Society was revived by its first major international conference, on Design
Participation, held in Manchester in 1971. At that conference a meeting of DRS
members led to a call for a special general meeting of the Society, and to changes
of officers and council members. Subsequently, a series of international
conferences was held through the 1970s and 80s: in London (1973), Portsmouth
(1976, 1980), Istanbul (1978), and Bath (1984).
In the mid-1970s DRS also collaborated with the Design Methods Group, based
in the USA, including publishing a joint journal, Design Research and Methods.
By the late 1970s there was enough enthusiasm, and evidence of design research
activity around the world, for the DRS to approach IPC Press (now Elsevier) with
a successful proposal for its own journal. Design Studies, the international journal
for design research, was launched in 1979.

A new biennial series of DRS conferences began in 2002 with the 'Common
Ground' conference in London. Subsequent ones have been in Melbourne,
Australia (2004), Lisbon, Portugal (2006), Sheffield, UK (2008), Montreal,
Canada (2010).
Design Research Society - holders of the Chair:
1967-69 John Page
1969-71 William Gosling
1971-73 Chris Jones
1973-77 Sydney Gregory
1977-80 Thomas Maver
1980-82 Nigel Cross
1982-84 James Powell
1984-88 Robin Jacques
1988-90 Bruce Archer
1990-94 Sebastian Macmillan
1994-98 ConallO'Cathain
1998-06 David Durling
2006-09 Chris Rust
2009-

Seymour Roworth-Stokes

Honorary President:
1992-00 Bruce Archer
2000-06 Richard Buchanan
2006-

Nigel Cross

OBJECTIVES
1. Guidelines to the researcher:research design provides guidelines to the respect of when star and when
to completed the research work. The research will be able to collect the
data form the right source at the right time.
2. Organizing resources:Research design facilitates organizing of sources for collecting data the
resources includes
Funds required for collecting the data
The equipment and materials required to conduct the research
The manpower to collect the data
3. Direction to the research staff:_
The research design provides design necessary directions to the research
staff. This is because the research design provides necessary guidelines in
respect of:
Source of data.
Techniques for collecting data.
Resources to be utilized.
Time frame work of research work.
Due to the above factors the researcher can provided proper directions to the
research staff, so that they collect relevant data to achieve research objectives.

4. Selection of techniques:Research design helps to select appropriate techniques both for data an
Analysis there is various method of data collection such as:
Observation.
Survey or interview.

Experimentation.
Correlation techniques etc..
5. Collection of relevant data :Research design helps to collect the relevant data and that too a certain
time frame. For instance, the research design indicates :
The area of research
Universe of research
Sample size
The research or his staff will be able to collect relevant data form the right area
from the appropriate number of respondents.
6. Objective of research:Research design helps to achieve research objectives. This is because the
researcher will collect the right time and from the right source. Also due to
the use of proper techniques of analysis the researcher will be able to
analyses the data properly, and then take appropriate measures or action
which in turn will help to attain the research objective.

7. Monitoring of expenditure:Research design helps to monitor research expenditure. Research design


provides guidelines regarding the amount of resource or funds to be
utilized for research activity. Therefore there will be proper control over
the funds in respect of research activity
8. Execution of research work:Research design helps in timely execution of the research work. This is
because research design indicates the start time and the commotion time of
research activity.
9. Motivation to staff:-

A systematic research design motivation the staff to collect the right data
from the right source.Also due to the data from the right source. Also due
to the timely completion of research activity, the research staff may be
rewarded with monetary and non-monetary incntitives.as a result of higher
returns, the research staff may be adequately reward.
10. Improvement is decision marking :Systematic research design facilitates proper collection of data. Also, the

FEATURES
1.Quantitative Design
Quantitative, or fixed, design allows the researcher to actively change the
circumstances of the experiment. In this type of research, the researcher can
control the conditions that lead to changes in behavior. This can also be
considered explanatory research, as the focus is on the question of "why."
For example, a city is experiencing an increasing crime rate. To combat this
problem the city puts more officers on the street. Suppose that this did nothing to
change the crime rate initially. The city would look at why it did not work, and
what can be done to change that outcome. After studying the problem, the city
determines they need to train officers to deal with gangs and gang activities. Once
the training is completed, crime rates begin to drop.
This shows how studying the problem, considering different solutions, deciding
on a method to solve the problem and then implementing that solution caused a
different result than the initial method of simply hiring more officers. This
provides the answer to the question of "why."
2.Qualitative Design
Qualitative, or flexible, design deals with the study aspect of solving a problem.
This is an answer to "what," and identifies the problem itself. This works hand in
hand with quantitative design, as problems cannot be tested for solutions until
they have been identified.
Using the same example, when the city initially tried to reduce crime rates, they
simply hired more officers. What was wrong with that approach is the fact that

they did not have an adequate description of what the problem was. When they
did further investigation and determined that the officers needed training in gangs
and gang activities, they had a better idea of what the problem was. Their "what"
was identified, which led to options of how to solve the problem.
3. Career Option
Research design careers are available in almost every field and sector of the
economy. For example, public opinion researchers determine the issues people are
facing; what is wrong, what is good and so on. A public opinion analyst would
then look at why these issues are occurring and propose solutions to make things
better. Another example would be a research engineer in the field of commercial
kitchen ventilation. In this case the researcher determines just how much energy is
needed for specific commercial kitchen appliances to vent cooking effluent
outside the kitchen. This knowledge can be translated into savings for the
restaurant, as well as resulting in a positive ecological outcome.
4. Who Should Consider a Career in Research Design?
This field is perfect for those who like to figure out what a problem is, or what
solutions can be had to fix a problem. Research design is the right career for
individuals who want to know more, and are not satisfied with the status quo.

ADVANTAGES
1. Addresses Specific Research Issue:Carrying out their own research allows the marketing organization to address
issues specific to their own situation. Primary research is designed to collect the
information the marketer wants to know (Step 2) and report it in ways that benefit
the marketer. For example, while information reported with secondary research
may not fit the marketers needs (e.g., different age groupings) no such problem
exists with primary research since the marketer controls the research design.
2. Greater Control:Not only does primary research enable the marketer to focus on specific issues, it
also enables the marketer to have a higher level of control over how the
information is collected. In this way the marketer can decide on such issues as
size of project (e.g., how many responses), location of research (e.g., geographic
area) and time frame for completing the project.
3.Efficient Spending for Information
Unlike secondary research where the marketer may spend for information that is
not needed, primary data collections focus on issues specific to the researcher
improves the chances that research funds will be spent efficiently.
4.Proprietary Information

Information collected by the marketer using primary research is their own and is
generally not shared with others. Thus, information can be kept hidden from
competitors and potentially offer an information advantage to the company that
undertook the primary research

DISADVANTAGES
1. Cost
Compared to secondary research, primary data may be very expensive since there
is a great deal of marketer involvement and the expense in preparing and carrying
out research can be high.
2. Time Consuming
To be done correctly primary data collection requires the development and
execution of a research plan. Going from the start-point of deciding to undertake a
research project to the end-point to having results is often much longer than the
time it takes to acquire secondary data.
3. Not Always Feasible
Some research projects, while potentially offering information that could prove
quite valuable, are not within the reach of a marketer. Many are just too large to
be carried out by all but the largest companies and some are not feasible at all. For
instance, it would not be practical for McDonalds to attempt to interview every
customer who visits their stores on a certain day since doing so would require
hiring a huge number of researchers, an unrealistic expense. Fortunately, as we

will see in a later tutorial there are ways for McDonalds to use other methods
(e.g., sampling) to meet their needs without the need to talk with all custome

STEPS IN RESEARCH DESIGN


1. Define the problem:
The researcher must be clearly define the problem. Clarity of the problem
will help to researcher to decide on the research objectives. For instance,
in the case of commercial research, the research problem may be stated as
decline in sale, the objective of the research will be to increase the sales.
In case of academic research , proper definition of the problem will enable
the research to develop hypothesis, which needs to be tested with the help
of research .
2. Sources of data :
The researched must be decide about the data. The sources of data depend
upon problem the sources of data are broadlydevein to two groups .
Primary sources
Secondary sources
3. Technique of data collection :
The researcher must be decide about the technique about the data
collection. The techniques certain factors
Nature of problem
Resources available

Time frame etc.


4. Decision of universe:
The researcher must state the universal for conducting the research work.
If the research is conduct on baby food, universe will be mothers will little
kids.
5. Sample size:
The researcher must the sample size. The simple size depend upon certain
factors such as time frame, funds availability, nature of problems etc.
The sample size may be very small, say about 500 response.

TYPES

ACTION REASEACH DESIGN


The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby
initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is
developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy. Then the
intervention is carried out (the "action" in Action Research) during which time,
pertinent observations are collected in various forms. The new interventional
strategies are carried out, and the cyclic process repeats, continuing until a
sufficient understanding of (or implement able solution for) the problem is
achieved. The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster
deeper understanding of a given situation, starting with conceptualizing and
particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and
evaluations.
1. A collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in
work or community situations.
2. Design focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research rather than
testing theories.
3. When practitioners use action research it has the potential to increase the
amount they learn consciously from their experience. The action research
cycle can also be regarded as a learning cycle.
4. Action search studies often have direct and obvious relevance to practice.

5. There are no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher.

CASE STUDY DESIGN


Definition and Purpose
A case study is an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather than a
sweeping statistical survey. It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of
research into one or a few easily researchable examples. The case study research
design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually
applies to phenomena in the real world. It is a useful design when not much is
known about a phenomenon.
What do these studies tell you?
1. Approach excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue
through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or
conditions and their relationships.
2. A researcher using a case study design can apply a vaiety of
methodologies and rely on a variety of sources to investigate a research
problem.
3. Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known
through previous research.

4. Social scientists, in particular, make wide use of this research design to


examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the
application of concepts and theories and extension of methods.
5. The design can provide detailed descriptions of specific and rare cases.

What these studies don't tell you?


1. A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing
reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of people,
places, or things.
2. The intense exposure to study of the case may bias a researcher's
interpretation of the findings.
3. Design does not facilitate assessment of cause and effect relationships.
4. Vital information may be missing, making the case hard to interpret.
5. The case may not be representative or typical of the larger problem being
investigated.
6. If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or
unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your intepretation of the
findings can only apply to that particular case.

CAUSAL DESIGN
Definition and Purpose
Causality studies may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of
conditional statements in the form, If X, then Y. This type of research is used to
measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and
assumptions. Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of
hypotheses. Causal effect (nomothetic perspective) occurs when variation in one
phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation
in another phenomenon, the dependent variable.
Conditions necessary for determining causality:

Empirical association--a valid conclusion is based on finding an


association between the independent variable and the dependent variable.

Appropriate time order--to conclude that causation was involved, one must
see that cases were exposed to variation in the independent variable before
variation in the dependent variable.

Nonspuriousness--a relationship between two variables that is not due to


variation in a third variable.

What do these studies tell you?


1. Causality research designs helps researchers understand why the world
works the way it does through the process of proving a causal link
between variables and eliminating other possibilities.
2. Replication is possible.
3. There is greater confidence the study has internal validity due to the
systematic subject selection and equity of groups being compared.

COHORT DESIGN
Often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a
cohort study generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving
members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from,
and who are united by some commonality or similarity. Using a quantitative
framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a
specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to
the research problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical
occurrence within the general population. Using a qualitative framework, cohort

studies generally gather data using methods of observation. Cohorts can be either
"open" or "closed."

Open Cohort Studies [dynamic populations, such as the population of Los


Angeles] involve a population that is defined just by the state of being a
part of the study in question (and being monitored for the outcome). Date
of entry and exit from the study is individually defined, therefore, the size
of the study population is not constant. In open cohort studies, researchers
can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants
thereof.

Closed Cohort Studies [static populations, such as patients entered into a


clinical trial] involve participants who enter into the study at one defining
point in time and where it is presumed that no new participants can enter
the cohort. Given this, the number of study participants remains constant
(or can only decrease).

Descriptive Design
Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what,
when, where, and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive
study cannot conclusively ascertain answers to why. Descriptive research is used
to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to
describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.
1. The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged
natural environment. True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data,
often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject.

2. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitative


research designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to
what variables are worth testing quantitatively.
3. If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a
more focused study.
4. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important
recommendations in practice.
5. Appoach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis.

Experimental Design
A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to maintain control over
all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher
attempts to determine or predict what may occur. Experimental Research is often
used where there is time priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect),
there is consistency in a causal relationship (a cause will always lead to the same
effect), and the magnitude of the correlation is great. The classic experimental
design specifies an experimental group and a control group. The independent
variable is administered to the experimental group and not to the control group,
and both groups are measured on the same dependent variable. Subsequent
experimental designs have used more groups and more measurements over longer
periods. True experiments must have control, randomization, and manipulation.
1. Experimental research allows the researcher to control the situation. In so
doing, it allows researchers to answer the question, what causes
something to occur?

2. Permits the researcher to identify cause and effect relationships between


variables and to distinguish placebo effects from treatment effects.
3. Experimental research designs support the ability to limit alternative
explanations and to infer direct causal relationships in the study.
4. Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies.

Exploratory Design
An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few
or no earlier studies to refer to. The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for
later investigation or undertaken when problems are in a preliminary stage of
investigation.
The goals of exploratory research are intended to produce the following possible
insights:

Familiarity with basic details, settings and concerns.

Well grounded picture of the situation being developed.

Generation of new ideas and assumption, development of tentative


theories or hypotheses.

Determination about whether a study is feasible in the future.

Issues get refined for more systematic investigation and formulation of


new research questions.

Direction for future research and techniques get developed.

1. Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a


particular topic.
2. Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all
types (what, why, how).
3. Provides an opportunity to define new terms and clarify existing concepts.
4. Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses and
develop more precise research problems.
5. Exploratory studies help establish research priorities.

Historical Design
The purpose of a historical research design is to collect, verify, and synthesize
evidence from the past to establish facts that defend or refute your hypothesis. It
uses secondary sources and a variety of primary documentary evidence, such as,
logs, diaries, official records, reports, archives, and non-textual information
[maps, pictures, audio and visual recordings]. The limitation is that the sources
must be both authentic and valid.
1. The historical research design is unobtrusive; the act of research does not
affect the results of the study.
2. The historical approach is well suited for trend analysis.

3. Historical records can add important contextual background required to


more fully understand and interpret a research problem.
4. There is no possibility of researcher-subject interaction that could affect
the findings.
5. Historical sources can be used over and over to study different research
problems or to replicate a previous study.

Longitudinal Design
A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes repeated
observations. With longitudinal surveys, for example, the same group of people is
interviewed at regular intervals, enabling researchers to track changes over time
and to relate them to variables that might explain why the changes occur.
Longitudinal research designs describe patterns of change and help establish the
direction and magnitude of causal relationships. Measurements are taken on each
variable over two or more distinct time periods. This allows the researcher to
measure change in variables over time. It is a type of observational study and is
sometimes referred to as a panel study.
1. Longitudinal data allow the analysis of duration of a particular
phenomenon.
2. Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations
usually attainable only with experiments.

3. The design permits the measurement of differences or change in a variable


from one period to another [i.e., the description of patterns of change over
time].
4. Longitudinal studies facilitate the prediction of future outcomes based
upon earlier factors.

Meta-Analysis Design
Meta-analysis is an analytical methodology designed to systematically evaluate
and summarize the results from a number of individual studies, thereby,
increasing the overall sample size and the ability of the researcher to study effects
of interest. The purpose is to not simply summarize existing knowledge but to
develop a new understanding of a research problem using synoptic reasoning. The
main objectives of meta-analysis include analyzing differences in the results
among studies and increasing the precision by which effects are estimated. A welldesigned meta-analysis depends upon strict adherence to the criteria used for
selecting studies and the availability of information in each study to properly
analyze their findings. Lack of information can severely limit the type of analyses
and conclusions that can be reached. In addition, the more dissimilarity there is in
the results among individual studies [heterogeneity], the more difficult it is to
justify

interpretations

that

govern

valid

synopsis

of

results.

A meta-analysis needs to fulfill the following requirements to ensure the validity


of your findings:

Clearly defined description of objectives, including precise definitions of


the variables and outcomes that are being evaluated;

A well-reasoned and well-documented justification for identification and


selection of the studies;

Assessment and explicit acknowledgment of any researcher bias in the


identification and selection of those studies;

Description and evaluation of the degree of heterogeneity among the


sample size of studies reviewed; and,

Justification of the techniques used to evaluate the studies

CONCLUSION
From its inception, educational research has been a subject of debate. Educational
research has grown significantly over time and the variety of theoretical
approaches that have been implemented in the research has diversified greatly
over time. This essay identified many, but certainly not all, of the key
transformations in educational research from the late nineteenth century to present
day. Also, this essay is not an attempt to recommend one theoretical approach
over another in the study and research of education. Rather, it is an attempt to
provide a brief history of the types of educational research efforts and to highlight
the epistemological debates that have occurred during this time period.

Summary
Factorial design has several important features. First, it has great flexibility for
exploring or enhancing the signal (treatment) in our studies. Whenever we are
interested in examining treatment variations, factorial designs should be strong
candidates as the designs of choice. Second, factorial designs are efficient. Instead
of conducting a series of independent studies we are effectively able to combine
these studies into one. Finally, factorial designs are the only effective way to
examine interaction effects.
So far, we have only looked at a very simple 2 x 2 factorial design structure. You
may want to look at somefactorial design variations to get a deeper understanding
of how they work. You may also want to examine how we approach the statistical
analysis of factorial experimental designs.

REFERENCES

Bowen, J. 1981. A History of Western Education; Volume III: The Modern West.
London: Methuen.
Cohen, D.K, and C.A. Barnes. 1999. Research and the Purposes of Education,
in Issues in Educational Research: Problems and Possibilities, ed. E.C.
Lagemann and L.S. Shulman, 17-41. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Committee on Education. 2008. The Role of the Committee on Education.
Chicago:
The Committee on Education, University of
Chicago. http://coe.uchicago.edu/about/index.shtml.
Fuchs, E. 2004. Educational Sciences, Morality and Politics: International
Educational Congresses in the early twentieth Century. PedagogicaHistorica 40,

no. 5: 757 784.


Greenwood, D.J., and M. Levin. 2003. Reconstructing the Relationships between
Universities and Society through Action Research in The Landscape of
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Yvonna S. Lincoln, 131-166. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Hamilton, D. 2002. Noisy Fallible and Biased Though it be (On the Vagaries of
Educational Research). British Journal of Educational Studies 50, no. 1: 144 164.

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