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HOW TO Engineering Guide

NCC-SES
Gas Insulated Substation
Grounding Analysis
Toolbox Edition
2012 Release

REVISION RECORD
Date

Version Number

Revision Level

August 1995

October 1997

October 1997

January 1999

January 2000

November 2002

10

June 2004

11

December 2006

13

January 2012

14

January 2012

14

May 2012

14

Page iv

SPECIAL NOTE

Due to the continuous evolution of the CDEGS software, you may find that some of the
screens obtained using the present version of the CDEGS package are slightly
different from those appearing in this manual. Furthermore, small differences in the
reported and plotted numerical values may exist due to continuous enhancements of
the computation algorithms.

Address comments concerning this manual to:

Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd.


___________________________________________
3055 Blvd. Des Oiseaux, Laval, Quebec, Canada, H7L 6E8
Tel.: (450)622-5000 FAX: (450)622-5053
Email: support@sestech.com
Web Site: www.sestech.com
Copyright 1995-2012 Safe Engineering Services & technologies ltd. All rights reserved.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
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INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 COMPUTER MODELING TOOLS ............................................................................................................. 1-2
1.3 METHODOLOGY OF THE GROUNDING DESIGN .................................................................................. 1-2
1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL ......................................................................................................... 1-3
1.5 SOFTWARE NOTE .................................................................................................................................... 1-3
1.6 FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS ................................................................................................................ 1-3
1.7 WORKING DIRECTORY ........................................................................................................................... 1-5
1.8 INPUT AND OUTPUT FILES USED IN TUTORIAL .................................................................................. 1-5

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SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS & INTERPRETATION .......................................... 2-1
2.1 SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS .................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 INTERPRETATION OF SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS ............................................................. 2-4
2.2.1 PREPARATION OF THE RESISTIVITY INPUT FILE IN CDEGS INPUT MODE ........................ 2-5
2.2.1.1 WINDOWS TOOLBOX INPUT MODE ........................................................................... 2-5
2.2.1.2 START UP PROCEDURES ........................................................................................... 2-5
2.2.1.3 DATA ENTRY ............................................................................................................... 2-10
2.2.1.4 HOW TO PRODUCE THE RESAP INPUT FILE .......................................................... 2-12
2.2.2 SUBMISSION OF THE RESAP RUN ......................................................................................... 2-12
2.2.3 EXTRACTION OF THE RESULTS FROM RESAP COMPUTATION RESULTS FILES............ 2-13
2.2.3.1 CDEGS - EXAMINE MODE OUTPUT PROCESSOR ................................................. 2-13
2.3 SOIL MODELS FROM WENNER MEASUREMENT .............................................................................. 2-14
2.3.1 FIRST RESAP RUN: INITIAL FOUR-LAYER SOIL MODEL IN TABLE 23 .............................. 2-14
2.3.1.1 PREPARATION OF RESAP INPUT FILE .................................................................... 2-14
2.3.1.2 SUBMISSION OF RESAP RUN AND EXTRACTION OF RESULTS USING
TOOLBOX .................................................................................................................... 2-15
2.3.2 SECOND RESAP RUN: FIVE-LAYER SOIL MODEL................................................................. 2-16
2.3.2.1 PREPARATION OF RESAP INPUT FILE .................................................................... 2-16
2.3.2.2 SUBMISSION OF RESAP RUN AND EXTRACTION OF RESULTS USING
TOOLBOX .................................................................................................................... 2-17
2.3.3 THIRD RESAP RUN: FINAL FOUR-LAYER SOIL MODEL IN TABLE 23 ............................... 2-18
2.3.3.1 PREPARATION OF RESAP INPUT FILE .................................................................... 2-18
2.3.3.2 SUBMISSION OF RESAP RUN AND EXTRACTION OF RESULTS USING
TOOLBOX .................................................................................................................... 2-18
2.3.4 FOURTH RESAP RUN: FINAL THREE-LAYER SOIL MODEL IN TABLE 23 ......................... 2-19
2.3.4.1 PREPARATION OF RESAP INPUT FILE .................................................................... 2-19

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTD)


Page
2.3.4.2 SUBMISSION OF RESAP RUN AND EXTRACTION OF RESULTS USING
TOOLBOX .................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.3.5 FIFTH RESAP RUN: FINAL TWO-LAYER SOIL MODEL IN TABLE 23 .................................. 2-20
2.3.5.1 PREPARATION OF RESAP INPUT FILE .................................................................... 2-20
2.3.5.2 SUBMISSION OF RESAP RUN AND EXTRACTION OF RESULTS USING
TOOLBOX .................................................................................................................... 2-20
2.4 INTERPRETATION OF SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS FROM SCHLUMBERGER
ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION............................................................................................................ 2-20

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INITIAL DESIGN OF GROUNDING SYSTEM AND COMPUTATION OF GRID
RESISTANCE ..................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1 INITIAL DESIGN OF GROUNDING SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 3-1
3.2 PREPARATION OF THE MALT INPUT FILE USING SESCAD .............................................................. 3-3
3.2.1 START UP PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 3-3
3.2.2 DATA ENTRY................................................................................................................................ 3-4
3.3 SUBMISSION OF THE MALT RUN ........................................................................................................ 3-13
3.3.1 SUBMIT ENGINEERING PROGRAM USING SESCAD ............................................................ 3-13
3.3.2 SUBMIT ENGINEERING PROGRAM USING CDEGS .............................................................. 3-14
3.4 EXTRACTION OF THE RESULTS FROM MALT COMPUTATION RESULTS FILES .......................... 3-15

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FAULT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS USING HIFREQ ...................................... 4-1
4.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.2 THE OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE NETWORK ............................................................................. 4-1
4.3 THE POWER SYSTEM DATA................................................................................................................... 4-3
4.4 PREPARATION OF THE HIFREQ INPUT FILE USING SESCAD ........................................................... 4-4
4.4.1 START UP PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 4-4
4.4.2 DATA ENTRY................................................................................................................................ 4-5
4.5 SUBMISSION OF THE HIFREQ RUN ..................................................................................................... 4-18
4.5.1 SUBMIT ENGINEERING PROGRAM USING SESCAD ............................................................ 4-18
4.5.2 SUBMIT ENGINEERING PROGRAM USING CDEGS .............................................................. 4-19
4.6 EXTRACTION OF THE RESULTS FROM HIFREQ COMPUTATION RESULTS FILES ...................... 4-19

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MODEL GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION IN HIFREQ ...................................................... 5-1
5.1 GIS BUS WORKS ...................................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 PREPARATION OF THE HIFREQ INPUT FILE USING SESCAD ........................................................... 5-2
5.2.1 START UP PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 5-2

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTD)


Page
5.2.2 DATA ENTRY................................................................................................................................ 5-3
5.2.2.1 SAVE MALT FILE AS HIFREQ FILE.............................................................................. 5-3
5.2.2.2 DEFINE CABLE TYPE FOR GIS BUS WORK .............................................................. 5-4
5.2.2.3 DEFINE SMALL SECTION OF THE GIS BUS WORK .................................................. 5-6
5.2.2.4 CONNECT GIS ENCLOSURE TO GROUNDING GRID ............................................... 5-7
5.2.3 WORKING WITH EXISTING HIFREQ MODEL ............................................................................ 5-9
5.2.3.1 DEFINE PHASE-TO-GROUND FAULT IN GIS BUS ................................................... 5-10
5.2.3.2 DEFINE ENERGIZATIONS .......................................................................................... 5-11
5.2.3.3 DEFINE COMPUTATION OBSERVATION POINTS ................................................... 5-11

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SAFETY EVALUATION OF NCC-SES GIS ........................................................................ 6-1
6.1 SAFETY CRITERIA ................................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.1 TOUCH VOLTAGES ..................................................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.2 STEP VOLTAGES ........................................................................................................................ 6-2
6.1.3 GPR DIFFERENTIALS ................................................................................................................. 6-2
6.1.4 DETERMINING SAFE TOUCH AND STEP VOLTAGES CRITERIA USING CDEGS ................. 6-3
6.2 EXAMING THE GROUND POTENTIAL RISE, TOUCH AND STEP VOLTAGES ................................... 6-4
6.2.1 PLOT GPR OF GROUNDING SYSTEM ....................................................................................... 6-5
6.2.2 EXAMINE CURRENTS FLOWING ALONG CORE AND BUS ENCLOSURE ............................. 6-5
6.2.3 EXAMINE TOUCH VOLTAGES .................................................................................................... 6-8
6.2.4 EXAMINE STEP VOLTAGES ..................................................................................................... 6-10

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REINFORCING THE GROUNDING SYSTEM .................................................................... 7-1
7.1 COMPUTATION OF GROUND RESISTANCE OF REINFORCED GROUNDING GRID IN
MALT ......................................................................................................................................................... 7-1
7.1.1 START-UP PROCEDURE ............................................................................................................ 7-2
7.1.2 COMPUTE GROUND RESISTANCE OF REINFORCED GRID IN MALT ................................... 7-2
7.2 RE-EVALUATION OF TOUCH VOLTAGES OF REINFORCED GROUNDING GRID IN
HIFREQ ...................................................................................................................................................... 7-4

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CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................. 8-1
A
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EN
ND
DIIXX A
A
COMMAND INPUT MODE ................................................................................................. A-1
A
AP
PP
PE
EN
ND
DIIXX B
B
USE SESCONDUCTORDATABASE TOOL TO OBTAIN INTERNAL
IMPEDANCES ................................................................................................................... B-1

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Chapter 1. Introduction

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 OBJECTIVE
This How To Engineering Guide shows you how to carry out a typical Gas Insulated Substation
(GIS) grounding design using the MultiFields, MultiFields+, MultiFieldsPro, or CDEGS software
packages. A step-by-step approach is used to illustrate how to use the Windows interfaces to input
your data, run the pertinent engineering modules and explore the computation results.
The grounding analysis problem is illustrated in Figure 1.1. A new 154 kV NCC-SES Gas Insulated
Substation is planned, and presently under construction. It will be interconnected to the rest of the
network via four transmission lines terminating at GENNW-SES Power Plant (Terminal GENNWSES), GENNE-SES Power Plant (Terminal GENNE-SES), GENSW-SES Substation (Terminal
GENSW-SES) and GENSE-SES Substation (Terminal GENSE-SES), respectively. The objective of
the analysis is to provide a new grid design for NCC-SES GIS. The final design is to limit touch and
step voltages to safe levels for personnel within the substation area, based on up-to-date system data,
appropriate measurement techniques and instrumentation, and state-of-the-art computer modeling
methods.

Terminal
GENNE-SES
Terminal
GENNW-SES

NCC-SES Gas
Insulated Substation
Terminal
GENSE-SES

Terminal
GENSW-SES

Figure 1.1

Illustration of the Grounding Analysis Problem

In comparison to the How To Engineering Guide entitled A Simple Substation Grounding


Analysis, this Engineering Guide contains additional studies performed at the NCC-SES GIS. The
effects of the buried metallic structures on the safety of the NCC-SES GIS and its neighborhood are
discussed.

Page 1-1

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.2 COMPUTER MODELING TOOLS


The engineering module RESAP is used to interpret the soil resistivity measurement data to get the
proper soil model. For the complex grounding system including above ground conductors, especially
like the GIS structures and bus bars, the engineering module HIFREQ can be used to model the GIS
system (using the cable elements) and above ground conductors. The MultiFields, MultiFields+,
MultiFieldsPro, or CDEGS software packages including the above two modules can be used to
model the field measurements (i.e., soil resistivities and grounding system resistance) and interpret
the measured data, to compute the distribution of fault current between the transmission line static
wires, distribution line neutral wires, and the substation grounding grid, and to simulate a
representative phase-to-ground fault in the substation in order to compute touch voltages, step
voltages, grid potentials, and grounding cable current flows throughout the substation.

1.3 METHODOLOGY OF THE GROUNDING DESIGN


The grounding design analysis is normally carried out in five major steps as follows:
Step 1 The first step of the study is aimed at determining an equivalent soil model to the real earth
structure using the RESAP soil resistivity interpretation engineering module. Several soil
type models can be selected by the designer as an approximation to the real soil (uniform,
two-layer, multilayer, etc.).
Step 2 Based on experience and on the substation ground bonding requirements, a preliminary
economical grounding system configuration is developed and analyzed using the MALT
grounding analysis engineering module based on the equivalent soil model developed in Step
1 (initial design).
Step 3 Using MALT, calculate the grounding resistance of terminal grids and the initial designof the
GIS substation grid with the equivalent soil models. Using HIFREQ, calculate the grounding
resistance of tower footing with the equivalent soil models. Based on these results, the
transmission line or distribution line configuration, conductor data and the fault current from
each terminal, build a HIFREQ system model to calculate the actual fault current to the GIS
substation from each line.
Step 4 With the equivalent soil model, and the fault current from each line to the GIS substation,
build a GIS substation model including the GIS structure and above ground bus bars, etc. The
calculated results are analyzed using one of the output processors and various computation
plots. Printout reports are examined to determine if all design requirements are met. In
particular, the safe touch and step voltage thresholds are determined based on the applicable
standards and regulations and compared to the computed values.
Step 5 If all design requirements are not met, or alternately if all these requirements are met by too
considerable a margin suggesting possible significant savings, design modifications to the
grounding system or to the transmission line network are made and the design analysis is
restarted at Step 2.

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Chapter 1. Introduction

1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE MANUAL


Following the design methodology illustrated above, the manual is organized as follows:
Chapter 2 shows how to use the RESAP engineering module to analyze the soil resistivity data based
on the measurements taken at NCC-SES GIS (Step 1).
Chapter 3 presents the initial design of the grounding system. It describes the detailed computer
model of the NCC-SES GIS grounding grid and shows how to use the MALT engineering module to
determine the grounding grid resistance which will be used for computing the fault current
distribution in Chapter 4 (Step 2).
Chapter 4 describes how to use the HIFREQ module to determine the fault current distribution
during a phase-to-ground fault at NCC-SES GIS. The current injected into the NCC-SES GIS is
obtained (Step 3).
Chapter 5 describes how to build the HIFREQ model including the GIS bus bars using cables, the
connections between cables and phase wires and earthing grid, and defining energizations (Step 4).
Chapter 6 presents the ANSI/IEEE safety criteria applicable to the substation grounding. The fault
simulation results are presented in graphical and tabular form. The touch voltage, step voltage and
grid conductor longitudinal current are provided in detail. Step-by-step instructions about how to
obtain these results will be illustrated (Step 5).
Chapter 7 presents the design of the reinforced grounding system. It describes how to repeat the
computations from Chapter 3 to 6 to meet the safety criteria (Step 6).
In 5.2.2.3, the conclusions of the study are summarized. All the input files used in the study are
identified in Appendix A.

1.5 SOFTWARE NOTE


This tutorial assumes that the reader is using the Windows version of CDEGS.

1.6 FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS


It is important to know which input and output files are created by the CDEGS software. All CDEGS
input and output files have the following naming convention:
XY_JobID.Fnn

where XY is a two-letter abbreviation corresponding to the name of the program which created the
file or which will read the file as input. The JobID consists of string of characters and numbers that
is used to label all the files produced during a given CDEGS run. This helps identify the

Page 1-3

Chapter 1. Introduction
corresponding input, computation, results and plot files. The nn are two digits used in the extension
to indicate the type of file.
The abbreviations used for the various CDEGS modules are as follows:
Application
RESAP
MALT
MALZ
TRALIN
SPLITS
SESTLC
SESShield
GRSPLITS-3D

Abbreviation
RS
MT
MZ
TR
SP
TC
LS
SP

Application
FCDIST
HIFREQ
FFTSES
SICL*
CSIRPS*
SESEnviroPlus
SESShield-3D
ROWCAD

Abbreviation
FC
HI
FT
SC
CS
TR
SD
RC

The SICL module is used internally by the Input Toolbox data entry interface. The CSIRPS
module is used internally by the Output Toolbox and GRServer graphics and report
generating interface.

The following four types of files are often used and discussed when a user requests technical support
for the software:
.F05

Command input file (for engineering applications programs). This is a text file that can
be opened by any text editor (WordPad or Notepad) and can be modified manually by
experienced users.

.F09

Computation results file (for engineering applications programs). This is a text file that
can be opened by any text editor (WordPad or Notepad).

.F21

Computation database file (for engineering applications programs). This is a binary file
that can only be loaded by the CDEGS software for reports and graphics display.

.F33

Computation database file (for engineering applications programs MALZ and HIFREQ
only). This is a binary file that stores the current distribution to recover.

For further details on CDEGS file naming conventions and JobID, please consult CDEGS Help
under Help | Contents | File Naming Conventions.

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Chapter 1. Introduction

1.7 WORKING DIRECTORY


A Working Directory is a directory where all input and output files are created. In this tutorial, we
recommend the following Working Directory:

C: (or D:)\CDEGS HowTo\GisGrnd\Tutorial


You may prefer to use a different working directory. Either way, you should take note of the full
path of your working directory before running CDEGS, as you will need this information to follow
this tutorial.

1.8 INPUT AND OUTPUT FILES USED IN TUTORIAL


All input files used in this tutorial are supplied on your DVD. These files are stored during the
software installation under install\Howto\CDEGS\GisGrnd (where install is the SES software

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Chapter 1. Introduction
installation directory, e.g., C:\Users\Public\Documents\SES Software\version and version is the
version number of your CDEGS Software).
Copying Input Files to Working Directory
For those who prefer to load the input files into the software and simply follow the tutorial, you can
copy all of the files from the install\Howto\CDEGS\GisGrnd directory to your working directory.
After the tutorial has been completed, you may wish to explore the other How ToEngineering
Manuals which are available as PDF files on the SES Software DVD in the folder \PDF\Howto.
If the files required for this tutorial are missing or have been modified, you will need to manually
copy the originals from the SES Software DVD. Both original input and output files can be found in
the following directories on the SES Software DVD:
Input Files:
Output Files:

Examples\Official\HowTo\CDEGS\GisGrnd\Tutorial\inputs
Examples\Official\HowTo\CDEGS\GisGrnd\Tutorial\outputs

Note that the files found in both the Inputs and the Outputs directories should be copied directly
into the working directory, not into subdirectories of the working directory.

Page 1-6

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

CHAPTER 2
SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS &
INTERPRETATION
2.1 SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS
Soil resistivity measurements at the substation site were carried out using the Wenner
andSchlumberger techniques. Figure 2.1 shows the traverses along which the measurements were
taken. Table 21 gives the measured apparent resistance values along Traverse #1 using the Wenner
method (i.e., the distances between adjacent electrodes are equal). Three different equipments
(STING R1, SAS 300C and YEW-3244) have been used to record the data. Table 22 lists the
measured apparent resistance values along Traverse #1 using the Schlumberger method.

Traverse #3

Grounding Grid

Traverse #1

(255 ftX270 ft)

Traverse #2
Figure 2.1

Traverses of Soil Resistivity Measurements

To accurately determine the grounding performance of a substation, it is necessary to carry out


resistivity measurements along a traverse (preferably two traverses orthogonal to each other) which
extends at least twice the largest dimension of the substation to establish a soil structure with a
reasonable degree of confidence for the computer analysis.

Page 2-1

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

Measurements

R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15

Table 21

Spacing
Between
Probes
(ft)
1.64
3.28
6.56
9.84
13.12
16.4
19.68
22.96
32.8
49.2
65.6
98.4
164
229.6
328

Depth of Probes
(ft)

Apparent Resistance (V/I)


()

Cpin

Ppin

STING R1

SAS 300C

YEW-3244

0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.984
0.984
0.984
1.312
1.312
1.312
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64

0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.984
0.984
0.984
1.312
1.312
1.312
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64

554.600
385.400
178.300
105.300
74.460
59.500
48.170
42.080
28.400
19.020
14.480
10.330
6.880
5.905
4.523

557.000
386.000
179.600
106.300
75.100
59.700
48.400
42.100
27.900
18.820
14.930
10.370
6.610
6.090
4.710

----150.000
174.000
102.500
70.000
56.000
29.000
28.000
27.500
18.500
13.900
10.000
6.700
5.600
4.500

Measured Apparent Resistances of Substation Site Using the Wenner Method

Page 2-2

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

Measurements

R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R23
R24
R25
R26
R27

Table 22

Spacing Between
Probes
(ft)

Depth of Probes
(ft)

Apparent Resistance (V/I)


()

P1-P2

C1-P1

Cpin

Ppin

STING R1

SAS 300C

YEW-3244

6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
6.56
32.8
6.56
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8
32.8

6.56
11.48
16.4
21.32
26.24
36.08
45.92
55.76
65.6
75.44
85.28
95.12
114.8
101.68
134.48
121.36
141.04
160.72
180.4
213.2
246
278.8
311.6
344.4
377.2
410
475.6

0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
0.984
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64
1.64

0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492
0.492

182.600
64.890
31.870
18.870
11.980
6.777
4.228
3.091
2.417
1.973
1.539
1.287
1.472
6.984
1.335
4.720
3.949
3.178
2.400
1.875
1.491
1.272
1.016
0.8295
0.6470
0.6392
0.5419

172.600
62.000
31.800
18.890
11.940
6.430
4.000
3.840
2.490
1.920
2.210
1.713
1.080
5.510
0.929
4.290
3.600
2.850
2.260
1.868
1.543
1.213
1.100
1.041
0.988
0.723
0.581

166.000
59.000
31.000
18.450
11.800
6.550
4.100
2.940
2.260
1.890
1.270
1.120
0.960
5.400
0.695
4.000
3.450
2.865
2.355
1.745
1.325
1.100
0.900
0.770
0.580
0.595
0.545

Measured Apparent Resistances of Substation Site Using the Schlumberger Method

Page 2-3

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

2.2 INTERPRETATION
MEASUREMENTS

OF

SOIL

RESISTIVITY

The following data values were entered as input to the RESAP soil resistivity analysis module of the
CDEGS software package:

Apparent Resistance (V/I): The apparent resistance measured at each probe spacing.

Cpin Depth: The depth to which the current injection electrodes were driven into the
earth. This value influences the interpretation of soil resistivities at short electrode
spacing.

Ppin Depth: The depth to which the potential probes were driven into the earth. This
value also influences the interpretation of soil resistivities at short electrode spacing.

Spacing between Probes: The distance between adjacent measurement probes.

The soil resistivity interpretation module RESAP was used to determine equivalent horizontally
layered soils for the three measurement sites. The characteristics of the equivalent soil structures are
shown in Table 23 and Table 24 along with grounding system resistances as computed by the low
frequency grounding module MALT (see the next chapter). Note that the resistances shown here
were computed for the initial design of the grounding system of NCC-SES GIS.
Soil Model
Two-Layer
Three-Layer

Four-Layer

Table 23

Layer

Resistivity
(-m)

Thickness
(ft)

Top
Bottom
Top
2nd
Bottom
Top
2nd
3rd
Bottom

1935.6
7871.5
2552.2
1742.4
4027.2
594.8
9125.4
1750.7
4453.1

222.65

4.37
116.99

0.48
0.70
131.7

RMS Error
(%)

Grid Resistance
(

8.55

14.84

2.4

13.47

2.59

14.40

Horizontally Layered Soil Models Computed Using Data


(Wenner Method).

Soil Model

Layer

Resistivity
(-m)

Thickness
(ft)

RMS Error
(%)

Top
2nd
Bottom

2480.00
1344.26
4550.32

6.08
40.29

8.9

Three-Layer

Table 24

Horizontally Layered Soil Models Computed Using Data


(Schlumberger Method).

from Table

21

Grid Resistance
(
15.93

from Table

22

The RMS Error in Column 5 of Table 23 and Table 24 (computed by RESAP as described in
this section) provides a quantitative indication of the agreement between the measurements and the
proposed soil models. Note that the tables show several equivalent soil structures for each
measurement site, namely multilayer structures and a two-layer structure. Although the fit of
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


computed to measured soil resistivities is considerably better when multilayered soil models are
used, the computed grid resistances corresponding to the two-layer and multilayered soil models are
similar.
The three-layer soil model in Table 23 will be used for the grid design. There are two reasons why
we choose this soil model. First of all, this soil model is more conservative (higher resistivity for the
top layer where the grid will be buried) compared to the two-layer and three-layer soil models from
the Schlumberger method. Secondly, since the grid resistances are about the same for the three-layer
and four-layer soil models (see Table 23), the use of the three-layer soil model will reduce the
computation time in the MALT module.
The following describes the steps to achieve the soil models in Table 23. We choose the Wenner
method as an example to illustrate how to use RESAP to obtain the soil models in Table 23.

2.2.1

Preparation of The Resistivity Input File In CDEGS Input Mode

The soil resistivity interpretation input file can be prepared using one of several input interface
modules as well as a standard text editor (or the one provided with CDEGS). See Appendix A for a
short description of the various input interface modules and the resulting input files and their
structures.
The following section describes the Windows compatible input session, which, once completed,
generates the Command mode compatible input file, (.INP and .F05 file extension) described in
Printout A.1 both of which can be reloaded during subsequent sessions.
2.2.1.1

Windows Toolbox Input Mode

This section describes in detail how to prepare the RESAP input data using the CDEGS Input Mode.
The most important features in preparing the data are explained in Section 2.2.1.3, which also
contains some hints on how to avoid common errors while using RESAP. The instructions
describing how to produce the Command Mode compatible RESAP input file once the data is
entered are given in Section 2.2.1.4.
2.2.1.2

Start Up Procedures

Click here

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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

In the SES Software <Version> group folder, where <Version> is the version number of the
software, you should see the icons representing Autogrid Pro, AutoGroundDesign, CDEGS,
Right-of-Way, SESEnviroPlus, SESShield-3D and SESTLC software packages, as well as four
folders. The Documentation folder contains help documents for various utilities and software
packages. The Program Folders provides shortcuts to programs, installation and projects folders.
The System folder allows you to conveniently set up security keys. Various utilities can be found in
the Tools folder. The main function of each software package and utility is described hereafter.
SOFTWARE PACKAGES
Autogrid Pro provides a simple, integrated environment for carrying out detailed grounding
studies. This package combines the computational powers of the engineering programs RESAP,
MALT and FCDIST with a simple, largely automated interface.
AutoGroundDesign offers powerful and intelligent functions that help electrical engineers
design safe grounding installations quickly and efficiently. The time devoted to design a safe and
also cost-effective grounding grid is minimized by the use of automation techniques and
appropriate databases. This module can help reduce considerably the time needed to complete a
grounding design.
Right-of-Way is a powerful integrated software package for the analysis of electromagnetic
interference between electric power lines and adjacent installations such as pipelines and
communication lines. It is especially designed to simplify and to automate the modeling of
complex right-of-way configurations. The Right-of-Way interface runs the TRALIN and SPLITS
engineering modules and several other related components in the background.
SESEnviroPlus is a sophisticated program that evaluates the environmental impact (radio
interference, audio-noise, corona losses, and electromagnetic fields) of AC, DC or mixed
transmission line systems.
SESShield-3D is a powerful graphical program for the design and analysis of protective
measures against lightning for substations and electrical networks. Its 3D graphical environment
can be used to model accurately systems with complex geometries.
SESTLC is a simplified analysis tool useful to quickly estimate the inductive and conductive
electromagnetic interference levels on metallic utility paths such as pipelines and railways
located close to electric lines (and not necessary parallel to them), as well as the magnetic and
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


electric fields of arbitrary configurations of parallel transmission and distribution lines. It can
also compute line parameters.
CDEGS is a powerful set of integrated engineering software tools designed to accurately analyze
problems involving grounding, electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic interference including
AC/DC interference mitigation studies and various aspects of cathodic protection and anode bed
analysis with a global perspective, starting literally from the ground up. It consists of eight
engineering modules: RESAP, MALT, MALZ, SPLITS, TRALIN, HIFREQ, FCDIST and
FFTSES. This is the primary interface used to enter data, run computations, and examine results
for all software packages other than Right-of-Way, Autogrid Pro, AutoGroundDesign, SESTLC,
SESShield-3D and SESEnviroPlus. This interface also provides access to the utilities listed
below.
TOOLS
AutoTransient automates the process required to carry out a transient analysis with the HIFREQ
and FFTSES modules
CETU simplifies the transfer of Right-of-Way and SPLITS output data to MALZ. A typical
application is the calculation of conductive interference levels in an AC interference study.
FFT21Data extracts data directly from FFTSES output database files (File21) in a spreadsheetcompatible format or in a format recognized by the SESPLOT utility.
GraRep is a program that displays and prints graphics or text files. For more information on
GraRep see Chapter 6 of the Utilities Manual or invoke the Windows Help item from the menu
bar.
GRServer is an advanced output processor which displays, plots, prints, and modifies
configuration and computation results obtained during previous and current CDEGS sessions.
GRSplits plots the circuit models entered in SPLITS or FCDIST input files. This program
greatly simplifies the task of manipulating, visualizing and checking the components of a
SPLITS or FCDIST circuit.
GRSplits-3D is a powerful interactive 3D graphical environment that allows you to view and
edit the circuit data contained in SPLITS input files and to simultaneously visualize the
computation results.
ROWCAD is a graphical user interface for the visualization and specification of the geometrical
data of Right-of-Way projects. Its 3D graphical environment can be used to visualize, specify
and edit the path data of Right-of-Way, and to define the electrical properties of those paths.
SESAmpacity computes the ampacity, the temperature rise or the minimum size of a bare buried
conductor during a fault. It also computes the temperature of bare overhead conductors for a
given current or the current corresponding to a given temperature, accounting for environmental
conditions.

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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


SESBat is a utility that allows you to submit several CDEGS engineering program runs at once.
The programs can be run with different JobIDs and from different Working Directories.
SESCad is a CAD program which allows you to create, modify, and view complex grounding
networks and aboveground metallic structures, in these dimensions. It is a graphical utility for the
development of conductor networks in MALT, MALZ and HIFREQ.
SESConductorDatabase gives access to the SES Conductor Database. It allows you to view the
electrical properties of conductors in the database, and to add new conductors to the database or
modify their properties.
SESEnviroPlot is a graphical display tool is an intuitive Windows application that dynamically
displays arrays of computation data produced by the SESEnviro software module.
SESGSE rapidly computes the ground resistances of simple grounding systems, such as ground
rods, horizontal wires, plates, rings, etc, in uniform soils. SESGSE also estimates the required
size of such grounding systems to achieve a given ground resistance.
SESPlot provides simple plots from data read from a text file.
SESScript is a simple programming language that automatically generates input files for
parametric analyses.
SESShield provides optimum solutions for the protection of transmission lines and substations
against direct lightning strikes and optimizes the location and configuration of shield wires and
masts in order to prevent the exposure of energized conductors, busses and equipment. It can also
perform risk assessment calculations associated with lightning strikes on various structures.
SESSystemViewer is a powerful 3D graphics rendition software that allows you to visualize the
complete system including the entire network and surrounding soil structure. Furthermore,
computation results are displayed right on the system components.
SoilModelManager is a software tool that automates the selection of soil model structures that
apply during various seasons.
SoilTransfer utility allows you to transfer the soil model found in several SES files into several
MALT, MALZ or HIFREQ input (F05) files.
TransposIT is a tool for the analysis of line transpositions on coupled electric power line
circuits. To ensure that voltage unbalance is kept within predefined limits, it allows the user to
determine the optimal number of power line transpositions and their required locations.
WMFPrint displays and prints WMF files (Windows Metafiles) generated by CDEGS or any
other software.

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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


We will be using mostly the CDEGS icon to carry out most of the input/output tasks. We will refer
to the other utility modules when appropriate. In the SES Software group folder, double-click the
CDEGS icon to start the CDEGS program interface (if not already started). You will be prompted
for a Current Job ID. Any character string could be entered here, although NCC1T is
recommended. Enter the complete path of your working directory in the Working Directory box.
Select Specify in the Session Mode list and click the RESAP button located in the toolbar. The
CDEGS-Specify-RESAP screen will appear (without the text) and you are now ready to input data.

In the following section, it will be assumed that the reader is entering the data as indicated in the
instructions. Note that it is advisable to save your work regularly by clicking on the Save button in
the toolbar and following the instructions in the dialog box. The data entered up to that point will be
saved in two files called RS_NCC1T.F05 and RS_NCC1T.INP. Each file can be retrieved at any
time by clicking on the Import / Load

button and following the instructions in the dialog box.

The same considerations apply if a data entry session has to be interrupted. (Click
to go back to the Start-Up window after saving your data.)

in the toolbar

If you intend to enter the data manually, proceed directly to Section 2.2.1.3. If you do not wish to do
so, you can import all the data by proceeding as follows.
Importing DATA
Click the Import / Load
button. Change the File Name in the dialog box to RS_07T.F05 then
click on the Load button in the dialog box. Click OK in the resulting Message Box. The data
described in the next section will be loaded and you will not have to enter it.

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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


2.2.1.3

Data Entry

As shown in Printout A.1, the RESAP commands are grouped into modules, reflecting the
hierarchical nature of the SES Input Command Language. Each module of Figure A.1 (with the
exception of the OPTION module) is associated to a button in the RESAP screen. The OPTION
module is actually part of the RESAP main screen.
The data entry field in the Module Description tab under the Case Description block allows you to
type comment lines that are used to describe the case to be analyzed in the RESAP module. They are
echoed in the RESAP output. If you place your mouse cursor on any comment line and click on it
(i.e., focus on the comment line) then hitting the F1 (Help Key) will bring a help text describing the
Case Description lines. A Run-ID NCC1T is entered in the Run-Identification box and the
British System of Units is chosen. The Run-ID is useful in identifying all the plots which will be
made later in Section 2.2.3. Focusing on the Run-Identification field and then hitting the F1 key
will bring a help text related to the focused field. This applies to all CDEGS Input and Output text
fields.
Click the Measurements button to enter the
measured apparent resistivities from
Traverse 1. A quick way to enter the same
data, such as probe depth, into several data
fields is to select these fields first, then type
in the data. This screen also allows you to
specify the method used to gather the data,
the type of measurements, and the results
obtained. Furthermore, it allows you to
immediately plot the results in a linear/linear
or log/linear fashion to determine the shape
of the curve or the presence of noise in the
measurements. For this tutorial, you must
specify the STING R1 (R1 to R15) and the
SAS 300C (R16 to R30) data from Table 2
1.
By default, RESAP selects the Wenner method and selects
the Account for Probe Depth Option. The data are entered
into Measurements. You can click on Show data to plot
the results. Click OK to return to the RESAP main screen.
To start a trial run, we choose the automatic soillayer
determination. Click the Soil Type button to access the
appropriate screen.
Select Horizontal Soil Type. By entering a 0 value in all
the applicable fields (or leaving them empty) as shown
above, you are requesting that the RESAP program
determines suitable initial values to the requested soil
characteristics. If for any reason you prefer to specify your
own values, you should enter valid initial guesses in all the
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


required fields, otherwise the program will make its own assumptions. Click OK to return to the
RESAP main screen.
The Computations screen allows you to Lock and/or Unlock the resistivity and depth of each layer
and define the extent of the Computed Resistivity Traverse. It also allows you to choose or
generate different filters. By default, RESAP chooses Standard Filter, which is sufficient for most
practical cases. The High Precision Filter is sometimes needed when extreme soil conditions (very
large soil resistivity contrast ratio) are encountered; it increases the computation time considerably.
Generating new filters is seldom needed unless RESAP encounters a missing or corrupted filter
database file. The Computed Resistivity Traverse option specifies a traverse along which apparent
earth resistivities are to be computed based on the equivalent earth model determined by RESAP.
Two values are entered:
1. The number of consecutive electrode spacings for
which the computation of apparent resistivity is
to be carried out. Note that the total number of
computed points and field measurement points
must not exceed 10,000 and that the default
number of computed points is set at 100.
2. The incremental value of the outer-electrode
spacing used for the apparent earth resistivity
computations (meters or feet). This value
represents the outer-electrode spacing increase
between two consecutive computed points and is
normally set at 1.
Please note that the calculations start with a very short electrode spacing. The ratio of the outer-inner
electrode spacing to the inner-inner electrode spacing will be based on the average ratio as
determined from the field measurement data.
The Optimization screen allows you to specify the minimization
algorithms and to control the iterative minimization process. In
this study, we use the Levenberg-Marquardt method. There are
only three parameters you should modify when the RMS error
between the computed data and measured data is not satisfied.
They are
Accuracy: This parameter sets the desired RMS error (default
value is 0.025).
Iterations: This parameter sets the total number of iterations
(default value is 500).
Step Size: This parameter specifies the minimum change of RMS error below which the
optimization process will stop. The program will conduct a convergence test by computing the
average RMS error change over the past 25 iterations. The minimization will stop if the averaged
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


RMS error change is less than the value specified by Step Size command. Decreasing the Step
Size usually improves the fit of the computed soil model to the measured data, but increases the
computation time. The default value of Step Size is 0.0001 (0.01%).
RESAP will terminate the iterative minimization process whenever the desired Accuracy is reached,
or the minimization Step Size is smaller than the threshold value, or the total number of Iterations is
reached.
2.2.1.4

How to Produce the RESAP Input File

You can now return to the RESAP main screen by clicking OK. At this point, you have completed
the preparation of the data using the CDEGS-Specify-RESAP: it is ready to be submitted to the
RESAP engineering module in the next section.
If you are a licensee of the CDEGS software you are now able to proceed to Section 2.2.2. Users of
the demo software are not able to process the input file, but are able to peruse all output files that are
already available. Therefore read Section 2.2.2 for reference only. Any attempt to start the
engineering modules will result in a message stating that the Engineering module is not active.

2.2.2

Submission of the RESAP Run

Click the Compute/Submit

button to submit and run the model. This does two things:

1. It saves two files under the names RS_NCC1T.F05 and RS_NCC1T.INP. These two files can
be reread from the Toolbox using the Import/Load
button. Furthermore, the *.F05 and
*.INP files are ASCII files you can edit and view at any time. (The *.F05 file is typically
identical to the *.INP file.)
2. It starts the RESAP engineering program.
The RESAP program will start and will carry out all requested
computations. The run should take very little time. At completion,
the program will produce three important files: an OUTPUT file
(RS_NCC1T.F09), a DATABASE file (RS_NCC1T.F21) and the
SHARE file (SF_NCC1T.F11).
The OUTPUT file is an ASCII file, while the DATABASE and
SHARE files are binary files. Any ERROR or WARNING
messages generated during the RESAP run will appear in the OUTPUT file. The SHARE file
contains the computed soil model which will be used later by the HIFREQ. You can view the
OUTPUT file by clicking the File Viewer (
) button in the Output section of the toolbar (if
prompted, select the RESAP: Soil Resistivity Analysis option, and click OK). You can also use the
GraRep utility (See Section 2.2.1.1) to view and edit any ASCII output files.
The next section examines the computation results using the Examine (Output) Mode of CDEGS.
Depending on your settings, the program may automatically start the output session the moment the
engineering program terminates. This is controlled by the option View the output session after
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


engineering computations in the System Settings window (accessible from the Settings | System
menu item).

2.2.3

Extraction of the Results from RESAP Computation Results


Files

The OUTPUT file contains all the input information and computation results from your RESAP run.
The DATABASE file is normally used by CDEGS (Examine Mode) and the SES Interactive
Report & Plot Software processors (such as GraRep) to display the computation results. In the
following, we will give an example demonstrating how to use the Examine mode of the CDEGS
program (Section 2.2.3.1) to produce the corresponding graphs.
2.2.3.1

CDEGS - Examine Mode Output Processor

If you have followed the instructions up to this point, the active JobID
should be "NCC1T". We will therefore extract the results and display
the plot on screen. If the CDEGS-Examine-RESAP screen is not
already visible, click on the
(Examine) button on the toolbar, and
click No if prompted to save: the CDEGS-Examine-RESAP screen
will appear and you are now ready to make plots.
Enter a Plot Title (AUTOMATIC-LAYER) in order to identify the
plot, select the British option button under X-Axis Units and click the
Plot/Draw button to obtain a plot of the computed results, as shown in
Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2

Result of Trial RESAP Run Using All of Data Points: AUTOMATIC-LAYER Soil
Model.

Page 2-13

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


As you will have noticed, the fit between measured
and computed results is poor suggesting that
perhaps a four-layer soil model would be a more
adequate choice. The refinement of the soil model
will be discussed in the next section.
Click the Report button to review numerical
highlights of the results.
You can also send the plot and report to a file for
processing.
Once you are done examining the results, click
in the toolbar to go back to the CDEGS
startup screen.

2.3 SOIL MODELS FROM WENNER MEASUREMENT


As shown in Figure 2.2 in the preceding section, the agreement between the measured and computed
apparent resistivity is poor. The poor agreement is caused by an abnormal change in the apparent
resistivity at the region corresponding to the top layer (the shorter spacing data). The apparent
resistivity in this region usually approaches a plateau to indicate the top layer resistivity. The drop of
the resistivity at the shortest spacing (i.e., the first data point) was probably due to the rainy
conditions during the measurement. The data in the REPORT screen indicates the resistivities and
thicknesses of all layers. The RMS Error in the screen provides a quantitative measure of the
agreement between the measurements and the proposed soil model.
By examining the shape of the curve, i.e., by following the number of inflection points, we realize
that a four-layer soil model should provide an appropriate fit for all data points. A three-layer soil
model could also provide an appropriate fit provided that the first data point is removed. A two-layer
soil model can be obtained by simply forcing the number of the user-defined layers to 2. The
following describes how to obtain the three soil models in Table 23.

2.3.1
2.3.1.1

First RESAP Run: Initial Four-Layer Soil Model in Table 23


Preparation of RESAP Input
File

We first need to choose a Job ID for the first


RESAP run. In this tutorial, we choose NCC1A
as the JodID. Enter the new Job ID as shown.
Select Specify in the Session Mode list and click
on the RESAP button in the toolbar as described
in Section 2.2.1.1 to load the CDEGS-SpecifyRESAP screen.
The input file RS_NCC1A.F05 can be created by
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


simply modifying the soil type in RS_NCC1T.F05. It can also be created by loading a pre-prepared
file RS_07A.F05, as described in Section 2.2.1.2. The following describes how to create
RS_NCC1A.F05 using RS_NCC1T.F05.
Click the Import/Load
button. Change the File Name in the dialog box to RS_NCC1T.F05,
then click on the Load button in the dialog box. Click OK in the resulting Message Box. You are
ready to modify RS_NCC1T.F05 by proceeding as follows.
First, change the comments and Run-Identification according to the following screen.
Click the Soil Type button. Click the User-Defined option button under Number of Soil Layers
and enter 4 in the adjoining box.

You have completed the modification of the data and can now return to the RESAP main screen by
clicking OK.
2.3.1.2

Submission of RESAP Run and Extraction of Results Using Toolbox

Click the Compute/Submit


button to exit the RESAP screen and start the RESAP engineering
module. A RESAP input file RS_NCC1A.F05 is generated. Printout A.2 shows this file.
Page 2-15

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


After completion of the RESAP run, the results can be extracted by repeating the instructions
described in Section 2.2.3. The following shows the best fit of soil resistivity data using the fourlayer soil model.
As shown in Figure 2.3 below, the computed curve now fits the measured data well. However, the fit
to the first data point can still be improved. The RMS error is now reduced from 6.4% (see Figure
2.2) to 3.4%.

Figure 2.3

2.3.2
2.3.2.1

Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for Wenner Method: Four-Layer Soil


Model.

Second RESAP Run: Five-Layer Soil Model


Preparation of RESAP Input File

In order to obtain a successful fit for a difficult case such as this one, the following two options are
usually recommended: (a) Increasing the number of layers to give the RESAP program extra
parameters (resistivity and thickness) during the least-square minimization; (b) Using appropriate
initial values for layer parameters since the minimization algorithms are usually sensitive to the
initial values of the layer parameters. Note that by default RESAP determines the initial values of the
layer parameters based on your measurement data and requested soil models. These estimates are
usually adequate.
Options (a) and (b) can also be combined into an effective two-step procedure which will work most
of the time. The procedure is described as follows:
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


Step 1: Obtain the best-fit layer parameters by simply increasing the number of layers (Option (a))
Step 2: Based on the best-fit layer parameters and the correct number of layers, obtain good initial
guesses for the layer parameters. These values are then used in Option (b).
Steps 1 and 2 are applied in this section and the next section to obtain the best fit four-layer soil
model.
In this section, a five-layer soil model is used. NCC1B is chosen as the Job ID. The steps to generate
RS_NCC1B.F05 files from RS_NCC1A.F05 are very similar to those used to create the
RS_NCC1A.F05 file from RS_NCC1T.F05. These steps are described in the preceding section.
RS_NCC1B.F05 can also be obtained by loading a pre-prepared input file RS_07B.F05. Printout A.3
shows the input file RS_NCC1B.F05.
2.3.2.2

Submission of RESAP Run and Extraction of Results Using Toolbox

Start the RESAP engineering module by clicking the Compute/Submit


button in the CDEGSSpecify-RESAP screen. After completion of the RESAP run, the results can be extracted by
repeating the instructions described in Section 2.2.3. Figure 2.4 shows that the computed curve now
fits the measured data very well. The RMS error decreased further from 3.4 % to 2.5%.

Figure 2.4

Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for Wenner Method: Five-Layer Soil


Model.

Page 2-17

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

2.3.3
2.3.3.1

Third RESAP Run: Final Four-Layer Soil Model in Table 23


Preparation of RESAP Input File

Based on the five-layer soil model obtained in the preceding


section, an initial guess for the four-layer soil model is
constructed (by combining layers 4 and 5 into a single
average layer (which means: the mean of the resistivities,
with the sum of the thicknesses) and defined in the following
soil module.
NCC1C is chosen as the JobID. By following the similar
steps described in Section 2.2.1.2, we can create
RS_NCC1C.F05 from RS_NCC1A.F05, respectively.
RS_NCC1C.F05 can also be obtained by loading a preprepared input file RS_07C.F05. Printout A.4 shows the
input file RS_NCC1C.F05.
2.3.3.2

Submission of RESAP Run and Extraction of Results Using Toolbox

Start the RESAP engineering module by clicking the Compute/Submit


button in the CDEGSSpecify-RESAP screen. After completion of the RESAP run, the results can be extracted by
repeating the instructions described in Section 2.2.3. Figure 2.5 indicates that the computed curve
still fits the measured data very well. The RMS error is increased slightly from 2.5 % to 2.6%.

Figure 2.5

Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for Wenner Method: Final Four-Layer Soil
Model.
Page 2-18

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

2.3.4
2.3.4.1

Fourth RESAP Run: Final Three-Layer Soil Model in Table 23


Preparation of RESAP Input File

The goal of this RESAP run is to find the best three-layer soil model. Note that it is always
preferable to find the simplest soil model possible to reduce the computation time for the grounding
analysis. In this tutorial, we choose NCCR1 as the Job ID. As mentioned in Section 2.2, the threelayer soil model has been chosen for the ground grid design. The JobID NCCR1 is selected as a
common Job ID to enable the data transfer between RESAP, MALT and HIFREQ. In the CDEGS
main screen, enter NCCR1 in the Current Job ID box.
By examining the resistivity measurement curve, we expect that a three-layer soil model will fit the
measurement curve very well provided that the first data point is removed. This assumption is
justified since the measurement was taken on a rainy day. By following the steps described in
Section 2.2.1.2, we can create RS_NCCR1.F05 from RS_NCC1A.F05. RS_NCCR1.F05 can also be
obtained by loading a pre-prepared input file RS_07D.F05. Note that the lines of data corresponding
to 1.64 ft (Measurement R1 and R16) are deleted in the Measurements module.
2.3.4.2

Submission of RESAP Run and Extraction of Results Using Toolbox

Start the RESAP engineering module by clicking the Compute/Submit


button in the CDEGSSpecify-RESAP screen. After completion of the RESAP run, the results can be extracted by
repeating the instruction described in Section 2.2.3. Figure 2.6 compares the measured resistivities
with those computed from a three-layer soil structure. The REPORT file screen lists the attributes of
each layer.

Figure 2.6

Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for Wenner Method: Final Three-Layer Soil
Model (the first data points are removed).
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Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation

2.3.5
2.3.5.1

Fifth RESAP Run: Final Two-Layer Soil Model in Table 23


Preparation of RESAP Input File

Based on the Three-layer soil model obtained in the fourth RESAP run in Section 2.3.4, the twolayer soil model in Table 23 is obtained by forcing the number of user-defined layers to 2.
By following the similar steps described in Section 2.2.1.2, we can create RS_NCC1E.F05 from
RS_NCCR1.F05. RS_NCC1E.F05 can also be obtained by loading a pre-prepared input file
RS_07E.F05. NCC1E is chosen as the JobID.
2.3.5.2

Submission of RESAP Run and Extraction of Results Using Toolbox

Start the RESAP engineering module by clicking the Compute/Submit


button in the CDEGSSpecify-RESAP screen. After completion of the RESAP run, the results can be extracted by
repeating the instruction described in Section 2.2.3. Figure 2.7 compares the measured resistivities
with those computed from a two-layer soil structure. The REPORT file screen lists the attributes of
each layer.

Figure 2.7

Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for Wenner Method: Final Two-Layer Soil
Model (the first data points are removed).

2.4 INTERPRETATION
OF
SOIL
RESISTIVITY
MEASUREMENTS FROM SCHLUMBERGER ELECTRODE
CONFIGURATION
The interpretation of the soil resistivity measurements for the Schlumberger electrode configuration
can be done similarly (methodology Marquardt). We first start a trial run to let RESAP determine an
appropriate soil model. A four layer soil model is determined, as shown in Figure 2.8. Next, the best
fit soil model, a three-layer soil model in this case, is specified to reduce the number of layers. No

Page 2-20

Chapter 2. Soil Resistivity Measurements & Interpretation


data points are discarded. For this part of the tutorial, we will use the SAS 300C data (R1 to R27)
from Table 22.
The results are shown in Figure 2.8 and Figure 2.9. The input files for Figure 2.8 and Figure 2.9 are
RS_NCC2T.F05 and RS_NCC2A.F05, respectively. These input files can be created by loading two
pre-prepared input files RS_072T.F05 and RS_072A.F05. Printout A.5 shows the input file
RS_NCCR1.F05 and Printout A.6 shows the input file RS_NCC1E.F05.

Figure 2.8

Computed vs. Measured Resistivities for Schlumberger Method: Four-Layer Soil


Model.

Figure 2.9

Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for Schlumberger Method: Three-Layer Soil


Model.

Page 2-21

This page is intentionally left blank

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

CHAPTER 3
INITIAL DESIGN OF GROUNDING SYSTEM
AND COMPUTATION OF GRID RESISTANCE
In this chapter, the detailed computer model of the initial design of the NCC-SES grounding system
will be presented. We will show how to use the MALT engineering module to determine the
grounding grid resistance that will be used for computing fault current distribution in the next
chapter.

3.1 INITIAL DESIGN OF GROUNDING SYSTEM


Figure 3.1 shows the configuration of the initial design (first attempt) of the NCC-SES GIS
grounding grid. It consists of a 255 ft by 270 ft rectangular grid with a conductor radius of 0.264
buried at a depth of 1 ft and a 43.5 ft by 207.8 ft rectangular grid with a conductor radius of 0.4065
buried at a depth of 2 ft. The grid at a depth of 1 ft covers the entire substation fenced property,
while the grid at a depth of 2 ft covers the area occupied by the GIS equipment building. The
perimeter of the substation grid is defined such that the outermost conductors are located 3.3 ft (1
meter) outside the edge of the fence to protect people standing outside the substation from excessive
touch voltages. The fence is not modeled in this case. The 255 ft by 270 ft grounding grid is made of
18 equal spaced conductors along the X axis and 19 equal spaced conductors along the Y axis. As
shown in Figure 3.1, the conductors of the 43.5 ft by 204.7 ft grounding grid are connected to the top
grid by vertical copper conductors with a radius of 0.264 and there are 21 rods with a length of 10 ft
and a radius of 0.375 connected to the grid under GIS structure.
The rebar in the concrete floor of GIS building has dimensions of 40.4 ft by 204.7 ft with conductor
radius of 0.125 buried at a depth of 0.5 ft. The rebars are connected to the main ground grid at 14
locations, every 15 ft.
The initial ground resistance of the NCC-SES GIS substation is 13.47 as will be determined in this
chapter with the soil resistivity calculated from RS_NCCR1.F05.

Page 3-1

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance


43.5 ft

255 ft
(-136, -135) ft

(a)

The Grounding System at the NCC-SES GIS Substation without Rebar


Rebar
43.5 ft

40.4 ft
255 ft

(b)
Figure 3.1

The Grounding System at the NCC-SES GIS Substation with Rebar

Initial Design of the Grounding System at the NCC-SES GIS Substation

Page 3-2

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

3.2 PREPARATION OF THE MALT INPUT FILE USING SESCAD


Similarly to RESAP, you can prepare the MALT input file (.F05 extension) using the Windows
Input Toolbox mode. However, the most efficient way to do this is with the SESCAD program,
which allows you to create, modify, and view complex grounding networks and aboveground
metallic structures visually, in three dimensions. The engineering input file created by SESCAD, as
described in this chapter, is shown in Printout A.7 in Appendix A. It can be reloaded during
subsequent sessions.

3.2.1

Start Up Procedures

Click here
This step is identical to the one already described in Section 2.2.1.2. In the SES Software group
folder, double-click the CDEGS icon to start the CDEGS program interface (if not already started).
You will be prompted for a Working Directory and a
"Current Job ID". Make sure that the proposed working
directory is the same as the one used in the preceding
chapter. In the Current Job ID box enter NCCR1 (while
any character string could be entered here, note that if
you enter a Job ID other than NCCR1, the data transfer
Click here to
between RESAP and MALT will not be available).
start SESCAD
Select Specify from the Session Mode drop-down list
and click the SESCAD button
or select SESCAD
under Tools menu to start the SESCAD program.
In the Select a file to open window, select Open the
MALT file MT_NCCR1.F05 <New Case>.

You are now ready to input data.


Page 3-3

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

In the following section, it will be assumed that the reader is entering the data as indicated in the
instructions. Note that it is advisable to save your work regularly by clicking on the Save button in
the toolbar and following the instructions in the dialog box. The data entered up to that point will be
saved in a file called MT_NCCR1.F05. This file can be retrieved at any time by selecting the File |
Open Document menu item in SESCAD and following the instructions in the dialog box. The same
considerations apply if a data entry session has to be interrupted (close all active windows to exit the
program after saving your data).
If you intend to enter the data manually, proceed directly to Section 3.2.2. If you do not wish to do
so, you can import all the data by proceeding as follows.
Importing DATA
First be sure to close the MT_NCCR1.F05 which was just created. Select the Open
Documentunder the File menu. Browse to the file MT_07R1.F05 in the working directory
\CDEGS Howto\Gisgrnd, then click on the OK button to open the file. Click on Save Document
As and select the file MT_NCCR1.F05 in working directory to overwrite this file. The data
described in the next section will be loaded and you will not have to enter it.

3.2.2

Data Entry

Step 1.
Define Units and Other Settings: We will first define a Run ID and System of Units
by selecting Define | Units and Other Settings in SESCAD. Under the Module Level |
Grid | Case Description block of this window, you can enter comment lines that are used to
describe the case. They are echoed in the MALT output. In this tutorial,
NCCSAFETY(NCCR1) is entered under the Specify option, a 60 Hertz frequency and the

Page 3-4

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance


British Systems of Units are chosen. The Run-ID is useful in identifying all the plots which
will be made later in Section 3.4. Click the OK button to save and exit this screen.
Step 2.
Define Soil Model: By default, if the soil
model is not selected, MALT will use the results
obtained from RESAP that were stored in the shared
database file. In this tutorial, the three-layer soil
model corresponding to the JobID NCCR1 will be
used.
Step 3.
Define a 255 ft by 270 ft Main Grid: We will
now proceed with the description of an initial model
of the grounding system (see Figure 3.1) in the area
defined by the property line of the GIS substation.
We will quickly define our grid rather than entering
each conductor one-by-one. Wefirst require a 255 ft
by 270 ft rectangular grid having one corner at (-136,
-135) in the X-Y plane and buried at 1.0 ft. Each
conductor has a radius of 0.264. The subdivision is 1.
The grid will be made of 18 equally spaced
conductors along the X axis and 19 equally spaced
conductors along the Y axis. In many cases, as demonstrated in the How To Engineering
Guide entitled "A Simple Substation Grounding Analysis", grids with conductors more
closely spaced towards the edge of the grid than at its center are more usually efficient than
grids with uniformly spaced conductors.
The following provides the required steps:
a. Under the Insert menu, select Conductor Grid | Detailed Grid.
b. In the following Create Grid window, enter the coordinates of three corners of the grid:
a, b and c (as identified in the graphical display). Number of conductors parallel to AB
( = 19) indicates the total number of conductors along the X axis, and Number of
conductors parallel to AC ( = 18) indicates the total number of conductors along the Y
axis.

Page 3-5

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance


c. The Compression ratio is set to 1, i.e., equally-spaced conductors.
d. Click on the Characteristics button to set the conductor radius to 0.264 and click the
OK button to close this window. Click the OK button to close the Create Grid window.
This creates the 255 ft by 270 ft grid under the Main ground in the SESCAD. You can
view the grid by click on Display | Zoom to All Objects or by clicking on the Zoom to
All Objects

button.

Click here to
change to XY,
XZ, YZ, 3D or
Plan Views

Click here to Explore,


Zoom, Zoom to All
Objects, Zoom to Selected
Objects, Zoom In and Out
objects

Define 43.5 ft 204.7 ft Grid under GIS Building:


a. First create a loop along the GIS building boundary at the depth of 1 ft. The size of the
loop is 43.5 ft 204.7 ft. The loop is created by selecting the Insert | Conductor Grid
menu item. The following provides the input data.

Page 3-6

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance


b. Select all conductors by selecting the Edit | Select All menu item. Select the Tools |
Break Conductors at Every Conductor Intersection. This will break all conductors at
intersections so that we can move only the GIS grounding conductors to the depth of 2 ft
(see the next step).

c. Under the Edit menu, uncheck the Use Group Information in order to access all
conductors without ungrouping them.
d. Select only the grounding conductors for the GIS building. Right-click and select the
Characteristics. Set the radius of all these conductors to 0.4065.

Page 3-7

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance


Step 4.

Move the GIS Grid to 2 ft:

a. Still with the GIS grounding conductors selected, change the view to XZ, 3D view.
b. Under the Tools menu, select the Shift Object function. Enter 1 ft under the Quick
Distance. Click on the arrow downwards. This will move the GIS conductors by 1 ft, to
the depth of 2 ft.

Change view to
XZ, 3D

Click here to
move
conductors
downwards

Step 5.

Connect GIS Grid to Main Grid:

a. Select the Edit | User Group Information to turn on the group information. This
enables you to access the grouped conductors again.
b. Change the view back to XY, 3D view and click on the loop conductor for the GIS
building (the 4 perimeter conductors).
c. Select the Tools | Create Rods menu item. In the Create Rods window, select only
Create rods at origin and end of conductors. Enter -1 ft under the Rod Height
(Feet). The -1 ft instructs the program to create rods in the opposite direction, i.e.,
upwards, to connect the GIS grid to the main grid. See Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3.
d. With the loop still selected, delete the loop conductor for the GIS building.
e. Click on the connection conductors just created. Right-click and select the
Characteristics to set the radius to 0.264.
f. Select the Edit | User Group Information to turn off the group information, delete the
four connection conductors at the corners of the GIS building. See Figure 3.4.
g. Select the Edit | User Group Information to turn on the group information and select
the grid.

Page 3-8

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

Figure 3.2

Create Rods (Connections) to Connect Two Grids: Select GIS Loop Conductor

Figure 3.3

Create Rods (Connections) to Connect Two Grids: Create Rods


Page 3-9

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

Delete the connections at the four


corners of the GIS loop

Figure 3.4
Step 6.

Delete Connections at Four Corners of GIS Loop Conductor


Create 10 ft Ground Rods:

a. We will now create 10 ft ground rods which are connected to the GIS building
conductors. Make sure you are still in the XY view and also select the Advanced | Set As
Active Object (or press the Function Key F9) to access conductors inside grouped
conductors. From the Power Tool, select Create Rods. Keep the default rod length to
10 ft. Click on the Point at X = -16, Y = 105. This creates the first ground rod. The
second rod (X = -1, Y = 90) and the third rod (X = 14, Y = 105) are created the same
way.
b. Right-click on those three rods and set the radius in the Characteristic window to 0.375.
The rest of rods are created by using the Tools | Shift Objects. The spacing between rods
is 30 ft. First select the three rods just created and select the Edit | Group menu item to
group them. Select the grouped rods and shift them by using the Shift Objects. The
figure below shows their final locations.

Page 3-10

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

Click here to
create the first
10 ft rod

Click here to
select Power Tool
| Create Rods

Step 7.
Create Rebar for GIS Building: The rebars are created similarly by selecting the
Insert | Conductor Grid menu item. The following are the input screens. The radius of the
rebar is 0.125.

Page 3-11

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

Step 8.
Connect GIS Rebar to Main Grid: The last step is to connect the GIS rebar to the
main grounding grid. Make sure that you are in the XY, 3D view.
a. We will first create a connection by selecting the Insert | Single Conductor menu item.
The following are the input screens. The radius of the connection conductor is 0.4065.
b. We will then shift the connection conductor along the Y direction, downwards, by 15 ft
and duplicate it 13 times.

Page 3-12

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

At this point, you have completed the preparation of the data. The energization of the grid is kept at
1000 A (a default setting) since the grounding resistance is independent of the injection current.
Under the File menu, select Save Document and then click Close Document to close this file in
SESCAD. The *.F05 is an ASCII file you can edit and view at any time.
The file MT_NCCR1.F05 is ready to be submitted to the MALT engineering module in the next
section.
If you are a licensee of the CDEGS software you will now be able to proceed to Section 3.3. Users
of the demo software are not able to process the input file, but are able to peruse all output files,
which are already available. Therefore read Section 3.3 for reference only. Any attempt to start the
engineering modules will result in a message stating that the Engineering module is not active.

3.3 SUBMISSION OF THE MALT RUN


There are two ways to submit the MALT run.

3.3.1

Submit Engineering Program Using SESCAD

You can submit the engineering run directly from SESCAD, by selecting the Run/Reports | Save &
Run menu item. This will start the SESBatch program and automatically run the engineering
module. Note that for illustration purposes, the generic grounding grid shown in the following
screen shot has been used instead of the specific case discussed in this How To manual.

Page 3-13

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

Once the run is complete, a window will pop up to inform you that a log file has been generated.
Click the OK button to close the message window. SESBatch allows you to conveniently access
some of the important files that it generates. For example, from the Tools | View Run Log File
menu item you can view the log file generated during the computations. From the Tools | View
Output File menu item you can view the output file, which may contain ERROR or WARNING
messages requiring your attention. Finally, you can launch Output Toolbox directly from the Tools |
View Results with Output Toolbox menu item.

3.3.2

Submit Engineering Program Using CDEGS

In the CDEGS screen, select Compute from the Session Mode drop-down list. Click on the MALT
button to start the MALT engineering program (or by selecting the Engineering | Low Frequency
Analysis (MALT) menu item).
The MALT program will start and carry out all requested computations. Upon completion, the
program will produce three important files: an OUTPUT file (MT_NCCR1.F09), a DATABASE file
(MT_ NCCR1.F21) and the SHARE file (SF_ NCCR1.F11).
The OUTPUT file is an ASCII file, while the DATABASE file is a binary file. Any ERROR or
WARNING messages generated during the MALT run will appear in the OUTPUT file. The
SHARE file SF_NCCR1.F11 now contains the soil model and the grid resistance computed by
MALT. You can view the OUTPUT file by clicking the File Viewer (
) button in the Output
section of the toolbar. (If prompted, select the Low Frequency Grounding option, and click OK.)

Page 3-14

Chapter 3. Initial Design of Grounding System and Computation of Grid Impedance

3.4 EXTRACTION
OF
THE
RESULTS
COMPUTATION RESULTS FILES

FROM

MALT

The OUTPUT file contains all the input information and computation results from the preceding
MALT run. The DATABASE file is normally used by CDEGS (Examine Mode) and the SES
Interactive Report & Plot Software processors (such as GraRep) to display the computation results.
In the CDEGS main screen, select Examine from the Session Mode drop-down list. Click on the
MALT button to load this screen. You are now ready to make Computations and Configuration
plots.
In the CDEGS-Examine-MALT screen, click on the Report button and this generates a report. The
Resistance of Electrode is 13.47 . This value will be used in HIFREQ model to calculate the fault
current distribution in the next chapter.

Page 3-15

This page is intentionally left blank

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

CHAPTER 4
FAULT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS
USING HIFREQ
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The touch and step voltages associated with the grounding network are directly proportional to the
magnitude of the fault current component discharged directly into the soil by the grounding network.
It is therefore important to determine how much of the fault current returns to remote sources via the
shield wires of the transmission lines connected to NCC-SES GIS. In other words, the current
discharged into the NCC-SES GIS grounding system is smaller than the maximum available fault
current, because a portion of the fault current returns via the shield wires connected to NCC-SES
GIS. In order to determine the actual fault current split, a HIFREQ model of the overhead
transmission line network is built to compute the fault current distribution. Note that the calculation
can also be carried out by using the TRALIN and SPLITS which use a circuit model approach.

4.2 THE OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINE NETWORK


Figure 4.1 shows the 154 kV transmission lines connected to NCC-SES GIS. There are four double
circuit transmission lines leaving the NCC-SES GIS. Typical transmission line cross sections were
chosen for each transmission line between NCC-SES GIS and the four terminals (Terminals
GENNE-SES, GENNW-SES, GENSW-SES and GENSE-SES). Figure 4.2 shows the transmission
line cross sections connected to the four terminals. Each tower has two neutral wires. The heights of
the conductors in Figure 4.2 are at the structures. However, the average heights accounting for the
sag of the transmission lines are used in the HIFREQ model. These values are highlighted in Table
41. The detailed information on the line cross section and conductor types are also listed in Table
41.
Y

GENNW-SES

GENNE-SES
Distance = 90,052 ft
No. of Spans = 94
Span Length = 958 ft

135

NCC-SES GIS

Distance = 79,184 ft
No. of Spans = 101
Span Length = 784 ft

30
X

55

160
Distance = 115,918 ft
No. of Spans = 121
Span Length = 958 ft

Distance = 87,024 ft
No. of Spans = 111
Span Length = 784 ft

GENSW-SES

GENSE-SES

Figure 4.1

Power Network under Study


Page 4-1

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


GENNW-SES

GENNE-SES

GENSW-SES

GENSE-SES

151'-6"

172'

Length of Insulator

10'

8'

Height of Faulted Phase

90'

117'

Sag of Phase

37'-10"

40'

Height of Faulted Phase Considering Sag

64.78'

90.33'

Offset of Phase from Tower Center

18'-3"

17'-6"

Height of Sky Wire

151'-6"

172'

Sag of Sky Wire

32'-10"

35'

Offset of Sky Wire from Tower Center

12'-3"

10'-6"

129.61'

148.67'

958

784

Phase Conductor

1590 MCM
ACSR Lapwing

2167 MCM
ACSR Kiwi

Sky Wire

7#8 Alumoweld

7#8 Alumoweld

Height of Tower

Height of Sky Wire Considering Sag


Average Span Length (ft)

Table 41

Detail Data of Line Cross Section and Conductor Types for 154 kV Lines
GENNW-SES and GENSW-SES

GENNE-SES and GENSE-SES

24'-6 ''

21'

18'-3 ''

S1

A2

A1

S2
16'

18'

A1

S2

20'

S1

A2
20'

22'

24'-3 ''

18'-3 ''

C2

24'

B1

C1

17'-6 ''

B2

17'

C1

B2

19'-6 ''

B1

C2

117'

90'

Looking from NCC-SES GIS towards ter minals

Figure 4.2

Transmission Line Cross Sections. Conductors Heights Are at Structures

Page 4-2

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

4.3 THE POWER SYSTEM DATA


The grounding resistance of the four terminals is assumed to be 0.5 . All transmission line towers
are assumed to be 40 in the fault current distribution analysis. The average span length and the
number of spans between the NCC-SES GIS and each of the terminals are listed in Table 43. The
central site ground resistance (i.e., NCC-SES GIS ground resistance) is 13.47 , which is the
grounding grid resistance computed by MALT as described in Chapter 3.
Grounding System

Table 42

Resistance (ohms)

NCC-SES GIS Grid

13.47

Terminal Substation Grids

0.50

Towers

40.00

Ground resistances of NCC-SES GIS Grid, Terminal Grids and Towers


Span length
(ft)

Number of
Spans

Line Length (ft)

Angle To X-Axis in
Figure 4.1 (Deg)

GENNE-SES Substation

784

101

79,184

30

GENSE-SES Substation

784

111

87,024

-55

GENSW-SES Power Plant

958

121

115,918

-160

GENNW-SES Power Plant

958

94

90,052

135

From NCC-SES GIS To

Table 43

Span Length and the Number of Spans between NCC-SES GIS and the Four Terminals

The short-circuit calculations carried out by the power utility provide the following fault current
contributions from each terminal substation (Bus No. 1-8 in Table 44). The total fault current (sum
of Bus 1-8) is 10.557 76.31 kA. This information is based on a bolted fault at the GIS site
(internal fault) assuming a 0 equivalent ground resistance at the NCC-SES GIS (worst-case
scenario).
Bus No.

Identification

Energization
Type

Magnitude (A)

Angle (Deg)

Terminal

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

GENNE-C1
GENNE-C2
GENSE-C1
GENSE-C2
GENSW-C1
GENSW-C2
GENNW-C1
GENNW-C2
Zero GPR

LEAD
LEAD
LEAD
LEAD
LEAD
LEAD
LEAD
LEAD
GPR-Potential

688.18
921.25
1985.00
1929.00
646.00
611.00
562.00
3227.00
0

-79.92
-71.84
-75.00
-77.00
-72.00
-75.00
-84.00
-77.00
0

T1
T1
T2
T2
T3
T3
T4
T4

Table 44

Energizations of Transmission Lines

The currents flowing on the overhead shield wires as well as the currents injected into the NCC-SES
GIS grounding system from each terminal can be obtained from the following HIFREQ circuit
model. In the HIFREQ computer model, only the faulted phase and shield wires are represented.
The faulted phase is assumed to be the bottom phase which has the least mutual coupling with the
Page 4-3

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


shield wires and therefore leads to the largest fault current flowing into the GIS grounding grid. The
steps required to build the HIFREQ input file are described in the next section.

4.4 PREPARATION OF THE HIFREQ INPUT FILE USING


SESCAD
Similarly to RESAP and MALT, you can prepare the HIFREQ input file (.F05 extension) using the
Windows Input Toolbox mode. However, the most efficient way to do this is with the SESCAD
program. The engineering input file created by SESCAD, as described in this chapter, is shown in
Printout A.8 in Appendix A. It can be reloaded during subsequent sessions.

4.4.1

Start Up Procedures

Click here
This step is identical to the one already described in
Section 2.2.1.2. In the SES Software group folder,
double-click the CDEGS icon to start the CDEGS
program interface (if not already started). You will be
prompted for a Working Directory and a "Current Job
ID". Make sure that the proposed working directory is
the same as the one used in the preceding chapter. In the
Current Job ID box enter NCCR1.
Select Specify from the Session Mode drop-down list
and click the SESCAD button
or select SESCAD
under Tools menu to start the SESCAD program.
In the Select a file to open window, select Open the
HIFREQ file HI_NCCR1.F05 <New Case>. You are
now ready to input data.

Page 4-4

Click here to
start SESCAD

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


In the following section, it will be assumed that the reader is entering the data as indicated in the
instructions. Note that it is advisable to save your work regularly by clicking on the Save button in
the toolbar and following the instructions in the dialog box. The data entered up to that point will be
saved in two files called HI_NCCR1.F05. Each file can be retrieved at any time by selecting the File
| Open Document menu item in SESCAD and following the instructions in the dialog box. The
same considerations apply if a data entry session has to be interrupted (close all active windows to
exit the program after saving your data).
If you intend to enter the data manually, proceed directly to Section 4.4.2. If you do not wish to do
so, you can import all the data by proceeding as follows.
Importing DATA
First be sure to close the HI_NCCR1.F05 which was just created. Select the Open
Documentunder the File menu. Browse to the file HI_07R1.F05 in the working directory
\CDEGS Howto\Gisgrnd, then click on the OK button to open the file. Click on Save Document
As and select the file HI_NCCR1.F05 in working directory to overwrite this file. The data
described in the next section will be loaded and you will not have to enter it.

4.4.2

Data Entry

Step 1.
Define Units and Other Settings: We will first define Run ID and System of Units
by selecting Define | Units and Other Settings in SESCAD. Under the Module Level |
Grid | Case Description block of this window, you can enter comment lines that are used to
describe the case. They are echoed in the HIFREQ output. In this tutorial,
NCCFAULT40(NCCR1) is entered under the Specify option, 60 Hertz frequency and the
British Systems of Units are chosen. The Run-ID is useful in identifying all the plots which
will be made later in Section 4.6. Click the OK button to return to the SESCAD screen.

Page 4-5

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Step 2.
Define Soil Model: To reduce
the computation time, a two-layer soil
model is entered by selecting the Define
| Soil Mode. This soil model is created
by removing the thin top layer in the
three-layer soil model obtained in the
preceding chapter (see Table 23). This
is because the mutual couplings between
the phase wires and overhead shield
wires are mainly influenced by the
deeper soil layers.

Step 3.
Define Conductor Types: Four types of conductors are defined in the HIFREQ
model. As shown in the following screen, Conductor Type No. 1 is defined as 7No.8
Alumoweld for the overhead shield wires. Conductor Type No. 2 defines the 13.47 ohms
ground resistance at the NCC-SES GIS Grid. Conductor Type No. 3 defines the 40 ohms
tower ground resistance. Conductor Type No. 4 defines the 0.5 ohms terminal ground
resistance. These four conductor types are specified by selecting the Define | Conductor
Types menu item and by entering the data as shown in the following screen.

Note that the characteristics of a stranded conductor, such as 7 No.8 Alumoweld, are defined by first
selecting the User-Defined under Impedance Specification and then by entering its internal
impedance. The Internal Resistance and Internal Reactance of the 7 No.8 Alumoweld are
obtained from the SESConductorDatabase Tool. Appendix B provides details on how to obtain
these values.
To reduce the amount of work in the input data, the phase wires are simply modeled as a solid 4/0
copper wire (0.264 radius, default in SESCAD) since we will be using current sources to energize
the phase conductors. However, if one wishes to use voltage sources to carry out a study, it is
important to model the phase conductors accurately. In this case, the ACSR conductors can also be
defined by their internal resistances and reactances from the SESConductorDatabase Tool.
Step 4.
Define Energization Types: The energizations of the phase conductors are defined
by selecting the Define | Energization Types menu item. You can copy and paste the data
from Table 44 into the following screen. Note that Bus No. 9 defines a 0 Volts GPRPage 4-6

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Potential energization which is used to remotely ground the 40 ohm towers. Step 6 will show
how to use the zero GPR energization.

Step 5.
Define Overhead Network for GENNE-SES: We are now ready to define the
overhead shield wires and the phase conductors for Terminal GENNE-SES. From the Insert
menu, select the Right-of-Way Model. In the following screen, enter the Length, Angle
and Number of Structures according to Figure 4.1 and Table 43.

Select the Cross-Section tab and enter the cross section according to Figure 4.2. Leave No under
the Connected? Column as we will manually connect the shield wires in the next step. Click on the
Characteristics button, for each conductor, to define the characteristics of these conductors. Define
the phase wires (NE-C1 and NE-C2) to be 0.264 solid copper and the shield wires (NE-S1 and NES2) to be 0.1925 7No.8 Alumoweld.

Page 4-7

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

No data will be entered in the Structures and Terminations tab as we will define them manually in
the next steps to minimize the number of conductor segments. Click on the OK button. This creates
the overhead shield wires and phase conductors.
Step 6.

Connect Shield Wire At (0, 0) for GENNE-SES:

a. In the SESCAD screen, make sure that you are in the X-Y Plan View, zoom into near
(X = 0, Y = 0) as shown below.
b. Click on the Draw conductor button to draw a connection between the two shield wires.
By default, a 0.264 copper conductor is used for the connection.

Click here to
change to X-Y,
X-Z, Y-Z, 3D or
Plan Views

Click here to draw


a conductor

Click here to zoom

Page 4-8

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Step 7.

Define 40 ohms Tower Near (0, 0) for GENNE-SES:

a. Change the view to the X-Y 3D View. Click on the Power Tool and select Create Rod.
Enter 100 ft and click at the corner of the shield wire and the connection conductor1. This
will generate a 100 ft rod.
b. Right-click on the 100 ft rod and select the Characteristics. Select Tower 40 ohms from
the Conductor Type drop-down list and click OK. This assigns the 40 ohms to the rod.
The radius of the rod is chosen to be 0.375 (default).
Note that the length of 100 ft is chosen so that the ground rod is completely in the air. This
ignores the conductive interactions among the towers which is a good approximation in the
fault current distribution calculation. This will allow us to conveniently use a fixed 40 ohms
tower resistance provided by the utilities. Note also that if one wishes to carry out the fault
current distribution calculation by modeling actual towers (such as a single ground rod
driven into the soil), the length of rods must be determined accounting for the conductive
couplings between towers.

Click here to
select Power Tool
| Create Rods

Step 8.

Ground 40 ohms Tower To Zero GPR:

a. With the 100 ft rod selected, select the Edit | Duplicate menu item to make a copy of the
100 ft rod.

Note that this will create the 40 ohms tower at the one end of the connection conductor to avoid subdividing the
connection conductor. This will reduce the total number of conductor segments significantly.

Page 4-9

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


b. Select the Edit | Edit Object (or press the Ctrl+E key). Modify the Z coordinates of the
rod in the following screen. This has created a 1 ft ground rod.
c. Click on the Characteristics button. Set Conductor Type = 0 and Energization Type =
9- Zero GPR. Note that you must set Z Starts At = -47.67 ft so that this node (called
pseudo node in HIFREQ) is energized with a zero GPR.

Step 9.

Define Remaining Towers and Connections:

a. First select the connection conductor, select the Display | Align View menu item, choose
Y-Axis and click OK. This rotates the overhead shield wires along the X-Axis.
b. Select the connection conductor, the 40 ohms tower and the 1 ft rod with zero GPR all
together. Select the Edit | Group to group them. Under the Tools menu, select Shift
Objects.
c. Click on the Apply To Duplicate. Set Number Of Duplicates = 101; Quick Distance =
784 ft according to Table 43.
d. Click on the black arrow to move to the right. This creates the remaining towers and the
connections.

Click here to
move in + X-Axis

Page 4-10

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Step 10.

Define 0.5 ohms Ground Resistance At Terminal GENNE-SES:

a. Still in the XY Align View, zoom-in to the last tower at Terminal GENNE-SES.
b. Select the last grouped tower and the connection. Under the Advanced menu, select Set
As Active Object (or press the function key F9). This allows you to edit objects inside a
grouped object.
c. Turn off Apply To Duplicate. Enter 10.5 ft under the Quick Distance. Select only the
tower and the zero GPR rod. Click on the black arrow to move them down by 10.5 ft.
d. Right-click on the 100 ft rod. Select the Characteristics and choose Terminal 0.5 ohms
under the Conductor Types.
e. Select the Advanced | Set Parent As Active Object (or press the function key Shift+F9)
menu item to exit the grouped tower and the connection.

Step 11.

Define Energizations At Terminal GENNE-SES:

a. Still in the XY Align View, zoom-in to the last tower at Terminal GENNE-SES. Select
the View | Labeling | Show Conductor Numbers and View | Orientation | Show
Orientation of Conductors.
b. Click on the Draw conductor button to draw a conductor from Conductor #1 (Shield
Wire S1, see Figure 4.2) to Conductor #3 (Phase Wire C1); and a conductor from
Conductor #2 (Shield Wire S2) to Conductor #4 (Phase Wire C2). This creates
Conductors #311 and #312.
c. Right-click on Conductor #311 and select the Characteristics. From the drop-down
menu of the Energization, select 1-GENNE-C1. Conductor #311 is now energized.
Conductor #312 is energized similarly by select 2-GENNE-C2 in the Characteristics
screen.
Page 4-11

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

Step 12.

Define Ground Resistance at NCC-SES GIS:

a. Still in the XY Align View, but zoom-in to the first tower at NCC-SES GIS.
b. Repeat Step 10 to move the tower to the mid-point between the two shield wires, i.e., X =
0 and Y = 0.
c. As shown in the following screen, Right-click on Conductor #6 and change the
Characteristics. Select 2-NCC-SES GIS from the Conductor Type drop-down menu
to set the ground resistance of the NCC-SES GIS to 13.47 ohms.

Page 4-12

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Step 13. Define Phase-To-Ground Fault At NCC-SES: At NCC-SES GIS: In order to avoid
conductors crossing each other between different terminals at NCC-SES GIS, we will first
shorten Conductors #1-#4 by 50 ft along the transmission line.
a. Still in the XY Align View, click on Conductor #5. Select the Tools | Shift Objects to
move Conductor #5 to the right by 50 ft. Select the Advanced | Set Parent As Active
Object to exit the grouped conductor. See Figure 4.3.
b. Click on the Power Tool | Extend. First click on the start of Conductor #1 (the mouse
changes to a little black arrow), then click on the start end of Conductor #5. This shortens
Conductor #1 by 50 ft from the center of the substation. Repeat the same for Conductor
#2, but extend the start of Conductor #2 to the end of Conductor #5. See Figure 4.4.
c. Click on the Draw button to connect the two phase conductors (Conductor #3 and #4) at
the substation. This creates a new Conductor #313. Select the Tools | Shift Objects to
move Conductor #313 to the right by 50 ft. See Figure 4.5.
d. Click on the Power Tool | Extend and extend the two phase conductors Conductor #3
and #4 to Conductor #313. See Figure 4.6.
e. Delete Conductor #313.
f. Click on the Draw button, draw one conductor from Start of Conductor #5 to Conductor
#6. Draw two more conductors to connect Start of Conductor #3 to the Start of Conductor
#5, and to connect Start of Conductor #4 to End of Conductor #5. This creates a phase-toground fault for the transmission line to Terminal GENNE-SES at NCC-SES GIS. Figure
4.7.

Figure 4.3

Shift Conductor #5 by 50 ft.

Page 4-13

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

Figure 4.4

Extend Conductors #1 and #2 to Conductor #5 (Shorten Shield Wires by 50 ft).

Figure 4.5

Shift Conductor #313 by 50 ft.

Page 4-14

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

Figure 4.6

Extend Conductors #3 and #4 to Conductor #313 (Shorten Phase Wires by 50 ft).

Figure 4.7

Introduce Phase-to-Ground Fault from GENNE-SES at NCC-SES GIS.

Page 4-15

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Step 14. Terminal NCCNE-SES is defined completely. The other three terminals can be
defined by the same way by repeating Steps 5 through 13, except Step 12 since there is no
need to re-create the NCC-SES GIS ground resistance. Since the cross section for Terminal
NCCSE-SES is the same as that of NCCNE-SES, you can create this terminal first, followed
by Terminal NCCSW-SES, then followed by Terminal NCCNW-SES. The following list the
Create Right-of-Way input data for these terminals.

Page 4-16

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

Page 4-17

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


An input file HI_07R1.F05 has been prepared for those who wish to simply load the data.
At this point, you have completed the preparation of the data. Under the File menu, select Save
Document and then click Close Document to close this file in SESCAD. The *.F05 is an ASCII file
you can edit and view at any time.
The file HI_NCCR1.F05 is ready to be submitted to the HIFREQ engineering module in the next
section.
If you are a licensee of the CDEGS software you will now be able to proceed to Section 3.3. Users
of the demo software are not able to process the input file, but are able to peruse all output files,
which are already available. Therefore read Section 3.3 for reference only. Any attempt to start the
engineering modules will result in a message stating that the Engineering module is not active.

4.5 SUBMISSION OF THE HIFREQ RUN


There are two ways to submit the HIFREQ run.

4.5.1

Submit Engineering Program Using SESCAD

You can submit the engineering run directly from SESCAD, by selecting the Run/Reports | Save &
Run menu item. This will start the SESBatch program and automatically run the engineering
module. Note that for illustration purposes, the generic grounding grid shown in the following
screen shot has been used instead of the specific case discussed in this How To manual.

Page 4-18

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


Once the run is complete, a window will pop up to inform you that a log file has been generated.
Click the OK button to close the message window. SESBatch allows you to conveniently access
some of the important files that it generates. For example, from the Tools | View Run Log File
menu item you can view the log file generated during the computations. From the Tools | View
Output File menu item you can view the output file, which may contain ERROR or WARNING
messages requiring your attention. Finally, you can launch Output Toolbox directly from the Tools |
View Results with Output Toolbox menu item.

4.5.2

Submit Engineering Program Using CDEGS

In the CDEGS screen, select Compute from the Session Mode drop-down list. Click on the
HIFREQ button to start the HIFREQ engineering program (or by selecting the Engineering |
Electromagnetic Fields (HIFREQ) menu item).
The HIFREQ program will start and will carry out all requested computations. The run takes about
20 minutes to complete (on an Intel Core i7-2600 CPU@3.4GHz and 16 GB RAM). At
completion, the program will produce two important files: an OUTPUT file (HI_ NCCR1.F09) and a
DATABASE file (HI_ NCCR1.F21).
The OUTPUT file is an ASCII file, while the DATABASE is a binary file. The OUTPUT file
contains all the input information and computation results from your HIFREQ run. Any ERROR or
WARNING messages generated during the HIFREQ run will appear in the OUTPUT file. You can
view the OUTPUT file by clicking the Output/File Viewer (or
button) in the Output section of
the toolbar. You can also use the GraRep utility module (see Sections 2.2.1.2) to view and edit any
ASCII output files.

4.6 EXTRACTION OF THE RESULTS


COMPUTATION RESULTS FILES

FROM

HIFREQ

The DATABASE file is normally used by CDEGS (Examine Mode) and the SES Interactive
Report & Plot Software processors (such as GraRep) to display the computation results. In the
following, we will give an example to show how to use the Examine mode of the CDEGS program
to produce the graphs and reports.
If you have followed the instructions up to this point, the active Job ID should be "NCCR1". We
will, therefore, extract the results and display the plots on screen. In the CDEGS screen, select
Examine from the Session Mode drop-down list. Click on the HIFREQ button to start the Output
Toolbox (or by click on the

button on the toolbar).

The following lists the steps to obtain the fault current distribution at NCC-SES GIS:

Page 4-19

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ


a. In the CDEGS Examine HIFREQ |
Configuration window, select the Data
Type | Longitude Current Leaving End of
Conductor menu item.
b. Select the Magnitude and Angle under
Data Format.
c. Click on the Zoom Polygon and enter the
Xpos, Ypos and Zpos coordinates.
d. Click on Plot/Draw.

Table 45 lists the currents discharged into the


grounding system from each terminal. These
currents will be used in the next chapter. Table 45
indicates that only about 5% of total fault current
(10.557 kA, see Table 44) is injected into the
grounding system.
Once you are done examining the results, click
in the toolbar to go back to the CDEGS startup screen.

Page 4-20

Chapter 4. Fault Current Distribution Analysis Using HIFREQ

Table 45

Terminal

Current (A)

GENNE-SES
GENSE-SES
GENNW-SES
GENSW-SES
Total

81384
1058-87
90583
1170-92
546-71

Fault Current Discharged into NCC-SES GIS

Page 4-21

This page is intentionally left blank

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

CHAPTER 5
MODEL GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION IN
HIFREQ
In this chapter, we will describe how to model the NCC-SES GIS in HIFREQ. The conductor
network of the NCC-SES GIS consists of the grounding system described in Chapter 3 and the above
ground GIS bus works which will be described in this chapter. After the conductor network is built,
we will compute touch and step voltages during a phase-to-ground fault at the NCC-SES GIS. This
chapter describes how to build the HIFREQ model. Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 present the safety
evaluations of the initial grid and the reinforced grounding grid, respectively.

5.1 GIS BUS WORKS


Figure 5.1 shows one section of the NCC-SES GIS and Figure 5.2 shows the 3D view of the entire
GIS bus works. Each line in Figure 5.2 represents a phase and its enclosure which will be modeled
as a Cable Type conductor in HIFREQ.

Figure 5.1

One Section of NCC-SES GIS Structure


Page 5-1

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

Figure 5.2

3D View of NCC-SES GIS Bus Works (each line represents a GIS phase and its
enclosure)

5.2 PREPARATION OF THE HIFREQ INPUT FILE USING


SESCAD
Similarly to the preceding chapter, we will use the SESCAD program to prepare this file. The
engineering input file created by SESCAD, as described in this chapter, is shown in Printout A.8 in
Appendix A. It can be reloaded during subsequent sessions.

5.2.1

Start Up Procedures

Click here

Page 5-2

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ


This step is identical to the one already described in
Section 2.2.1.2. In the SES Software group folder,
double-click the CDEGS icon to start the CDEGS
program interface (if not already started). You will
be prompted for a Working Directory and a
"Current Job ID". Make sure that the proposed
working directory is the same as the one used in the
preceding chapter. In the Current Job ID box enter
NCCR1-GIS.

Click here to
start SESCAD

Select Specify from the Session Mode drop-down


list and click the SESCAD button
or select
SESCAD under Tools menu to start the SESCAD
program.
In the Select a file to open window, select Open the HIFREQ file HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05 <New
Case>. You are now ready to input data.
Because the GIS model shown in Figure 5.2 is very complex, it is not practical as a tutorial to
demonstrate how to create the complete model. In the next section, we will therefore only describe
some key steps on how to create a section of the GIS bus works: how to ground the GIS enclosure to
the grounding grid and how to make a phase-to-ground fault between the core and the sheath of the
GIS cable.
After this, you can simply re-load a HIFREQ file which has been prepared in advance to follow the
rest of the tutorial (see Section 5.2.3).

5.2.2
5.2.2.1

Data Entry
Save MALT File as HIFREQ File

We first need to convert the grounding grid created in MALT in Chapter 3 as the grounding grid in
HIFREQ. The following are the steps:
a. First be sure to close the HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05 which was just created. In SESCAD,
browse to the MALT file MT_NCCR1.F05 and open it.
b. Select File | Save Document As. Under the Files of type drop-down list, select HIFREQ
Input Files (hi_*.f05; hi_*.inp). Change the file name to HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05. Click
OK. Answer Yes to overwrite the HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05.
c. Answer Yes in the Exporting Template Inconsistency message. This converts the
MT_NCCR1.F05 in Chapter 3 as the HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05.

Page 5-3

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

5.2.2.2

Define Cable Type for GIS Bus Work

There are two sizes of GIS enclosures in the HIFREQ model. They are defined as Cable Types in
HIFREQ. Table 51 provides physical and electrical characteristic of the cable enclosures. Figure
5.3 shows a small section of the GIS bus works to be modeled.
Start Point
Section
A-B
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F
F-G
G-H
H-I
I-J
J-K
K-L

End Point

Core

Sheath

Cable
Diameters

Insulation
Thickness
(ft)

Insulation
Resistivity
(Ohm-m)

Inner
Radius
(in.)

Outer
Radius
(in.)

Resistivity
(w.r.t
annealed
coper)

Permeability
(w.r.t free
space)

0.5

0.875

999999

11

12

10

300

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

-9.875

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

100.065

-4.102

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

6.64389

100.065

-4.102

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

-4.102

6.64389

100.065

-13.222

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

100.065

-13.222

8.61289

100.065

-13.222

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

8.61289

100.065

-13.222

8.61289

87.9241

-13.222

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

8.61289

87.9241

-13.222

6.64389

87.9241

-13.222

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

6.64389

87.9241

-13.222

6.64389

87.9241

-15.19

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

6.64389

87.9241

-15.19

34.9394

87.9241

-15.19

0.5

0.458333

999999

10

300

X
(ft)

Y
(ft)

Z
(ft)

X
(ft)

Y
(ft)

Z
(ft)

Radius
(in.)

-9.40311

74.4743

-18.211

-9.40311

100.065

-18.211

-9.40311

100.065

-18.211

-9.40311

100.065

-9.875

-9.40311

100.065

-9.875

-1.52811

100.065

-1.52811

100.065

-9.875

-1.52811

-1.52811

100.065

-4.102

6.64389

100.065

6.64389

Table 51

Parameters of Each Section of the GIS Bus A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L

Page 5-4

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

E
C

D
G

J
K

Figure 5.3

3D View of Section A-L of NCC-SES GIS Bus Works

The following provides the steps:


a. Select the Define | Cable Types menu item. The following screen shows up (without any
data initially). Click on the Add button and enter Enclosure 24inch as the cable name.
b. Enter the conductor and insulation properties according to Table 51.

c. Click on the Add button and enter Enclosure 14inch as the cable name.
d. Enter the conductor and insulation properties according to Table 51.
e. Click OK. This defines both cable types.

Page 5-5

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

5.2.2.3

Define Small Section of the GIS Bus Work

Based on the Start and End coordinates in Table 51, we will describe how to model the small
section of the GIS bus works shown in Figure 5.3 by using the Insert | Single Conductor.
The following provides the steps:
a. Select the Insert | Single Conductor menu item. In the following Create Object screen,
enter the coordinates for the Start Point and End Point for Section AB.
b. Click on the Characteristics button. Select Cable Type and select 1 Enclosure 24inch.
This defines the conductor and it physical properties of the cable completely.

Page 5-6

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ


c. We now define Section BC. Repeat the previous two steps and enter the coordinates using
Table 51. Click on the Characteristics. Select Cable Type and select 1 Enclosure
14inch. This defines the conductor and physical properties of the cable Section BC.
d. The rest cables from C-L are defined by the same way by using Table 51 and Figure 5.3.

5.2.2.4

Connect GIS Enclosure To Grounding Grid

a. At Point L of the GIS bus work, we connect the GIS enclosure to the grounding grid. Select
the Insert | Single Conductor menu item. In the following Create Object screen, enter the
coordinates shown. Note that the (X, Y) coordinates of the Start End of this conductor are the
same as those of Point L. The characteristics of the conductor are set to be 0.264 solid
copper. This creates Conductor #825. See Figure 5.4.
b. In order to connect the GIS enclosure to the grounding grid, we will first need to identify the
conductors to which the connections are to be made. Change to the XZ 3D View. Click the
icon
and open the Quick Info screen. Place the mouse on top of the cable corresponding
to Section KL. The cable is highlighted and its information is displayed in the Quick Info
window. This is Conductor #824.
c. Under the drop-down list, first change from Main to Connection to turn on the Connection
layer. Select the Insert | Connection menu item. The Create Connection screen is up. See
Figure 5.5.
d. In the Create Connection screen, enter Conductor #824 and select End under the Extremity
and Sheath under the Component.
e. In the Create Connection screen, enter Conductor #825 and select Start under the
Extremity.
f. This connects the enclosure of Section KL to the grounding grid. See Figure 5.6.
Page 5-7

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

Figure 5.4

Create Conductor #825 to Connect Enclosure to Grid

Figure 5.5

Change from Main to Connections Layer

Page 5-8

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

Connect Sheath of
Conductor #824 (End
Extremity) to Conductor
#825 (Start Extremity)

Figure 5.6

5.2.3

Make Connection from Enclosure to Grounding Grid in Connections Layer

Working With Existing HIFREQ Model

As mentioned before, we will now simply load a HIFREQ model which has been prepared in
advance to describe how to define a phase-to-ground fault, how to energize the network and how to
define the computation observation points. Note that the steps in this section are only for illustration
purpose, you do not need to follow them. Furthermore, the three layer soil model created in Table 2
3 is used to accurately compute the touch and step voltages.
You can import all the data by proceeding as follows.
Importing DATA
First be sure to close the HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05 which was just been created. Select the Open
Documentunder the File menu. Browse to the file HI_07R1-GIS.F05 in the working directory
\CDEGS Howto\Gisgrnd, then click on the OK button to open the file. Click on Save Document
As and select the file HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05 in working directory to overwrite this file. The data
described in the next section will be loaded and you will not have to enter it.
Figure 5.7 shows the HIFREQ model corresponding to the HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05 file. It contains the
grounding grid prepared in Chapter 3, the GIS bus works in Figure 5.2 and additional conductors
(highlighted in red) which connect the GIS bus works to the grounding grid underneath the rebar.

Page 5-9

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ


There are four above grounding conductors which will be used to inject the currents into the NCCSES GIS from each of the four terminals. The currents are provided in Table 45.

Figure 5.7
5.2.3.1

HIFREQ Model Correspond to HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05

Define Phase-To-Ground Fault in GIS Bus

The phase-to-ground fault is defined by Conductor #180 in this file2. Because this file contains many
conductors, Figure 5.8 shows how to view the fault and how to define the fault:
a. In SESCAD, under the Edit menu, turn off the User Group Information.
b. In the Edit menu, choose the Select By Index and enter 180. Click OK. Conductor #180 is
selected.
c. Zoom into the beginning of Conductor #180. Turn on the Connection layer. Select the
connection at the beginning of Conductor #180 and choose the Edit | Edit Object (Ctrl+E)
menu item. You will see the following screen. The fault is simply defined as a connection
between the core and sheath.

Note that this is a different file. The conductor numbers in this file is not related to the file in Section 5.2.2.

Page 5-10

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

Connection defined
at the beginning of
Conductor #180

Figure 5.8
5.2.3.2

Define Phase-to-Ground Fault at NCC-SES GIS

Define Energizations

The currents injected into the NCC-SES GIS grounding system is defined by selecting the Define |
Energization Types in SESCAD. Figure 5.9 lists the currents contribution from each terminal
according to Table 45. To ensure these currents are injected into the origin of these conductors, we
have turned on the orientation of the conductors (select the View | Orientation | Show Orientation
of Conductors). Note that when a regular conductor is connected to the cable, it is connected to the
core of a cable by default.
5.2.3.3

Define Computation Observation Points

The computation observation points are defined by the following steps:


a. In SESCAD, first select the four perimeter grounding conductors.
b. In the Tools menu, select Generate Profiles. The spacings between the observation points
are kept at 3ft (default).
c. Enter 10 ft in the Border Offset. This is to examine the step voltages outside the grounding
grid.
d. Click OK. The observation points are created (shown as the dashed lines in Figure 5.10).

Page 5-11

Chapter 5. Model Gas Insulated Substation in HIFREQ

Click here to turn on


Filter By Energization
Type

Click here to
Show Legend

Figure 5.9

Define Currents Injected into NCC-SES GIS

Figure 5.10

Define Observation Points at NCC-SES GIS

Page 5-12

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

CHAPTER 6
SAFETY EVALUATION OF NCC-SES GIS
We have now determined the soil structure, fault current distribution, and the predesigned grounding
system. In this chapter, we will demonstrate how to extract the computation results, and we will
evaluate if our proposed design is safe and adequate. The detailed steps are provided to get the touch
voltage, step voltage, and longitudinal currents throughout NCC-SES GIS, in order to determine at
what locations, if any, mitigation measures are required.

6.1 SAFETY CRITERIA


Before describing the steps to extract the computation results, let us first identify the safety
objectives.
One of the main concerns when designing grounding systems is to ensure that no electrical hazard
exists outside or within the substation during normal and fault conditions. In most cases, there are no
safety concerns during steady-state normal conditions because very little current flows in the neutral
and grounding system. This current, called residual current, rarely exceeds 10% of the nominal load
current in most electrical distribution systems. Therefore, safety is usually a concern only during
phase-to-ground faults.
In practice, most electric substations are fenced and the fence is quite often placed 3.28 feet (1 m)
inside the outer conductor loop of the grounding system. This way, a person contacting the fence
from the outside will be standing above or close to a ground conductor which will normally result in
lower touch voltages than in the case where the fence is not surrounded by such a ground conductor
loop. In this study, the fence at the NCC-SES GIS is located 3.28 ft inside the outer loop of the
grounding system. Furthermore a large portion of the fence is not metallic (concrete or bricks).
Therefore, unless there are concerns for transferred potentials to remote locations via overhead or
metallic paths, such as gas, oil or water pipes, railway tracks, etc., only the area delimited by the
grounding system outer loop conductor needs to be examined with respect to unsafe touch voltages.
However, step voltages must be explored everywhere inside and outside the substation site. In
general though, step voltages are rarely a concern at electric power substations.

6.1.1

Touch Voltages

The first safety criterion used for the evaluation of the grounding system performance is the touch
voltage limit. The touch voltage is usually defined as the difference in potential between a point on
the earths surface, where a person is standing, and an exposed conductive surface within reach of
that person.
ANSI/IEEE Standard 80-2000 provides a methodology for determining maximum acceptable touch
voltages, based on the minimum current required to induce ventricular fibrillation in a human
subject. The touch voltage limit is a function of shock duration (i.e., fault clearing time), system
characteristics (for short fault clearing times), body weight, and foot contact resistance (which
Page 6-1

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS


depends on the electrical resistivity of the material, such as crushed rock or soil, on which the person
is standing). Table 61 shows how the touch voltage varies as a function of the resistivity of earth
surface covering material (for a 0.5 s fault clearing time, a system X/R ratio of 20, and a 50 kg body
weight).
Surface Layer
Touch Voltage Limit (V)

Type

Resistivity (-m)

Native Soil

2553

778.2

6 Crushed Rock

3000

868.9

Table 61

Touch Voltage Limit as a Function of Surface Layer Resistivity

The crushed rock surface layer installed on the surface of the NCC-SES GIS is 6 thick and has an
estimated resistivity (when wet) of 3000 ohm-m. The maximum clearing time of the backup relays is
assumed to be 0.5 s. The crushed rock surface layer overlies a soil with a resistivity of 2553 -m.
Resistivity varies as a function of the type of rock, the size of the stones, the moisture content and
the degree of contamination (e.g., filling of the voids between stones by finer lower resistivity
material).

6.1.2

Step Voltages

A similar table can be compiled for step voltages, defined as the difference in potential between two
earth surface points spaced 1 m (3.28 ft) apart as shown in Table 62.
Surface Layer
Step Voltage Limit (V)

Type

Resistivity ( -m)

Native Soil

2553

2644.8

6 inch Crushed Rock

3000

3007.8

Table 62

Step Voltage Limit as a Function of Surface Layer Resistivity

Within a substation and within 3.28 ft (1 m) outside the perimeter fence, step voltages are lower than
touch voltages; furthermore, the maximum acceptable values are higher than for touch voltages.
Consequently, satisfying the touch voltage safety criteria in this area automatically ensures
satisfaction of the step voltage safety criteria. The step voltages in the substation and in an area
extending 10 ft outside the substation will be examined. Further away from the substation, no
computations were performed. However, it is unlikely for hazardous step voltages to exist at such
remote locations when they are safe closer to the substation.

6.1.3

GPR Differentials

Significant potential differences between distant parts of the grounding system can give rise to local
touch voltages, or equipment stress voltages, when low voltage insulated conductors connect
equipment at two such locations. Appropriate protection must be in place at such locations, rated for
the GPR differentials that can arise. The GPR differentials are not going to be a concern in this study
since the grounding grid is small. If there are buried metallic structures connected to the grounding
system, the GPR differentials should be examined.
Page 6-2

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

6.1.4

Determining Safe Touch and Step Voltages Criteria Using


CDEGS

The safe touch and step voltages can be estimated easily using CDEGS (Examine Mode). The only
requirement is that you must have a finished HIFREQ run so that the Examine Mode of CDEGS
can be accessed. In this case, we choose the HIFREQ run (HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05) that was finished
earlier.
If you followed the tutorial up to this point, your current JobID should be NCCR1-GIS for the
HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05. Select Examine from the Session Mode list. The HIFREQ button will be
highlighted in the toolbar. Click the HIFREQ button, the CDEGS-Examine-HIFREQ screen will
appear and you are now ready to make a safety analysis by selecting Configuration and clicking the
Safety button to access the Safety screen. Click on the Safety button to start the Safety screen.
The crushed rock surface installed on the surface of the NCC-SES GIS is 6 thick (default value) and
overlying a soil with a resistivity of 2552.9 -m which is taken automatically from the soil model.
The crushed rock has an estimated resistivity (when wet) of 3000 ohm-m. The maximum clearing
time of the backup relays is 0.5 s. Enter all these in the Safety screen as shown below and click the
Generate Safety Threshold Limits and Report button, the following report appears on your
screen.

CONTENTS OF REPORT FILE


>> Safety Calculations Table

Page 6-3

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS


System Frequency............................(Hertz).:
System X/R..........................................:
Surface Layer Thickness.....................( in ).:
Surface Layer Resistivity...................(ohm-m).:
Equivalent Sub-Surface Layer Resistivity....(ohm-m).:

60.000
20.000
6.0000
3000
2552.9

Body Resistance Calculation..........: IEEE Std.80-2000


Fibrillation Current Calculation.....: IEEE Std.80-2000 (50kg)
Foot Resistance Calculation..........: IEEE Std.80-2000
User Defined Extra Foot Resistance:
0.0000
ohms
==============================================
| Fault Clearing Time ( sec)|
0.500
|
+----------------------------+---------------+
| Decrement Factor
|
1.052 |
| Fibrillation Current (amps)|
0.164 |
| Body Resistance
(ohms)|
1000.00 |
==============================================

======================================
|
| FAULT
|
|
| SURFACE | CLEARING TIME
|
|
| LAYER |-----------------|
|
| RESIST- |
0.500 sec.
| FOOT |
| IVITY |-----------------| RESIST-|
| (OHM-M) | STEP | TOUCH | ANCE: |
|
| VOLTAGE| VOLTAGE| 1 FOOT |
|
| (VOLTS)| (VOLTS)| (OHMS) |
======================================
|
3000.0| 3007.8|
868.9| 9141.6|
|---------+--------+--------+--------+
* NOTE * Listed values account for short duration asymmetric waveform
decrement factor listed at the top of each column.

The table above indicates that the touch voltages of 868.9 Volts or less and step voltages of 3007.8
Volts or less are safe if 6 of crushed rock of 3000 -m is overlying a native soil with a resistivity of
2553 -m. To obtain the limits for the case where no surface covering is present, check No Surface
Layer Is installed and click Generate Safety Threshold Limits and Report. The report shows that
the touch voltages of 778.2 Volts or less and step voltages of 2644.8 Volts or less are safe for a
native soil (no crushed rock) with a resistivity of 2553 -m (more exactly 2552.9 -m).
Click OK to return to the HIFREQ main screen.

6.2 EXAMING THE GROUND POTENTIAL RISE, TOUCH AND


STEP VOLTAGES
Now we will examine the main computation results performed by HIFREQ.

Page 6-4

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

6.2.1

Plot GPR of Grounding System

The following are the steps to plot the GPR of the ground system,

6.2.2

Click the Configuration option;


Select GPR of Conductor Metal (default);
Select Color under the Labeling Style;
Click on the Plot/Draw button. The maximum GPR of the grounding system is 7563 V.

Examine Currents Flowing Along Core and Bus Enclosure

The following are the steps to examine the currents flowing along the bus enclosure near the current
injection point from Terminal GENNE-SES into the GIS.

Click the Configuration option;


Page 6-5

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

Select Longitudinal Current Flowing in Origin of Conductor;


Select Both under the Labeling Style;
Click on the Zoom Polygon and enter the Xpos, Ypos, Zpos as shown in the following
screen. Alternatively, you can draw a square (Points P1-P4) in the Zoom window around the
injection point from Terminal GENNE-SES. Right-click and select Send Zoom Points (the
Xpos, Ypos and Zpos will not be the exact coordinates).
Click on the Define Filter button and define Cable Type 2 (i.e., 14 Enclosure).
Click on the Select Cable Data button. Select Specify and enter From 2 To 2 in Range
#1. This will select only the cable component 2 which is the cable sheath.
Click on the Plot/Draw button. This plots the currents flowing along the enclosure.

Page 6-6

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

In the Cable Data Selection screen, enter From 1 To 2 in Range #1. Click on the
Plot/Draw button. This will display the currents flowing along both the core and sheath.

Page 6-7

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

6.2.3

Examine Touch Voltages

The following are the steps to examine the touch voltages at NCC-SES GIS.

Click the Computation option;


Select Scalar Potentials | Touch Voltages | Worst Spherical (default settings);
Select the Spot 2D under the View;
Click on the Advanced button;
In the HIFREQ Computations (Advanced) screen, click on the Define Zoom Area. Click
on the Automatic Zoom button;
In the Zoom window, select the Advanced | Create Zoom Boundary. In the Polygon
boundary window, enter 0.1 ft as the Boundary Shift Distance. Click Create. Right-click
and select Send Zoom Points, the coordinates Xpos, Ypos and Zpos are then sent into the
HIFREQ Computations (Advanced) screen. Click OK to exit this window.
Click on the Plot/Draw button. This will plot touch voltages at NCC-SES GIS. This figures
shows the maximum touch voltages exceeding the safe touch voltage limit of 868.9 V;

Page 6-8

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

In the CDEGS Examine HIFREQ window, select the Use Safety Limit. Click on the
Plot/Draw button. This will reveal the area where touch voltages at NCC-SES GIS exceed
the safe touch voltage limit of 868.9 V. It shows that the touch voltages at the four corners
are excessive. Mitigation of the grid is therefore needed.

Page 6-9

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

Figure 6.1

6.2.4

Touch Voltages at NCC-SES GIS: Initial Design

Examine Step Voltages

The following are the steps to examine the step


voltages at NCC-SES GIS. Note that the step
voltages will be evaluated throughout the entire
NCC-SES GIS extending 10 ft outside the
perimeter loop.

Click the Computation option;


Select Scalar Potentials | Step Voltages
(Spherical) | Worst Spherical (default
settings);
Select the Spot 2D under the View;
Switch the Plotting Threshold from the
Use Safety Limit back to User-Defined
Threshold.
Uncheck Define Zoom Area checkbox in
the HIFREQ Computation (Advanced)
window from the Advanced button.
Click on the Plot/Draw button. This plots
the step voltages at NCC-SES GIS. It shows
that the step voltages are less than the safe
step voltage limit of 2644.8 V
corresponding to the native soil.
Page 6-10

Chapter 6. Safety Evaluation of NCC-SES GIS

Figure 6.2

Step Voltages at NCC-SES GIS: Initial Design

It is important to mention that the computation of step voltages is sensitive to the location of
observation points. When the maximum computed step voltage is close to the safe step voltage limit
(which is not the case here), it is recommended to reduce the spacing between the observation points
to a value smaller than 1 m in order to capture the worst case step voltage (which is usually at the
corners of the substation where earth potentials drop quickly).
We have now examined the computation results. Click
startup screen.

Page 6-11

in the toolbar to go back to the CDEGS

This page is intentionally left blank

Chapter 7. Reinforcing the Grounding System

CHAPTER 7
REINFORCING THE GROUNDING SYSTEM
The touch voltages obtained in Chapter 6 indicate that our initial design hasnt reached a safe ground
grid design. The touch voltages in Figure 6.1 exceed the safe value near the corner meshes of the
grounding grid, which suggests that more conductors are needed near the edge and corner of the
grounding system. This observation is consistent with analytical and experimental evidence. The
optimum or most efficient conductor compaction at the periphery of a grounding system depends on
many factors, particularly on earth structure characteristics. Moreover, practical considerations often
introduce additional constraints which must be accounted for. In general, however, the following
crude rule of thumbs can be used as a preliminary set of guidelines:

When the surface (shallow depth) soil resistivity is small compared to the deeper layers
(those which are not in contact with the grounding system), use grids with more conductors
at the edge than at the center area (exponentially-spaced conductors). The degree of
conductor clustering (compactness) at the periphery of the grid should increase with an
increase of the contrast between the surface and deep layers.

When the surface soil resistivity becomes larger than that of the deeper soil layers, the
clustering (compactness) ratio should decrease towards a uniform distribution of conductors
in the case where the contrast ratio is significant (5 or more) and the thickness of surface
layers is small compared to the size of the grounding system (1/5 or less),

Finally, when the surface soil resistivity is quite large compared to the deeper layers and its
thickness is small enough so that use of ground rods penetrating the deeper layer is efficient,
a number of ground rods should be installed wherever possible to reduce the GPR, touch and
step voltages instead of using unequally spaced conductors.

Based on the soil model and the initial design, we will combine the first and the third methods in this
study.

7.1 COMPUTATION
OF
GROUND
RESISTANCE
REINFORCED GROUNDING GRID IN MALT

OF

Based on the initial grounding system design MT_NCCR1.F05 presented in Figure 3.1, we will use
the SESCAD program to prepare a new file called MT_NCCR1-GIS_Mit01.F05. The following
provides the necessary steps. The engineering input file created by SESCAD, as described in this
chapter, is shown in Appendix A. It can be reloaded during subsequent sessions.

Page 7-1

Chapter 7. Reinforcing the Grounding System

7.1.1

Start-up Procedure

In the SES Software group folder, doubleclick the CDEGS icon to start the CDEGS
program interface (if not already started).
You will be prompted for a Working
Directory and a "Current Job ID". Make sure
that the proposed working directory is the
same as the one used in the preceding chapter.
In the Current Job ID box enter NCCR1GIS_Mit01.
Select Specify from the Session Mode dropdown list and click the SESCAD button
or select SESCAD under Tools menu to start
the SESCAD program.
In the Select a file to open window, select Do
not open any file as we are going to create a
new grounding grid by modifying the existing
grid.

7.1.2

Compute Ground Resistance of Reinforced Grid in MALT

The following briefly describes the steps to complete this task:


Step 1.

In the SESCAD, first browse to the MT_NCCR1.F05. Save this file as MT_NCCR1GIS_Mit01.F05.

Step 2.

Select the ground grid and select the Advanced | Set As Active Objects to modify
the perimeter ground conductors.

Step 3.

Select the perimeter grounding conductor and use the Tools | Shift Objects to
duplicate the four perimeter grounding conductors by 7.5 ft towards the center of the
grid.

Step 4.

Select the Power Tools and create the four 10 ft ground rods at the four corners of the
grounding grid. The radius of the ground rods is 0.375.

Step 5.

Select the Define | Soil Model and enter the three-layer soil model in Table 23.

Step 6.

Select the Run/Reports | Save & Run. This will start the SES Batch Processor.

Step 7.

In the CDEGS window, select Examine from the session model and obtain the
grounding grid resistance.

The ground resistance of the reinforced grid is 13.26 ohms.

Page 7-2

Chapter 7. Reinforcing the Grounding System

Page 7-3

Chapter 7. Reinforcing the Grounding System

7.2 RE-EVALUATION OF TOUCH VOLTAGES OF REINFORCED


GROUNDING GRID IN HIFREQ
The ground resistance of the reinforced grid is less than 2% lower than the previous value 13.47
ohms. As a very good approximation, we assume the fault current discharged into the NCC-SES GIS
grounding system remains the same3. Therefore, we will only need to modify the HIFREQ initial
design HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05 in SESCAD to create the reinforced grounding grid called
HI_NCCR1-GIS_Mit01.F05 by repeating the steps in Section 7.1.2.
For those who wish to just view the changes, you can load the HI_07R1-GIS_Mit01.F05.
This file is submitted into HIFREQ. Make sure your JobID is NCCR1-GIS_Mit01.
By following the steps provided in Section 6.2.3, the touch voltages are obtained. Figure 7.1 shows
that the maximum touch voltage is well below the safe touch voltage limit of 868.9 V.

Figure 7.1

Touch Voltages at NCC-SES GIS: Reinforced Grid

Note that if the resistance of the reinforced grounding grid has changed significantly, you will need to re-run the fault
current distribution in HIFREQ.

Page 7-4

Chapter 7. Reinforcing the Grounding System


Since touch and step voltages are well below our target safe values of 868.9 V and 2645 V
respectively, the main engineering work is completed.
Further design iterations may be required to remove or reposition some conductors at more practical
locations. Extra ground rods may be added to account for winter soil freezing or summer extreme
drought conditions. In some cases, other soil structure models may need to be analyzed to account
for inherent data uncertainties or known soil characteristics variations. In such cases, the worst-case
scenario should be retained as a reference for the final recommended grounding design
configuration.
You can export the final design of the grounding grid to a DXF file that can be imported in most
CAD packages. This can be done easily by selecting the File | Save Document As in SESCAD.
Under the Files of type, select the DXF Files (*.dxf). Click OK and click OK again to take the
Default Color Number. The file MT_NCCR1-GIS_Mit01.dxf is generated. Additional information
can be obtained by clicking the Help button.

On a final note, it is worthwhile mentioning that when redesigning an existing grounding system
(update, upgrade, etc.), you can import the actual system configuration from a DXF-compatible
CAD file by clicking the File | Import | File Import | DXF (*.files) in the SESCAD and filling in
the fields of the dialog box. It is however important to note here that some drawings may contain
overlapping lines which will ultimately result in invalid overlapping conductors in MALT.
Furthermore, too many details such as short wire connections and bonding conductors have a
minimal impact on the grounding design performance but a significant negative impact on the
computations in terms of run time and run accuracy. One way to remove this kind of problem is to
Page 7-5

Chapter 7. Reinforcing the Grounding System


use the minimum conductor length threshold to ignore such non-significant short conductors. This
strategy, however, can be used in MALT only and may have a negative impact on the node
subdivision process.

Page 7-6

Chapter 8. Conclusions

CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSIONS
The detailed study has presented concise step-by-step instructions on how to prepare, submit and
examine results for the NCC-SES Gas Insulated Substation grounding system using the RESAP,
MALT and HIFREQ engineering modules of the CDEGS software package.
One major result of this study shows that significant fault currents are carried away along the
overhead shield wires and that accurate computations of the fault current distribution are crucial to
determine the safe touch voltages at substations where the soil resistivity is poor.
Only a few of the many features of the software have been used in this tutorial. You should try the
many other options available to familiarize yourself with the CDEGS software package. Your SES
Software DVD also contains a wealth of information stored under the PDF directory. There you will
find the Getting Started with SES Software Packages manual (\PDF\getstart.pdf) which contains
useful information on the CDEGS environment. You will also find other How ToEngineering
Guides, Annual Users Group Meeting Proceedings and much more. All Help documents are also
available online.

Page 8-1

This page is intentionally left blank

Appendix A. Command Input Mode

APPENDIX A
COMMAND INPUT MODE
Any of the interfaces listed below or a text editor can be used to prepare the input data. The
Windows Toolbox input modes convert the results of an input session to a Command Mode
compatible ASCII input file which can be edited at any time. This document describes the Windows
Toolbox mode in detail.

The Windows Toolbox mode.


The Command mode.
Plain text editor mode.

Printout A.1 is the resulting RESAP Command mode compatible input file which analyzes the soil
structure using the soil resistivity measurements from Traverse 1. The data for Traverse 1 can be
found in Table 21. This RESAP file can be edited directly by an experienced user or is
automatically produced when using one of the above-listed input interface modules.
Similar files can be prepared quite easily by following the information contained in the template
shown in Figure A.1. The following section describes the Windows compatible Toolbox input
session which, once completed, generates the input file described in Printout A.1 which can be
reloaded during subsequent sessions.
RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,NCC-SES GIS SOIL RESISTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR
TEXT,MODULE,THE WENNER ELECTODE CONFIGURATION. DATA
TEXT,MODULE,MEASURED BY STING R1 AND SAS 300C ARE COMBINED.
TEXT,MODULE,TRIAL RUN.
OPTIONS
UNITS,BRITISH
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,NCC1T
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,1.64,554.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,385.4,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,178.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,105.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,74.46,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.50,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.17,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.08,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,28.40,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,19.02,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.48,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.33,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.88,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,5.905,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.523,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,1.64,557.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,386.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,179.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,106.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,75.11,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.7,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.4,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.1,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,27.9,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,18.82,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.93,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.37,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.61,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,6.09,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.71,1.64,1.64
OPTIMIZATION
ACCURACY,0.025
ITERATIONS,500
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
STEPSIZE,0.0001
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.1

RESAP Input File RS_NCC1T.F05


Page A-1

Appendix A. Command Input Mode

Figure A.1

RESAP Command Mode Compatible Input File Template

Page A-2

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


The input file RS_NCC1A.F05 can be easily created from RS_NCC1T.F05 using your favorite text
editor. Note that the SOIL-TYPE module in RS_NCC1T.F05 is replaced by the following
commands:
SOIL-TYPE, MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER, TOP, 0.0,0.0
LAYER, CENTRAL, 0.0,0.0
LAYER, CENTRAL, 0.0,0.0
LAYER, BOTTOM,0.0
RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,NCC-SES GIS SOIL RESISTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR
TEXT,MODULE,THE WENNER ELECTODE CONFIGURATION. DATA
TEXT,MODULE,MEASURED BY STING R1 AND SAS 300C ARE COMBINED.
TEXT,MODULE,FIRST RUN.
OPTIONS
UNITS,BRITISH
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,NCC1A
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,1.64,554.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,385.4,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,178.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,105.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,74.46,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.50,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.17,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.08,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,28.40,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,19.02,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.48,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.33,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.88,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,5.905,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.523,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,1.64,557.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,386.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,179.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,106.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,75.11,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.7,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.4,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.1,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,27.9,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,18.82,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.93,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.37,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.61,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,6.09,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.71,1.64,1.64
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,BOTTOM,0.
OPTIMIZATION
ACCURACY,0.025
ITERATIONS,500
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
STEPSIZE,0.0001
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.2

RESAP Input File RS_NCC1A.F05

Page A-3

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.3 shows the input file RS_NCC1B.F05. The only difference between RS_NCC1B.F05
and RS_NCC1A.F05 is the number of layers in the SOIL-TYPE module.
RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,NCC-SES GIS SOIL RESISTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR
TEXT,MODULE,THE WENNER ELECTODE CONFIGURATION. DATA
TEXT,MODULE,MEASURED BY STING R1 AND SAS 300C ARE COMBINED.
TEXT,MODULE,SECOND RUN.
OPTIONS
UNITS,BRITISH
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,NCC1B
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,1.64,554.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,385.4,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,178.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,105.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,74.46,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.50,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.17,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.08,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,28.40,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,19.02,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.48,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.33,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.88,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,5.905,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.523,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,1.64,557.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,386.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,179.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,106.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,75.11,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.7,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.4,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.1,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,27.9,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,18.82,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.93,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.37,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.61,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,6.09,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.71,1.64,1.64
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,BOTTOM,0.
OPTIMIZATION
ACCURACY,0.025
ITERATIONS,500
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
STEPSIZE,0.0001
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.3

RESAP Input File RS_NCC1B.F05

Page A-4

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.4 shows the input file RS_NCC1C.F05. Based on the five-layer soil model, an initial
guess for the four-layer soil model is constructed and defined.
RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,NCC-SES GIS SOIL RESISTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR
TEXT,MODULE,THE WENNER ELECTODE CONFIGURATION. DATA
TEXT,MODULE,MEASURED BY STING R1 AND SAS 300C ARE COMBINED.
TEXT,MODULE,THIRD RUN.
OPTIONS
UNITS,BRITISH
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,NCC1C
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,1.64,554.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,385.4,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,178.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,105.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,74.46,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.50,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.17,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.08,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,28.40,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,19.02,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.48,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.33,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.88,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,5.905,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.523,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,1.64,557.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,3.28,386.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,179.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,106.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,75.11,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.7,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.4,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.1,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,27.9,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,18.82,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.93,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.37,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.61,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,6.09,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.71,1.64,1.64
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,BOTTOM,0.
OPTIMIZATION
ACCURACY,0.025
ITERATIONS,500
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
STEPSIZE,0.0001
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.4

RESAP Input File RS_NCC1C.F05

Page A-5

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.5 shows the input file RS_NCCR1.F05. By examining the resistivity measurement curve,
we expect that a three-layer soil model will fit the measurement curve very well provided that the
first data point is removed. This assumption is justified since the measurement was made during a
rainy day.
RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,NCC-SES GIS SOIL RESISTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR
TEXT,MODULE,THE WENNER ELECTODE CONFIGURATION. DATA
TEXT,MODULE,MEASURED BY STING R1 AND SAS 300C ARE COMBINED.
TEXT,MODULE,FOURTH RUN.
TEXT,MODULE,THE FIRST DATA POINT IS REMOVED.
OPTIONS
UNITS,BRITISH
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,NCCR1
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,3.28,385.4,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,178.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,105.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,74.46,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.50,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.17,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.08,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,28.40,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,19.02,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.48,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.33,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.88,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,5.905,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.523,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,3.28,386.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,179.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,106.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,75.11,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.7,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.4,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.1,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,27.9,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,18.82,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.93,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.37,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.61,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,6.09,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.71,1.64,1.64
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0.,0.
LAYER,CENTRAL,0.,0.
LAYER,BOTTOM,0.
OPTIMIZATION
ACCURACY,0.025
ITERATIONS,500
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
STEPSIZE,0.0001
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.5

RESAP Input File RS_NCCR1.F05

Page A-6

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.6 shows the input file RS_NCC1E.F05. By examining the resistivity measurement curve,
we expect that a three-layer soil model will fit the measurement curve very well provided that the
first data point is removed. This assumption is justified since the measurement was made during a
rainy day.
RESAP
TEXT,MODULE,NCC-SES GIS SOIL RESISTIVITY ANALYSIS FOR
TEXT,MODULE,THE WENNER ELECTODE CONFIGURATION. DATA
TEXT,MODULE,MEASURED BY STING R1 AND SAS 300C ARE COMBINED.
TEXT,MODULE,FIFTH RUN.
TEXT,MODULE,THE FIRST DATA POINT IS REMOVED.
OPTIONS
UNITS,BRITISH
RUN-IDENTIFICATION,NCCR1
PRINTOUT,DETAILED
MEASUREMENTS,APPARENT-RES
METHOD,WENNER
RESULTS,3.28,385.4,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,178.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,105.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,74.46,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.50,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.17,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.08,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,28.40,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,19.02,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.48,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.33,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.88,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,5.905,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.523,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,3.28,386.0,.492,.492
RESULTS,6.56,179.6,.492,.492
RESULTS,9.84,106.3,.492,.492
RESULTS,13.12,75.11,.492,.492
RESULTS,16.4,59.7,.984,.984
RESULTS,19.68,48.4,.984,.984
RESULTS,22.96,42.1,.984,.984
RESULTS,32.8,27.9,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,49.2,18.82,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,65.6,14.93,1.312,1.312
RESULTS,98.4,10.37,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,164,6.61,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,229.6,6.09,1.64,1.64
RESULTS,328,4.71,1.64,1.64
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,0.,0.
LAYER,BOTTOM,0.
OPTIMIZATION
ACCURACY,0.025
ITERATIONS,500
METHODOLOGY
MARQUARDT
STEPSIZE,0.0001
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.6

RESAP Input File RS_NCC1E.F05

Page A-7

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.7 shows the required MALT input file MT_NCCR1.F05 corresponding to the initial
grounding system of NCC-SES substation. The three-layer soil model from Traverse 1 using the
Wenner method is used.
Similar files can be prepared quite easily by following the information contained in the template
shown in Figure A.2.
MALT
TEXT,MODULE,SAFETY STUDY IN THE 154 KV NCC-SES GIS.
TEXT,MODULE,GROUNDING CONTAINS A 255.0 FT X 270.00 FT EQUAL SPACED GRID AT 1 FT AND A 43.5
TEXT,MODULE,FT X 204.7 FT CONDUCTOR LOCATED AT 2 FT.
TEXT,MODULE,REBAR IS A 40.4 FT X 204.7 FT LINEAR GRID AT 0.5 FT. 21 RODS WITH LENGTH OF 10
TEXT,MODULE,FT ARE CONNECTED TO THE GRID UNDER GIS BUILDING.
COMPONENTS
TEMPLATES
GRID, DETAILED, -1, 0, 0, 0, .125, 52, 11
CGRIDCOORD, -17.6423, -96.5519, .5, 22.7577, -96.5519, .5, -17.6423, 108.148, .5
SPACING, LINEAR
GROUP, , 0, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 1, 1
GROUP, , 0, 0
OPTIONS
RUN-IDENTIFI, NCCSAFETY(NCCR1)
UNITS, INCH-RADIUS
PRINTOUT, DETAILED
SYSTEM
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
ENERGIZATION, CURRENT, 1000
CONDUCTOR,-136,-135,1,-121,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-121,-135,1,-106,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-106,-135,1,-91,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-91,-135,1,-76,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-76,-135,1,-61,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-61,-135,1,-46,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-46,-135,1,-31,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-31,-135,1,-16,-135,1,.264, 1,,1

CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,105,.5,14,105.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,90,.5,14,90.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,75,.5,14,75.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,60,.5,14,60.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,45,.5,14,45.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,30,.5,14,30.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,15,.5,14,15.000449232,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,1.1655884773E-14,.5,14,.000449231999992,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,-15,.5,14,-14.999550768,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,-30,.5,14,-29.999550768,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,-45,.5,14,-44.999550768,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,-60,.5,14,-59.999550768,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,-75,.5,14,-74.999550768,2,.4065, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,14.677678415,-90,.5,14,-89.999550768,2,.4065, 1,,1
COMPUTATIONS
DETERMINE, ALL
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.7

MALT Input File MT_NCCR1.F05

Page A-8

Appendix A. Command Input Mode

Figure A.2

MALT Command Mode Compatible Input File Template

Page A-9

Appendix A. Command Input Mode

Figure A.2

MALT Command Mode Compatible Input File Template (Contd)

Page A-10

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.8 is the resulting HIFREQ Command mode compatible input file that is used in the fault
current distribution analysis. This file is created by using the SESCAD in Chapter 4.
HIFREQ
TEXT,GRID,"Compute fault current distribution."
TEXT,GRID,"All towers ground resistances are 40 ohms."
COMPONENTS
GROUP, , 0, 0

OPTIONS
RUN-IDENTIFI, NCCFAULT40(NCCR1)
UNITS, INCH-RADIUS
PRINTOUT, DETAILED
SYSTEM
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,120.5,-677.55,,,,,,GENNE-C1
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,287.171,-875.349,,,,,,GENNE-C2
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,513.759,-1917.36,,,,,,GENSE-C1
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,433.931,-1879.56,,,,,,GENSE-C2
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,199.619,-614.38,,,,,,GENSW-C1
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,158.14,-590.18,,,,,,GENSW-C2
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,58.7399,-558.92,,,,,,GENNW-C1
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,725.923,-3144.29,,,,,,GENNW-C2
ENERGIZATION, GPR-POTENTIAL,0,0,,,,,,Zero GPR
CHARACTERISTICS
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,DEFAULT,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,Default Conductor
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,User-Defined,2.83773,.246407,0,0,0,0,0,0,7No.8 Alumoweld
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,0,13.47,0,0,0,NCC-SES GIS
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,0,40,0,0,0,Tower 40 ohms
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,0,0.5,0,0,0,Terminal 0.5 ohm
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
CONDUCTOR,-1, 1, 0, 0,38.0512797534,34.0932560653,-148.67,68570.1500026,39601.0932682,-148.67,.1925, 1,103
CONDUCTOR,-1, 1, 0, 0,48.5512746515,15.9067196403,-148.67,68580.6499974,39582.9067318,-148.67,.1925, 1,103
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,34.551281454,40.1554348736,-90.33,68566.6500043,39607.155447,-90.33,.264, 1,103
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,52.0512729509,9.84454083191,-90.33,68584.1499957,39576.844553,-90.33,.264, 1,103

CONDUCTOR, 0, 0, 0, 8,-63667.7178013,63685.0419175,-129.61,-63663.4953012,63689.3046988,-64.78,.264, 1,0


CONDUCTOR, 0, 0, 0, 7,-63685.0620581,63667.7379419,-129.61,-63689.3046988,63663.4953012,-64.78,.264, 1,0
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-26.6932809898,44.0173971289,-129.61,-1.47301243818E-12,-8.47965617233E-13,-148.67,.264, 1,0
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-22.4506403027,48.260037816,-64.78,-26.6932809898,44.0173971289,-129.61,.264, 1,0
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-48.260037816,22.4506403027,-64.78,-44.0173971289,26.6932809898,-129.61,.264, 1,0
COMPUTATIONS
DETERMINE
GPR, ON
POTENTIAL-SCALAR, ON
ELECTRIC, ON
MAGNETIC, ON
VECTOR-POTENTIAL, OFF
GRADIENT-SCALAR, OFF
CURRENTS, COMPUTED
FREQUENCY, 60, 60
SOIL-TYPE,LIMITED-LAYE
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,1742.4,116.99,1,1
LAYER,BOTTOM,4027.2,,1,1
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.8

Structured HIFREQ Input File HI_NCCR1.F05

Page A-11

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.9 is the resulting HIFREQ Command mode compatible input file that describes the initial
NCC-SES GIS grounding system with the complete GIS bus works modeled.
HIFREQ
TEXT,GRID,"Safety evaluation at NCC-SES GIS: Initial Design"
TEXT,GRID,"Complete GIS Bus Works Modeled."
COMPONENTS
GROUP, , 0, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 2, 0

OPTIONS
RUN-IDENTIFI, NCCR1-GIS
UNITS, INCH-RADIUS
PRINTOUT, DETAILED
SYSTEM
TOLERANCE,0.001,1.,0.005,0.00005,0.001,0.,0.,0.,0.5
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,84.9816,808.546,,,,,,GENNE-SES
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,55.3714,-1056.55,,,,,,GENSE-SES
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,110.292,898.254,,,,,,GENSW-SES
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,-40.8324,-1169.29,,,,,,GENNW-SES
CHARACTERISTICS
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,,0,0,0,0,Cu-500kcmil-0.4065in
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,,0,0,0,0,Cu-4/0-0.264in
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,,0,0,0,0,Cu-Rod-10L-3/4R
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,12.1,250,0,,0,0,0,0,Rebar Wire
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,2.28489,.927289,0,,0,0,0,0,1590ACSR
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,2.23759,.957659,0,,0,0,0,0,2167ACSR
CABLE-TYPE, Enclosure24inch
COMPONENT, CORE, .5
METAL,1,1,0,,,,,,
INSULATION, 999999,0.875,,,
COMPONENT, SHEATH, 12
METAL,10,300,11,,,,,,
INSULATION, ,,,,
CABLE-TYPE, Enclosure14inch
COMPONENT, CORE, .5
METAL,1,1,0,,,,,,
INSULATION, 999999,0.458333,,,
COMPONENT, SHEATH, 7
METAL,10,300,6,,,,,,
INSULATION, ,,,,
SUBDIVISION,YES,
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-6.45011044727,98.0600740844,-18.211,-6.45011044727,98.0600740844,-9.875,.375, 1,16, 0, 2
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-3.49711044727,96.0548740844,-18.211,-3.49711044727,96.0548740844,-9.875,.375, 1,16, 0, 2
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-9.40311044727,100.065274084,-18.211,-9.40311044727,100.065274084,-9.875,.375, 1,16, 0, 2

CONNECTION, 1017, 2, 1, 1114, 0, 2,1,1,0


CONNECTION, 1054, 2, 2, 1114, 0, 2,1,1,0
CONNECTION, 180, 1, 1, 180, 2, 1,1,1,0
CONNECTION, 1055, 2, 1, 1114, 0, 2,0,1,0
COMPUTATIONS
DETERMINE
GPR, ON
POTENTIAL-SCALAR, ON
ELECTRIC, ON
MAGNETIC, ON
VECTOR-POTENTIAL, OFF
GRADIENT-SCALAR, OFF
CURRENTS, COMPUTED
OBSERVATION
PROFILE, 93,-145.999890926,-144.999534126,0,2.98913055994,0,0,0
SURFACE, 98,0,2.98969117995,0,0
FREQUENCY, 60, 60
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,2552.23,4.36531
LAYER,CENTRAL,1742.39,116.99
LAYER,BOTTOM,4027.2
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.9

Structured HIFREQ Input File HI_NCCR1-GIS.F05

Page A-12

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.10 is the resulting MALT Command mode compatible input file that describes the
reinforced NCC-SES GIS grounding system. This file is created by using the SESCAD in Chapter 7.
MALT
TEXT,GRID,"SAFETY STUDY IN THE 154 KV NCC-SES GIS."
TEXT,GRID,"GROUNDING CONTAINS A 255.0 FT X 270.00 FT EQUAL SPACED GRID AT 1 FT AND A 43.5"
TEXT,GRID,"FT X 204.7 FT CONDUCTOR LOCATED AT 2 FT."
TEXT,GRID,"REBAR IS A 40.4 FT X 204.7 FT LINEAR GRID AT 0.5 FT. 21 RODS WITH LENGTH OF 10"
TEXT,GRID,"FT ARE CONNECTED TO THE GRID UNDER GIS BUILDING."
TEXT,GRID,"Mit01: Add inner loop 7.5 ft from the perimeter loop and add four 10 ft rods at"
TEXT,GRID,"the corners of NCC-SES GIS"
COMPONENTS
TEMPLATES
GRID, DETAILED, -1, 0, 0, 0, .125, 52, 11
CGRIDCOORD, -17.6423, -96.5519, .5, 22.7577, -96.5519, .5, -17.6423, 108.148, .5
SPACING, LINEAR
GROUP, , 0, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 1, 1
GROUP, , 0, 0
OPTIONS
RUN-IDENTIFI, NCCSAFETY(NCCR1)
UNITS, INCH-RADIUS
PRINTOUT, DETAILED
SYSTEM
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
ENERGIZATION, CURRENT, 1000
CONDUCTOR,-136,-135,1,-121,-135,1,.264, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,-121,-135,1,-106,-135,1,.264, 1,,1

CONDUCTOR,-136,-135,1,-136,-135,11,.375, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,119,-135,1,119,-135,11,.375, 1,,1
CONDUCTOR,119,135,1,119,135,11,.375, 1,,1
COMPUTATIONS
DETERMINE, ALL
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,2552.23,4.36532
LAYER,CENTRAL,1742.39,116.99
LAYER,BOTTOM,4027.2
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.10

MALT Input File MT_NCCR1-GIS_Mit01.F05

Page A-13

Appendix A. Command Input Mode


Printout A.11 is the resulting HIFREQ Command mode compatible input file that describes the
reinforced NCC-SES GIS grounding system with the complete GIS bus works modeled. This file is
created by using the SESCAD in Chapter 7.
HIFREQ
TEXT,GRID,"Safety evaluation at NCC-SES GIS: Reinforced Grid"
TEXT,GRID,"Complete GIS Bus Works Modeled."
TEXT,GRID,"Mit01: Add inner loop 7.5 ft from the perimeter loop and add four 10 ft rods at"
TEXT,GRID,"the corners of NCC-SES GIS"
COMPONENTS
GROUP, , 0, 0
GROUP, , 1, 0
GROUP, , 2, 0

OPTIONS
RUN-IDENTIFI, NCCR1-GIS_Mit01
UNITS, INCH-RADIUS
PRINTOUT, DETAILED
SYSTEM
TOLERANCE,0.001,1.,0.005,0.00005,0.001,0.,0.,0.,0.5
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,84.9816,808.546,,,,,,GENNE-SES
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,55.3714,-1056.55,,,,,,GENSE-SES
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,110.292,898.254,,,,,,GENSW-SES
ENERGIZATION, LEAD,-40.8324,-1169.29,,,,,,GENNW-SES
CHARACTERISTICS
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,,0,0,0,0,Cu-500kcmil-0.4065in
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,,0,0,0,0,Cu-4/0-0.264in
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,1,1,0,,0,0,0,0,Cu-Rod-10L-3/4R
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,12.1,250,0,,0,0,0,0,Rebar Wire
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,2.28489,.927289,0,,0,0,0,0,1590ACSR
CONDUCTOR-TYPE,Computed,2.23759,.957659,0,,0,0,0,0,2167ACSR
CABLE-TYPE, Enclosure24inch
COMPONENT, CORE, .5
METAL,1,1,0,,,,,,
INSULATION, 999999,0.875,,,
COMPONENT, SHEATH, 12
METAL,10,300,11,,,,,,
INSULATION, ,,,,
CABLE-TYPE, Enclosure14inch
COMPONENT, CORE, .5
METAL,1,1,0,,,,,,
INSULATION, 999999,0.458333,,,
COMPONENT, SHEATH, 7
METAL,10,300,6,,,,,,
INSULATION, ,,,,
SUBDIVISION,YES,
NETWORK
MAIN-GROUND
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-6.45011044727,98.0600740844,-18.211,-6.45011044727,98.0600740844,-9.875,.375, 1,16, 0, 2
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-3.49711044727,96.0548740844,-18.211,-3.49711044727,96.0548740844,-9.875,.375, 1,16, 0, 2
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-9.40311044727,100.065274084,-18.211,-9.40311044727,100.065274084,-9.875,.375, 1,16, 0, 2

CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,-135.999884468,-134.999535083,1,-135.999884468,-134.999535083,11,.375, 1,0


CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,119.000115532,-134.999535083,1,119.000115532,-134.999535083,11,.375, 1,0
CONDUCTOR,-1, 0, 0, 0,119.000115532,135.000511729,1,119.000115532,135.000511729,11,.375, 1,0
CONNECTION, 1092, 0, 1, 675, 2, 1,1,1,0
CONNECTION, 682, 0, 1, 680, 2, 1,1,1,0

CONNECTION, 180, 1, 1, 180, 2, 1,1,1,0


CONNECTION, 1055, 2, 1, 1114, 0, 2,0,1,0
COMPUTATIONS
DETERMINE
GPR, ON
POTENTIAL-SCALAR, ON
ELECTRIC, ON
MAGNETIC, ON
VECTOR-POTENTIAL, OFF
GRADIENT-SCALAR, OFF
CURRENTS, COMPUTED
OBSERVATION
PROFILE, 93,-145.999890926,-144.999534126,0,2.98913055994,0,0,0
SURFACE, 98,0,2.98969117995,0,0
FREQUENCY, 60, 60
SOIL-TYPE,MULTILAYER
HORIZONTAL
LAYER,TOP,2552.23,4.36531
LAYER,CENTRAL,1742.39,116.99
LAYER,BOTTOM,4027.2
ENDPROGRAM

Printout A.11

Structured HIFREQ Input File HI_NCCR1-GIS_Mit01.F05


Page A-14

Appendix B. Obtain Internal Impedances from SESConductorDatabase Tool

APPENDIX B
USE SESCONDUCTORDATABASE TOOL TO
OBTAIN INTERNAL IMPEDANCES
In HIFREQ, in order to model a stranded conductor, such as 7No.8 Alumoweld, we will need to
obtain its internal impedance first. This value is obtained by using the SESConductorDatabase
Tool.
Start the SESConductorDatabase from the Tools menu in the CDEGS screen.

Page B-1

Appendix B. Obtain Internal Impedances from SESConductorDatabase Tool


Click on the View button, you will see the following screen which lists the Internal Impedance for
7No.8 Alumoweld. Make sure to use the correct units when defining conductor types in HIFREQ.

Page B-2

Notes

NOTES