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Multiplication principle:

Step A

Step B

and B in n ways, then there are mn ways to complete the procedure.

Addition principle:

A procedure is such that it can be performed in A or in B way.

m ways

A

n ways

B

Example 1:

II

III

IV

5 5 5 5 625

ways: 5

I

II

III

IV

5 4 3 2 120

ways: 5

Example 2:

I

II

III

IV

4 5 5 5 500

ways: 4

I

II

III

IV

4 4 3 2 96

ways: 4

Page 1

S P Gupta. A - 12 (Opp. Shri Ram Mandir), Mathur Vaish Nagar, Tonk Road, Jaipur 302029 Ph.: 2549422, 2554655, 9829055465.

Example 3:

II

III

ways: 5

IV

I

2 or 4

2 5 5 5 250

Example 4:

II

III

IV

ways: 4

I

2 or 4 2 4 3 2 48

2

II

III

IV

I

0, 2 or 43 4 5 5 300

ways: 4

II

III

IV

I

0

ways: 4

or

II

3

III

IV

1 4 3 2 24

I

2 or 4

2 3 3 2 36

Total 60

ways:

bac, cba , acb

2. Number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time =

(i).

Pr

(ii).

Pr

Pr

n!

n r !

n n 1 . . . n r 1

Page 2

S P Gupta. A - 12 (Opp. Shri Ram Mandir), Mathur Vaish Nagar, Tonk Road, Jaipur 302029 Ph.: 2549422, 2554655, 9829055465.

Number of ways in which r objects can be

(i)

(ii)

Cr

n!

r !( n r ) !

n

( n 1) (n 2) . . . ( n r 1)

n

Cr

1 .2 .3 . . . r

n

Cr

C0 n Cn 1

(iii)

(iv)

xy

n n

Cx C y or

xyn

(v)

(vi)

Cr n Cn r

C r 1

Cr

(vii)

selected

chosen

grouped

taken

Cr

C r 1

C r n 1 C r

n n 1

C r 1

r

n r 1

r

Example 1:

Solution:

2730 = 15 x 14 x 13

r = 3

Example 2:

If 18 Cr = 18 C r + 2, find r P3.

Solution:

18

Cr = 18 Cr+2 r r 2 18

r 8

r P3 8 P3

8x 7 x 6

336

Example 3:

1.

2.

(considering P, U, R to be one unit, we can arrange the 5 letters in 5! ways. P, U, R

can change their positions within themselves in 3! ways).

3.

(Total number of words number of words in which P, U, R are together).

4.

x

x

Page 3

S P Gupta. A - 12 (Opp. Shri Ram Mandir), Mathur Vaish Nagar, Tonk Road, Jaipur 302029 Ph.: 2549422, 2554655, 9829055465.

x : Positions where P,U and R can be placed

The letters J,O,D,H can be arranged in 4! ways.

We have 5 positions for placing 3 letters P, U, R. This can be done in 5C3. 3! ways.

5.

Number of words in which all the vowels are together and all the consonants are

together = 2! (2! 5!)

(Vowels within themselves can be arranged in 2! ways and consonants in 5! ways. The two groups of

vowels and consonants can change their positions in 2! ways).

6.

R

(Positions of J and R are fixed. Therefore, we need to permute O, D, H, P and U only).

7.

unchanged = 2! 5!

8.

(There are four odd places: 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th. We have two vowels O and U. So we,

first of all, select two positions and arrange vowels there. This can be done in 4C2 2!

ways. Then, the remaining five places can be filled in 5! ways.)

9.

Total number of 4 letter words when any letter can be repeated any number of times is

equal to 7 7 7 7

ways:

10.

Four letter words, using the letters of the word JODHPUR, are formed. The number

of words which have at least one letter repeated is equal to 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 4 .

11.

Rank of the word JODHPUR in the dictionary of the words formed with the letters

of the word JODHPUR:

Words starting with D or H:

D or H

ways:

2 6 ! 1440

2 5 ! 240

D or H

ways:

1

2

5

Words starting with JODHPR:

J

1O

1 D

1

P

th

1682th

Page 4

n1 objects are alike of one type

n2 objects are alike of second type

.

.

.

nk objects are alike of kth type

n!

1

2

3

k

Let there are n objects (all dissimilar). r objects are to be chosen with/without

restrictions.

1. Without any restriction

Number of ways = nCr

2. n1 particular objects are included in the selection

n n1

C r n

Number of ways =

1

3. n2 particular objects are not included in the selection

Number of ways = n n 2 C r

4. n1 particular objects are taken and n2 particular objects are not taken

n n1 n 2

C r n1

Number of ways =

Example 4:

Words are formed using the letters of the word EXAMINATION. Find

(i). the number of words

(ii).

the number of four letter words

In the word EXAMINATION, we have

E 1, X 1, M 1, T 1, O 1

A 2, I 2, N 2

11 !

(i).

(ii).

Cases

C1.7 C 2 .

C2

3. Two letters are alike of one kind and

two are of another kind

Total

Number of words

C 4 . 4 ! 1680

4!

756

2!

4!

18

2!2!

2454

Example 5: Words are formed using the letters of the word JODHPUR. Find the number of

words in which P comes before U and U comes before R.

Let us designate each one of P, U and R by a single letter (say X). Now, we arrange X,

X, X, J, O, D, H to form words.

Page 5

7!

In these words, if the first X (seen from the left) is replaced by P, the second X by U

and the third X by R, then we get the words in which P comes before U and U before

R. Hence the required number of words is 840.

Example 6:

Solution:

How many numbers greater than 10 lacs can be formed using 2,3,0,3,4,2,3.

Required number of numbers

= (Total numbers formed including the numbers

containing 0 at the left most position) (total number of number of

numbers starting with zero)

=

=

7!

6!

2 !3!

2!3!

6!

7 1 360.

2 !3!

Example 7: There are 3 children, 4 women and 5 men. A group of 4 persons is to be formed

containing atleast one women. Find the number of ways in which this can be done.

Solution:

Total number of ways in which we can select 4 persons (without any restriction)

= 12 C 4

Number of groups not containing any woman

= 8 C4

Required number of ways of selecting 4 persons

= 12 C 4 8 C 4

Selection of one of more objects can be done in 2n 1 ways.

Total number of ways = n C1 n C 2 . . . n C n 2 n 1

Proof: I.

II.

Since, one or more objects are to be taken, hence each object has two possibilities:

(i) may be taken (ii) may not be taken.

Hence, the number of ways in which we may select or may not select the objects is

equal to 2 x 2 x 2 x . . . n times i.e. 2n.

This includes one way in which no object is taken.

Number of ways of selecting one or more objects is equal to 2n 1.

n1 objects are alike of first type.

n2 objects are alike of second type.

.

.

.

nk objects are alike of kth type.

n1 n 2 . . . n k n .

Example 8:

5 balls of different colors are given. In how many ways the balls may be selected?

Solution:

= 25 1

= 31

Page 6

Example 9:

(i).

(ii).

(iii).

Number of ways in which balls may be chosen

3 1 4 1 5 1 1

= 119.

Number of ways of selecting the balls when atleast one red ball is included in the

selection

=3(4+1)(5+1)

= 90.

Number of ways of selecting the balls when atleast one ball of each colour is

included

= 3.4.5

= 60.

Example 10: 3 red, 4 yellow, 5 blue balls are given. All the red balls are of different shades.

(i).

Number of ways of selecting one or more balls

2 3 4 1 5 1 1

= 239.

(ii).

Number of ways of selecting the balls when atleast one red ball is included

2 3 1 4 1 5 1

= 210.

Example 11: There are four questions in a question paper. Each question has an alternative. In

how many ways the question paper may be attempted?

Solution:

Each question has three ways associated with it. 2 ways to do it and 1 way for not

doing. Hence, the question paper may be attempted in 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 1 i.e. 80 ways.

n1 objects are alike of first type.

n2 objects are alike of second type.

M

nk objects are alike of kth type.

(n1 + n2 + . . . + nk = n).

Number of ways in which exactly r objects may be taken

= Coefficient of xr in (x0 + x1 + . . . + x n 1 ) (x0 + x1 + . . . + x n 2 )

. . . (x0 + x1 + . . . + x n k )

If there are at least r objects of each type i.e. n i r i 1, 2, . . ., k , then

Number of ways in which exactly r objects may be taken.

= coeff. x r in 1 x x 2 . . . x r

k r 1 C r

n object (all dissimilar) are to be divided into k groups such that these groups contain n1, n2,

n3, . . ., nk, objects (n1+ n2+ . . . + nk = n)

(i)

If ni nj, i j (i.e. no two groups contain equal number of objects), then number of

ways in which this can be done is

n!

n 1! n 2 ! . . . n k !

Page 7

(ii)

If there be p groups (among these k groups) containing equal number of objects, then

the number of ways is

n!

n 1! n 2 ! . . . n k ! p!

Number of groups

groups

dividing objects into

groups

12 !

3 ! 4 !5 !

3, 4, 5

6, 6

4, 4, 4

3, 3, 3, 3

2, 2, 2, 6

2, 2, 2, 3, 3

2 !3 (3 !)2 3 ! 2 !

4, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1

4 !

12 !

6 ! 2 2 !

12 !

4 ! 3 3 !

12 !

(3 !) 4 4 !

12 !

( 2 !)3 6 ! 3 !

12 !

12 !

(1 !) 4 2 ! 4 !

Page 8

Example 13: Find number of ways in which 12 apples can be equally divided among 3 persons.

Solution:

person. We may solve this problem in two different ways.

First approach: Take 4 apples and give it to one person. 8 apples are left now. Take 4 apples and

give it to second person. Remaining 4 apples are given to the third person.

12 C 4 . 8C 4 . 4 C 4

12 !

8!

4!

.

.

4 !8 !

4 !4 !

4 !0 !

12 !

4 !4 ! 4 !

Second approach: Divide 12 apples into 3 groups each containing 4 apples, and then permute the

groups against the persons.

12 !

3!

4 !4 ! 4 ! 3 !

12 !

4 !4 ! 4!

Example 14: Five balls are to be placed in three boxes. Each box is capable of holding all the

five balls. The balls are placed in the boxes in such a way that no box remains empty.

Find the number of ways of placing the balls in the boxes.

Solution: We divide 5 balls into 3 groups in such a way that each group contains atleast one

ball. Now, these groups are permuted against the boxes. Thus, number of ways in

which this can be done is the number of ways of placing atleast one balls in the boxes.

(i). All the boxes are dissimilar and all the balls are dissimilar.

Number of balls in

the groups

Number of ways of

dividing balls into groups

5!

1, 1, 3

1 !

2, 2, 1

2 ! 21 ! 2 !

3!2!

5!

the balls in the boxes

10

10 . 3! = 60

15

15 . 3! = 90

Total

150

__________________________________________________________________

(ii) Balls are identical and boxes are dissimilar.

Number of balls in

the groups

Number of ways of

dividing balls into groups

1, 1, 3

2, 2, 1

the balls in the boxes

3!

3

2!

3!

3

2!

Total

Page 9

Number of balls in

the groups

Number of ways of

dividing balls into groups

5!

1, 1, 3

1 !

2, 2, 1

2 ! 2 1 ! 2 !

3!2!

5!

the balls in the boxes

10

10 1 10

15

15 1 15

Total

25

Number of balls in

the groups

Number of ways of

dividing balls into groups

1, 1, 3

2, 2, 1

the balls in the boxes

1 1 1

1 1 1

1

1

Total

__________________________________________________________________

Circular Permutations:

b

These arrangements are identical with respect to the objects but are distinct relative to the direction.

(i)

(ii)

No. of circular permutations of n dissimilar objects taken r at a time

1

n C r . r 1 ! .n Pr

r

Examples: (i).

( n 1) !

2

(ii).

2x2x2x2x2

(iii).

2 persons is 25 2.

(iv).

is equal to Coefficient of x5 in (1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5)2

(v).

2 persons is equal to coefficient of x5 in (x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 )2

Number of rectangles on a chessboard 9 C 2 . 9 C 2

Number of squares on a chessboard:

Page 10

Dimensions

1 1

22

.

.

.

Number of squares

82

72

.

.

.

88

12

Total

204

Dimensions

1 n

2 n

.

.

.

8 n

Number of rectangles

8

7

.

.

.

1

n 1, 2, 3, . . ., 8

n 2, 3, . . ., 8

.

.

.

n 8

Total

36

1000

1000

1000

1000

5 5 2 53 5 4

= 200 + 40 + 8 + 1

= 249

7 | 1000 C500

Hint: 1000 C500 =

(True/False)

1000 !

(500 !) 2

Let

1000! 7.N1

500! 7.N 2

1000 1000 1000

164

7 7 2 7 3

500 500 500

82

7 7 2 7 3

Number of times we write 3 while writing numbers 1 to 1000:

3 occurs exactly once in 3C1.9.9 numbers.

3 occurs exactly twice in 3C2.9 numbers.

3 occurs exactly thrice in 3C3 numbers.

So, the number of times, we write 3 while writing the numbers 1 to 1000

is 243 + 2 27 + 3 1 i.e. 300.

Page 11

...

m parellel

roads

B

n parallel roads

Find the number of shortest paths from A to B.

As long as a person moves eastward or southward he is on the shortest path. For

going from A to B by a shortest path, one has to move n 1 nodes eastward and

m 1 nodes southward. Let us denote eastward movement by one node by E and

southward movement by one node by S.

m n 2 !

m 1 ! n 1 !

1

1

1

1

n! 1

. . . 1 n

1

!

2

!

3

!

n

!

consecutive objects is n r + 1.

n members of a new club meet each day for a lunch at a round table. They decide to

sit such that every member has different neighbours at each lunch. The number of

days can this arrangement will last is equal to

n 1

2 , if n is odd

n2

, if n is even

2

11. n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three

lines are concurrent. The number of parts into which these lines divide the plane, is

n

1 r

r 1

12. Sum of numbers formed by using the digits 1,2,3,4,5 (repetition of digits is not

allowed) :

1 occurs at the units place in 4! numbers.

1 occurs at the tens place in 4! numbers.

1 occurs at the hundreds place in 4! numbers.

1 occurs at the thousands place in 4! numbers.

1 occurs at the ten thousands place in 4! numbers.

We have similar results for the other digits.

So the required sum

1 2 3 4 5 .24 1 2 3 4 5 . 10. 24 1 2 3 4 5 . 10 2.24

Page 12

1 2 3 4 5 . 10 3. 24 +

1 2 3 4 5 10 . 24

1 2 3 4 5 .24. 1 10 10 2

4

10 3 10 4

1800 = 23.32.52

A factor (divisor) of 1800 is of the form 2.3.5

where {0,1, 2, 3}, {0,1, 2}, {0,1, 2}

4 3 3 i.e. 36

2

3

2

2

Sum of the divisors of 1800 is equal to 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 5 5 .

Page 13

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