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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

Multiplication principle:
Step A

Step B

A procedure is completed in two steps, A and B. B follows A. If A can be performed in m ways

and B in n ways, then there are mn ways to complete the procedure.
A procedure is such that it can be performed in A or in B way.
m ways
A
n ways
B

Example 1:

II

III

IV
5 5 5 5 625

ways: 5

I

II

III

IV

5 4 3 2 120

ways: 5
Example 2:

I

II

III

IV

4 5 5 5 500

ways: 4

(ii) repetition of digits is not allowed

I

II

III

IV

4 4 3 2 96

ways: 4

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Example 3:

II

III

ways: 5

IV

I
2 or 4

2 5 5 5 250

(ii) repetition of digits is not allowed

Example 4:

II

III

IV

ways: 4

I
2 or 4 2 4 3 2 48
2

(i) any digit can occur any number of times

II

III

IV

I
0, 2 or 43 4 5 5 300

ways: 4

II

III

IV

I
0

ways: 4
or
II

3
III

IV

1 4 3 2 24

I
2 or 4

2 3 3 2 36
Total 60

ways:

bac, cba , acb

1. Number of permutations of n dissimilar things = n !

2. Number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time =
(i).

Pr

(ii).

Pr

Pr

n!

n r !
n n 1 . . . n r 1

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Given n dissimilar objects:

Number of ways in which r objects can be

is denoted by the symbol

(i)

(ii)

Cr

n!
r !( n r ) !
n
( n 1) (n 2) . . . ( n r 1)
n
Cr
1 .2 .3 . . . r
n

Cr

C0 n Cn 1

(iii)

(iv)

xy
n n
Cx C y or
xyn

(v)
(vi)

Cr n Cn r

C r 1

Cr

(vii)

selected
chosen
grouped
taken

Cr

C r 1

C r n 1 C r

n n 1

C r 1
r

n r 1
r

Example 1:

If 15 Pr = 2730, then find r.

Solution:

2730 = 15 x 14 x 13
r = 3

Example 2:

If 18 Cr = 18 C r + 2, find r P3.

Solution:

18

Cr = 18 Cr+2 r r 2 18
r 8
r P3 8 P3
8x 7 x 6
336

Example 3:

1.

2.

Total number of words in which P,U,R, are together = 5! 3! = 720

(considering P, U, R to be one unit, we can arrange the 5 letters in 5! ways. P, U, R
can change their positions within themselves in 3! ways).

3.

Number of words in which P, U, R are not together = 7! 5! 3! = 4320

(Total number of words number of words in which P, U, R are together).

4.

Number of words in which no two of P, U, R are together= 4! 5C3. 3!

x
x

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Positions for J,O,D,H

x : Positions where P,U and R can be placed
The letters J,O,D,H can be arranged in 4! ways.
We have 5 positions for placing 3 letters P, U, R. This can be done in 5C3. 3! ways.
5.

Number of words in which all the vowels are together and all the consonants are
together = 2! (2! 5!)
(Vowels within themselves can be arranged in 2! ways and consonants in 5! ways. The two groups of
vowels and consonants can change their positions in 2! ways).

6.

Number of words starting with J and ending with R = 5!

R
(Positions of J and R are fixed. Therefore, we need to permute O, D, H, P and U only).

7.

Number of words in which relative positions of vowels and consonants remain

unchanged = 2! 5!

8.

Number of words in which vowels occupy odd places = 4C2 2! 5!

(There are four odd places: 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th. We have two vowels O and U. So we,
first of all, select two positions and arrange vowels there. This can be done in 4C2 2!
ways. Then, the remaining five places can be filled in 5! ways.)

9.

Total number of 4 letter words when any letter can be repeated any number of times is
equal to 7 7 7 7

ways:

10.

Four letter words, using the letters of the word JODHPUR, are formed. The number
of words which have at least one letter repeated is equal to 7 7 7 7 7 6 5 4 .

11.

Rank of the word JODHPUR in the dictionary of the words formed with the letters
of the word JODHPUR:
Words starting with D or H:

D or H

ways:

2 6 ! 1440

2 5 ! 240

Words starting with JD or JH:

D or H

ways:

1
2
5
Words starting with JODHPR:
J

1O
1 D
1

Required rank = 1440 240 1 1

P
th

1682th

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Let there are n objects

n1 objects are alike of one type
n2 objects are alike of second type
.
.
.
nk objects are alike of kth type
n!

Number of permutaions of these n objects n ! n ! n ! . . . n !

1
2
3
k
Let there are n objects (all dissimilar). r objects are to be chosen with/without
restrictions.
1. Without any restriction
Number of ways = nCr
2. n1 particular objects are included in the selection
n n1
C r n
Number of ways =
1
3. n2 particular objects are not included in the selection
Number of ways = n n 2 C r
4. n1 particular objects are taken and n2 particular objects are not taken
n n1 n 2
C r n1
Number of ways =
Example 4:

Words are formed using the letters of the word EXAMINATION. Find
(i). the number of words
(ii).
the number of four letter words
In the word EXAMINATION, we have

E 1, X 1, M 1, T 1, O 1
A 2, I 2, N 2
11 !

(i).

(ii).

Cases

C1.7 C 2 .

C2

2. Two letters are alike and two are different

3. Two letters are alike of one kind and
two are of another kind
Total

Number of words
C 4 . 4 ! 1680
4!
756
2!

4!
18
2!2!

2454

Example 5: Words are formed using the letters of the word JODHPUR. Find the number of
words in which P comes before U and U comes before R.
Let us designate each one of P, U and R by a single letter (say X). Now, we arrange X,
X, X, J, O, D, H to form words.

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7!

Total number of words = 3 ! 840

In these words, if the first X (seen from the left) is replaced by P, the second X by U
and the third X by R, then we get the words in which P comes before U and U before
R. Hence the required number of words is 840.
Example 6:
Solution:

How many numbers greater than 10 lacs can be formed using 2,3,0,3,4,2,3.

All the given digits are to be used.

Required number of numbers
= (Total numbers formed including the numbers
containing 0 at the left most position) (total number of number of
numbers starting with zero)
=
=

7!
6!

2 !3!
2!3!
6!
7 1 360.
2 !3!

Example 7: There are 3 children, 4 women and 5 men. A group of 4 persons is to be formed
containing atleast one women. Find the number of ways in which this can be done.
Solution:

Total number of ways in which we can select 4 persons (without any restriction)
= 12 C 4
Number of groups not containing any woman
= 8 C4
Required number of ways of selecting 4 persons
= 12 C 4 8 C 4

1. Let there be n dissimilar objects.

Selection of one of more objects can be done in 2n 1 ways.

p objects may be selected in n C p ways.

Total number of ways = n C1 n C 2 . . . n C n 2 n 1

Proof: I.
II.

Since, one or more objects are to be taken, hence each object has two possibilities:
(i) may be taken (ii) may not be taken.
Hence, the number of ways in which we may select or may not select the objects is
equal to 2 x 2 x 2 x . . . n times i.e. 2n.
This includes one way in which no object is taken.
Number of ways of selecting one or more objects is equal to 2n 1.

2. Let there be n objects (not all are different).

n1 objects are alike of first type.
n2 objects are alike of second type.
.
.
.
nk objects are alike of kth type.
n1 n 2 . . . n k n .

Number of ways in which the objects may be selected is n1 1 n 2 1 . . . n k 1 1 .

Example 8:

5 balls of different colors are given. In how many ways the balls may be selected?

Solution:

Required number of ways

= 25 1
= 31

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Example 9:
(i).
(ii).

(iii).

3 red, 4 white and 5 blue balls are given.

Number of ways in which balls may be chosen

3 1 4 1 5 1 1

= 119.
Number of ways of selecting the balls when atleast one red ball is included in the
selection
=3(4+1)(5+1)
= 90.
Number of ways of selecting the balls when atleast one ball of each colour is
included
= 3.4.5
= 60.

Example 10: 3 red, 4 yellow, 5 blue balls are given. All the red balls are of different shades.
(i).
Number of ways of selecting one or more balls
2 3 4 1 5 1 1
= 239.
(ii).
Number of ways of selecting the balls when atleast one red ball is included

2 3 1 4 1 5 1

= 210.

Example 11: There are four questions in a question paper. Each question has an alternative. In
how many ways the question paper may be attempted?
Solution:

Each question has three ways associated with it. 2 ways to do it and 1 way for not
doing. Hence, the question paper may be attempted in 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 1 i.e. 80 ways.

Let there b n objects

n1 objects are alike of first type.
n2 objects are alike of second type.
M
nk objects are alike of kth type.
(n1 + n2 + . . . + nk = n).
Number of ways in which exactly r objects may be taken
= Coefficient of xr in (x0 + x1 + . . . + x n 1 ) (x0 + x1 + . . . + x n 2 )
. . . (x0 + x1 + . . . + x n k )
If there are at least r objects of each type i.e. n i r i 1, 2, . . ., k , then
Number of ways in which exactly r objects may be taken.
= coeff. x r in 1 x x 2 . . . x r

k r 1 C r

Number of ways of dividing objects into groups:

n object (all dissimilar) are to be divided into k groups such that these groups contain n1, n2,
n3, . . ., nk, objects (n1+ n2+ . . . + nk = n)
(i)

If ni nj, i j (i.e. no two groups contain equal number of objects), then number of
ways in which this can be done is
n!
n 1! n 2 ! . . . n k !

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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

(ii)

If there be p groups (among these k groups) containing equal number of objects, then
the number of ways is
n!
n 1! n 2 ! . . . n k ! p!

Number of groups

Number of objects in the Number of ways of

groups
dividing objects into
groups
12 !
3 ! 4 !5 !

3, 4, 5

6, 6

4, 4, 4

3, 3, 3, 3

2, 2, 2, 6

2, 2, 2, 3, 3

2 !3 (3 !)2 3 ! 2 !

4, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1

4 !

12 !

6 ! 2 2 !
12 !

4 ! 3 3 !
12 !
(3 !) 4 4 !
12 !
( 2 !)3 6 ! 3 !

12 !
12 !

(1 !) 4 2 ! 4 !

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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

Example 13: Find number of ways in which 12 apples can be equally divided among 3 persons.
Solution:

Apples are being considered to be dissimilar. 4 apples are to be given to each

person. We may solve this problem in two different ways.

First approach: Take 4 apples and give it to one person. 8 apples are left now. Take 4 apples and
give it to second person. Remaining 4 apples are given to the third person.

Required number of ways

12 C 4 . 8C 4 . 4 C 4
12 !
8!
4!

.
.
4 !8 !
4 !4 !
4 !0 !
12 !

4 !4 ! 4 !

Second approach: Divide 12 apples into 3 groups each containing 4 apples, and then permute the
groups against the persons.

Required number of ways

12 !
3!
4 !4 ! 4 ! 3 !
12 !

4 !4 ! 4!

Example 14: Five balls are to be placed in three boxes. Each box is capable of holding all the
five balls. The balls are placed in the boxes in such a way that no box remains empty.
Find the number of ways of placing the balls in the boxes.
Solution: We divide 5 balls into 3 groups in such a way that each group contains atleast one
ball. Now, these groups are permuted against the boxes. Thus, number of ways in
which this can be done is the number of ways of placing atleast one balls in the boxes.
(i). All the boxes are dissimilar and all the balls are dissimilar.
Number of balls in
the groups

Number of ways of
dividing balls into groups
5!

1, 1, 3

1 !

2, 2, 1

2 ! 21 ! 2 !

3!2!
5!

Number of ways of placing

the balls in the boxes

10

10 . 3! = 60

15

15 . 3! = 90
Total

150

__________________________________________________________________
(ii) Balls are identical and boxes are dissimilar.
Number of balls in
the groups

Number of ways of
dividing balls into groups

1, 1, 3

2, 2, 1

Number of ways of placing

the balls in the boxes
3!
3
2!
3!
3
2!
Total

Balls are dissimilar and boxes are identical

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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

Number of balls in
the groups

Number of ways of
dividing balls into groups
5!

1, 1, 3

1 !

2, 2, 1

2 ! 2 1 ! 2 !

3!2!
5!

Number of ways of placing

the balls in the boxes

10

10 1 10

15

15 1 15
Total

25

Balls are identical and boxes are also identical

Number of balls in
the groups

Number of ways of
dividing balls into groups

1, 1, 3
2, 2, 1

Number of ways of placing

the balls in the boxes

1 1 1
1 1 1

1
1

Total

__________________________________________________________________
Circular Permutations:
b

These arrangements are identical with respect to the objects but are distinct relative to the direction.

(i)
(ii)

No. of circular permutations of n dissimilar object = (n 1)!

No. of circular permutations of n dissimilar objects taken r at a time
1

n C r . r 1 ! .n Pr
r

Examples: (i).

( n 1) !
2

(ii).

2x2x2x2x2

(iii).

Number of ways in which 5 distinct objects can be distributed between

2 persons is 25 2.

(iv).

Number of ways is which 5 identical objects can be given to 2 persons

is equal to Coefficient of x5 in (1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5)2

(v).

Number of ways in which 5 identical objects can be distributed between

2 persons is equal to coefficient of x5 in (x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 )2
Number of rectangles on a chessboard 9 C 2 . 9 C 2
Number of squares on a chessboard:

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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

Dimensions
1 1
22
.
.
.

Number of squares
82
72

.
.
.

88

12
Total

204

Number of non congruent rectangles on a chessboard:

Dimensions
1 n
2 n
.
.
.
8 n

Number of rectangles
8
7
.
.
.
1

n 1, 2, 3, . . ., 8
n 2, 3, . . ., 8

.
.
.
n 8

Total

36

Number of zeros at the end of 1000!

1000

1000

1000

1000

5 5 2 53 5 4
= 200 + 40 + 8 + 1
= 249
7 | 1000 C500
Hint: 1000 C500 =

(True/False)
1000 !
(500 !) 2

Let
1000! 7.N1

500! 7.N 2

and and are given by

1000 1000 1000

164
7 7 2 7 3
500 500 500

82
7 7 2 7 3
Number of times we write 3 while writing numbers 1 to 1000:
3 occurs exactly once in 3C1.9.9 numbers.
3 occurs exactly twice in 3C2.9 numbers.
3 occurs exactly thrice in 3C3 numbers.
So, the number of times, we write 3 while writing the numbers 1 to 1000
is 243 + 2 27 + 3 1 i.e. 300.

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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

...

m parellel

B
Find the number of shortest paths from A to B.
As long as a person moves eastward or southward he is on the shortest path. For
going from A to B by a shortest path, one has to move n 1 nodes eastward and
m 1 nodes southward. Let us denote eastward movement by one node by E and
southward movement by one node by S.

m n 2 !
m 1 ! n 1 !

1
1
1
1
n! 1

. . . 1 n

1
!
2
!
3
!
n
!

If n distinct objects are arranged in a row, then number of ways of selecting r

consecutive objects is n r + 1.
n members of a new club meet each day for a lunch at a round table. They decide to
sit such that every member has different neighbours at each lunch. The number of
days can this arrangement will last is equal to
n 1
2 , if n is odd
n2

, if n is even
2
11. n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three
lines are concurrent. The number of parts into which these lines divide the plane, is
n

1 r
r 1

12. Sum of numbers formed by using the digits 1,2,3,4,5 (repetition of digits is not
allowed) :
1 occurs at the units place in 4! numbers.
1 occurs at the tens place in 4! numbers.
1 occurs at the hundreds place in 4! numbers.
1 occurs at the thousands place in 4! numbers.
1 occurs at the ten thousands place in 4! numbers.
We have similar results for the other digits.
So the required sum
1 2 3 4 5 .24 1 2 3 4 5 . 10. 24 1 2 3 4 5 . 10 2.24

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PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATIONS

1 2 3 4 5 . 10 3. 24 +

1 2 3 4 5 10 . 24
1 2 3 4 5 .24. 1 10 10 2
4

10 3 10 4

13. Number of factors (divisors) of 1800:

1800 = 23.32.52
A factor (divisor) of 1800 is of the form 2.3.5
where {0,1, 2, 3}, {0,1, 2}, {0,1, 2}

4 3 3 i.e. 36

(Number of proper divisors of 1800 is 36-2 i.e. 34)

2
3
2
2
Sum of the divisors of 1800 is equal to 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 1 5 5 .

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