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# AIRFRAME STATIC ANALYSIS

BUCKLING ON STIFFENED
PANELS

## Understand critical cases for an aircraft structure

Able to perform static analysis in order to check margin
of safety of stiffened panels under critical load cases

Assumption

## Majority of modern aircraft structure is highly

indeterminate structure due to its complex configuration
Accurate solution requires Finite Element Approach
For quick analysis, there are simpler approaches using
empirical data to support the theory
This empirical approach is very beneficial for analysis or
preliminary sizing at design stage; or as a quick check
toward the computer result from Finite Element calculation
or result from Experimental Test

Buckling

## Failure Modes of Stiffened Panels

Initial Buckling

Inter-Rivet Buckling

Flexural Buckling

## Flexural and Torsional Instability

Torsional Instability

Skin Wrinkling

Column Buckling

Plate Buckling

t
f cr 3.62 E
b

kE t
f cr
12(1 2 ) L2
2 2

or

t
f cr KE
b

if,
All edges: Simply supported

t
f cr 0.9 E
L

t
f cr 3.6 E
L

## Buckling Coefficients for Different Support

Conditions

Effective Width, be
Kc E
be t
f st
Where:
fst = Stringer Compression buckling stress
Kc = Skin compression buckling coeff.
E = Youngs Modules (use Et in inelastic
range)

Constant, Kc

## For large panel with thin skin,

(e.g wing panel near tip) as
shown in fig (a) the torsional
stiffness of a stringer is large in
Comparison to the force tending
to twist it.
This effect produces a fixed edge
condition for the panel and the
compression buckling constant,
Kc = 6.32

## A narrow panel with heavy skin

(e.g. wing panels near wing root),
as shown in fig (b) produces buckling
forces so great that the stringer will
twist locally.
This panel will act as if it had
hinged edges and the buckling
constant, Kc = 3.62

## Effective Width: Compression Buckling

Constant, Kc
Kc = 3.62 for b/t < 40
Kc = 6.32 for b/t >110
Between the above two
values, Kc is plotted in
the left figure:

## Effective Width: an Example

Assume the allowable crippling
stress of the stringers,
Fst = 25000 psi
Determine the skin effective
width Stringer no.2.
The effective width is
Kc E
4.8 10.5 106
0.05
be1 t
2.24"
F
25000
st

For:
(b/t) = 160 Kc = 6.32
(b/t) = 60 Kc = 4.8

Kc E
6.32 10.5 106

be1 t
2.58"
0.05
25000
Fst

## The total effective width of the no.2 stringer is:

(be1 be 2 ) 2.58 2.24

2.41"
2
2

ESDU METHODS

## Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) for

Buckling Checks on Stiffened Panels

Local Buckling
Panels with un-flanged Integral Stiffeners
Ref:

ESDU 7003

Panels
Ref:

ESDU 71014

Ref:

## with Flanged Stringers

ESDU 02.01.09

Crippling of Stringer
Ref:

ESDU 78020

## Average elastic compressive

stress in panel at which local
buckling first occurs, fb

fb = h (fb)e
Where:
(fb)e = KE (t/b)2

Notation

Example

## Local Buckling of Compression Panels with

Flanged Stringers

## Average elastic compressive

stress in panel at which local
buckling first occurs, fb

fb = h (fb)e
Where:
(fb)e = KE (t/b)2

Notation

Example

## Ref: ESDU 71014

Exercise

Find local buckling stress for build-up Z stringerskin panel. Use the same data as in previous
example.

## Inter Rivet Buckling

Note that: The effective width is important in the interest of structural efficiency
and weight economy. However, If the skin buckles between rivets, it can not
carry the compression load and the calculated effective width will be erroneous
and the structure is much less efficient.

KE 2t 2
f ir
12(1 2 ) s 2

Type of attachment

Fixity
coefficient at
rivets, K

rivets

Spotwelds
rivets
Countersunk or
dimpled rivets

3
3

1 or 1

## Normally the skin-stringer

construction will be designed
so that rivet spacing is derived
from the crippling stress of the stringer.
However when the inter rivet
buckling stress of the skin is reached
before the crippling stress of the stringer,
the skin exhibit the ability to maintain
the inter rivet buckling stress while
the stringer continues to take load.

## Inter Rivet Buckling: - an Example

Question:
Obtain the rivet.spacing for countersunk head rivets from the following
given data:
Stringer crippling stress, Fcc = 32 ksi
Skin thickness, t = 0.05; material is 7075-T6 bare (non-clad material).
Using Fig. 14.3.2 with Fir = Fcc = 32 ksi, go across horizontally to curve (8)
for 7075-T6 material.
Go down vertically to read the rivet spacing ratio s/t = 33.5 (for universal
s = 33.5 x 0.05 = 1.68
For countersunk head rivets, c = 1.0.
The rivet spacing of countersunk head rivet is:
s= 1.68(1.0/4.0) = 0.84

Crippling of Stringer

fc = (c2 fb)1/2

Where:
= h fbe
fbe = KE (th/h)2

fb

Notation

Example

Exercise

## Calculate the crippling stress for z section. Use the

same material and the associated dimensions

Flexural Buckling
The Farrars efficiency
factor (F) accounts for
A pure flexural instability
(assume flexural-torsional
Coupling is small):

F f

L
NEt

Where:
f failure stress of skin stringer panel
N end load per inch width of skin stringer panel
Et tangent modulus
L Length of the panel (rib or frame spacing