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AIRFRAME STATIC ANALYSIS

BUCKLING ON STIFFENED
PANELS

Objectives for this session:

Understand critical cases for an aircraft structure


Able to perform static analysis in order to check margin
of safety of stiffened panels under critical load cases

Assumption

Majority of modern aircraft structure is highly


indeterminate structure due to its complex configuration
Accurate solution requires Finite Element Approach
For quick analysis, there are simpler approaches using
empirical data to support the theory
This empirical approach is very beneficial for analysis or
preliminary sizing at design stage; or as a quick check
toward the computer result from Finite Element calculation
or result from Experimental Test

Critical Loads

Critical Loads

Type of Stiffened Panels

Compression Panels Efficiency

Buckling

Failure Modes of Stiffened Panels

Initial Buckling

Inter-Rivet Buckling

Flexural Buckling

Failure Modes of Stiffened Panels

Flexural and Torsional Instability

Torsional Instability

Skin Wrinkling

Column Buckling

Plate Buckling

t
f cr 3.62 E
b

kE t
f cr
12(1 2 ) L2
2 2

or

t
f cr KE
b

if,
All edges: Simply supported

t
f cr 0.9 E
L

t
f cr 3.6 E
L

Buckling Coefficients for Different Support


Conditions

Effective Width, be
Kc E
be t
f st
Where:
fst = Stringer Compression buckling stress
Kc = Skin compression buckling coeff.
E = Youngs Modules (use Et in inelastic
range)

Effective Width: Compression Buckling


Constant, Kc

For large panel with thin skin,


(e.g wing panel near tip) as
shown in fig (a) the torsional
stiffness of a stringer is large in
Comparison to the force tending
to twist it.
This effect produces a fixed edge
condition for the panel and the
compression buckling constant,
Kc = 6.32

A narrow panel with heavy skin


(e.g. wing panels near wing root),
as shown in fig (b) produces buckling
forces so great that the stringer will
twist locally.
This panel will act as if it had
hinged edges and the buckling
constant, Kc = 3.62

Effective Width: Compression Buckling


Constant, Kc
Kc = 3.62 for b/t < 40
Kc = 6.32 for b/t >110
Between the above two
values, Kc is plotted in
the left figure:

Effective Width: an Example


Assume the allowable crippling
stress of the stringers,
Fst = 25000 psi
Determine the skin effective
width Stringer no.2.
The effective width is
Kc E
4.8 10.5 106
0.05
be1 t
2.24"
F
25000
st

For:
(b/t) = 160 Kc = 6.32
(b/t) = 60 Kc = 4.8

Kc E
6.32 10.5 106

be1 t
2.58"
0.05
25000
Fst

The total effective width of the no.2 stringer is:


(be1 be 2 ) 2.58 2.24

2.41"
2
2

ESDU METHODS

Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) for


Buckling Checks on Stiffened Panels

Local Buckling
Panels with un-flanged Integral Stiffeners
Ref:

ESDU 7003

Panels
Ref:

ESDU 71014

Inter Rivet Buckling


Ref:

with Flanged Stringers

ESDU 02.01.09

Crippling of Stringer
Ref:

ESDU 78020

Local Buckling of Compression Panels with unFlanged Integral Stiffeners

Average elastic compressive


stress in panel at which local
buckling first occurs, fb

fb = h (fb)e
Where:
(fb)e = KE (t/b)2

Ref: ESDU 70003

Notation

Ref: ESDU 70003

Example

Ref: ESDU 70003

Ref: ESDU 70003

Local Buckling of Compression Panels with


Flanged Stringers

Average elastic compressive


stress in panel at which local
buckling first occurs, fb

fb = h (fb)e
Where:
(fb)e = KE (t/b)2

Ref: ESDU 71014

Notation

Ref: ESDU 71014

Example

Ref: ESDU 71014

Ref: ESDU 71014

Ref: ESDU 71014

Ref: ESDU 71014

Ref: ESDU 71014

Ref: ESDU 71014

Exercise

Find local buckling stress for build-up Z stringerskin panel. Use the same data as in previous
example.

Inter Rivet Buckling


Note that: The effective width is important in the interest of structural efficiency
and weight economy. However, If the skin buckles between rivets, it can not
carry the compression load and the calculated effective width will be erroneous
and the structure is much less efficient.

KE 2t 2
f ir
12(1 2 ) s 2

Type of attachment

Fixity
coefficient at
rivets, K

Universal/Flathead
rivets

Spotwelds
Roundhead/Mushro
om or snaphead
rivets
Countersunk or
dimpled rivets

3
3

1 or 1

Inter Rivet Buckling

Normally the skin-stringer


construction will be designed
so that rivet spacing is derived
from the crippling stress of the stringer.
However when the inter rivet
buckling stress of the skin is reached
before the crippling stress of the stringer,
the skin exhibit the ability to maintain
the inter rivet buckling stress while
the stringer continues to take load.

Inter Rivet Buckling

Inter Rivet Buckling: - an Example


Question:
Obtain the rivet.spacing for countersunk head rivets from the following
given data:
Stringer crippling stress, Fcc = 32 ksi
Skin thickness, t = 0.05; material is 7075-T6 bare (non-clad material).
Answer:
Using Fig. 14.3.2 with Fir = Fcc = 32 ksi, go across horizontally to curve (8)
for 7075-T6 material.
Go down vertically to read the rivet spacing ratio s/t = 33.5 (for universal
head rivets, c = 4.0).
s = 33.5 x 0.05 = 1.68
For countersunk head rivets, c = 1.0.
The rivet spacing of countersunk head rivet is:
s= 1.68(1.0/4.0) = 0.84

Crippling of Stringer

fc = (c2 fb)1/2

Where:
= h fbe
fbe = KE (th/h)2

fb

Ref: ESDU 78020

Notation

Ref: ESDU 78020

Example

Ref: ESDU 78020

Ref: ESDU 78020

Ref: ESDU 78020

Exercise

Calculate the crippling stress for z section. Use the


same material and the associated dimensions

Flexural Buckling
The Farrars efficiency
factor (F) accounts for
A pure flexural instability
(assume flexural-torsional
Coupling is small):

F f

L
NEt

Where:
f failure stress of skin stringer panel
N end load per inch width of skin stringer panel
Et tangent modulus
L Length of the panel (rib or frame spacing

Flexural (Euler) Buckling