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UDAY SAMUDRA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
No book is the complete efert of its others own. While purchasing such a worth
while goal one comes across a number of persons whoes encouragement
selfless and timely help make him copmplete to achive the decide goal. A few
imporant personals have greatily contrebuted to this report during its course
and copmletion. I have great plusher in expresing my sincer thanks to all those.
Firstly and fore most I would like to offer my sincer thaanks to the persona;l
offiecer of hotel UDAY SAMUDRA for allowing me,guiding me and helping in
prepeation of this project.
I would likt offer my sincer thanks to our HOD Mr. RAJESH KUMAR for
helping providing necessary fecility during the course our project.
I woul like to offer my sincer thanks to our facuilty guid Mrs. RADHA for here
valuable and constant encourage ment during the course of my project.

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DECLERATION
I ASHKAR A.U here by declares that the project report entitled
OPERATIONAl
OPERATIONAl ASPECTS OF STAR HOTEL
HOTEL submited in pravtical full filment
of the award of the degree of B H M.
The fidings in the report are based on the data collected by me and has not
been submited to the university of any other institute for the award of any other
degree

Date :________________

ASHKAR A U

Place:________________

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PROJECT SYNOPSIS
This project is conducted to bring out the day to day operation carried out in the
hotel
This study includes the data and information collected from various sources.
Primary and secondary data was collected from interview and questionnarire
were as secondary from books, journels, brouchrs etc. after the collection of
related data, it has been put down in such a way so as to provide a copmlete
understanding of the operation of the hotel it also includes the study of the
operational difficulties and problems found in the main operational department.
Those have been analysed and posible solution brought out.
This project has a whole would enable not only a hotelier but also other under
the functions of the hotel. The front sence as well as the back stares
operational obstruction and hindrances faced by the hotel industry.
The hotel that was taken under study for the project was
HOTEL UDAY SAMUDRA
SAMUDRA.
A detailed study of the entire main operational department was carried out.

ASHKAR A U
lllrd BHM

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CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION TO
TOURISM
INDUSTRY

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM

Tourism has become Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational
or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of
this act. According to the World Tourism Organization, tourists are people who
"travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than
one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the
exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited". The distance
between a place of origin and a tourism destination is immaterial to this
definition. an extremely popular, global activity. In 2004, there were over 763
million international tourist arrivals.

Tourism is vital for many countries, due to the income generated by the
consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses
in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment and economic
advancement by working in the industry. For these reasons NGOs and
government agencies may sometimes promote a specific region as a tourist
destination, and support the development of a tourism industry in that area.

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. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively to imply a
shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists. Definition,
classification and prerequisites

Hunziker and Krapf, in 1942, defined tourism as "the totality of the relationship
and phenomenon arising from the travel and stay of strangers, provided that
the stay does not imply the establishment of a permanent residence and is not
connected with a remunerative activities". In 1981 International Association of
Scientific Experts in Tourism defined Tourism in terms of particular activities
selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment.
In 1981 International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined
Tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken
outside the home environment.
Tourism may be classified as follows:
Inbound international tourism: Visits to a country by nonresident of that country
Outbound international tourism: Visits by the residents of a country to another
country
Internal tourism: Visits by residents of a country to their own
Domestic tourism: Inbound international tourism + internal tourism
National tourism: Internal tourists + outbound international tourism

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History
In the course of the sixteenth century, it became fashionable in England to
undertake a Grand Tour. The sons of the nobility and gentry were sent upon an
extended tour of Europe as an educational experience. The eighteenth century
was the golden age of the Grand Tour, and many of the fashionable visitors
were painted at Rome by Pompeo Batoni. The modern equivalent of the Grand
Tour is the phenomenon of the backpacker, although cultural holidays, such as
those offered by Swann-Hellenic, are also important
The terms tourist and tourism were first used as official terms in 1937 by the
League of Nations. Tourism was defined as people travelling abroad for periods
of over 24 hours.
Some English travellers, after visiting the warm lands of the south of Europe,
decided to stay there either for the cold season or for the rest of their lives.
Leisure travel was a British invention due to sociological factors. Britain was the
first European country to industrialize, and the industrial society was the first
society to offer time for leisure to a growing number of people. Initially, this did
not apply to the working masses, but rather to the owners of the machinery of
production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners, and the traders. These
comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings were the first official travel
company to be formed in 1758.

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Winter sports were largely invented by the British leisured classes, initially at
the Swiss village of Zermatt (Valais), and St Moritz in 1864.

The first packaged winter sports holidays (vacations) followed in 1903, to


Adelboden, also in Switzerland.
Organized sport was well established in Britain before it reached other
countries. The vocabulary of sport bears witness to this: rugby, football, and
boxing all originated in Britain, and even Tennis, originally a French sport, was
formalized and codified by the British, who hosted the first national
championship in the nineteenth century, at Wimbledon. Winter sports were a
natural answer for a leisured class looking for amusement during the coldest
season.

International mass tourism

Increasing speed on railways meant that the tourist industry could develop
internationally.
To this may be added the development of sea travel. By 1901, the number of
people crossing the English Channel from England to France or Belgium had
passed 0.5 million per year. Shipping companies were anxious to fill cabin
space that was under utilised. For example, P&O found that the majority of their
passengers for India and the Far East joined the ship at Marseilles.
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Consequently, they marketed holidays based upon sea trips from London to
Lisbon and Gibraltar. Other companies diverted their older ships to operate
cruises in the summer months.

However, the real age of international mass travel began with the growth of air
travel after World War Two. In the immediate post-war period, there was a
surplus of transport aircraft, such as the popular and reliable Douglas Dakota,
and a number of ex military pilots ready to fly them. They were available for
charter flights, and tour operators began to use them for European destinations,
such as Paris and Ostend.

However it was with cheap air travel in combination with the package tour that
international mass tourism developed. The postwar introduction of an
international system of airline regulation was another important factor. The
bilateral agreements at the heart of the system fixed seat prices, and airlines
could not fill blocks of empty seats on underused flights by discounting. But if
they were purchased by a tour operater and hidden within the price of an
inclusive holiday package, it would be difficult to prove that discounting had
taken place - even though it was obvious that it had! This was the origin of the
modern mass package tour.

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These developments coincided with a significant increase in the standard of


living in Britain. At the end of the 1950s, Harold Macmillan could say "you've
never had it so good."

Another significant development also happened at the end of this decade. The
devaluation of the Spanish peseta made Spain appear a particularly attractive
destination. The cheapness of the cost of living attracted increasing numbers of
visitors. Mass package tourism has at times been an exploitative process, in
which tour operators in a country with a high standard of living make use of
development opportunities and low operating costs in a country with a lower
standard of living. However, as witness the development of many tourist areas
in previously poor parts of the world, and the concomitant rise in standards of
living, when there is equality of bargaining power, both parties can gain
economic benefits from this arrangement.

Trends

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international


tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 % [2]. By 2020
Europe will remain the most popular destination, but its share will drop from 60
% in 1995 to 46 %. Long-haul will grow slightly faster than intraregional travel
and by 2020 its share will increase from 18 % in 1995 to 24 %.
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Since e-commerce has taken off on the internet, tourism products have become
one of the most traded items on the net. Tourism products and services have
been made available on the net at bargain prices through intermediaries.
Tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) have started to sell their services
through the Internet. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both the
virtual and the traditional brick and mortar stores.
Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century,
although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit
will remain low until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel
cheap.
Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based
either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such
as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2006, will be built. On the ocean
tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities.
Some futurists expect that movable hotel "pods" will be created that could be
temporarily erected anywhere on the planet, where building a permanent resort
would be unacceptable politically, economically or environmentally.

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CHAPTER-2
INTRODUCTION TO
HOTEL INDUSTRY

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NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY

Hotels and other accommodations are as diverse as the many family and
business travelers they accommodate. The industry includes all types of
lodging, from upscale hotels to RV parks. Motels, resorts, casino hotels, bedand-breakfast inns, and boarding houses also are included. In fact, in 2004
nearly 62,000 establishments provided overnight accommodations to suit many
different needs and budgets.

Establishments vary greatly in size and in the services they provide. Hotels and
motels comprise the majority of establishments and tend to provide more
services than other lodging places. There are five basic types of hotels
commercial, resort, residential, extended-stay, and casino. Most hotels and
motels are commercial properties that cater mainly to business people, tourists,
and other travelers who need accommodations for a brief stay. Commercial
hotels and motels usually are located in cities or suburban areas and operate
year round. Larger properties offer a variety of services for their guests,
including a range of restaurant and beverage service optionsfrom coffee bars
and lunch counters to cocktail lounges and formal fine-dining restaurants.
Some properties provide a variety of retail shops on the premises, such as gift
boutiques, newsstands, drug and cosmetics counters, and barber and beauty
shops. An increasing number of full-service hotels now offer guests access to
laundry and valet services, swimming pools, and fitness centers or health spas.
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A small, but growing, number of luxury hotel chains also manage condominium
units in combination with their transient rooms, providing both hotel guests and
condominium owners with access to the same services and amenities.

Larger hotels and motels often have banquet rooms; exhibit halls, and spacious
ballrooms

to

accommodate

conventions,

business

meetings,

wedding

receptions, and other social gatherings. Conventions and business meetings


are major sources of revenue for these hotels and motels. Some commercial
hotels are known as conference hotelsfully self-contained entities specifically
designed for meetings. They provide physical fitness and recreational facilities
for meeting attendees, in addition to state-of-the-art audiovisual and technical
equipment, a business center, and banquet services.

Resort hotels and motels offer luxurious surroundings with a variety of


recreational facilities, such as swimming pools, golf courses, tennis courts,
game rooms, and health spas, as well as planned social activities and
entertainment. Resorts typically are located in vacation destinations or near
natural settings, such as mountains, the seashore, theme parks, or other
attractions. As a result, the business of many resorts fluctuates with the season.
Some resort hotels and motels provide additional convention and conference
facilities to encourage customers to combine business with pleasure. During the
off season, many of these establishments solicit conventions, sales meetings,
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and incentive tours to fill their otherwise empty rooms; some resorts even close
for the off-season.

Residential hotels provide living quarters for permanent and semi permanent
residents. They combine the comfort of apartment living with the convenience
of hotel services. Many have dining rooms and restaurants that also are open to
residents and to the general public.

Extended-stay hotels combine features of a resort and a residential hotel.


Typically, guests use these hotels for a minimum of 5 consecutive nights. These
facilities usually provide rooms with fully equipped kitchens, entertainment
systems, ironing boards and irons, office space with computer and telephone
lines, fitness centers, and other amenities.

Casino hotels provide lodging in hotel facilities with a casino on the premises.
The casino provides table wagering games and may include other gambling
activities, such as slot machines and sports betting. Casino hotels generally
offer a full range of services and amenities and also may contain conference
and convention facilities.

In addition to hotels and motels, bed-and-breakfast inns, recreational vehicle


(RV) parks, campgrounds, and rooming and boarding houses provide lodging
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for overnight guests. Bed-and-breakfast inns provide short-term lodging in


private homes or small buildings converted for this purpose and are
characterized by highly personalized service and inclusion of breakfast in the
room rate. Their appeal is quaintness, with unusual service and decor.

RV parks and campgrounds cater to people who enjoy recreational camping at


moderate prices. Some parks and campgrounds provide service stations,
general stores, shower and toilet
Facilities, and coin-operated laundries. While some are designed for overnight
travelers only, others are for vacationers who stay longer. Some camps provide
accommodations, such as cabins and fixed campsites, and other amenities,
such as food services, recreational facilities and equipment, and organized
recreational activities. Examples of these overnight camps include childrens
camps, family vacation camps, hunting and fishing camps, and outdoor
adventure retreats that offer trail riding, white-water rafting, hiking, fishing,
game hunting, and similar activities.

Other short-term lodging facilities in this industry include guesthouses, or small


cottages located on the same property as a main residence, and youth hostels
dormitory-style hotels with few frills, occupied mainly by students traveling on
limited budgets. Also included are rooming and boarding houses, such as
fraternity houses, sorority houses, off-campus dormitories, and workers camps.
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These establishments provide temporary or longer-term accommodations that


may serve as a principal residence for the period of occupancy. These
establishments also may provide services such as housekeeping, meals, and
laundry services.

In recent years, hotels, motels, camps, and recreational and RV parks affiliated
with national chains have grown rapidly. To the traveler, familiar chain
establishments represent dependability and quality at predictable rates.
National corporations own many chains, although many properties are
independently owned but affiliated with a chain through a franchise agreement.
Many independently operated hotels and inns participate in national
reservations services, thereby appearing to belong to a larger enterprise. Also,
many hotels join local chambers of commerce, boards of trade, convention and
tourism bureaus, or regional recreation associations in order support and
promote tourism in their area.

Increases in competition and in the sophistication of travelers have induced the


chains to provide lodging to serve a variety of customer budgets and
accommodation preferences. In general, these lodging places may be grouped
into properties that offer luxury, all-suite, moderately priced, and economy
accommodations. The numbers of limited-service or economy chain properties
economy lodging without extensive lobbies, restaurants, or loungeshave
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been growing. These properties are not as costly to build and operate. They
appeal to budget-conscious family vacationers and travelers who are willing to
sacrifice amenities for lower room prices.

While economy chains have become more prevalent, the movement in the
hotel and lodging industry is towards more extended-stay properties. In addition
to fully equipped kitchenettes and laundry services, the extended-stay market
offers guest amenities such as in-room access to the Internet and grocery
shopping. This segment of the hotels and other accommodations industry has
eliminated traditional hotel lobbies and 24-hour front desk staffing, and
housekeeping is usually done only about once a week. This helps to keep costs
to a minimum.

All-suite facilities, especially popular with business travelers, offer a living room
or sitting room in addition to a bedroom. These accommodations are aimed at
travelers who require lodging for extended stays, families traveling with
children, and business people needing to conduct small meetings without the
expense of renting an additional room.

Increased competition among establishments in this industry has spurred many


independently owned and operated hotels and other lodging places to join
national or international reservation systems, which allow travelers to make
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multiple reservations for lodging, airlines, and car rentals with one telephone
call. Nearly all hotel chains operate online reservation systems through the
Internet.

Working Conditions

Work in hotels and other accommodations can be demanding and hectic. Hotel
staffs provide a variety of services to guests and must do so efficiently,
courteously, and accurately. They must maintain a pleasant demeanor even
during times of stress or when dealing with an impatient or irate guest.
Alternately, work at slower times, such as the off-season or overnight periods,
can seem slow and tiresome without the constant presence of hotel guests.
Still, hotel workers must be ready to provide guests and visitors with gracious
customer service at any hour.

Because hotels are open around the clock, employees frequently work varying
shifts or variable schedules. Employees who work the late shift generally
receive additional compensation. Many employees enjoy the opportunity to
work part-time, nights or evenings, or other schedules that fit their availability
for work and the hotels needs. Hotel managers and many department
supervisors may work regularly assigned schedules, but they also routinely
work longer hours than scheduled, especially during peak travel times or when
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multiple events are scheduled. Also, they may be called in to work on short
notice in the event of an emergency or to cover a position. Those who are selfemployed, often owner-operators, tend to work long hours and often live at the
establishment.

Food preparation and food service workers in hotels must withstand the strain
of working during busy periods and being on there feet for many hours. Kitchen
workers lift heavy pots and kettles and work near hot ovens and grills. Job
hazards include slips and falls, cuts, and burns, but injuries are seldom serious.
Food service workers often carry heavy trays of food, dishes, and glassware.
Many of these workers work part time, including evenings, weekends, and
holidays.

Office and administrative support workers generally work scheduled hours in an


office setting, meeting with guests, clients, and hotel staff. Their work can
become hectic processing orders and invoices, dealing with demanding guests,
or servicing requests that require a quick turnaround, but job hazards typically
are limited to muscle and eyestrain
common to working with computers and office equipment.

In 2003, work-related injuries and illnesses averaged 6.7 for every 100 full-time
workers in hotels and other accommodations, compared with 5.0 for workers
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throughout private industry. Work hazards include burns from hot equipment,
sprained muscles and wrenched backs from heavy lifting, and falls on wet
floors.

Employment

Hotels and other accommodations provided 1.8 million wage and salary jobs in
2004. In addition, there were about 33,000 self-employed and unpaid family
workers in the industry, who worked in bed-and-breakfast inns, camps, and
small motels.

Employment is concentrated in densely populated cities and resort areas.


Compared with establishments in other industries, hotels, motels, and other
lodging places tend to be small. About 91 percent employed fewer than 50
people; about 56 percent employ fewer than 10 workers (chart). As a result,
lodging establishments offer opportunities for those who are interested in
owning and running their own business. Although establishments tend to be
small, the majority of jobs are in larger hotels and motels with more than 100
employees.

Hotels and other lodging places often provide first jobs to many new entrants to
the labor force. As a result, many of the industrys workers are young. In 2004,
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about 19 percent of the workers were younger than age 25, compared with
about 14 percent across all industries

Occupations in the Industry

The vast majority of workers in this industrymore than 8 out of 10 in 2004


were employed in service and office and administrative support occupations
(table 2). Workers in these occupations usually learn their skills on the job.
Postsecondary education is not required for most entry-level positions;
however, college training may be helpful for advancement in some of these
occupations. For many administrative support and service occupations,
personality traits and a customer-service orientation may be more important
than formal schooling. Traits most important for success in the hotel and motel
industry are good communication skills; the ability to get along with people in
stressful situations; a neat, clean appearance; and a pleasant manner.

Service occupations, by far the largest occupational group in the industry,


account for 65 percent of the industrys employment. Most service jobs are in
housekeeping occupationsincluding maids and housekeeping cleaners,
janitors and cleaners, and laundry workersand in food preparation and
service jobsincluding chefs and cooks, waiters and waitresses, bartenders,
fast food and counter workers, and various other kitchen and dining room
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workers. The industry also employs many baggage porters and bellhops,
gaming services workers, and grounds maintenance workers.

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CHAPATER-3
PROFILE OF THE
PLACES

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Thiruvananthapuram
Formerly known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and
the headquarters of Thiruvananthapuram District. It is located on the west coast
of India near the extreme south of the mainland. It is characterized by its
undulating terrain of low coastal hills with wide, clean roads and busy
commercial alleys. India's Father of Nation Mahatma Gandhi had referred and
designated this lovely beach side city built on hills as the "Ever Green City of
India". With almost 745,000 inhabitants at the 2001 census, the city itself is the
largest and most populous city in Kerala; the wider urban agglomeration has a
population of about one million.

The city is the State Capital and houses several Central and State Government
offices, organizations and companies. Apart from being the political nerve
center of Kerala, it is also a major academic hub and is home to several
premier educational institutions including the Kerala University, and to many
science and technology institutions, the most prominent being the Vikram
Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC). The city also has the first Information
technology park of its kind and first Biotechnology Center, Rajiv Gandhi Center
for Biotechnology (RGCB) of its kind in India. Situated near Kazhakoottam,
Techno park is home to many of the world's leading technology companies
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Origin of name

Thiruvananthapuram literally means City of Lord Anantha. The name derives


from the deity of the Hindu temple at the center of the city. Anantha is the
serpent Shesha on whom Padmanabhan or Vishnu reclines. The temple of
Vishnu reclining on Anantha, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple is the most
recognizable iconic landmark of the city.

The city was officially referred to as Trivandrum in English language until 1991,
when the government decided in favor of Thiruvananthapuram. The name
Trivandrum is still in common use mostly by tourists and some private/public
sector companies.

History

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient city with trading traditions dating back to


1000 BC. It was a trading post for spices like the rest of ancient Kerala.
However the ancient political and cultural history of the city was almost entirely
independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The early rulers of the city were the

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Ayes. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the rulers of
Venad.

The rise of modern Thiruvananthapuram began with accession of Marthanda


Varma in 1729 as the founding ruler of the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor
(Travancore). Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital of Travancore in
1745. The city developed into a major intellectual and artistic center during this
period of time. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th
century during the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam
Thirunal . This era saw the establishment of the first English school (1834), the
Observatory (1836), the General Hospital (1839), the Oriental Research
Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College (1873). The first
Lunatic Asylum in the state was also started in the same period. Sanskrit
College, Ayurveda College, Law College and a second grade college for
Women were started by Moolam Thirunal (18851924).

The early 19th century was an age of tremendous political and social changes
in the city. The Sree Moolam Assembly, established in 1904 was the first
democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state. Despite not being
under direct control the British Empire at anytime, the city however featured
prominently in India's freedom struggle.

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The Indian National Congress had a very active presence in the city. A political
conference of the Congress was held in the city under the presidency of Dr.
Pattabhi Sitaramaiah, in 1938.

The period of HH Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma who took the reign of
administration in 1931, witnessed many-sided progress. The promulgation of
"Temple Entry Proclamation" (1936), was an act that underlined social
emancipation. This era also saw the establishment of the University of
Travancore in 1937 which later became the Kerala University.

After the withdrawal of the British in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian
union. The first popular ministry headed by Pattom Thanu Pillai was installed in
office on 24 March 1948. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of
Thiru-Kochi, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with its northern
neighbour Kochi. The King of Travancore, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma
became the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from July 1 1949 until
October 31 1956. When the state of Kerala was formed on November 1 1956,
Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of the new state.

With the establishment of TERLS (Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching


Station) in the 60s, Thiruvananthapuram became the cradle of India's ambitious
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space program. The first Indian space rocket was developed and launched from
the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) located in the outskirts of the city in
1966. Several establishments of the Indian Space Research Organization
(ISRO) were later established in Thiruvananthapuram.

A major milestone in the city's recent history was the establishment in 1995 of
Technopark, India's first IT park. Technopark has developed into the largest and
greenest IT Park in India and is home to IT giants like Infosys and TCS,
employing around 12,000 people in close to 100 companies.This placed
Thiruvananthapuram on the IT map of India and it is today one of the most
promising in the country in terms of competitiveness and capability.

Geography

Thiruvananthapuram is located at 8.5 N 76.9 E on the west coast, near the


southern tip of mainland India. The city covers an area of about 250 square
kilometers, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The
average elevation is at sea level.

The city is built on hills by the sea shore. The region can be divided into two
geographical regions, the midlands and the lowlands. The midland region
comprises of low hills and valleys adjoining the Ghats. The lowland is a narrow
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stretch comprising of shorelines, rivers and deltas, dotted with coconut palms.
Vellayani lake, biggest fresh water lake in the district is in the suburbs of the
city. The major rivers that flow through the city are the Karamana river, and the
Killi river.

A third region the highlands form the eastern suburbs of the city. Several cash
crops like rubber, tea, cardamom etc. are grown here. The highest point in the
district is the Agasthyarkoodam which rises 1890 m above sea level. Ponmudi
and Mukkunimala are hill-resorts near the city.

Climate

The city has a tropical climate and therefore does not experience distinct
seasons. The mean maximum temperature 34 C and the mean minimum
temperature is 21 C. The humidity is high and rises to about 90% during the
monsoon season.

Thiruvananthapuram is the first city along the path of the south-west monsoons
and gets its first showers in early June. The city gets heavy rainfall of around
1700 mm per year. The city also gets rain from the receding north-east
monsoons which hit the city by October. The dry season sets in by December.
December, January and February are the coldest months while March, April
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and May are the hottest. The winter temperature comes down to about 15 C
and summer temperatures can sometimes go as high as 37 C.

Economy

The economy of Thiruvananthapuram city was earlier based on the tertiary


sector with about 60% of the workforce being employed as government
servants. Large scale industrial establishments are low compared to other
south Indian state capitals like Chennai and Bangalore. At present the economy
is growing with the contributions from more professionals in the fields of IT, and
Medical/Bio-Technology. The city contributes 80% of software exports from the
state. The opening of many private Television channels in the state, made
Thiruvananthapuram the home of several studios and related industries.

Since the establishment of Technopark in 1995, Thiruvananthapuram has


steadily grown into a competitive IT centre. The city was rated as the best 2nd
tier metro with IT/ITES infrastructure, and second in terms of availability of
human talent. Technopark houses global majors like Infosys, TCS, McKinsey &
Co., Ernst & Young, Allianz Cornhill, Toonz, US Technologies, M-Squared etc.
The park has around 110 companies employing over 12,500 professionals.
With the expansion plans to be completed in 200708, this figure is to rise to
about 30,000. The work in progress include 600,000 ft Thejaswini to be
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completed in October 2006, 400,000 ft TCS Peepul Park in May 2006 and TCS
Development Centre. Work on Leela IT building, IBS Campus, US Tech
Campus and Infosys campus is due to commence shortly.

Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram.


Foreign tourists are flocking to Thiruvananthapuram, a major destination for
chartered flights to India for Medical tourism, as there are more than fifty
recognised Ayurveda centres in and around the city. This is primarily due to
Ayurveda's immense popularity in the West. Medical tourism is further
promoted by world class modern medicine hospitals in the city. Recuperation
facilities are available at five star beach resorts and hill stations nearby.

There are around 20 government owned and 60 privately owned medium and
large scale industrial units in Thiruvanathapuram. The major employers are the
Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation (KSIDC), Keltron, Travancore
Titanium and Hindustan Latex, all government owned. There are also about
30,000 small scale industrial units employing around 115,000 people.
Traditional industries include handloom and coir.

Commercial activity is quite low mainly due to the under-development of ports.


However this is expected to change with the construction of the proposed mega
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Deep Water Container Transshipment Port at Vizhinjam. Situated close to the


city, Vizhinjam is very close to international shipping route and East-West
shipping axis.

Other major organizations of economic interest are the Chithranjali Film


Complex, Kinfra Apparel Park, Kinfra Film and Video Park, Kerala High-tech
Industries (KELTECH), Kerala Automobiles and the English Indian Clays Ltd.

Transport

Within the city, city buses and autorickshaws provide means of transportation.
Two-wheelers, especially scooters and motorcycles are the favoured means of
personal transportation on the roads.

The intra-city public transport is dominated by the state-owned KSRTC (Kerala


State Road Transport Corporation). There are also private bus services, but are
limited in number. The city services of KSRTC operate from six depots namely,
the City depot, Vikas Bhavan, Peroorkada, Pappanamcode, Kaniyapuram and
Vellanad. These services were revamped in 2005 with the introduction of
modern buses and electronic ticketing mechanisms. The central city bus
terminal is located at East fort, near the Padmanabha Swamy temple. The
Central and Inter State bus station is located 1 km away at Thampanoor. Buses
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from it go to all major towns and villages in the State as well as big cities in
India such as Bangalore and Chennai.

Trivandrum Central railway station


The Central railway station is also located at Thampanoor in the heart of the
city, 8 km from the airport. It is a very important terminus which handles over 50
trains daily. The city is well connected by rail to almost all major cities in India.
Trivandrum is the first major city from south along the second longest train
route in the world, Kanyakumari to Jammu. A second satellite station was
opened in 2005 at Kochuveli, near the International Airport.

Thiruvananthapuram's international airport, with direct flights from the Middle


East, Singapore, Maldives and Sri Lanka is the gateway to the tourism-rich
state of Kerala. Indian Airlines, Jet Airways and Air Deccan are the domestic
airlines operating from here. Air India, Gulf Air, Oman Air, Kuwait Airways,Silkair,
Srilankan Airlines and Emirates operate international flights. There are also two
military airports one near the civilian airport and the other at the Southern Air
Command of the Indian Air Force in Akkulam.

Apart from regular scheduled flights, many chartered flights from Europe like
First Choice Airways from London Gatwick and Monarch, operating with big
jets, land here during the peak tourist season (around December); with Kerala
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fast becoming a prime tourist destination in India, and also with Ayurveda
gaining popularity in the west, several beach and ayurveda-resorts have sprung
up all around.

Thiruvanthapuram airport's importance is also due to the fact that it is the


southernmost airport in India and also the closest (and thus cheapest option)
for neighboring countries like Sri Lanka and Maldives.
Trivandrum International Airport

The construction of the mega Deep Water Container Trans-shipment Port at


Vizhinjam is expected to begin in 2007. It is to be built in three phases, and
expected to be a key competitor in the ports business (especially for container
transhipment), with the international shipping lanes between Europe and the
Far East very close to the port, and also with major ports like Colombo, Kochi
and Tuticorin in close proximity.

The exponential growth of the services and IT based sectors coupled with its
prominence as the state capital and tourist center has caused considerable
strain on the transport infrastructure of the city. To tackle this crisis, several
multi-million dollar construction projects are now underway including the
construction of several new underpasses and flyovers, scheduled to be
completed by early 2007. In the first phase, 42 km of six-lane and four-lane dual
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carriage ways are being built, with world class facilities such as bus bays,
modern bus stations and GPS synchronized traffic signals.
Demographics

The city has a population of 889,191 according to the 2001 census (crossing 1
million on Jan 2006). Within the city, the density of population is about 3,500
people per square kilometer. The district has a literacy rate of 88%. With the
sex ratio being 1,037 females to every 1,000 males, there are more women in
Thiruvananthapuram than men.

Hindus comprise of 62% of the population, Christians are about 20% and
Muslims about 15%. The major language spoken is Malayalam. English and
Hindi are also widely understood. There is also a prominent minority of Tamil
speakers and a few Tulu and Konkani speakers.

Culture
Thiruvananthapuram has a rich cultural background, with the rulers of erstwhile
Travancore taking an active interest in development of arts and culture.
Thiruvananthapuram has produced several great artists, the most famous ones
being Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Raja Ravi Varma.

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Maharaja Swathi Thirunal was a great composer and played a vital role in the
development of Carnatic music . He is widely credited with introducing the violin
in to the world of classical Carnatic music. A music college in his name exists
today in the city. Raja Ravi Varma was an illustrious painter with global
recognition. His contributions to Indian art are substantial. Most of his famous
paintings are preserved at the Sree Chithra Art Gallery in the city. The
Padmanabha Swamy Temple and the fort surrounding it, the Napier Museum
and Zoo, the VJT hall, Palayam Mosque and Church are among the prominent
heritage buildings in the city. The Veli Lake and Shangumukham beach are
home to various sculptures of noted sculptor Kanhai Kunjiraman.

Thiruvananthapuram easily disguises itself as a laid back quiet city to the


casual observer. However beneath it, there is a humdrum of cultural activity.
The city comes to life during the festival season of Onam in August/September,
and during the tourist season later in the year. The state government conducts
the tourism week celebrations every year during Onam with cultural events
taking place at various centers in the city. The other major events include the
annual flower show, the Attukal Pongala, the Aaraat of Padmanabha Swamy
Temple, the Beemapally Uroos, Vettucaud Perunaal etc

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The CVN Kalari at East Fort, is world renowned center for training in Kerala's
own martial art the Kalaripayattu. The Margi center offers training in many of
Kerala's traditional arts including Kathakali.

Trivandrum has numerous libraries, the prominent ones being the State Central
Library (Trivandrum Public library, Est. 1829)[19], the University Library,
Trivandrum Children's Library, Manuscripts Library and the Center for
Development Studies Library. The British Council and Library (Est. 1964) [20] is
located very near the Government Secretariat adjacent to the YMCA Hostel.

City's Importance and Future prospects

The importance of the city, apart from being the capital of Indias most literate
and socially developed state, is a strategically important city in Southern India.
Being the biggest city with a credible infrastructure in Indias deep south, it is an
important city for both military logistics and civil aviation in the southern part of
the country. It is the headquarters of the Southern Air Command(SAC) of the
Indian Air Force. Due to the strategic importance of the city, the Indian Air Force
authorities have planned to make an aerospace command in SAC

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Being the Indian city with the closest air link to the small island-country of
Maldives and also Sri Lanka, the citys medical and health infrastructure plays a
vital role for patients from both countries, especially Maldives. Apart from
regular health and medical services, the city is also important for people from
around the world seeking help through Ayurveda medicine and therapy. Beach
resorts and also ayurveda resorts are coming up at a rapid pace, especially
along the International Beach of Kovalam and Varkala coast.

Exports of perishables and medicines from Trivandrum Airport run to full


capacity on everyday flights to Maldives and Sri Lanka. Trivandrum also
provides a key link in movement of goods and passengers to and from southern
Tamilnadu into Kerala, the state border being just 30 km away.

The future prospects of Trivandrum are manifold. Potential future growth areas
include Tourism (medical and eco-tourism), civil aviation and air-cargo,
commercial

activity

through

upcoming

port

(at

Vizhinjam),

software

development parks, media and the arts, rubber-based industries, etc; however,
much of this high potential growth would depend on the investment and trade
union reforms of the government.

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CHAPTER - 4
PROFILE OF THE
HOTEL

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UDAY SAMUDRA BEACH HOTEL


KOVALAM

Uday Samudra Beach Hotel in Kovalam is famous for offering the beautiful view
of the pristine blue sea, golden sands and obstinate silvery surf. The three-star
beach resort promises to provide a perfect combination of world-class services
and beautiful environs to its prospective guests.

Location
Uday Samudra Beach Hotel is located at the Samudra Beach, G.V. Raja Road
in Kovalam. It is at a distance of 16 km form the Trivandrum International Airport
and 12 km from the railway station.

Character and Style

The luxurious hotel is unique in its setting. In the evening the entire hotel
shines with bright lights, which make it appear as a palace near the beach side.
The grand style of the hotel offers a luxurious stay.

Uday Samudra Beach Hotel in Kovalam has 53 well-furnished rooms and


suites. All the rooms offer a beautiful view overlooking the majestic Arabian

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Sea. The rooms are built with balconies offering a spacious sit-out with a view
of the large swimming pool of the hotel. The rooms are impressive in their fine
dcor.

Facilities
All the rooms at the hotel are equipped with the facilities of air conditioning,
cable TV, telephone, radio, mini fridge, mini bar, channel music, attached
bathroom, shower, bathtub, work desk and safe deposit box.

Additional facilities at the hotel include: Travel desk, luggage storage, front
desk, wake up service, currency exchange, medical, post, free parking, free
newspaper, laundry, health club, water sports, swimming pool, Ayurvedic
center, restaurant, coffee shop, lounge and bar.

The hotel offers two banquet/conference halls for its business clientele. The
conference halls are perfectly designed to hold meetings, conferences and
other social gatherings. The halls are equipped with all kinds of modern
amenities and have a seating capacity of 100 people.

Activities
The hotel offers a wide range of recreational facilities to the visitors. The
Ayurvedic health center can offer rejuvenating body massages with the
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traditional body purification methods. It has a large swimming pool surrounded


by the garden. The crystal clear water invites you to take a refreshing splash. It
arranges a number of cultural programs to show the ethnicity of Kerala.

Drinks and Dining


Hotel Uday Samudra Beach Kovalam offers a memorable experience in drinks
and dining. The multi-cuisine restaurant impresses with its fine delicacies. The
ethnic Kerala food is served in the traditional manner to offer the hospitality of
Kerala. There is a barbeque restaurant by the beach side where you can enjoy
the delectable food with the beautiful ambience of the sea and music of the sea
waves. The roof top coffee house offers a panoramic view of the Arabian Sea
and serves the finest coffee, snacks and various other beverages.

Kerala Backwater offers online bookings for rooms at Uday Samudra Beach
Hotel in Kovalam, Kerala. For more information or to book a tour, please enter
your query in the form below.

uday Samudra, the leisure beach hotel near the internationally famed Kovalam
(Kerala, India), is a heavenly hideaway for honeymooners, holidaymakers, tanseekers and peace lovers. While you stretch out on the silvery beach shore,
under the glowing sun, you can catch those rare glimpses of fishermen rowing
their catamarans into the rolling sea and pulling in their nets. You may lend
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your ears to the murmur of the swaying coconut palms and gurgle of galloping
waves. Now, before you would retreat, make a nosedive into the fresh water
swimming pool to cool your brain and body. Well-appointed rooms, multi-cuisine
restaurant catering to international palate, well-equipped conference halls,
cultural extravaganza and a lot more lie in store for you, to throw you into
raptures After the stay with us you will return with a load of sweet
memories ...along with a longing to come back.

Accommodation

Back in your room, feel the luxury enveloping you. All our rooms are very
thoughtfully designed. Well appointed rooms spell modern luxury with all
amenities to make you stay as comfy as possible. All rooms are individually airconditioned and have balcony/sit-out over looking the swimming pools and the
beach beyond. At present we have 93 rooms. With each room facing the sea
you have 93 angles to admire it.

All rooms are furnished to international

standards with shower and running hot & cold water.

Room Facilities

Other facilities include direct- dial-telephone service, mini-fridge and cable TV.
Room boys will be at your service round-the-clock. Just make a call from the
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coziness of your posh room, let them know your needs, they will take care of
the rest. take care of the rest.

Amenities

Swimming Pools
Conference Facility
Cultural Program
Shopping
Elephant Ride
Ayurvedic Experience
Travel Desk
Safe Deposit Lockers
Laundry
Doctor on call
Dining Facilities: Culinary Treat
Oottupura - Multi Cuisine Restaurant
Aquamarine - The Coffee Shop by the Sea
Mattupavu - Sport to have a Private Part

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CHAPTER 5
OBJECTIVES,
METHODOLOGY,
AND LIMITATION

OBJECTIVE, SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


To get complete overview of the hotel and its departments
To acquire the known whereabouts and the methods of working of all the
operating departments of the 4 star property, UDAY SAMUDRA,
KOVALAM
To get to know the various systems and procedures involved in all the
main department of the UDAY SAMUDRA, KOVALAM
To fulfill the requirement as prescribed by the Bangalore university for the
partial fulfillment of BHM degree

SECONDARY DATA
Discussion with the various HODS and other employees of the
UDAY SAMUDRA, KOVALAM
Discussion with the concerned facility member.

LIMIATION
Information related to sales and marketing were kept out of bound

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CHAPTER 6
FRONT OFFICE

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The front office is the one of the department, which plays very important role in
the working of the hotel. This responsible for the sales of the hotel room
through systematic methods of reservation. Followed by reservation and
assigning rooms to customers and act as continues source of information to
guest while at stay at hotel.
The revenue collected from the sale of rooms contributes more than 50% of the
total sale
The following are the services usually given by the front office of uday samudra
beach leisure hotel kovalam
Reservation
Rooming
Accounting
Handling of mail
Handling of room keys and messages
Foreign exchanges
Custody of valuables
Credit facility
The front office department is divided into number of sub department i.e.
Registration (reservation) section
Reception information desk
Telephones
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Front office cashier


Bell desk
The front office manager supervises the front office department
Reservation section
Reservation section in the front office is the nerve center of the department
where all request of reservation are received and processed.
Mode of reservation
Letters
Fax
Telephones
Telegram
Personal booking
Cables
Source of reservation
The source from which the request for the reservation comes are
Travel agent
Airlines
Companies
Individuals
Different types of reservations are:
Tentative or Provisional
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Confirmed
Guaranteed
Types of plans
A plan is package proposed of rooms and meals :

1
2
3

European plan
Continental plan

Only room
Tariff includes room and

Modified American plan

continental breakfast
Tariff includes room,
breakfast and lunch or

American plan

dinner
Tariff includes
breakfast,

room,

lunch

and

dinner
Room traffic
Rack rate
Crib rate
Extra bed rate
Airlines rate
Group rate
Day rate
Family rate

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Discount

Discount are cut in the rack rate offered to individuals of institution in view of
business anticipated or as public relation gesture.
A discount is a normal percentage, which is fixed by the hotel for
certain institution or may very depending on who is being given the discount.
Discount rates are subjected revision on mutually agreed terms between
parties. The F.O staff should check with the management an keep update
information on discount rates.

Normally discount is given for


Airlines
Travel agent
V N Employees
Companies
Hotel federation members
Top executive of travel agency

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Reception
This is the department in the front office. Which allocate the room when a
guest register in the hotel. This is the busy place and majority of guest arrives
between mod morning and mid afternoon. All arrivals must register and
registration should be don as quickly as possible. the guest should be helped
as far as possible with the registration procedure, once the guest has
completed the registration card, room is allotted. The receptionist see that the
guest should be shown the amenities of the room. The guest should be asked if
any thing required for eg. Cup of tea, snacks etc. if the receptionist take an
order which never been forgotten.
The reception assistance in the morning shift prepares control sheet, which
gives the expected guest departure.
Reservation racks are checked and rooms are allocated to the reserved
guests. Rooms are booked for expected groups and airlines crew on the room
rack. The arrival and departure of guests in maintained in a register by the
receptionist including the following

Date of arrival

Date of departure

Name of guest

Name of guest

Room number

Room number

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No. pax

No. pax

DUTES AND RESPONSIBLITES


FRONT OFFICE MANAGER
The head of the Front Office Department. Who is responsible for the overall
organization and efficient working of the front office. He or she has to surprise
of the running of the department. Is answering the general manager. He or she
has to study the reports made in the front office for the management
information and suggest the method of improving the sales and services. Thy
handle serious complaints.
ASSISTANT FRONT OFFICE MANAGER
Works directly under the front office manager and is actively involved in the
day-to-day functioning in the front office. He or she is wholly responsible for the
front office department.

LOBBY MANAGER
The lobby manager who represents the management means the lobby desk.
He is problem solver and has the authority to handle all the grievances. Ho
should be well conversant with the hotel room. He is essentially a

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troubleshooter and normally present when the guest have to be welcomed. He


control the team of bell captain and bell boy.

NIGHT AUDITOR
The night auditor compiles and audits all revenue transactions and reconciles
the revenue statement off all outlet with the front office accounting machine to
prepare a daily report of the day business

FRONT OFFICE SUPERVISOR


Front office supervisor supervises all the front office section for is efficient
working and assist for front office assistant manager.

TELEPHONE AND TELEX SUPERVISOR


Responsibility is to supervises the functioning of telephone and telex
department control a team of telephone operators and telephone technicians.
He or she would report to the front office manager.
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
Responsibility is to receive incoming call and connect them to the room and
other rooms and department as and when required to handle outgoing call and
to give telephone connection to the guest who required. They have to jeep
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record pf a:: phone calls made and their primary duty is to render a superior
telephone services.
RESERVATION ASSISTANT
Responsibility is to take all request and to give the information about the room
status and availability of rooms for advance booking and prepare an advanceletting chart.

INFORMATION ASSISTANT
Information assistant handle the information section with the assistants. He
maintains an alphabetic guest index rack, receives message for guest, handle
keys, guest package, mails, provided information for the guest etc.

RECEPTIONIST
Receptionist performs the actual work of registration the guest where he
arrives to the hotel and hand over the room keys with the errand card to the
bellboy. She takes the small order like coffee, tea and the snacks for the guests
and informs the room services

FRONT OFFICE CASHIER


The front office cashier is responsible for all the transaction from the guest like
posting, presenting bills, and receiving payments, controls safety deposit locker
and other work from the guest regarding money.
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BELL CAPTAIN
Responsibility is provide all porter services with efficient and politeness
controls a team of bellboys and reports to the lobby manager.

GUEST RELATION EXECUTIVE

He is seated in the lobby and reports to the lobby manager of front office
manager or front office manger. His or her main duty is to welcome the guests
and constantly try to improve relations between the hotel and the guests.
Handling all the in-house publicity.
COORDINATION
The activities of the department in the hotel are closely linked and if link is
broken, then the whole service is effected. Hence, co-ordination is of most
importance between the section of the front office and with the other
department. Therfor front office should co-ordinate with the department are
Housekeeping
Accounting
Food and beverage services
Telephone
Engineering and maintenance

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Sales
Stores
Front office management information systems
Reservation status of the day
1. Arrival list
2. Departure list
3. Daily sales recapitulation report
4. Night clerks report
These are the main reports given by the front office management
Rack rate

the maximum rate charged for any room

Crib rate

applicable to children below 5 years

Extra bed rate

the amount charge for the extra bed given

Airlines rate

this is the contract rate where a fixed discount is


given over a period of time

Group rate

a special discount rates applicable to groups


Only. A free room is given to the organizer to
The organizer for 15 to 13 rooms depending on
the policy

Family rate

special rate given to families charging one

room,
Children may be accommodated free of charge

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Depending on their age


Computerized

IBM and leading hospitability security published


The result of their study one the use of
Technology in the

Reservation

industry lodging

Reservation data are kept in computer files, requiring fewer labor hours and
providing higher accuracy than do manually systems. The computer stores
thousands of reservation and an can retrieve them in second, using keyboard
and a display screen. The system automatically stores and updates all records
and related files and prints confirmation on demand.

FLOWCHART OF COMPUTERISE RESERVATION PROCESS


START

FORMULATION IN RESERVATION INQUARY

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EQUATING ENQUARY WITH AVALIABLITY

RECORDING OF TRANSCATIONAL DATA

CONFIRMATION OF RESERVATION

MAINTANCE OF RESERVATION RECORD

END

ROMING PROCEDURES
Rooming procedure are the cores of the clerks work. It is simplest; rooming is
task of assignment a number of people to a given number of rooms until the
house is full.
The desk clerk is very important person regarding rooming procedure. He is the
first person to meet the guest. He greets the guest with the smiling face and he
is in charge of keys, messages and mails.
THE ROOMING PROCESS
START
DETERMINE THE TRAVELLORS
RESERVATION STSTUS
WALK-IN RESERVATION HOLDER
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DETERMINE ACOMADATION LOCATE


RESERVATION REQUIRMENT
DETERMINING ROOM CONFORM RESERVATION

AVAILABLITY DETAIL
ASSIST GUEST IN REGESTERING
CHECK METHOD OF PAYMENT
DIRECT GUEST TO ROOM
END

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CHAPTER-7
HOUSE KEEPING

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MAINTANCE AND UP KEEPING ARE THE basic function of housekeeping


department. House keeping is the one of the worlds most famous and honored
occupation. Housekeeping together with hygiene is the modern expression for
keeping clean not only us but also ones surrounding as well. I it is often said
that good housekeeper are born but many are made by sheer application to
their jobs and a regard for the principles of cleanliness
DUTES AND RESPONSIBILITY OF HOUSEKEEPING STAFF
EXECUTIVE HOUSE KEEPER
a) Plan
b) Organize
c) CO-ordinate
d) Recruit and train
e) Dismissal, appraisal
f) In charge of purchase
g) Courtesy call
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h) Maintenance of record
i) Individual Record of entering staffs

6.1 CHAMBER MAIDS OR ROOM BOY


A workers on the floor have to work in 3 shifts. Each room having has to do
10 to 14 rooms. For the after noon shift one boy is assigned to do the turn down
services of night services in 50 rooms in addition to attending the guest
requirement. There are usually 1 to 2 boys on the floor during the night shifts
and depending on the number of departure their strength could be increased.

THEFTS:
If a guest has stolen item from the room, then the value of the item is placed
on the bill at the front office. This is a police way of informing the guest about
the misdeed. This must be however be done only if one is absolutely sure that
the guest is responsible. If a theft has been taken place and the culprit is not
know, the hotel security is information giving all details.

DEATH:
The front office should inform the general manager, the security officer and
call for the hotel doctor or coroner of the locality. An alarm is not raised or any
guest informed by the fact. The general manager may decide to all the police.
The stuff entrance must remove the body and the room sealed till all police
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formalities are over. People known to the deceased are contacted through
address entered on the registration card.

ACCIDENTS
The house doctor should be called immediately on the phone and informed of
the nature of the accident and the condition of the guest. The doctors
instruction must be followed immediately. Bleeding must be stopped by
swapping wounds with cotton wool and applying a coagulant such as iodine,
alcohol, spirit or just plain after-shave lotion. If fracture is suspected, the guest
not moved till the doctor arrives. Burn are to be treated with creams meant for
the purpose. Water is never poured on burns as this will surely lead to blisters.
VANDALISM
The front office must inform the hotel security and ordered the main door to be
closed. If things get out of hand, the police must be called
DAMAGE TO PROPERTY BY RESIDENT GUEST
The front office casher is instructed to raise a charge for the value of damage
to property. A responsible guest will never argue but should he object must be
referred to the general manager.
DRUNKEN GUEST
It is prudent never to argue with a drunken guest. He must be politely led lead
away from the public area wither into an office or his room. If he is boisterous or
behave unruly the hotel security must be called.
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The morning duties start with the collection of keys, resetting of trolley, if used
at night. Sweeping and wiping of pantry, cleaning of corridors and dusting of
fixture and cleaning of rooms assigned by asst. house keeper in order to vacant
departure and occupied rooms unless special request are made by the guest to
have their room cleaned first. All information is entered into the room boy slip.

ASSISTANT HOUSEKEEPER
The one who supervises the maid and carries out all the work delegates by the
executive housekeeper depending on different hotel.

ROOM MAIDS
The one who are responsible for the servicing of the guest bedrooms. Sitting
rooms and private guest. A maid may be expected to serve 10- 15 rooms on a
eight hours shift.

STAFF MAIDS
The one who cleans the room of the staff living in.

LINEN KEEPER
The one who supervises the work of linen, linen room and may have linen
maids to assist her to provide the clean presentable linen throughout the house

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CLOCK ROOM ATTENDENT


The one who looks after the clock room in general.

HOUSE POSTERS
The one who work consist of removal of rubbish, shifting of furniture, heavy
vacuum cleaner and other jobs.

VALETS
The one who is usually responsible for personal services like ironing of cloths,
shoe polishing etc.

FLORIST
The one who may on the housekeeping staff and is responsible for arranging
flowers

GENERAL ASSISTANT
The one who may be expected to work I any department at any job and so at
times may work in the housekeeping department.

TEN RULES FOR LEADERSHIP QUALITY IN HOUSEKEEPING


1. Utilize the manpower effectively
2. To devise easy method to do work
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3. To develop standard procedure for routine activities


4. install inventory control
5. to motivate all type of labor
6. accept all changes management propose
7. to involve employees in planning
8. increase education level of the staff
9. set up recruitment programmers to find and develop management
trainees.
10.co-operate and co-ordinate with other department managers

FLOOR SUPERVISOR
The supervisor supervises the work of room boy, chambermaid and check the
room. In addition, she will have to keep an account of stock of linen and stores.
The first job of assistant housekeeper or floor supervisor is to report for the
morning duty and to sigh for her master key, check room boys under her, giving
them information regarding the status of the room. She then check the room as
and when cleaned. All complaints are given to deputy housekeeper. On an
average a floor supervisor may be in charge of 50-60 rooms. She has to be
adsorbent, quick and through. She carries the master key, which opens all the
room on her floor. She report to the office and make entries in the night log for
afternoon and night housekeeper.

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DEPUTY HOUSEKEEPER
She is responsible for the cleanliness of room and public areas for guest
satisfaction for the services offered by the department for orderly behaviors and
grooming of housekeeping staff

IMPORTANCE OF HOUSEKEEPING
The importance of housekeeping department has the responsibility for the daily
period clearing of the guest room and public area. Consequently the
department has in case linen and furnishings beds and bedding and
sometimes laundry work for the guest and other department
In all its work the aim of housekeeping department is to maintain standard
which are consistent with good department is to maintain standard which are
consistent with good housekeeping practice and which are reflected through
satisfied guests.
Among other aspects of hotel life, comfortable guest rooms and efficient
provision of services are assessed by guests who can do influence potential
customer. The reputation of the residential establishment also depend upon the
efficiency and loyalty of staff.

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INTER DEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIP OF HOUSEKEEPING


RELATION OF HOUSEKEEPING AND OTHER DEPARTMENT

Co-operation with all other department in the hotel is of utmost importance for
the smooth running of the housekeeping department.

FRONT OFFICE

The work of the two department is closely allied and each must understand
the others problem. The front office inform the housekeeping in advance
regarding the requirement of rooms, other special request from guest and VIP
arrivals/departure list etc, the department should try to keep the rooms ready as
soon as possible. Housekeeping department informs the in front office
regarding lost and found property.

FOOD AND BEVERAGE DEPARTMENT


Co-operation is required to listen used in the restaurant. The linen keeper
should ensure sufficient stock of linen for the restaurant and their timely supply.
The restaurant manager should ensure not to misuse of linen.

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MAINTENCE OR ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


In the course of the day the assistance housekeeper finds many items
requiring attention, such as dripping taps, leaking pipes fused bulbs or AC not
working and should report these faults immediately to the maintenance
department. Immediately remedy comes for all such problems if good relations
exist between the two departments. Housekeeping department informs the
maintenance of all minor repairs required before a major breakdown occurs.
The engineering department expects every housekeeping employee to
conserve heat, water and electricity

SECURITY DEPARTMENT
The housekeeping staff bears a heavy responsibility of the security of the
guest, their belongings and the hotel as a whole is concerned. This must be
made aware of every member of the housekeeping staff. Co-operation here will
be mainly concerned with prevention of fire, theft etc.

LAUNDARY
Some hotels maintain their own laundry and other rely on operators. In either
case. Close team work is necessary. The housekeeping department can
facilitates the exchange by making linen for easy identification and sorting out
badly sorted linen. The laundry manager can safeguard the file of the linen by
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careful handling and may assist the housekeeping by testing the fastness of the
color, fastness of new material, the clean linen, the maids cants operate.
During full occupancy needs a fast turnover linen from the laundry.

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT
The department usually buys all cleaning material and guest supplies and
issues then required. The relation of these functions to the functions to the
housekeeping department is self-evident when it comes to deciding what brand,
quality should be purchased. The housekeeping and purchase manager must
pool in their knowledge together to consider the characteristics, cost and
availability of the product. These products are taken in bulk order.

TELEPHONE EXCHANGE
Co-operation with the telephone should exist regarding use of telephone and
their maintained list should be immediately conveyed to the manager in charge
of the telephone exchange. Housekeeping are responsible in preventing
misuse of telephone

ACCOUNT DEPARTMENT
The account department needs the housekeeper cooperation in approving the
bills, meeting pay roll deadlines and taking inventories.

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PERSONAL DEPARTMENT

Co-operation with personal department exists with regard to recruiting of new


staff, regular submission of staff appraisal, forms, confirmation letters etc.

CLEANING EQUIPMENTS
Cleaning is the removal of dust, dirt or any foreign matter from a surface and
is necessary for hygienic reason for the sake of appearance and up prevent
detritions in the surface

The executive housekeepers responsibility includes the selection of


equipment and the management on the selection of equipment required for the
running of the department. Lack of vigilance in the care and upkeep of
equipment invariable lower the standard of services and bring about
considerable financial loss.

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CHAPTER 8
FOOD & BEVERAGE
PRODUCTION

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FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCTION


Food and beverage production plays an important role in hotels. It is the
department in which the food is prepared. As well equipped. As well equipped
kitchen is a requirment in a hotel for the efficient function

EXECUTIVE CHEF

He prepares the standard recipe


He signs the standard purchase specification
He co-ordinates with F&B manager to complete the menu
He is responsible for renovation of kitchen
He is responsible for recruiting and training staff in the kitchen

SOUS CHEF

He is responsible for taking care of the kitchen


He checks food prepared and makes sure that the standard are
maintained
He prepares the daily store requisition
He helps in preparation of food

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CHEF DE PARTIE

He is in charge of particular section


He helps in preparation
He act as the obeyed
He see to that the food is delivered in the right time

COMMIS

They are the ones who carry out the mis-en-place and prepares the food. They
are positioned as comes 1 2 and 3
Uday samudra , has three kitchens
Main kitchen (Indian kitchen)
Coffee shop kitchen
Oriental kitchen

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The main kitchen is the kitchen, which caters to the Indian restaurant and the
banquets. It is located in the lobby level. This kitchen is well equipped. The food
for cafeteria is prepared there.

MIS-EN-PLACE
This mis-en-place starts at 7 am in the morning. This garnishes are
boiled first and the cutting for the buffet is done. There is big party the mis-enplace is done by day before. The garnishes for A la carte order are prepared.

COFFEE SHOP KITCHEN

kitchen caters to the coffee and room services. The menu of the coffee shop
consist of north India, south Indian and continental and fast food specialties.
The coffee shop party is well equipped with juice, toaster, grinder and other
equipments. The section provided by refrigerator, ranges and working table.
The garnishes are prepared well before the vegetable peeled. Milk is boiled
and kept warm.

ORIENTAL KITCHEN
Since the construction of the oriental restaurant is not ever only banquet
food and soups are prepared out there. For soups the stocks are kept for
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boiling one day before and the soup is also prepared. The continental snacks
are also prepared there. The mis-en-place for this is done in the morning

BAKER AND CONFERECTIONERY


The equipment in the bakery are electric oven, kneading machine, mixer,
beats etc.
The mis-en-place is done according to the order. Daily biscuits and
cakes are prepared according to the order. The dough is prepared and parties
like puff pastry, short-cut pastry are prepared. Daily the prepared is sent to the
pastry shop as per the requisition.

BUTCHERY AND GARDE MANAGER


Butchery deals with the meat and fish item. It has slicer and mincing
machine. The main work of the butchery are peeling and cutting chicken. The
order cuts of the chicken, cutting fish as required in various type like fish darn,
fish fillet etc. it is weighted, packed and kept in the walk-in-deep room
Grade manager is the place where the salads, sauces and cold cuts
are prepared.

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HANDLING OF KOTS
The KOT; s, which come to the kitchen are put in a box after the order has
gone. The KOTs of the whole day are collected and scrutinized by souse chef
and are send to F&B controller.

REQUISITION PROCEDURE
For getting the adequate vegetable and spices, a requisition is to be
made by each kitchen, which is given to store every day. The sous chef makes
the requisition.

PURCHASE SPECIFICATION
Purchase specification is the prescribed formula for obtaining things of
specified quality in a particular establishment. This is prepared by the executive
chef and given to purchase department

INTERDEPENTAL TRANSFER
For inter departmental transfer, a particular form of kitchen department
transfer is used. It contains the detail like item, unit, quality given by and given
to. It helps in cost control.

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THE EXECUTIVE CHEF


The executive chef also called the head chef, presides overall aspects of
food preparation. An executive chef might also be the food production manager.
The executive chef must be both a master cook and an efficient manager and ,
therefore is usually a person of considerable training experience.
In a large hotel, the executive chef is in charge of all the
kitchen. He or she the overall responsibility for the preparation of food in
accordance with the standard and practices of the hotel chain or franchise. The
executive chef plan menus, meets with the other manager and staff heads and
coordinates all kitchen operations.

The executive chef has the following duties

Co-coordinating and assigning all duties to employee of the kitchen,


including assistant or specialty chefs, cook and steward.
Devising, monitoring and supervising food production methods, to ensure
compliance with the hotels standard and specification.
Planning menus and recipes, monitoring food costs and implementing
cost control
The executive chef may also to require to purchase foodstuff, beverages and
supplies or if the hotel has a full time buyer to direct the purchasing section.

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The chef may also oversee the receiving, inception and quality control of food
stuff and implements.

THE ASSISTANT CHEF

In a large food beverage operation, an assistant chef responsible for a menu


planning and recipe design may assist the executive chef. In the example
organization chart, the assistant chef supervises a working chef who as the title
of food production manager.

The assistant chef who serve the second in command to the executive chef
may be called the soup-chef. The sous chef is responsible for kitchen
operation, including supervision of the kitchen staff and the preparation of
meals and for training new employees

In the absence of the executive chef, the sous chef is in charge of the food and
beverage staff. In a mid-size food and beverage operation, a chef steward
might be employed both the manage food preparation and to purchase
supplies.
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THE CHEF DE PARTIE


Assistant working chefs often have areas of specialization called station.
For example, a salad chef is responsible for menu planning, recipe design and
preparation of salad and pastry chef has responsible for all desert item on the
menu. Order assistants might be in charge of the fry station, roasting station,
broiling station so forth. An assistant working chef in charge of a special station
is called a chef de partie.

THE COOKS
in a large restaurant, the staff of cook works closely with the head chef of
execution chef following carefully monitored standard, specifications and
recipes.
The title restaurant cook refers to a professional cook with general
responsibility for preparing all item on the menu. A staff cook is any one
prepares food under the supervision of a working chef restaurant cook. A duty
cook is a staff cook who function as the working chef or the restaurant cook
temporarily, usually during period of heavy workload or in the absence of the
supervising cook.

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KITCHEN SANITATION
Proper food handling and sanitation are critical in the food production
area. The department of health in every stage has strict regulation regarding
kitchen sanitation. The hotel may have its own policies and procedures that go
beyond those improved by germicidal soap and disposable towel within easy
access of employees. In the united states. Public health regulation require
kitchen employee rest rooms. The food preparation staff is required to wear
uniform and hair cover and to use only sanitary utensils.

Whenever food is prepared bacteria and insects are naturally attracted.


The kitchen staff must constantly guard against the possibility of food
contamination. Food and containers should be inspected carefully for signs of
contaminations of insects as soon as they are received.

Food can be contamination by the slightest exposure. Not all bacteria


are harmful in fact, some forms of bacteria are used in the production of certain
food and beverage such as cheese, bread and alcoholic beverages. Bacteria
grow rapidly in moisture, but no on dry foods, such as flour or sugar. Warm
temperature above 84o F also encourage bacteria to grow. The most dangerous
bacteria problem in restaurant, kitchen is salmonella, staphylococcus, and
botulism and clostridium perifringerns poisoning.

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Chapter-9
FOOD & BEVERAGE
SERVICE

The hotel uday samudrs is located in heart of kovallam is an beach leisure


hotel. it is called serene on water front location

The food and beverage department is headed by Mr. Vijay the F&B
manager. The day to day operation of this department are handled by a bunch
of Kettering assistant in charge of various section

The various section of F&B service department are :


Banquets

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Oottupura The Indian specialty restaurant


Mattupavu The roof top coffee shope
Adukkala Bar-be-que restaurant
Banquet is the section of the F&B service department. Which deals with
conferences lunches dinners and high teas for a group of people which are
booked in advance

The booking is taken by the banquet assistance at the banquet office and
the tems and condition are fixed up with the guest. The menu is selected
according to the guests choice from the menu prepared fro this purpose.

The charges for banquet function are usually calculated per cover in
accordance with the number of plates.
The section is headed by two catering assistants who are in charge of the
banquet operation. These are two banquet who take banquet booking.

The banquet function are held in the banquet hall 1 banquet hall 2. board room
south lawn or west lawn
Banquet hall I can accommodate about 80 people in theater style or about 40
people in bedroom set up.

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Banquet hall 2 can accommodate about 30 people in casual or theater setup


and 15 people in bed room set up.
The west lawn is ideal for function for about 60 to 150 people. It is more
suitable for casual function like receptions or parties.
The south lawn is suitable for large functions for about 250 to 2500 people. A
make shift pedal and stage beside the lawn makes it a suitable venue for stage
performance.
When the banquet assistants take the booking, they also take down the guest
requirement and special instruction about the menu and the arrangements. The
guest is informed the terms and condition of the booking. The booking is noted
in the banquet diary date wise for reference .
Once the booking is conformed, the banquet information sheet giving the data.
Venue and time of function is sent to the various department like telephone,
reception, housekeeping, stewarding, kitchen, and maintenance.
The function prospectus of the function is then prepared containing the
menu and other details of the kitchen. The format of function prospectus is
given in the pages followed by the various manus and rates for cocktails
snacks, copies of these are sent to the kitchen and the banquet pantry and one
copy to the host of the function.

ROOM SERVICES

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This section is handled by a catering assistant. Room services work round the
clock and breakfast and dinner time are the most busy time for this section.
There are three order takers who man the room service cabin round the clock
working shifts. There are stewards who work in different shifts as given below.
Morning shift steward 06.00 am to 03.00 pm 3
Evening shift stewards 02.30 pm to 11.30 pm 2
Night shift stewards 10.00 to 08.00 am 2

The shift of each stewards changes in cyclic manner. The catering assistant
work on a break shift from 09.00 am to 02.00 pm and again from 06.30 pm to
10.30 pm.
At about 12 midnight, one of the stewards goes to all the room and
collects the doorknob breakfast order placed on the doorknob. Then the trays
for theses are set.

Then these order are handled over the order taker who arranges it
accordingly in the time. At about fifteen minutes before the time of the order.
The order taker makes a KOT in triplicate for the order or advance KOT is
made earlier and handed over to the kitchen. Then the order taker prepares the
bill which is taken by the steward when he picks up the order. When the

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steward serves the order at the room, he also presents the bill to the guest. The
guest settles the bill either by signing on the bill or by paying cash

F&B Dinning facilities:


Oottupura
The multi-cuisine restaurant overlooking the sea, offering continental &
American breakfast, lunch & dinner, serving Indian, Mughal, Chinese,
Continental,

sea

food,

Kerala

specialties

South

Indian

Cuisine.

Adukkala
The Bar-Be-Que food located by the beach. Traditional Kerala food served in
plantain leaf on request. This Open Air Restaurant on the beach sideoffering
tandoori delights of Chicken, meat and fish roasted/grilled on charcoal in a clay
over,

served

hot.

Timings

11:30

Hours

to

22:30

Hours.

Mattupavu
The roof top Coffee Shop overlooking the beach with breath taking panoramic
view

of

the

Arabian

Sea.

Timings:

08:00

Hours

to

20:00

Hours.

Food Timings: Breakfast: 07:30 Hours to 10:30 Hours. Lunch 11:30 Hours to
15:30 Hours. Dinner 19:30 Hours to 22:30 Hours. Snacks 07:30 Hours to 11:30
Hours & 15:30 Hours to 19:30 Hours.

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CHAPTER 10
ALLIED
DEPARTMENTS

ENGINERING AND MAINTENANCE

The engineering department id responsible for the maintaining the facilitys


physical plant. Among other general duties are the department must maintain
the plumbing, the electricity and the heating and air conditioning system.

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In thinking about the importance of the engineering department consider what


is improved in maintaining a hotels plumbing. In an 800 room property, there
are 800 toilets in the guest rooms, plus many more in the public areas. There
two drains in each bath, one of the most common problem calls to engineering
department concern plumbing.
Next think about the vastness of the electrical system in large hotel. Not only
must be the electrical systems be maintained, but the engineering department
is also in charge of microphone or movie projector hook-ups for conferences. It
is a large trade show is being held with many exhibitors booth much time for set
up is demented from the engineering department
The heating and air conditioning system Is the third area involving
the department. Most rooms have individual thermostats, each of course with
its own temperature.
Routine up keeping in paint and upholstery might fall under either
engineering or housekeeping. Which ever aver you can see why close
communication between these two departments is important.
This is an inventory of work needed to be done in the guest room and in the
public area. The chief engineer or executive housekeeper could study these
and realize that they need lamp and might order them at a bulk rate. If several
rooms and well papering outside contactor might be called in to do the work.

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ACCOUNT
All the accounting activates i.e planning, budgeting, and analyzing. the
business office of a modern hotel has four major functions.
1 accurate accounting
2 effective cost control
3 accurate forecasting
4 financial reporting

Accurate accounting is the oldest responsibility of a hotel business office. Most


accounting functions are of technical nature and required specialized trainings
and experience. However, all of the various departments managers and
assistant managers employed by a hotel and to understand basis hotel
accounting concerns.

The main revenue of a hotel are produced by the sales of room


supplemented by sales from the other area such as a food and beverage
service, telephone, valet, laundry services and so forth. Revenue are related
directly from customer or there employees and indirectly through hotel
representatives , travel agents and tour wholesaler. The total revenue received
by the hotel are called gross income

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From the gross income, the hotel must deduct operating expenses such as
utilities, payroll, telephone expenses, advertising cost and so forth to determine
profit. If overhead is increase or income decreased profit are described

ACCOUNTING TOOLS
The main accounting tools used in the business office are the following
Guest checks, involve and receipts
Cash receipts journal
Accounts receivable journal
Cash disbursement journal
Account payment journal
Payroll journal sales report

MARKETING FUNCTIONS

The major specialized function involve in the different marketing processes or


in the marketing are known as marketing functions
Tousle and Clark have defined a marketing function as a major specialized
activity performed in marketing

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Important marketing function


Buying and assembling
Selling
Transportation
Storage and warehousing
Standardizing and grading
Financing
Risk bearing
Market formation

PURCHASE AND STORE DEPARTMENT


PURCHASE:
It can be done in 3 main methods each depending on the size and volume of
business

THE PRIMARY MARKET:


Raw materials may be purchased at the source of supply the grower,
producer, or manufacturer or from central market such as smith field, isle of dogs in
London. Some establishment are larger organizations will have a buyer who will
directly buy from primary markets also a number of smaller establishment may

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adopt this method for some of them need. The chief patron may buy his fish, meat,
and vegetables directly from the market.

THE SECONDARY MARKET:


Goods are bought wholesale from a distributor or middleman
the catering establishment will pay wholesale prices and obtain possible discounts.

THE TERITARY MARKET


The retail is cash and carry warehouse is a method suitable for smaller
companies. A current pass obtained from the warehouse is required in order to gain
access. This method also requires the user to have his own transport. Some cash
and carry organization requires a VAT number before they will issue an authorized
card. It is imported to remember there are added costs. Running the vehicle and
petrol used. The persons time for going to the warehouse
Cash and carry is often an impersonal way of buying, as there is no staff to
discuss quality and prices

STANDARD PURCHASING SPECIFICATION

Standard purchasing specifications are documents which are drawn up for


every commodity describing exactly what is required for establishment. These

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standard purchasing specification will assist with the formulation of standardize


recipes? A water light specification drawn up which, once approved, will refers to
every time the item is delivered. it is a statement of various criteria related to
quality, grade weight size and method of preparation. Other information given may
be variety, maturity, age color, shape etc. a copy of standard specification is often
given to the supplier and the store keeper who are left in no doubt as to what is
needed. These specifications assist in the costing and control procedure.
COST CONTROL
It is important to know the exact cost of each process as every item produced
so a system of cast analysis and cost information is essential.

THE ADVANTAGE OF AN EFFCIENT COSTING ARE


It discloses the net profit made by each section of the organization and
shows the cost of each meal produced.

It will reveal possible source of economy and can result in more effective use
of stores, labor, material etc.
Costing provides information necessary for the information necessary for the
information of Asian policy
Cost records provide and facilitate the speedy quotation for all special
functions. E.g. special parties, wedding reception etc.

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It enable the cater to keep a budget No one costing system will automatically
suit every catering business, but the following are the guidelines which may
be helpful
The co-operation of all departments is essential.
The costing system should be adapted to the business and not vice-versa. If
the accepted procedure in an establishment is altered to fit a costing system
then there us danger of causing reenactment among the staff and as a result
losing their cooperation. Clear instruction in writing must be given to staff,
who one require to keep records. The system must be made as simple as
possible so that the amount of clerical labor required is kept to minimum. An
efficient mechanical calculator or computer should be provided to save time
and labor. To calculate the total cost of these materials and ensure that an
advance is made for them under the heading of overheads.
FOOD COST AND OPERATIONAL CONTROL
A food is expensive efficient stock control levels are essential to help the
profitability of the business. The main difficulties of controlling food are follows:
Food prices frigates frequently because of inflation and fell in the demand
and supply through poor harvest, bad weather conditions etc.
Transport cost, rise which affects food companies and procedure cost
Changes in the amount demanded by the customer increased demand,
changes in taste and fashion influence demand from one product to another.

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Media focus on certain product which are labeled healthy or unhealthy will
affect the demand
Each establishment should device. As own control system to suit the needs
of that establishment

FACTORS WHICH AFFECTS A CONTROL SYSTRM ARE


Regular changes in the menu.
Menus with a large number of dishes.
Dishes with a large number of ingredients
Problems in assessing customers demand
Difficult in not adhering or to operate standardized recipes
Raw materials purchased in correctly
The menu remains constant
Standardized recipes and purchasing specification are used
The menu has a limited no: of dishes Stocktaking is therefore easier and
costing, more accurate. In order to take carry out a control system, food
stocks may be secure, refrigerators and deep freezers should be kept locked
portion controls must be accurate. A book keeping system must be
developed to monitor the daily operation.

THE CONTROL CYCLE OF DAILY OPERATION


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Purchasing
Receiving
Issuing
Preparing
Setting
PURCHASING
It is important to determine from the range of commodities in use which will
determine he unit costs yield testing indicates the number of items or portions
obtained and helps to provide the information required for producing, purchasing
and specification yield testing should not be confused with product testing which is
concerned with the physical properties of the food, texture, flavor, quality. Although
in reality test are frequently carried out which combine the objective.

RECEVING
Goods must be checked on delivery to make sure key meat the purchase
specification.
STORING AND ISSUING
Raw materials should be stored correctly under the right conditions
temperature etc, a method of pricing the material must be decided and one of the
following should be adopted for charging the food to the various department. The

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cost of them does not remain fixed over a period of time, a store items may well
have several prices. The establishment must decide which price to use
Which price to use
Actual purchase price
Simple average price
Weighted average price
Inflated price
Standard price
PREPARING
The important stage of the control cycle. The cost of food consumer depends
as a factor
The no of meal produced the cost per meal
Control the number to be catered for
Control the food per meal in advance of production and service by using a
system of pre-costing using standardized, recipes, indicating portion control

SALES AND VOLUME FORECASTING


This is a method of predicting the volume of sales for future period. In order
to be of practical value of forecast must:
Practice the total no: of covers
Predict the choice of menu items
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PRE-COSTING DISHES:
This method of costing is associated with standardized recipes, which gives
the total cost of the dish proportioned often with a selling price.

SUMMARY OF FACTORS, WHICH WILL AFFECT THE PRIFITABILITY OF ESTABLISHMENT

Over cooking food resulting in partialness


In efficient preparation of raw materials
Poor portion control
Too much wastage, in sufficient, use of raw materials, left over food not being
utilized
Theft
In accurate ordering procedure
No reference mark to standardized recipes and yield factors
Inadequate checking procedures
In sufficient research in to suppliers
Bad menu planning
In accurate fore casting

STORE KEEPING

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A clean, orderly food store ran efficiently is essential in any catering


establishment for the following reasons:
Stocks of good can be kept at a suitable level, so eliminating the risk
running out of any commodity
All food entering and leaving the stored can be properly checked, this
helps to prevent stage
An check can be kept on the percentage of p[profit of each of thee
department of the establishment

A WELL PLANED STORE SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOING FEATURES


It should be cool and should face the north so that it does not
have the sun shinning into it
It must be well ventilated, vermeils proof and free from dampers
It should be convenient position to receive goods being
delivered by suppliers and also in a suitable position to issue
goods to the various departments
A wash basin, soap, nailbrush and hand dryers must be
provided for staff, also a first aid box
A good standard hygiene is essential therefore wells and ceilings
should be free from cracks, and other painted and filled so has
to be easily cleaned. The floor should be free from cracks and

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easy to wash. The junction between the coal and floor should be
rounded to prevent the accumulation of dirt. A cleaning not a
should cleanly show daily, monthly and weekly cleaning task

SHELVES SHOULD BE EASILY TO CLEAN


Good listening both natural and artificial is very necessary
A counter should be provided to keep out UN authorized persons thus
reducing the risk of pilfering
The store keeper should be provided with a suitable desk
There should be well-arranged space with shelves of varying depths and
separate section for each type of food. These sections may include deep
freezer cabinets, cold rooms, and refrigerators, chill rooms, vegetable bin
and container stores. Space should be provided for empty containers.
Efficient easy to clean weighing machines for large and small scale should
be supplied
Store stall must wear clean overalls at all times and suitable shoes to help
prevent injuries if any heavy items is dropped on the feet
Steps to help stall reach good on high shelves and an appropriate trolley
should be provided

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STORE CONTAINER
Food delivered in filmy bags or containers should be transferred to suitable
store containers. These should be easy to wash and have light fitting lids. Glass or
plastic containers one suitable for many foods, such as spices and herbs as they
have the advantage of being transparent, therefore it is easy to see at glance how
much of the commodity is in stock. Bull dry goods should be stored in suitable bins
with tight fittings lids. These bins should have wheels, so that they can be easily
moved for cleaning. All bins should be clearly labeled and numbered.
Sacks or cases of commodities should not be entered on the floor; they
should be raised on boards so as to permit free circulation of air. Some goods
delivered in contains suitable for storage and these need not be transferred. Heavy
cases and jars should be stored at a convenient height to prevent any strain in
lifting

STORAGE POINTS
All old stock should be brought forwarded with each new delivery
commodities with strong small or favors should be stored as far away as possible
from those foods with readily absorbs smelling cheese should not be stored near
eggs.

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Bread should be kept in well ventilate container with a lid lack of ventilation
cases consideration and encourages moulds cakes and biscuits should be
stored in our tight tins
Stock must be inspected regularly particularly cereals and cereal products to
check for signs of mice of weevils
Timed goods should be unpacked inspected and stack on shelves. When
inspection tins, these points should be looked for.
Blown tins: this is where the ends of the tins bulge awing to the formation of
gas either by bacteria growing on the food by the food attacking the tinplate. All
blown tins should be thrown away as he contents may cause food poisoning
Dented tins: these should be used as soon as possible, not because the dent
is an indication of an inferior quality but because dented tins, if left, will rust and the
rusted tin will eventually puncture.
Storage life of tins varies considerably and depends mainly on how the
contents attack the internal coating of the tins, which may cords and lay bare the
steel.
Due to fewer preserving additives, may bottle foods now need to be
refrigerated once they are opened cleaning material often have a strong smell,
therefore key should be kept in separate store. Cleaning powder should never be
stored near food. Foods are divided in to two groups for the purpose of dry food
and perishable foods. Dry food includes: cereals, pulses, sugar, breads, jams,

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pickles and other bottle foods, canned foods, cleaning materials. Perishable food
includes most poultry, meat fish, dairy products, vegetable and fruits

THE STORE KEEPER


The essentials, which go to making of good storekeeper, are:
Experience
Knowledge of how to handle, care for and organize the stock, in which static
its needed.
A tidy mind and a souse of details
A quick group of figures
A clear hand writing
A liking for his or her job
Honest
There are many departments that draw supplies from these store-kitchen,
skill rooms, restaurant, grillroom, banqueting and floor service. A list of the
department should be give to the storekeeper, together with the signature of the
department heads or those who have the right to sign the requisites forms. All
registration must be handed so the storekeeper in time to allow the ordering and

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delivering of the goods appropriate days. Different color requisition may be used for
the various departments if desired.
DUTIES OF THE STORE-KEEPING
To keep a good standard of tidiness and cleanliness
To arrange proper storage space for incoming food stuffs
To keep up-to-date price list of all commodities
To ensure that an ample supply of all important food stuffs is always available
To check that all orders are correctly made out and dispatched in good-time
To check all incoming stores quantity, quality and price
To keep all delivery notes invoices, credit notes, receipts and statements
efficiently filled
To keep a daily issue of stores sheet
To keep a set of bin cards
To issue nothing with out receiving a signed chit in exchange
To check all stock at frequent intervals
To see that chargeable containers are properly kept returned and credited,
that is, all money
Charged for sacks boxes etc, deducted from account
To obtain the best value at the lowest buying price
To know when food are in and out of session

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To storekeeper maintains certain records, they are bin cards, store ledger
Book, order book, stock sheet
SECURITY DEPARTMENT
The security is not prerogative of any one person is an establishment;
all staff should be security minded and report anything of suspicious nature.
Staff should realize the necessity of not giving information regarding internal
matters to such persons as inquiring agents, newspaper reporters etc, most
large establishment have one or more security officers on their staff

to

percent crime and to protect guests and their staff from such dangerous as
thefts, bomb threat, fire or assault. In smaller hotels the responsibility for
security will be the managers and in other establishment will be the manager
equivalent. The security officer often and ex policeman, keeps in touch with
security officers and much information gained is shamed among them. He
ensured that the necessary measures are carried out. The security officers
mores inconspicuously among the guest and is responsible for arrangement
regarding.
Suspicious person or behavior
Keys
Electronic locks and window locks
Bomb threats
Fire precaution and the elevation of the building if necessary

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Inspection, tours of building of check for security hazards


Suspicious objects
Closed TV for identification of persons
Contractors and casual staff entering the building
Searching of bags and body
Lost property
Investigation of reports of guest losses
Provision of safety deposits boxes in guest room and peep holes in the
doors
The safe guard of money when large amounts are being moved from place to
place for e.g. to and from the bank. The security officer may or may not also being
the safety officer and so may or many not be responsible for the safety precautions.
Entrance halls of all establishments are vulnerable places. In hotel there can
at certain times be many people about thieves and terrorist may take advantage of
these, example picking unguarded articles are taking the opportunity of getting
further in to the building, in small hotels the entrance hall is often not manned and
unless the door any one may entered the time keeper keeps an eye on the back
door and the staff comings and goings and at times any inspect parcel and cases
according to house customer.

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CHAPTER 11
PROBLEMS
AND
SOLUTION

PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS


Front office

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Problems
Running short of barouches and traffic card
No adequate staff
Lack of knowledge of foreign language
The situation of bell desk. The bellboy cannot see the guest arriving at
the hotel with baggage.

Suggestions

The management should take car to provide adequate number of


barouches
The management should employee more staff for a smooth functioning of
the department.
Since the large number of clients are foreigners, the front office staff
should be fluent in language like French German etc.

House keeping
Problems
Lack of qualified staff

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Staff allocation not done properly


Guest laundry often gets delayed
Pest control insufficient

Suggestions

The hotel must be recruit qualified staff, thus preventing delay in service
As guest laundry gets delayed
Spraying and fumigation should be done often

Food and beverage production

Problem
Kitchen stewarding not functioning properly
Running short of utility workers
No proper garbage removal
Lack of knives and peelers

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Suggestions

Pot washing should be given more importance as it delayed in the


preparation
More utility workers to be recruit
Removal garbage should be done frequently to avoid bacteria infection.
Adequate number of knives and peelers should be provided.
Pest control, strict measure to be taken

Food and beverage services


Problem
Lack of staff
Shortage of cutlery and cookery
Poor grooming standard of staff

Suggestions

Recruit qualified staff for better service

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Adequate supply of cutlery and crockery should be made available


Grooming should be up to standard

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CHAPTER-12
CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

To mainly conclude the summary of the working of the hotel. THE UDAY
SAMUDRA BEACH HOTEL, KOVALAM, various fact and figures and
procedures were discussed in detail. This report mainly gives you the detailed
information about the working condition and the various systems of all the
department in the hotel. To start up with the introduction to travel tourism and
hospitality, the history on the tourism as well as the hospitality industry were
maintained. The tourism of India and the new development that were made in it
were clearly discussed. The clear picture of Trivandrum city was taken into
consideration.
Secondly, the aims and objectives methodology and limitations.
The main aim was given for the study of various working procedure of each
department in hotel.
Coming next to the introduction of . THE UDAY SAMUDRA , ITS PROFILE
objectives information about the hotel THE UDAY SAMUDRA BEACH,
KOVALAM and its different department like the Front of the house and Back of
the house and brief introduction of Trivandrum was also given.

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Then coming on the Front Office Department, its procedure and systems such
as reservation, billing telephone department, bell desk, their hierarchy and the
layout is clearly mentioned.
Then comes to housekeeping department, which includes cleaning
procedures, their control on keys and the up keeping, its function laundry, linen
room and their function and hierarchy are mentioned clearly.
Coming to the food and beverage services include layout, each outlets, mode
of functioning of restaurant and bar, their operation, requisition, billing
procedure, table reservation, the bar requisition. All these were taken into
consideration and discussed carefully and their hierarchy and layout are
procedure.
Food and beverage production department covers the detailed description
of each outlet how the KOT is handled, requisition are made, procedure of
handling the food, preservation etc. are taken into consideration, their hierarchy
and their layout is clearly mentioned.

Next comes the, allied department which gives the information about the
processing of complaints, preventive measure, the register maintained and their
hierarchy are clearly mentioned. Thus to conclude this project, the smooth and
efficient running of THE UDAY SAMUDRA BEACH HOTEL, KOVALAM, is
mainly because of the well trained well groomed staff and good management
and good co-ordination between the departments
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ANNEXURES

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