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Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Rosa Parks
You can run this if the opponent makes any theory argument.
What youre saying is that the best way to instigate actual
change to solve an issue is to show that the issue causes real
pain/suffering/unfairness by unfairly voting down the team
that presented the theory.
You should run the low risk version if you plan to make
additional arguments on the theory, or the high risk version if
youre only presenting this turn. The high risk version is
dangerous because you explicitly concede the theory, which
means you have to win this argument. At the same time, this is
the only way you can truly win the whole debate on this
turn, as otherwise the other team can just stop advocating
whatever the theory was.
You can run it on the aff or the neg, but its a lot more
conducive to the aff because you can put the shell in the 2AC,
and use the 1AR to develop the position, whereas the earliest
the neg can break this out is the block, which means you may
end up reading evidence in the 2NR (iffy).
Obviously do not read your own theory when reading this
argument.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Table of Contents
Rosa Parks.......................................................................................................................................................................1
Shell................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
High Risk...................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Low Risk........................................................................................................................................................................5
O/V / Extension................................................................................................................................................................6
High Risk...................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Low Risk........................................................................................................................................................................8
AT Fairness.......................................................................................................................................................................9
Fairness Solvency Turns..............................................................................................................................................10
Solvency........................................................................................................................................................................14
AT: Martyrdom doesnt solve Gen...........................................................................................................................15
AT: We Solve Too......................................................................................................................................................17
AT: I Have to want to do it for it to work.................................................................................................................18
AT: Cant Change Anything.....................................................................................................................................21
AT: Offense.....................................................................................................................................................................23
AT: Leads to perpetual Sacrifice / Martyrdom.........................................................................................................24
AT: Martyrdom / Sacrifice Intrinsically Bad.............................................................................................................25
AT: Death Bad..........................................................................................................................................................26
AT: Your Argument is Islamic Funamentalism.........................................................................................................29
AT: Metaphors Bad..................................................................................................................................................30
Other Answers...............................................................................................................................................................32
AT: Were Dropping the Theory...............................................................................................................................33
AT: Fear of Death........................................................................................................................................................34
AT: Martyr Somebody Else......................................................................................................................................35

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Shell

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

High Risk
Martyr my opponent.
We concede the entire theory argument except for the
solvency mechanism - vote him down so we can legitimately
solve them by spurning action.
Ruth Wedgwood; Yale Law School 1-1-1990; The Revolutionary Martyrdom of Jonathan Robbins
examine our early self-conception, as revolutionary beacon or conservative
through the lens of the law concerning political extradition, in particular, the case of Jonathan
Robbins in 1799 and 1800, leader of a rebellion on an English ship in the midst of the
Napoleonic wars. Hung in chains for his part in the shipboard mutiny, surrendered to
This Article proposes to
actor,

British military justice despite his last moment claim that he was an American impressed into the British navy,
Jonathan Robbins provoked a pitched battle among Americans. Attitudes toward
revolution and resistance may be set by varying judgment whether rebellion's violence and disorder can be

Robbins gave stridor and alarm. He was the American


He was also the seaborne Jacobin, claiming
liberty as excuse for the pointless slaughter of a wardroom of ship's officers. All seemed
controlled and contained. By that measure,

regaining his freedom by force used in self-defense.

unhinged by the fears of the 1790's. Though independence was confirmed by the peace of 1783, and
Massachusetts agrarian unrest met by the strengthened Constit ution of 1787, ratification of the infant text was
succeeded by ideological innuendo and dread of seditious faction. Anglo-Federalists and Francophile Republicans
worried in suspicion that European violence and ideological fever might sweep over America, and unsettle tentative
constitutional compromise with leveling or monarchial extremes.

The crescendo of the Jonathan

Robbins affair was built upon the fears attending a decade's dissidence-citizen Genet
appealing to the people to resist. Washington's declaration of neutrality, western Pennsylvania
farmer-soldiers marching in resistance to federal taxation in the Whiskey Rebellion, eastern Pennsylvania farmers
violently disputing taxes in Fries Rebellion, the blandishment of Republican voices seeking alliance with
revolutionary France in war against the European powers, High Federalists seeking alliance with England in war
against the French. A reconstruction of the battle waged in 1799 and 1800 over Jonathan Robbins should dispel any
notion that the Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention settled the proper balance of forms of

[A] constitution's line of march is set in a few grand


moments which recast its order and direction. We may instead conclude that a
government. Some have suggested that

constitution, established so little by text, must be seen as constantly re-created by practice and politics, with
unwritten amendments threatened at frequent junctures.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Martyr my opponent.

Low Risk

Double bind
A. If his theory objection is false, then you shouldnt vote
us down
B. If his theory objection is legitimate, vote him down so
we can legitimately solve them by spurning action.
Ruth Wedgwood; Yale Law School 1-1-1990; The Revolutionary Martyrdom of Jonathan Robbins
examine our early self-conception, as revolutionary beacon or
conservative actor, through the lens of the law concerning political extradition, in particular, the
case of Jonathan Robbins in 1799 and 1800, leader of a rebellion on an
English ship in the midst of the Napoleonic wars. Hung in chains for his part in the
shipboard mutiny, surrendered to British military justice despite his last moment claim that he
was an American impressed into the British navy, Jonathan Robbins provoked a pitched
battle among Americans. Attitudes toward revolution and resistance may be set by varying
This Article proposes to

judgment whether rebellion's violence and disorder can be controlled and contained. By that measure,

Robbins gave stridor and alarm. He was the American regaining his freedom by force
used in self-defense. He was also the seaborne Jacobin, claiming liberty as excuse
for the pointless slaughter of a wardroom of ship's officers. All seemed unhinged by the

fears of the 1790's. Though independence was confirmed by the peace of 1783, and Massachusetts
agrarian unrest met by the strengthened Constitution of 1787, ratification of the infant text was succeeded
by ideological innuendo and dread of seditious faction. Anglo-Federalists and Francophile Republicans
worried in suspicion that European violence and ideological fever might sweep over America, and unsettle
tentative constitutional compromise with leveling or monarchial extremes.
Jonathan

Robbins affair was built upon the fears

The crescendo of the

attending a decade's dissidence-citizen

Genet appealing to the people to resist. Washington's declaration of neutrality, western


Pennsylvania farmer-soldiers marching in resistance to federal taxation in the Whiskey Rebellion, eastern
Pennsylvania farmers violently disputing taxes in Fries Rebellion, the blandishment of Republican voices
seeking alliance with revolutionary France in war against the European powers, High Federalists seeking
alliance with England in war against the French. A reconstruction of the battle waged in 1799 and 1800
over Jonathan Robbins should dispel any notion that the Great Compromise of the Constitutional

[A]
line of march is set in a few grand moments which recast its
order and direction. We may instead conclude that a constitution, established so little by text,
Convention settled the proper balance of forms of government. Some have suggested that
constitution's

must be seen as constantly re-created by practice and politics, with unwritten amendments threatened at
frequent junctures.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

O/V / Extension

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

High Risk

Extend the martyrdom turn weve conceded the entirety of


the original theory shell with the exception of their solvency
mechanism, and contend that the best way to address the
problem is by creating a martyr, who is symbolically rejected
by an overlord like the judge. The unfairness of this action
provides a point of community and mutual indignation behind
which the debate community at large can rally to substantiate
real change over the issue.
This debate will come down to solvency differentials even if
they win 100% chance of solvency for their original
mechanism, there still exists the burden to place an offensive
reason to NOT martyr the Wedgewood evidence will always
prove that martyrdom is the better and more encompassing
option absent an independent criticism.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Low Risk

Extend the double bind even if they win the entire theory
debate, well always have the better solvency advocate the
Wedgewood evidence proves that providing an unfairly treated
martyr for the populace to rally behind under the shield of
community and mutual indignation is the best way to address
an issue.
This debate will come down to solvency differentials even if
they win 100% chance of solvency for their original
mechanism, there still exists the burden to place an offensive
reason to NOT martyr the Wedgewood evidence will always
prove that martyrdom is the better and more encompassing
option absent an independent criticism.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT Fairness

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Fairness Solvency Turns

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

10

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


Three answers to fairness with respect to solvency 1.

The goal of any theoretical argument is to reach a


resolution that best alleviates an unfair condition in
debate. If I win that Martyrdom spurns real change in the
real world, youll vote for me because my solvency will
always outweigh whatever the offense from the original
theory objection is.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

11

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


2.

Its cruel treatment like martyrdom and inequity that


allows for rebellion, which in turn allows for change. This
is a terminal solvency takeout to all of their internal links
to fairness - we have to epitomize cruelty to instigate real
fairness.
Ruth Wedgwood; Yale Law School 1-1-1990; The Revolutionary Martyrdom of Jonathan Robbins
The Robbins imbroglio began with a rebellion on His Majesty's armed frigate Hermione
The mutiny of September 22, 1797, was notorious to later British naval historians for the
tyranny of the captain whose command was overthrown, and the excessive
violence of the mutineers.' British naval historians are not inclined to endorse a right of revolution in the

the
uprising was near excusable, had the rebels not consumed so many helpless victims.7 The
governance of ships, yet the abject condition of the Hermione sailors led one chronicler to suggest

Hermione was a 32 gun frigate assigned to the British West Indies command under Vice Admiral Hyde
Parker, fighting revolutionary France and her Spanish ally Charles IV. Hugh Pigot, captain of the Hermione
since February 1797, had some virtues of a daring commander. In one foray on April 20, 1797, Pigot
commanded five British ships to Port-au-Paix, Haiti, ran mannedboats into the harbor under darkness while
continuing with his squadron offshore to distract the French, and successfully seized nine French vesselsone ship, three brigs, three schooners, and two sloops. In his official letter to the Admiralty describing this
success, Pigot omitted the names of the officers and men present on the adventure, an omission regretted

Pigot's shipboard
discipline was seen as harsh and highly arbitrary. In a prior
command he went so far as to flog the captain of an American
merchantman, William Jessup, for disputing his right to visit and search, for which Pigot was
questioned by the Admiralty.9 In the fatal incident on the Hermione, according to Brenton, Pigot
ordered his sailors down from the mizzen-topsailyard and
threatened to flog the slowest. The day after[wards] the lubbers were
dispatched, the crew mutinied, wounding Captain Pigot on deck with a tomahawk and following
by later naval commentators and harbinger of his disregard for his crew.8

him below in a foursome. Pigot was bayoneted in his cabin and flung through a porthole into the sea. The
crew also killed three lieutenants, the purser, the ship's doctor, a clerk, a midshipman, the boatswain, and
a lieutenant of marines, some of whom were unlikely opponents lacking involvement in Pigot's excesses as
captain. The mutineers, said a nineteenth century commentator, acted "in a most cruel and savage
manner, dragging [victims] from their beds, cutting and hacking them with tomahawks and other weapons,
and thrusting many overboard whilst yet alive."11 The sailors took the Hermione into the port of La Guaira,
in the Spanish Main, now Venezuela, and turned her over to Spanish officials in exchange for a pledge not
to return them to the British. In a report of the local Spanish governor, the mutineers were said to have
declared they rebelled from the "Necessity of liberating themselves from the severe treatment and
chastisement which they met with from the Captain and certain of the Officers."12 The British fleet was
already unsettled, with other recent mutinies in the fleets at Spithead and the Nore.'3 Loss of the
Hermione to the Spanish antagonist was especially galling to the British, yet more so when she was
renamed Santa Cecilia and became a highly successful privateer, attacking British merchant shipping
throughout the Caribbean. For the next two years Britain tried to recover the ship and finally did so in a
chancy harbor assault by the frigate Surprise, for which Edward Hamilton was knighted and painted into a

The violence of the Hermione mutiny, wished-for


led the
British Admiralty to hunt down Hermione sailors without remission.
mural in Greenwich Hospital, London. 4

deterrence against further unrest, and the disloyal surrender of the ship to the Spanish enemy

Brenton reports that "Justice speedily overtook them; many were captured in Spanish vessels, or
recognized in English ones, and brought to trial. The Author witnessed the execution of some at
Portsmouth, others were hanged in the ports of St. Domingo, and the remains of many are suspended on
gibbets erected on the sandy keep at the entrance of Port Royal harbour in the island of Jamaica."' 5 Upon
her recapture, the Hermione became the Retribution .16 The United States was drawn
into the Hermione affair by the wanderings of the crew into United States ports, 7 and this is the subject of
our essay. In March 1798, three crew members from the Hermione, including one William Brigstock, were
to be arrested in Perth Amboy harbor in New Jersey, tried for piracy in an American federal circuit court
before Justice Samuel Chase, and acquitted. Partisanship and national self-regard did not weigh so heavily
on this first incident, perhaps because it was over quickly and dispatched liberally by the jury. In February
1799 another man alleged to be a Hermione sailor was arrested in Charleston, South Carolina (the largest
American port in the South) from on board an American ship, the Tanner's Delight. He used the name of
Nathan or Jonathan Robbins, but was alleged to be Thomas Nash, the bosun's mate of the Hermione. The
decision to return Robbins to British military justice led to a legal and political contretemps in which
12
Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


Republicans denounced the monarchial tendencies of Federalists and overweening Executive power, while
Federalists saw proof of the dangerous zeal of democratic Republicans.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

13

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


3.

Martyrdom is uniquely useful and occupies a supreme role


in the arsenal of the subjugated, as my opponent claims
to be. You need it to actually garner change to solve their
theoretical outcries.
Journey of Death: Suicide Bombers in Iraq; By Christina Caan, July 2007
suicide bombings in Iraq exhibit three unique and
features. First, insurgents have historically tended to turn to
suicide attacks when conventional tactics fail. The attacks in Iraq, however, have
According to Hafezs research,
puzzling

not followed this pattern, as the insurgents have engaged in suicide bombings since they began their
campaign in 2003. Moreover, not only are suicide attacks being perpetrated, but Hafez also claimed that

there has been a distinct upward trend in the use of this deadly
tactic. Consequentially, Hafez noted that, "today, Iraq has become the leading nation in which suicide

attacks take place." Second, although suicide bombings in other countries typically target foreign soldiers
or nonMuslims, this has not been the case in Iraq. The main targets of the suicide attacks are not the
multinational forces or U.S. troops. Instead, the primary targets of such attacks are the Iraqi security
forces, particularly the police, and the Shiite community in general. The third puzzling aspect of these
attacks, and the central focus of Hafezs research, is that foreigners are perpetrating most of the suicide
attacks. Although the insurgency is undoubtedly centrally composed of and led by Iraqis, Hafezs research
shows that the majority of suicide bombers come from countries such as Saudi Arabia, Algeria, and Tunisia.
Eight have even come from Italy. For Hafez, this phenomenon, which he has termed, "martyrs without
borders," is one of the most troubling and perplexing aspects of the suicide attacks in Iraq. Tom Ricks
added that there are two distinct types of foreigners flocking to Iraq to participate in suicide missions. The
first are non-commissioned officers or young officers, expelled from their own countries because of their
extremist beliefs and agendas. These individuals have important skills and experiences that terrorist
groups in Iraq are quick to utilize. Such individuals are generally not used to execute suicide missions but
instead help plan, organize and coordinate them. While these individuals typically become assets for
terrorist organizations, the second type of individual, which Ricks described as the "young, eager jihadi," is
not received with the same enthusiasm. Groups like al-Qaeda, who have an acute fear of spies, meet these
individuals with suspicion and mistrust. Because of this, these individuals are quickly isolated from the
community and almost immediately sent out to perpetrate suicide missions. In all, the puzzling features of
the suicide bombers in Iraq add up to reveal the birth of a third generation of jihadis. The first generation,
according to Hafez, participated in the Afghan campaign against the Soviets, and the second generation

This third generation, however, is unique in


many ways. Not only are many of them educated, including doctors,
engineers, and lawyers [martyr themselves], but their actions are
based on the template developed in Palestine and Lebanona template that venerate
martyrdom as a heroic action to be taken against any occupying
force. For this generation, suicide bombing is thus not necessarily a last
resort; it is an effective weapon and the duty of the faithful.
included those who trained with alQaeda in the 1990s.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

14

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Solvency

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

15

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Martyrdom doesnt solve Gen.


Elevation
The chance to be elevated to martyred status is immensely
motivating, and creates unparalleled impetus to societal
activism. It solves for any issue!
Odon, Christina. "The Power of Martyrdom." New Statesman. N.p., 29 Mar. 2004. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
Ziauddin Sardar, author of several studies of Islam, agrees: " The religious

notion of martyrdom is
connected to the jihad, or struggle against oppression. Nowadays, when the jihad is the
name given to the political struggle of the Palestinians, martyrdom is no longer only a
religious concept but a political one as well." Thus the martyrs of the jihad, ever since the
first suicide bombers attacked the US base in Lebanon in 1983, straddle the worlds of Allah and Arafat. " They
accuse us of being terrorists," said Sheikh Ibrahim Mudeiris in his Friday sermon at the Sheikh 'Ijlin
Mosque in Gaza, broadcast by Palestinian Authority Television. "Terrorists, because when the
Palestinian mother welcomes her martyred son, she wishes to receive him
as a corpse. She does not want him to be alive." Within hours of the assassination of
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Yasser Arafat hailed the killing as " a unifying death". He was
echoing the Christian tradition of canonisation - elevating ordinary humans to
the status of saint or martyr - which has gained new impetus under Pope John Paul II, who has canonised
more saints during his reign than all the previous popes together. What the leaders of the Catholic Church and
the PLO are determined to tap into is the emotional energy that drives the
ordinary to become extraordinary. Show a people that any one among
them may be selected for a special challenge, and awarded a special
status, and they will be galvanised into heroism. And united in the
recognition that their collective has glorious potential.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

16

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


Immolation
Arab-Spring and self-immolation prove the efficacy of
martyrdom at spurning activism. It certainly solves better than
voting me down on their theory.
Farrell, Bryan. "Self-immolation and the Power of Self-sacrifice." Waging Nonviolence Selfimmolation and the
Power of Selfsacrifice Comments. N.p., 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
Since Mohamed Bouazizi set fire to himself last monthinspiring a national
uprising in Tunisianearly two dozen attempted self-immolations have been
reported across the Arab world, three of them fatal. It is believed that most were
political acts committed by people suffering from economic despair and
political oppression, leaving many Arab leaders fearful that further uprisings may follow. This raises
important questions about the dynamics of self-immolation and whether it is not only a legitimate
form of protest, but also a strategic form of resistance .

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

17

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: We Solve Too

1.

My opponents impacts are inevitable absent martyrdom


only progress that is subordinated to sacrifice can solve
Bataille 67 (Georges, General Economist, The Accursed Share: An Essay on the General Economy
vol. 1 consumption, 1967, Zone Books, translated Robert Hurley p.25-26)

the extension of economic growth itself


requires the overturning of economic principles - the overturning of the ethics that
grounds them. Changing from the perspectives of restrictive economy to
those of general economy actually accomplishes a Copernican
transformation: a reversal of thinking- and of ethics. If a part of
wealth (subject to a rough estimate) is doomed to destruction or at least to unproductive
use without any possible profit, it is logical, even inescapable, to surrender
commodities without return. Henceforth, leaving aside pure and simple dissipation,
analogous to the construction of the Pyramids, the possibility of pursuing growth is
itself subordinated to giving: The industrial development of the
entire world demands of Americans that they lucidly grasp the necessity, for an
economy such as theirs, of having a margin of profitless operations. An
immense industrial network cannot be managed in the same way
that one changes a tire.... It expresses a circuit of cosmic energy on
which it depends, which it cannot limit, and whose laws it cannot
ignore without consequences. Woe to those who, to the very end,
insist on regulating the movement that exceeds them with the
narrow mind of the mechanic who changes a tire.
I will simply state, without waiting further, that

2.

Extend Wedgewood 90 even if s/he solves 100% I solve


better, my opponent has failed to read an offensive
reason not to martyr him/her.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

18

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: I Have to want to do it for it to


work

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

19

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


FL
1.

This is totally wrong. Extend Wedgewood 90, Jonathan


Roberts never wanted to be martyred and yet he spurned
a huge amount of political turmoil reform in the early
American era.

There are five requirements to effective martyrdom, none


of which are volition; star this card, its brilliant and
precise in its application to the martyrdom of my
opponent
Farrell, Bryan. "Self-immolation and the Power of Self-sacrifice." Waging Nonviolence Selfimmolation and
the Power of Selfsacrifice Comments. N.p., 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
2.

Lets take the case of a fast unto death, because Gandhi did accept and actually practice it, as we know, to

that there are five rules


for such a drastic act, some of which might be met by the contemporary self-immolaters: You
must be the man or woman for the job, i.e., really in possession of your
will to live. Gandhi and the monks of Vietnam qualify. I doubt most of the imitators of Mohamed Bouazizi
do. The audience you intend to reach must be a lover, in Gandhis language: someone
who has enough of a bond with you to be moved. I doubt this obtains in our case now. It
must be a last resort. I dont think other means have been exhausted here. The demand
you are making on the opponent must be doable. I worry about the vagueness of
good effect (thats an understatement!). What people rarely realize is

what the contemporary martyrs are protesting. Bouazizi and the Korean farmer who killed himself at the World
Trade Organization meeting in 2003 were simply at their wits end and could not go on living.

It must be

consistent with the rest of the campaign, or movement.

In other words, the Irish fasters


in Long Kesh prison, some of whom did give up their lives, more or less threw away the gesture because the
rest of the revolt was not at all nonviolent at that time.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

20

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


Brian 11 Extension
The Brian 11 Card has been a source of some controversy.
Heres the argument:
Effective Martyrdom is five things:
1. Being the right person for the job my opponent is, hes
voiced these complaints and is actively affected by the
subject at hand
2. The audience must have a significant link to the subject
the audience for this martyrdom is the debate community,
they are by necessity linked to the subject at hand
3. It must be a last resort this debate has been happening
for years with no forward momentum also refer back to
the double bind set up in the first speech
4. The demands must be doable the theory objections
made by my opponent arent totally unreasonable and no
one ever said they were
5. It must be consistent with the rest of the campaign this
is necessarily true because were martyring my opponent
for his whole campaign were hoping to actually incite
all of the theoretical changes he proposes.
This card is literally round winning. If I win this card, and I
have been winning it for the whole debate, and even a 1%
chance of solvency, then you vote for us. Be Wedgewoods
British Navy, the force of oppression great enough to instigate
real change in debate at large.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

21

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Cant Change Anything

Sacrifice ideologically restructures dominant hierarchies their


attacks on martyrdom cannot fathom the true nature of the
sacrificial act. Star this card, it captures the emotional sway
that makes dropping my opponent so potent an idea.
Goldhammer 5 - Ph.D. in political science from the University of California, Berkeley (Jesse, The
Headless Republic, pg 179-181)[rkezios]
Because the obelisk is like an authoritative pile driven into a foundational swamp filled with sacrificial blood, it
cannot return to the French what they, in a fit of revolutionary fervor, destroyed. In the Place de la Concorde,
spatially speaking, an empty notion of authority surrounds a traditionally elevated one. As Denis Holier writes,
"Bataille's Place de la Concorde ... is the place where loss is incarnate embodied in a man who identifies himself by

The headless man, Acephalus, rises up where the guillotine let in the
freezing gales of empty space."' Holier's observation reveals Bataille's agreement with Maistre: the
his lack.

regicide was a profoundly evil act, which Maistre lamented and Bataille celebrated. Rather than auguring the return
of God, as Maistre had hoped, the regicide killed him, leaving in his place an absence so complete that it forbids the

destruction without recompense: such is


the fruit of the regicide and the basis for Bataille's concept of sacrificial
violence. The regicide does not make way for the obelisk, which
represents none other than the next generation's sovereign intentions.
Rather, the regicide calls into question any future claim to authority ,
accumulation of transcendental power. Negativity or

leaving the Place

de la Concorde to represent not a place of peace, but rather one of permanent disorientation and subversion. Somewhere under the obelisk remain the impression of the guillotine and the blood of the king. Informing Bataille's novel
interpretation of the regicide, antipathy toward morality, and subversion of power indeed, his attitude toward politics in to lo is a trenchant rejection of idealism. He rejects all traditions of thought that value the ideal or elevated
over the material or base. One of his most eloquent critiques of idealism appears in an early essay in which Bataille argues that the big toe is "the most human part of the body." Using the big toe as a metaphor for seductive
baseness, Bataille explains that human beings reject aspects of their uniqueness when they celebrate all that is noble and pure in the hope of masking all that is low and impure: Although within the body blood flows in equal
quantities from high to low and from low to high, there is a bias in favor of that which elevates itself, and human life is erroneously seen as an elevation Human life entails, in fact, the rage of seeing oneself as a back and forth
movement from refuse to the ideal, and from the ideal to refuse a rage that is easily directed against an organ as base as the foot. 'O Bataille uses the image of the big toe to criticize the metaphysics of elevation. Humans err in
their belief that humanity is uniquely an ideal achievement. Idealism is reason's attempt to hide the truth about being human from human beings. This error led human beings to demonize the very part of their bodies that Bataille
argues is the most human, an exercise in self loathing. Without the "grotesque" big toe, humans could not stand erect, nor could they differentiate themselves from beasts. This observation recalls Maistre's claim that the greatest
human achievements are mired in the worst. Bataille's celebration of the big toe is a reminder that what it means to be human is inescapably deformed, dirty, base, immoral, material, and incapable of rational thought. At the same
time, however, Bataille does not seek to elevate the big toe to a higher status. Its value consists paradoxically in its abjectness. Like the regicide, the big toe symbolizes a permanent destabilization of the boundaries established by
idealistic thought. When the former royal executioner Sanson guillotined the king, neither monarchists nor republicans imagined that the sacrifice would be a permanently destabilizing loss. Both the Roman and Christian sacrificial
traditions instructed otherwise. During the Revolution, the examples of Brutus and Jesus illustrated that different forms of sacrificial violence could be used to destroy as well as create authority. In the minds of the revolutionaries,
and then later in the writings of Maistre and Sorel, the concept of sacrificial violence became inextricably linked to the formation of both political and spiritual communities bound together by traditionally elevated notions of power.
Sacrifice accomplished this remarkable task by skillfully manipulating the sacred categories that structure people's perceptions of authority. Impurity and purity, sin and redemption, moral decadence and regeneration these are the
dueling sacred polarities altered by sacrificial bloodshed in the French discourse. Sacrifice negotiates be tween these terms by fostering different forms of exchange. Kill the king, the revolutionaries believed, and the republic would
be purified. Embracing a similar logic, Maistre claimed that the Terror would punitively cleanse the French of their secular hubris. More than a hundred years later, Sorel argued that proletarian martyrs would regenerate working class
morality saving in the religious sense of the word French society from bourgeois decadence. In all three cases, the sacrificial death of one human being generated new social bonds by neutralizing and reconfiguring the sacred bases
of the old ones. Sacrificial loss thus came to be associated with the creation of new morality, new authority, and new political regimes. Sacrificial Innovation in the Work of Bataille Bataille's interpretation of the regicide as a sacrifice
that cannot recover what it has lost presents a radical challenge to the Roman and Christian sacrificial traditions as well as to their incorporation into the French discourse on sacrificial violence.

Unrecoverable sacrificial loss is a violent operation that only wastes . In


producing nothing useful, sacrifice subverts all idealistic distinctions.
Stripped of idealism, Brutus' filicide and Jesus' crucifixion can no longer
participate in the task of foundation because sacrifice loses its ability to
produce popular authority or redemption. In order for authority to be legitimate or for

redemption to cleanse bodies or souls, the sacrificial operation must be capable of establishing stable, hierarchical
boundaries between sacred polarities. Cathartic, expiatory, and redemptive exchange permits this delimitation to
take place because violent loss is balanccd against some kind of psychological, spiritual, or moral gain. However,
regicide that does not recover something from the violent destruction of the king that does not make sacred in a
particular way is useless. In this way,

Bataillian sacrifice permits no establishment, no


obelisk, no higher source of power or authority, because it is a total loss
without sacred exchange. It has no capacity to establish order, as, for
instance, between sacrilegious and divine bloodshed, or between force
and violence. It can neither recover, nor make useful, the pure sacred
authority of the king. Only if conceived in ideal and compensatory terms
can the collective taking of a life delineate between high and low, pure
and impure. If the desire to practice the art of politics were compared to
the myth of Icarus,a favorite of Bataille's, then sacrifice would correspond
to the sun's blinding, wasted energy, which melted Icarus' wings,
reminding all human beings of the fragility of their activities and their
existence. Bataillian sacrifice challenges human beings to confront and
test the limits of their being, without ever allowing for the
Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

22

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reestablishment of order. It is a violent and ecstatic state of permanent
alternation between purity and impurity With no finality, no conservation,
and no reserve, Bataille's concept of sacrifice reflects not just a critique of idealism but also, more
specifically, of Hegelian dialectics. Bataille attended A.lexandre Kojve's lectures on Hegel during which Kojve
famously declared history to be over. Bataille's confrontation with Hegelian philosophy left him feeling "suffocated,
crushed, shattered, killed ten times over."" If history was over, what was left to do? In a letter to Kojve, Bataille
wondered what it meant to act freely in such a condition: "If action ("doing") isas Hegel says negativity, the
question arises as to whether the negativity of one who has 'nothing more to do' disappears or remains in a state of
'unemployed negativity' Personally I can only decide in one way, being myself precisely this 'unemployed
negativity' (I would not be able to define myself more precisely). ,12

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

23

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Offense

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

24

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Leads to perpetual Sacrifice /


Martyrdom
Nope, it doesnt. My revolution is a one-off, were trying to fix
something, not recategoricize society.
Ruth Wedgwood; Yale Law School 1-1-1990; The Revolutionary Martyrdom of Jonathan Robbins

The last scene is the hardest to write, in drama and in revolution. Once political actors
spurn existing allegiances, anxiety must attend. How is the revolution to close, consolidate itself and begin the
normal tasks of governance? What regime of law can succeed pure politics? One way to examine these problems is

When the
American War for Independence was completed and peace restored, did
we see ourselves still as a revolutionary people, favoring structures of governance that
would amplify popular voice andsustain resistance against authority, championing rebellion abroad
and at home against any undemocratic form? [no.] Or did we regard
ourselves in a more conservative mien, aloof from continuing challenge,
seeing the revolution as one round only and returning to a classical ideal
of government in which balance should quell upheaval, seeking our place
in a settled family of nations and favoring forms of domestic governance
that would enforce our commercial and public obligations under the law of
nations.
in our own past, in the attitudes of our founding revolutionaries toward continuing insurgency.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

25

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Martyrdom / Sacrifice


Intrinsically Bad
This is the result of a narrow view of the thing; we have to
view sacrifice in light of its non-violent and productive
repercussions, and my opponents indict is close-minded
Farrell, Bryan. "Self-immolation and the Power of Self-sacrifice." Waging Nonviolence Selfimmolation and the
Power of Selfsacrifice Comments. N.p., 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.

where suicide does have a powerful political impact, as in Tunisia, it is


tough for advocates of nonviolence to relate. But there are important
lessons to be learned, as Nagler explained.
We should take from the act the courage and self-sacrifice it implies
without thinking to imitate it directly in the same form. We progressives (or
whatever we are) often make this mistake: to focus on tactics without
understanding their underlying dynamic This is an opportunity to get
some nonviolent principles before the eyes of the public, who badly need to
know that nonviolence is not some hapless, hit-or-miss action but a
science with discernible principles we can all learn to use much better
than we do at present.
In the case

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

26

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Death Bad

1.

Were not killing anyone, were going to symbolically


sacrifice my opponent to solve his issues. Make him prove
a direct link between losing this debate round, human
mortality, and the evidence s/he read.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

27

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


2.

If youre not buying that, there is no empirical basis that


renders death a bad thing we should instead adapt to
its everyday presence within our lives via martyring my
opponent
Bronfen 2K (Elisabeth Bronfen, Professor of English and American Studies at the University of Zurich,
The Limits of Death: Between Philosophy and Psychoanalysis, 2000, p. XX, Google Books)
Speaking of the aesthetic rendition of death thus ultimately brings into play the issue of misrepresentation,

'death' is always culturally


constructed and performed within a given historically specific philosophical and anthropological
discourse on mortality, resurrection and immortality. Since death
lies outside any living subject's personal or collective realm of experience, this
'death' can only be rendered as an idea, not something known as a
for the paradox inherent in representations of death is that this

bodily sensation. This idea, furthermore, involves imagery not directly belonging to it, so that it is always
figural, the privileged trope for other values. Placed beyond the register of what the living subject can

'death' can only be read as a signifier with an incessantly receding, ungraspable


Death remains outside clear
categories. It is nowhere because it is only a gap, a cut, a transition between the living
body and the corpse, a before (the painful fear, the serene joy of the dying person) and an after
know,

signified, invariably always pointing back self-reflexively to other signifiers.

(the mourning of the survivor), an ungraspable point, lacking any empirical object. At the same time it is

death begins with birth and remains present on all


levels of daily existence, each moment of mortal existence insisting
that its measure is the finitude toward which it is directed.
everywhere, because

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

28

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


3.

Opposition to death is the root of evil and results in


scapegoating
Arthur 02 (Kate Arthur, Doctoral Candidate University of St. Michael Terror of Death in the Wake of
September 11th: Is this the End of Death Denial?, in Making Sense Of Dying and Death, edited by
Andrew Fagan, 2002, http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/arthur%20paper.pdf)

Denial of mortality and the illusion of the heroic self-image are the root causes of
human evil, said Becker. Social institutions, politics and war are all veiled attempts to
transcend fear in a culturally acceptable system of sacrifice, scape-goating and culturally
standardized hero systems and symbols.22 Death denial is at the source of all acts that serve
to dehumanize others. It results in an inevitable tribalism in which people are classified
as with us, or agin us. This theory leads to the conclusion that scape-goating the other helps
resolve our niggling death anxiety. In its more rapacious form it is will to power and aggression.
The Becker theory is that human beings seek self-aggrandizement and a sense of immortality through
derogation of persons or groups who we class as different. Merlyn E. Mowrey expresses this affliction
well: That human beings tend to respond violently to encounters with different others in

defense of their cultural worldviews has ominous implications for the future well-being
of humankind. As Becker noted in Escape from Evil (1975), this problem is compounded by
the fact that even if people did not stumble onto different others, we would be
psychologically inclined to designate someone (an individual or group) against whose
beliefs to test ours. If we can show their vulnerability, their inability to stand up to our
power, we are enhanced and they are diminished. We qualify for continued durability, for life,
for eternity; and they, not fully human, as scapegoat bearers of evil, warrant domination, banishment,
and death.23

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

29

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AT: Your Argument is Islamic


Funamentalism
My opponent is the embodiment of bigotry when he claims that
martyrdom is purely Islamic. The contrary is true.
Odon, Christina. "The Power of Martyrdom." New Statesman. N.p., 29 Mar. 2004. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
The procession, with its shrieks and incantations, weeping men and veiled women, looked suitably exotic on
western television screens. It confirmed the depiction of suicide bombers as the executors of an alien and

We think of martyrdom as an exclusively Muslim concept, the


This suggests hypocrisy - or at least ignorance.
Martyrdom has long played a role in Christian and Jewish traditions . Consider
impenetrable will.

extremist theology of fundamentalist sects.

St Edmund, King of the East Angles from 855AD. He was shot with arrows in a battle that pitched the Christian
soldier king and his subjects against heathen Danish invaders. Similarly, there are St Theodore Tyro and St
Theodore Stratelates, the martyrs of Melitene, St Ignatius of Antioch and St Gordius of Cappadocia, to name but a
few. Although the Christian Church honours legions of martyrs who passively awaited their fate (being torn limb
from limb by wild beasts, or having their virginal breasts lopped off by a spurned suitor, or being stoned to death),

the Church militant has been a much-cherished image in Christianity since the
Middle Ages, when its iconography, as the art historian Frank Dabell points out, "was everywhere to be found: in
woodcuts found in churches, and in tabernacles at every street corner".

For Jews, Masada has been a pilgrimage site since the first Zionists settled
in Palestine. This was the fort where, after the fall of Jerusalem in 70AD, a group of
Jewish men, women and children resisted 15,000 Roman soldiers before
committing mass suicide.
Martyrdom is an integral part of the narrative of all three monotheistic religions. The martyr regards
torture, interrogation or a spell in prison as merely a temporary,
insignificant setback before the overwhelming and eternal happiness that
awaits the defender of the faith. This distinction between temporal existence and eternity is articulated
in Muslim (especially Shia) and Christian writings and reiterated in contemporary sermons. Whether it is Jesus
saying "Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness's sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven", or the
Koran describing the wondrous garden (Jannah) that is paradise, followers of both Christ and Muhammad are
reminded that the consolation of faith lies in the recognition that this disappointing existence is the preface to a
glorious one. The message, deriding the status quo and despising earthly power, is inevitably subversive. And it
becomes positively explosive when delivered in the context of an oppressed and degraded people.
So it was in the 12th and 13th centuries, when the recruiting grounds for those mass-martyrdom operations, the
Christian crusades, were among the poor and defenceless serfs, including their children. They knew, as they
marched off to the Promised Land to kill and be killed by the Muslim infidels there, that they would leave behind a
life of little value and little hope; equally, as Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza sew secret pockets for hand

martyrdom
offers a tantalising promise of life beyond a world of refugee camps,
scarce drinking water, no electricity and perpetual curfew.
grenades into their vests in order to dupe the Israelis at the checkpoints, they believe that

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

30

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Metaphors Bad

1.

Ive already impact turned this Wedgewood 90 from the


shell indicated how sacrifice as a metaphor stirs massive
change

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

31

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


2.

Not only are metaphors inevitable, but they are


transgressions that only reinforce the notion of sacrifice
Ricoeur, 75 bachelor's degree on philosophy from the University of Rennes, professor at the
University of Strasbourg, doctorate and professor at the University of Nanterre, honorary member of the
Divinity School at the University of Chicago, and Foregin Honorary Member of the Ameican Academy of
Arts and Sciences, winner of the Balzan Prize for Philosophy, and the John W. Kluge Prize for lifetime
achievement in human sciences, (Paul, The Rule of Metaphor, "Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle",
Routledge translation, http://mey.homelinux.org/social/Paul%20Ricoeur/The%20Rule%20of%20Metaphor_
%20The%20Creation%20of%20Me%20(131)/The%20Rule%20of%20Metaphor_%20The%20Creation%20of
%20Me%20-%20Paul%20Ricoeur.pdf)

First, in all metaphor one might consider


not only the word alone or the name alone, whose meaning is
displaced, but the pair of terms or relationships between which the
transposition operates from genus to species, from species to
genus, from species to species, from the second to the fourth term
(and vice versa) of a proportional relationship. This has far-reaching implications. As the English-language authors put it, it always takes two ideas to make a metaphor. If
metaphor always involves a kind of mistake, if it involves taking one
thing for another by a sort of calculated error, then metaphor is
essentially a discursive phenomenon. To affect just one word, the metaphor has to
I propose three interpretative hypotheses.

disturb a whole network by means of an aberrant attribution. At the same time, the idea of categorial
transgres- sion allows us to fill out that of deviation, which seemed to be implied in the transposition
process. Deviation appeared to belong to a purely lexical order, but now it is linked to a kind of deviance
that threatens classification itself. What remains to be puzzled out is the relationship between the two
sides of the phenomenon, between logical deviation and the production of meaning that Aristotle calls
epiphora. This prob- lem will be solved in a satisfactory manner only when the statement- character of
metaphor is fully recognized. The name-related aspects of metaphor can then become fully attached to a
discursive structure.31 As we shall see later, Aristotle himself invites us to take this path when, in the

A second
line of reflection seems to be suggested by the idea of categorical
transgression, understood as a deviation in relation to a preexisting logical order, as a dis-ordering in a scheme of classification.
This transgression is interesting only because it creates meaning; as
it is put in the Rhetoric, metaphor conveys learning and knowledge
through the medium of the genus (1410 b 13). What is being suggested, then, is this:
Rhetoric, he takes up the obviously discursive metaphor of comparison (eikn), or simile.

should we not say that metaphor destroys an order only to invent a new one; and that the categorymistake is nothing but the complement of a logic of discovery? Max Blacks integration of model and metaphor,32 in other words of an epistemological concept and a poetic concept, allows us to exploit thoroughly

Pushing
this thought to the limit, one must say that metaphor bears
information because it redescribes reality. Thus, the category-mistake is the dethis idea, which is completely opposed to any reduction of metaphor to a mere ornament.

constructive intermediary phase between description and redescrip- tion. The seventh Study will be
devoted to this heuristic function of metaphor. However, this cannot be brought to light without prior
recognition not only of the statement-character of metaphor, but also of its place within the orders of

If
metaphor belongs to an heuristic of thought, could we not imagine
that the process that disturbs and displaces a certain logical order, a
certain conceptual hierarchy, a certain classification scheme, is the
same as that from which all classification proceeds? Certainly, the
only functioning of language we are aware of operates within an
already constituted order; metaphor does not produce a new order
except by creating rifts in an old order. Nevertheless, could we not imagine that the
discourse and of the work. A third, more venturesome hypothesis arises on the fringe of the second.

order itself is born in the same way that it changes? Is there not, in Gadamers terms,33 a metaphoric at
work at the origin of logical thought, at the root of all classification? This is a more far- reaching hypothesis
than the others, which presuppose an already constituted language within which metaphor operates. Not
only is the notion of deviation linked to this presupposition, but also the oppos- ition between ordinary
Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

32

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3


language and strange or rare language, which Aristotle himself introduced, as well as, most definitely,
the opposition introduced later between proper and figurative. The idea of an initial metaphorical
impulse destroys these oppositions between proper and figurative, ordinary and strange, order and
transgression. It suggests the idea that order itself proceeds from the metaphorical con- stitution of
semantic fields, which themselves give rise to genus and species.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

33

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

Other Answers

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

34

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Were Dropping the Theory


1.

2.

3.

4.

Even If hes no longer advocating his theory argument,


the harms still exist and were still brought up by him in
this debate round. I still abused debate, and martyring my
opponent will still solve the issue (and thats Wedgewood
90). His advocacy is no longer pertinent to the issue;
whether or not he still promulgates the issue, voting him
down will still solve it.
No one has read any arguments as to why my opponents
theory is illegitimate, so the issues still stand. He would
have to not only drop the theory, but also read new
evidence as to why his theory was actually invalid to
avoid being martyred.
Theory isnt conditional
Vote my opponent down to solve the theoretical issues
brought up in this debate round, irrespective of advocacy.
The important thing is that he was abused and I am the
abuser.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

35

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Fear of Death


1.

2.

Were not killing anyone, were going to symbolically


sacrifice my opponent to solve his issues. Make him prove
a direct link between losing this debate round, human
mortality, and the evidence s/he read.
Fear of death is only possible because my opponents
selfish view of morality, the individual, and general
weakness martyrdoms glorious expenditure stretches
the subject beyond individuals concerns
Bataille 67 (Georges, General Economist, The Accursed Share: An Essay on the General Economy
vol. 1 consumption, 1967, Zone Books, translated Robert Hurley p.38-40)

Of course, the fact of being afraid, of turning away from a movement of dilapidation, which impels us
and even defines us, is not surprising. The consequences of this movement are distressing from the
start. The image of the tiger reveals the truth of eating. Death has become our horror, and though in a
sense the fact of being carnivorous and of facing death bravely answers to the demand of virility (but
that is a different matter!); sexuality is linked to the scandals of death and the eating of meat.6 But

this atmosphere of malediction presupposes anguish, and anguish for its part signifies
the absence (or weakness) of the pressure exerted by the exuberance of life. Anguish
arises when the anxious individual is not himself stretched tight by the feeling of
superabundance. This is precisely what evinces the isolated, individual character of anguish. There
can be anguish only from a personal, particular point of view that is radically opposed to the general
point of view based on the exuberance of living matter as a whole. Anguish is meaningless for
someone who overflows with life, and for life as a whole, which is an overflowing by its very
nature. As for the present historical situation, it is characterized by the fact that judgments
concerning the general situation proceed from a particular point of view. As a rule, particular

existence always risks succumbing for lack of resources . It contrasts with general
existence whose resources are in excess and for which death has no meaning . From the
particular point of view, the problems are posed in the first instance by a deficiency of resources. They
are posed in the first instance by an excess of resources if one starts from the general point of view.
Doubtless the problem of extreme poverty remains in any case. Moreover, it should be understood that
general economy must also, whenever possible and first of all, envisage the development of growth.
But if it considers poverty or growth, it takes into account the limits that the one and the other cannot
fail to encounter and the dominant (decisive) character of the problems that follow from the existence
of surpluses.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

36

Hudson Attar - Rosa Parks - Evazon - 2 0 1 3

AT: Martyr Somebody Else


1.

We have to frame martyrdom in settings of insecurity,


where decisions are volatile and prosecutions are not
predetermined, like in a debate round. The potency of the
sacrifice relies on the instability of this round
Ruth Wedgwood; Yale Law School 1-1-1990; The Revolutionary Martyrdom of Jonathan Robbins
The rhetoric accompanying the Robbins case

now

sounds almost camp,


unless we

with a sentimentality and self-congratulation that dissuade. But we mistake its effect

place it in a situation of

insecurity, with clumsiness taken for


The cult of martyrs of liberty, noted in
other revolutions, had its counterpart here, Nathan Hale's countryman whose death would
inspire resistance 13 The participants of the Whiskey Rebellion had been pardoned by
Washington after a few prosecutions; 3 Fries' rebels were pardoned by Adams in the spring of
military and political

sincerity, as obvious and charged as a soundbite.

1800 in attempted reconciliation.3 1 But Robbins was the perfect Republican figure, since a pardon could
not retrieve him. John Fenno, the High Federalist editor of the Gazette of the United States, hoping to mock

Jonathan
Robbins [who] ranks as the first martyr in the democratic callendar.' 326
Popishness, French radicalism and the most virulent Republican critic, despaired of "St.

2.

3.

Theres no reason to wait; we have an obligation to solve


the harms presented by my opponent immediately. Refer
back to the double bind; either the offense isnt real, and I
shouldnt be voted down, or it is, and we should martyr
my opponent for his cause.
Shuffling the martyrdom onto someone elses shoulders
provides no benefit, and every second that we wait is a
second where the theoretical damage presented by my
opponent is ravaging debate.

Shell | I have learned over the years that when one's mind is made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must
be done does away with fear. - Rosa Parks

37