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Ahmed Maher *, Fawkia Ramadan, Mohamed Ferra

Production and Mechanical Design Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minuya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

Abstract

An improved dynamical model for vibration damping in composite structures is introduced to investigate the stacking sequence

and the degree of anisotropy as a function of the vibration modes. Extensive investigation has been carried out from the tting of

modal measurements with lowest residual errors to establish quasi-uniform mass damping models in terms of normal coordinates

system. The analysis of the obtained results proves not only the eciency of the proposed model but also its applicability in any wide

range of frequency spectrum of composites. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Composite; Uniform mass damping; Modelling; Code no.; Model parameters; Eigen-value problem

1. Introduction

Composite damping or energy dissipation property of

vibrating composite structures, refers to a complex

physical dynamic nature that is amenable to rheological

modal analysis. In a broad class of composite structures,

the distinguishing characteristic of the damping mechanism is its strong dependence on the eigenfrequencies

such that it exhibits little damping at high frequency

level [1,2].

In contrast to the dynamic nature of isotropic materials, a further complication arises in composite domain

due to the mutual eects of various parameters, such as

code number, degree of isotropism (volume fraction),

boundary conditions as well as the vibrating mode

number on the damping and stiness distributions. As an

example, the decreasing of volume fraction of the ber

enhances energy dissipation by increasing the loss associated with matrix composite [24]. It might be expected

that the natural frequencies of vibrating composite

structures and in sequence the damping capacity, can be

altered by changing the layer's orientations and stacking

sequence [5,6], so that the damping nature as a function

of frequencies of composites should be further studied.

At the present time, it is still dicult to determine

accurately the modal characteristics of composite

structures (particularly damping parameters) by an analytical approach. The experimental conrmation prediction is therefore at very least desirable and can be

*

Corresponding author.

turn it can be used to more clearly understand the eect

of parameters controlling the dynamics of composite

states.

Recently, a mathematical model representing the

damping capacity of the composite was established [1].

Based on the student distribution approximation of the

measured values of damping in the fundamental mode,

the modal relationships between the fundamental frequencies and the damping factors were developed in

equivalence to the uniform mass damping of isotropic

structures.

In the present work, an attempt has been made to

improve the convergence characteristics of the model

within a wide range of frequencies for dierent code

numbers at two levels of volume fraction.

Basically, a weight factor (a) has been introduced for

correlating and updating the mathematical model to the

experimental data throughout the utilization of the

curve tting response function. This has resulted in

generalized quasi-rectangular hyperbolic relationships

between the loss factors and the natural frequencies with

the condence level at 99.5%. These results permit the

uncoupling of simultaneous equations of motion of

composite structures with the lowest residual errors.

In the experimental work, cantilever composite

beams made from ber reinforced plastic FRP are

considered as the object of the study for their simplicity

and for extensive applications. Various specimens made

from three plies, Fig. 1, are utilized for two levels of

volume fraction (a) a weakly composite 15% and (b) an

average composite 45%.

0263-8223/99/$ see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 6 3 - 8 2 2 3 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 5 1 - 3

164

number on the damping capacities and natural frequencies, twelve specimens of unidirectional cross-ply

and angle-ply laminate have been fabricated in the laboratory by using hand lay up technique.

Numerically the rst four natural frequencies at the

two levels of volume fraction are computed by the use of

the modied formula MFM [7] and listed in the second

column of Tables 1 and 2.

For the sake of verication, the experimental results

of the natural frequencies and the loss factors for the

rst four natural modes are listed in the third and fourth

columns in these tables, respectively.

To highlight the unpredictable nature of the damping

parameters, various curves representing mutual relationships of modal parameters were plotted in Figs. 3

and 4.

The close agreement of the results of the proposed

mathematical and experimental models proves the ecient applicability of the proposed models for deeply

understanding the dynamic nature of vibrating damping

composite structures.

Table 1

The numerical and experimental modal parameters of the rst four

modes of the xed-free GRP beam of volume fraction 15%

Table 2

The numerical and experimental modal parameters of the rst four

modes of the xed-free GRP beam of volume fraction 45%

Frequency,

x (rad/s)

Frequency,

xd (rad/s)

Damping,

g (%)

13.334

4.370

2.552

2.080

[0/0/0]a

1

2

3

4

299.004

1873.816

5246.742

10281.522

295.310

1859.823

5152.212

10040.530

10.106

3.632

2.256

1.564

185.354

1244.071

3606.548

7200.530

13.898

4.546

2.614

2.094

[0/30/0]b

1

2

3

4

296.372

1857.310

5196.766

10190.975

289.027

1847.256

4988.849

10027.964

10.870

3.996

2.330

1.630

208.936

1307.506

3661.049

7174.191

179.071

1237.788

3581.416

6754.424

14.912

5.076

2.632

2.280

[0/45/0]c

1

2

3

4

294.926

1848.281

5175.234

10141.394

282.743

1859.823

4951.150

10015.397

11.112

4.222

2.348

1.662

[0/90/0]d

1

2

3

4

208.482

1306.526

3658.309

7168.825

175.929

1231.504

3568.849

6572.212

16.072

5.612

2.728

2.486

[0/90/0]d

1

2

3

4

294.631

1846.433

5170.069

10131.272

276.460

1822.124

4913.451

9952.566

11.932

4.396

2.430

1.704

[45/45/0]e

1

2

3

4

171.160

1072.640

3003.425

5885.510

163.363

1043.009

2978.230

5811.946

20.000

6.024

3.798

2.648

[45/45/0]e

1

2

3

4

230.643

1445.403

4047.176

7930.844

213.628

1432.566

4021.239

7929.380

15.294

5.702

2.812

2.298

23.684

8.196

4.534

3.086

[45/0/45]f

1

2

3

4

141.529

886.960

2483.511

4866.691

138.230

841.947

2475.575

4863.185

20.910

7.462

3.808

2.842

Frequency,

x (rad/s)

Frequency,

xd (rad/s)

Damping,

g (%)

[0/0/0]a

1

2

3

4

211.109

1322.981

3704.384

7259.115

188.496

1294.336

3694.513

7250.796

[0/30/0]b

1

2

3

4

209.544

1313.186

3676.958

7205.362

[0/45/0]c

1

2

3

4

Mode no., i

[45\0\45]f

1

2

3

4

123.615

774.666

2169.094

4250.556

119.381

766.549

2161.416

4234.867

gi 2.463872500 (xi )0:5463537063 ; condence level 99.5838%.

c

gi 2.743609311 (xi )0:55319680819 ; condence level 99.3578%.

d

gi 3.011008077 (xi )0:5545636963 ; condence level 99. 864%.

e

gi 3.56531542 (xi )0:5694874495 ; condence level 99.6619%.

f

gi 3.797399516 (xi )0:5762650855 ; condence level 99.9998%.

Mode no., i

gi 2.288586882 (xi )0:5362827918 ; condence level 99.9956%.

c

gi 2.400855191 (xi )0:5394284987 ; condence level 99.9872%.

d

gi 2.765085107 (xi )0:5522194691 ; condence level 99.9926%.

e

gi 3.097594465 (xi )0:5536083162 ; condence level 99.6279%.

f

gi 3.591001961 (xi )0:5741157503 ; condence level 99.8897%.

2. Problem statement

The governing equations of free damped vibration of

a laminated structural model of n degrees of freedom

may be expressed as

mq cq_ kq 0;

1

where m, c, k are the n n mass damping and stiness

matrices, respectively and q is the corresponding n 1

displacement vector.

In the absence of damping, Eq. (1) become

m

q kq 0;

substitute the trial solution

q V eixt

in the last equation and premultiplying the resulting

equation by m1 we have

EV VP;

the natural frequencies x and the corresponding mode

shapes V are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem

EV VP;

2

where E m1 ; k is the n n inverse dynamic matrix.

V is the n n orthogonal classical modal matrix

formed from the eigenvectors Vr and P is the n n diagonal frequency matrix containing the n squared frequencies (x2r ) for r 1; 2; . . . ; n.

Having obtained the complete set of n eigenpairs, the

orthogonality properties of mass and stiness matrices

are then expressed as

M VT mV dmT

r mmr c Mr

K VT mV dmT

4

r kmr c kr ;

where M and K are the n n diagonal mass and stiness

matrices.

Considering the invariance of the modal matrix under

raising the matrices E and P to any rational positive

number a, the eigenvalue problem (2) may be recast as

DV V^;

5

where D Ea and ^ Pa .

Here a is the control weight factor to be chosen for

minimizing the weighted residual. A special case, at

which amax 1, was considered for the uniform mass

damping matrix of the composite in equivalence to the

damping of isotropic structure presented in Ref. [1].

3. Mathematical model of vibration damping of composite

structure

It was mentioned in Ref. [1] that the hyperbolic relations between loss factors (g) and natural frequencies

(x) of the composite plate, vibrating at the rst mode for

dierent boundary conditions, provide a more reliable

prediction throughout the utilization of the uniform

mass damping scheme. These relations were established

165

condence level at 95%.

The demand for more accurate modeling of composite structures for various code numbers within a wide

range of frequency spectrum requires a modication of

hyperbolic relations by introducing the proper weight

factor (ai ) and the damping constant (ai) for ith code

number.

The complication for selecting the proper current

values of the damping parameters is a result of the

mutual eects of the code number, volume fraction,

aspect ratio, types of xation and natural mode number

[810].

For establishing a proper equivalent mathematical

model let us start by successive premultiplication of

Eq. (5) by a positive integer j a j followed by premultiplication of both sides of the result equation by

VT m and we have:

VT mDj V M^j ;

j

6

j

where D E ; ^ P .

From denition, the right-hand side of the previous

equation is a diagonal matrix. It follows that mDj satises the orthogonality conditions. Let a damping matrix be represented as a linear combination of the

compound matrix given by:

X

aj mDj :

7

c

j0

The proposed form (7) satises the orthogonality conditions such that

cm1 k km1 c:

With regard to Eqs. (6) and (7) this diagonalized damping matrix is then given by

X

aj M^j :

8

C Cr VT cV

Here the damping coecient of the rth mode is expressed as

X

aj Mr kjr ;

9

Cr mTr cmr

j0

x2a

r .

where kr

In view of the hyperbolic relationship between the

loss factor g and the natural frequency derived in Ref.

[1], the rth loss factor can be modied to be

X

aj xa2j1 :

10

gr

j0

In the composite domain the computation of damping constants requires high computational eort compared with the isotropic one. For simplicity, the series

given by Eqs. (7), (9) and (10) have been truncated respectively to the forms:

c a0 m;

11

C r a0 M r ;

12

166

gr a0 xa

r :

13

expressed as

gxa a0 :

14

Here, the damping constant a0 increases as the volume fraction decreases and as the code number leading

to a low sti composite structure.

For the sake of graphical linearization, the previous

equation can be transformed into the following logarithmic form

ln g a ln x ln a0 :

0 < a < a ;

a 1 < a0 < a 2 ;

0 < g < 1:

It is obvious that the rate of change (slope) depends

on the degree of isotropism at which a 6 tan1 45 . Also

15

case at which the weight factor reaches its maximum

value here as

a tan d 1;

where d represents the slope of the logarithm relation of

g x curves (Fig. 5), consequently Eq. (15) will be recast as

ln g ln x ln a :

16

as

1. a a1 represents a full ber domain at which vf

100%:

2. a a2 represents a fully matrix domain at which

vf 0:0%:

A set of family curves representing composite domains of various degrees of isotropism in the physical

state can be then bounded as follows:

and the natural frequency, x for the xed-free GRP beam of volume

fraction 15%.

167

expressed as

F0

Yr

dr sin Xt a:

18

Kr

Here the magnication factor in the rth mode is given by

2

2 1=2

dr 1 Zr2 gr Zr

where Zr X=xr :

dr 1=gr

19

for a < 1;

1=gr

dr

for a 1;

where gr gr x1a

r :

4. Experimental model of vibration damping of composite

structural beam FRP

and the natural frequency, x for the xed-free GRP beam of volume

fraction 45%.

volume of the fraction decreases.

The validity of the orthogonality condition permits

the decoupling of natural modes. Consequently, the

equation of motion in the rth modes is expressed as

Mr Y Cr Y_ r Kr Yr Fr :

17

of the damping distribution in relation to the frequency

spectrum of the composite structure in the light of the

tested data is represented. The frequency response tests

were performed on cantilever composite beams made

from ber reinforced plastic (FRP) by utilizing fast

fourier transform dual channel analyzer in conjunction

with the computer as shown in Fig. 2.

A typical specimen FRP composite beam of dimension 210 20 3 mm3 ) made of three plies with 1 mm

thickness for each ply is shown in Fig. 1. Two composite

levels were selected for each code number. These are

specimens with low ber volume fraction Vf 15% and

the average ber volume fraction Vf 45%.

To study the eect of lamina orientation and stacking

sequence on the modal parameters, six code numbers of

Fig. 5. Logarithmic relation between damping loss factor, g and natural frequency, x of xed-free GRP beam of volume fraction 15%.

168

Fig. 6. Logarithmic relation between damping loss factor, g and natural frequency, x of xed-free GRP beam of volume fraction 45%.

0), (0/45/0), (0/90/0), (45/45/0) and (45/0/45) for each

volume fraction.

Within the frequency range (8000 Hz), the frequency

response and half power tests were performed for the

measurements of the rst four loss factors and the corresponding eigenfrequencies and listed in the third and

fourth columns of Tables 1 and 2. For the sake of verication, the rst four natural frequencies listed in the

second column of the tables were computed by modifying the developed formula [7] and the form:

12

k2i

D

;

xi

2pL2 qc t

where D is the condensed bending stiness modulus of

composite posit beam given by

1

D D BA B;

where [D] is the bending stiness matrix of ber reinforced laminated plate, [B] the stretchingbending coupling matrix of a ber reinforced two-dimensional

laminate, [A] the extensional stiness matrix of a ber

reinforced two-dimensional laminate and t the thickness

of composite laminate.

the measured values of the loss factors and natural frequencies at the rst four natural modes, the nearly hyperbolic curve ttings are plotted with the condence

level at 99.5% as shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

To study the eect of the ply orientation on the

damping capacity, we have rst considered the eect of

changes of inner ply orientations and second the eects

of changes of outer ply orientation compared with the

changes of inner ones. A glance at Figs. 3 and 4 indicates that the damping capacity increases monotonically, (natural frequencies decrease), with the increase of

angle of orientation of the inner layer.

With regard to the experimental results listed in Tables 1 and 2, it is obvious that the changes of outer

orientations have signicant eects on the damping,

(and stiness), of the specimens compared with the

changes of the inner orientation. As an example, the

experimental results of the loss factors for (0/0/0), (0/45/

0) and (45/0/45) show that the loss factor increases by

16% due to the increase of the inner layer (by 45 ), while

it increases by 87% and 105% due to the increase of the

two outer layers (by 45 ) for Vf 45% and 15%, respectively.

Table 3

Damping parameters of the six code numbers of xed-free GRP beam for the two volume fractions (Vf )

Code no.

[0/0/0]

[0/30/0]

[0/45/0]

[0/90/0]

[45/45/0]

[45/0/45]

Vf 15%

a

a

2.248738345

0.53724390

2.4638725

0.5463537063

2.743609311

0.55319680819

3.011008077

0.5545636963

3.56531542

0.5694874495

3.797399516

0.5762650855

Vf 45%

a

a

1.973894157

0.5243924613

2.288586882

0.5362827918

2.400855191

0.5394284987

2.765085107

0.5522194691

3.097594465

0.5536083162

3.591001961

0.5741157503

In Figs. 5 and 6 the logarithmic forms of quasi- hyperbolic relations for all cases are plotted in linear

forms. It is noticed that the slopes assigned by the

169

isotropical state while the damping constant depends

mainly on the exibility of the specimens.

Fig. 7. Quasi-linear relation between the damping constant, a and the stacking sequence, s for the xed-free GRP beam of volume fraction 15% and

45%.

Fig. 8. Quasi-linear relation between the damping exponent, a and the stacking sequence, s for the xed-free GRP beam of volume fraction 15% and

45%.

170

and the code numbers for each level of volume fraction

are listed in a monotonic manner in Table 3 and plotted

in Figs. 7 and 8. It is found that the weight parameters

increase linearly with the increase of ply-orientation of

either inner or outer layers.

angle orientations.

(5) The obtained values of the weight factors may be

considered as indicators of the degree of isotropity of

the composite structures.

References

5. Conclusion

In the present work, the modeling of the damping

distribution in vibrating composite structures is established with the lowest residual errors. The tted results

of the measured values indicate the following.

(1) There is an existence of generalized quasi-rectangular hyperbolic relationships between the loss factors

and natural frequencies of composite structures and can

be found at any selected range of frequency spectrum.

(2) The developed quasi-uniform mass damping matrix by utilizing the proper weight factors permits the

utilization of normal coordinate systems for uncoupling

equations of motion of composite structure with the

high condence level at 99.5%.

(3) The angle orientations of the outer laminate have

signicant eects on the modal parameters of the composite compared with the inner laminate.

(4) The angle of orientation 45 , at which the shearing

parameter reaches highest values has the highest inu-

Comp Struct 1994;29:19195.

[2] Vinson JR. TSU-Weichou, Composite material and Their use in

Structures. Barking: Applied Science Publishers, 1975.

[3] Jones RM. Mechanics of Composite Materials. Scripta Book

Company, 1975.

[4] Schwartz MM. Composite Material Hand Book. Published, 1976.

[5] Maher A, El-Soaly, Ghoneam S, Hamada A. Eigenanalysis of

ber reinforced composite plates. J Comp Struct 1993;25:52128.

[6] Nadella S, Rao MD. Damping of composite structures using

embedded viscoelastic layers. In: Michigan Technological University (USA) Proceeding of the 13th International Modal

analysis Conference. 1995;2:23339.

[7] Blevins RD. Formula for Natural frequency and Mode shape.

Litton Educational publishers, 1979.

[8] Plunket R. Damping mechanisms in ber-reinforced laminates

mechanics of composite materials. In: Recent Advances, Proceedings. 1982.

[9] Bert CW. Composite Materials: A survey of damping capacity of

ber-reinforced composite. In: Damping Applications for vibration controled. Torvik PJ, ASME, AMD38 , 1980.

[10] Gibson RF, Plunket R. Dynamic, stiness and damping of berreinforced composite materials. Shock and Vib Digest 1977;9(2).

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