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JOURNAL OF IRON

AND STEEL RESEARCH, INTERNATIONAL. 2011, 18(8): 42-45

A Methodology to Predict Fatigue Life of Cast Iron :


Uniform Material Law for Cast Iron
Sinan Korkmaz
[Applied Computing and Mechanics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFI,)
ENAC/IIC/IMAC, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland]

Abstract: Mechanical, physical and manufacturing properties of cast iron make it attractive for many fields of application, such as cranks and cylinder holds. As in design of all metals, fatigue life prediction is an intrinsic part of the
design process of structural sections that are made of cast iron. A methodology to predict high-cycle fatigue life of
cast iron is proposed. Stress amplitudestrain amplitude, strain amplitudenumber of loading cycles relationships of
cast iron are investigated. Also, fatigue life prediction in terms of Smith, Watson and Topper parameter is carried
out using the proposed method. Results indicate that the analytical outcomes of the proposed methodology are in
good accordance with the experimental data for the two studied types of cast iron: EN-GJS400 and EN-GJSGOO.
Key words: high-cycle fatigue; fatigue behavior; fatigue life prediction; cast iron
Symbol List
.--Strain
E-Young's
K'-Cyclic
n'-Cyclic
a'i-Fatigue
6-Fatigue

amplitude;
modulus;
strength coefficient;
strain hardening exponent;
strength coefficient;
strength exponent;

e'f-Fatigue
ductility coefficient;
c-Fatigue
ductility exponent;
R,-Ultimate
tensile strength;
NE-Number
of cycles at endurance limit;
PswT-Smith,
Watson and Topper damage parameter.

Fatigue analysis of materials and structures


have been an essential consideration in design of mechanical structures, including elevator shafts"] , turbine rotorsC2], automotive component^[^-^' and civil
structures, such as railroad bridgesE5]. Fatigue behavior of metals has been also investigated by researchers from m e t a l l ~ r g y [ ~ -,~ 'automotive engineeringL8' , marine engineering['] , petroleum engineering"'] and roboticsL"'.
Fatigue is generally divided into two parts in
terms of number of load cycles: high-cycle and lowcycle fatigue"". Behavior of a material is considered
in high-cycle fatigue if plastic deformations are small
enough and localized in the vicinity of the crack tip
and the main part of the body is deformed elastically. On the other hand, the behavior is considered
within the field of low-cycle fatigue if cyclic loading
is accompanied by elastoplastic deformations in the
Biography:Sinan Korkmaz(l983-),

Male, Master;

bulk of the body.


A Wohlerc'3' published the first systematic fatigue investigation in 1955. Wohler introduced the
concept of fatigue curve, the diagram where a characteristic magnitude of cyclic stress is plotted against
the cycle number until fatigue failure.
Investigations carried out on bridges, marine
structures and power generation machines let S S
M a n ~ o n [ ' ~ find
]
out a local strain methodology,
Method of Universal Slopes, to explain crack initiation with linear elastic fracture mechanics. This
methodology was enhanced in Modified Universal
Slopes Method"'' keeping the basic concept of fixed
slopes for elastic and plastic strain life curves and
changing values of the slopes.
Several studies are present in the literature addressing relations between monotonic tensile properties and uniaxial fatigue properties of engineering

E-mail: sinan. korkmaz@epfl. chi

Received Date: June 1 7 , 2010

Issue 8

A Methodology to Predict Fatigue Life of Cast Iron: Uniform Material Law for Cast Iron

material~"~-'~1Among all methods, methodologies


proposed by A Baumel and A Seeger (Uniform Material L a w ) , U Muralidharan and S S Manson
(Modified Universal Slopes Method), and J H Song
( Modified Four-Point Correlation Method ) yield
better outcome^^'^-'^^.
T h e uniform material law (UML)"41 is a convenient method as it does not require the data of reduction in area. Moreover, UML gives estimation of
the endurance limit and the expected deviation between estimated and experimentally determined
curves"71. UML is based on different estimates for
the aluminum and titanium alloys as well as unalloyed and low-alloyed steels. S K o r k ~ p a z ~ ' * -ex'~~
tended UML to high-strength steels.
High mechanical, physical and manufacturing
quality of cast iron makes it attractive for many
fields of application, such as cranks and cylinder
holds[Zo-Z1l . Fatigue properties of cast iron were
studied by a number of researchers. A N Damir et
al[zzlinvestigated fatigue life of ductile and cast iron
using model analysis. N Costa et al[231proposed a
method for the prediction of nodular cast iron fatigue
limit. LI Chang-sheng et alCzalcarried out numerical
simulation of temperature field and thermal stress
field of work roll during hot strip rolling. T Seifert
and Riedelczs1predicted thermomechanical fatigue life
of cast iron in a mechanism-based manner. H Germann et a1IZ6]proposed fatigue life prediction methods to calculate Woehler curves for different probabilities of failure. However, no study addressing the
application of UML to cast iron is available in the
literature.
In this study, a methodology to predict high-cycle fatigue life of cast iron is proposed. T h e presented methodology is built upon UML. The methodology is validated by comparing the estimations to experimental results.

Uniform Material Law for Cast Iron


UML is given in Eqn. (l)['?'.
~ , = o ' f / E ( ~ N ) ' + E ' *( 2 N ) '
(1)
Table 1 gives the parameters used in UML for

high-strength steels['*l and uniform material law for


cast iron (UMLCI).
In order to obtain a UML for cast iron, essential
modifications are carried out. n' is set constant to 0. 1
instead of being a function of b and c. o'f is a function of t h e ultimate tensile strength of the material.
Therefore, it gets different values for different types
of cast iron. E*' is also set to be constant, unlike in the

Table 1

n'
af
Ef

' / MPa
I

Uniform material law for high-strength


steels and for cast iron
High-strength steel

K'/MPa

43

0,

'/ (Ef ')

b/c
R,

0.58

Cast iron
LTf

'/ (Ef

')nf

0. 1

1.34

Cl+(G)
(G+O.

01

- Ig(of '/LTE) /6

oE/MPa

R,

R,+208

0. 26

-I g ( a ' / w) /6
R,

0. 4

-0. 58

-0.

NE

500 000

1000 000

(G

0 . 5 * ( c o s [ x (R,400)/22001+1)

(0.32+$/6)

~~

UML for high-strength steels.


Instead of defining an extra function ($) in the
fatigue ductility coefficient and endurance stress calculation, a more straightforward approach is applied.
The constants used in the calculation of essential parameters are obtained using trial and error method.

2 Comparison of Analytical and Experimental


Results
T h e proposed UMLCI is applied for calculating
stress amplitude ( MPa )-strain amplitude curves.
T h e calculations are carried out for EN-GJS-400 and
EN-GJS-GOO (Table 2 ) . Fig. 1 presents the stress
amplitude-strain amplitude curves of EN-GJS-400.
Analytical results obtained by UMLCI are in
good accordance with the experimental
in
terms of stress amplitude ( MPa)-strain amplitude
relationship for EN-GJS-400 (Fig. 1).
Fig. 2 gives the stress amplitude-strain amplitude relationship for EN-GJS-600.
Results show that the stress amplitude values
are greater for EN-GJS-GOO than they are for EN-GJS
400. Results also indicate that the analytical results
obtained by UMLCI are in good accordance with the
experimental results in terms of stress amplitude
strain amplitude relationship.
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 demonstrate the strain amplitude-number of loading cycle relationships for ENGJS-400 and EN-GJS-GOO , respectively. Elastic
strain amplitudes, plastic strain amplitudes and total
strain amplitudes calculated analytically using UMLCI are given. Experimental
provide a comparison between analytical results and outcomes that
are obtained by laboratory tests.
Predictions of UMLCI are close to the fatigue
data obtained from the experiments in terms of
strain amplitude-loading cycle relationship ( Fig. 3
and Fig. 4).

44 '

Vol. 18

Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International

Table 2

Chemical compositions of EN-GJS400 and EN-GJS600

Si

Mn

Cr

Mo

cu

Ni

EN-GJS400

3. 700

2.390

0.480

0.030

0.020

<0.050

0.800

0.037

0. 005

EN-GTSGOO

3.680

2.540

(0.080

<0.050

0.030

0.020

(0.040

0.030

0.002

+ Elastic strain amplitude


Plastic stram amplitude

A Total strain amplitude

lo-'

Strain amplitude (Experimental data)

.s

3 102

A UMLCI

+ Experimental data
~~

0.01

0.02
0.03
Strain amplitude

0.04

0.05

5
10 3

Fig. 1 Stress amplitudestrain amplitude


relationship of EN-GJS-400
10-4

100

700

500

UMLCl

+ Experimentaldata

300
0

0.1
0.2
Strain amplitude

Fig. 2

Stress amplitudestrain amplitude


relationship of EN-GJS600

10

'

0.3

Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 give Smith, Watson and Topper parameter values (MPa) of EN-GJS-400 and ENGJS-600, respectively. Smith, Watson and Topper
parameterCz7'gives fatigue life of materials taking into account mean stress effect.
Results indicate that there is a good overlap between the fatigue prediction carried out using UMLCI
and the experimental data.
10'

rn Emerimentall

Plastic strain amp6tude


Total strain amplitude
S m n amplitude (Experimental data)
100

d3

lo1

Strain amplitudes with regard to loading cycles for


EN-GJS-600 (logarithmic scale)

Fig. 4

900

102
1ff
Number of loadmg cycles

loL

'2

10"

Smith, Watson and Topper parameter of


EN-GJS400 (logarithmic scale)

Fig. 5

103
10'
Number of loading cycles

104

6
10.'

;10'

a:

lV

10 A

loz
lo4
Number of loading cycles

Fig. 3 Strain amplitudes with regard to loading cycles for


EN-GJS-400 (logarithmic scale)

10"

Fig. 6

10'
104
Number of loadmg cycles

106

Smith, Watson and Topper parameter of


EN-GJS-600 (logarithmic scale)

Issue 8

A Methodology to Predict Fatigue Life of C a s t I r o n : U n i f o r m Material L a w for C a s t I r o n


-

Conclusions

This paper focuses on cyclic fatigue life prediction of


cast iron without the usage of reduction in area data. A
new methodology is obtained to modify UML. T h e
proposed methodology, UMLCI, is applied to two
types of cast iron: EN-GJS-400 and EN-GJS-600.
1) Using the UMLCI, stress amplitudestrain
amplitude relationship, an important fatigue property,
of cast iron is precisely predicted.
2) The deviation between the predictions of UMLCI
and experimental data in terms of strain amplitude
that corresponds to a given number of loading cycles
for structural components made of cast iron is admissible. UMLCI yields precise results, especially for

EN-GJS-600.
3 ) Fatigue life prediction of cast iron in terms of
Smith, Watson and Topper parameter is predicted
with precision using UMLCI. Mean stress effect is
taken into account using Smith, Watson and Topper
parameter along with UMLCI.
4) UMLCI is designed to predict different types
of cast irons since the methodology takes into account changes in material properties, such as ultimate tensile strength.

T h e author would like to thank Professor


Joachim W Bergmann f r o m Institute f o r Material
Research and Testing , Bauhaus University (German y ) for h e l p f u l discussion.
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