# Science Chapter 8: Making use of electricity

1 Conditions of transferring electrical energy (61)
    When the energy source is the electric cells and lighting up the bulb, chemical energy changes into chemical energy. There are electrons flowing around carrying energy from the battery to the bulb, they need a complete path(circuit). Open circuit: incomplete circuit Closed circuit: completed circuit Conductor: material which allows electricity to flow through(e.g. metal) Insulator: Opposite of conductor

2 Current, voltage, resistance (67)
Current  The flow of electrons in the circuit  Ampere(A): Unit for current (Ammeter to measure current)  Black knob of ammeter->Negative pole of battery Red knob ->Positive pole  Lorry model Electrons -> lorry Bulb -> people Electric cell -> food station Electric connector -> one-way road Electric energy -> Food  Adding more cells to the circuit increases the current Voltage  The electrical energy given to the electrons  Volt(V): Unit of voltage (Voltmeter to measure voltage)  Same connections as ammeter  Adding more cells to the circuit increases the voltage Resistance  Opposition of a conductor to current  Ohm(Ω): Unit of resistance  Factors affecting resistance of metal wire: (for lower resistance) 1. Material used 2. Thickness(thicker) 3. Length(shorter)

3 Electric components (76)
 Circuit diagrams show how electric components are connected together  Using straight lines and label components with their numbers Electric connector/ Connecting wire Electric cell/ battery

Supplies energy to the electrons for them to flow around the circuit Electric cell is the basic unit of a battery

Science Chapter 8: Making use of electricity Light bulb Chemical energy—[cell]→Electrical energy Switch —[bulb]→Light/heat energy For opening/ closing a circuit

Ammeter Voltmeter Resistor

Electric meter for measuring current through a circuit Placed in series For measuring voltage Placed in parallel Has fixed resistance Connected up to change the current through the circuit Resistor with variable resistance Used for controlling current Current in -> sliding contact -> coiled wire -> current out

Rheostat (Variable resistor)

4 Electric circuits (82)
Series circuit  The current passes through 1 path only  Currents are equal at all points Parallel circuit  The current passes through more than 1 path (branches)  Currents passing through the battery = Sum of currents in the branches

5 Heating effect of current (86)
When current passes through conductor, electrical energy -> heat/light energy When current passing through filament in light bulb, it becomes hot/ glows at high temperature  Many home appliances electrical energy -> heat energy Contain resistance wires, produce heat energy when current passing through Fuse  If there is fault in a circuit, the current may become large, Damage the electrical appliances Cause fire & kill people  Important safety device in a circuit  Short electric wire made of an alloy, low melting point  Large current passing -> fuse overheats -> melts -> makes circuit open -> stops electricity flow  Fuse rating: maximum current to stand without melting  

Science Chapter 8: Making use of electricity Circuit breaker  Similar to fuse, but we can reset it easily  When current exceeds the rating, the breaker turns to “OFF”, electricity cut off

6 Household electricity (90)
2 values marked on electrical appliance: voltage rating, electrical power rating Appliances should be connected to the mains(source of electricity supply) with marked voltage rating Socket  Connecting the plug to the mains  Electrical energy supplied from the power station Plug  Three pin plug: Earth, Neutral, Live  Electrical energy supplied from the power station Safety  Avoid improper uses of plugs and sockets 1. Overload the socket 2. Use cracked plugs / sockets 3. Pull off the plug when the switch is on / by holding the cord  Wiring on electrical appliance: Electricity supply -> switch -> fuse -> live wire -> appliance -> neutral wire -> electricity supply Earthing  Touching damaged live wire -> body become part of circuit -> current passing through body to the ground -> electric shock  It connects the metal case to the earth  When damaged live wire touches the case, closed circuit is formed, protect us from electric shock Safety  Overloading: When number of branches in parallel circuit increases, the current increases. Causing heating effect  Short circuit: Branch with much lower resistance -> nearly all current passes through it -> it becomes very hot It may overheat the cables -> cause fire  

7 Electrical power
    Power rating: tells how much electrical energy transferred to the appliance in a second Unit: watt (W), kilowatt (kW) (for 1 second) In same voltage, bulb with greater power rating is higher Current = Electrical power / Voltage

Science Chapter 8: Making use of electricity Cost of electricity  Unit: kilowatt-hour (kW h), kilowatts consumed in 1 hour  kWh=kW x hours  Measured by kilowatt-hour meter

8 Magnetic effect of current (104)
 Magnetic effect of coil can be increased by Increasing the number of turns of wires in the coil Increasing the current in the coil Using a soft icon core A force can be produced by a magnet on a wire carrying an electric current Coil behaves like a magnet is an electromagnet.] When switched on, attract iron objects. When switched off, iron objects released

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