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# Incompressible Flow in

By

## Department of Chemical Engineering,

University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

Significance
Industrial processes - flow of fluids through pipes, conduits,

## and processing equipment.

Circular cross-section
Non-circular cross-section

Flow of fluids in

## Through beds of solids, and

Agitated vessels.

## Flow of Incompressible Fluids in Pipe

Shear-Stress Distribution
Consider the steady flow of a viscous fluid at constant

## Flow of Incompressible Fluids in Pipe

Shear-Stress Distribution

At wall

After subtraction

At r =0 , = 0

Pressure Drop

## Apply the balance

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Friction Factor
ratio of the wall shear stress to the product of the density and

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Flow in Pipe

Laminar
Turbulent

Fluid may be
Newtonian
Non-Newtonian

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## Laminar Flow of Newtonian Fluids

Velocity Distribution
Average velocity
Momentum and Kinetic energy correction factors

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## Laminar Flow of Newtonian Fluids

Velocity Distribution

Circular cross-section
Local velocity u depends on radius r
Consider a thin ring of radius r and width dr

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Maximum velocity

## Relation of local to maximum velocity

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Graphical representation

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Average Velocity

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## For Laminar Flow = 4/3

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Hagen-Poiseuille Equation

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## Laminar Flow for Non-Newtonian Liquids

Bingham-plastic fluids:
The general shape of the curve of u versus r in case of

## In the central portion - no velocity variation with the radius

the velocity gradient is confined to an annular space between

## the central portion and tube wall.

The center portion is moving in plug flow.
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## Laminar Flow for Non-Newtonian Liquids

Bingham-plastic fluids:
For the velocity variation in the annular space between the
tube wall and the plug, the following equation applies;

and

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Viscous Sublayer
Buffer layer
Turbulent core

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## Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow

Newtonian fluid
Turbulent flow at Reynolds No 10000
Smooth pipe

## Velocity gradient is zero at centerline

Turbulent core eddies large but of low intensity
Transition zone eddies small but intense

Kinetic energy
At centerline - isentropic turbulence anisotropic in turbulence core
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## Velocity Distribution for Turbulent Flow

It is customary to express the velocity distribution in turbulent

## flow not as velocity vs. distance but in terms of dimensionless

parameters defined by the following eqns;

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## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Average Velocity:

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## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Reynolds Number Friction Factor Law for Smooth Pipe:

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## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Kinetic Energy and Momentum Correction Factors:

For turbulent flow f is of the order of 0.004, and for this value

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and
flow.

## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Relation between Maximum velocity and Average Velocity:

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## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Effect of Roughness:

## a given Reynolds number than a smooth pipe does.

If a rough pipe is smoothed, the friction factor is reduced.
When further smoothing brings about no further reduction in

## friction factor for a given Reynolds number, the tube is said to be

hydraulically smooth.

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## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Effect of Roughness:

Roughness parameter k
f is a function of both NRe and the relative roughness k/D,

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## Flow Quantities for Turbulent Flow

Effect of Roughness:
All clean, new commercial pipes seem to have the same type of

roughness.
Each

## material of construction has its own characteristic

roughness parameter.
Old, foul and corroded pipe can be very rough, and the character

## of the roughness differs from that of clean pipe.

Roughness has no appreciable effect on the friction factor for

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## Friction Factor Chart

For Laminar flow straight line with slope -1
For turbulent flow the lowest line represents the friction factor

## for smooth tubes. A much more convenient empirical equation

for this line is the relation;

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## Friction Factor Chart

For Power Law Fluids

Comparing the
above two equations

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## hotter or colder than the fluid, the velocity gradient is changed.

The effect on the velocity gradients is especially pronounced

temperature.

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## 1. The Reynolds number is calculated on the assumption that the

fluid temperature equals the mean bulk temperature, which is
defined as the arithmetic average of the inlet and outlet
temperatures.
2. The friction factor corresponding to the mean bulk temperature
is divided by a factor

<

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## Flow through Channels of Non-Circular cross-sections

Equivalent Diameter:

## It is four times the hydraulic radius.

It is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the channel to
the wetted perimeter of the channel.

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## For circular cross-section = 1.0

For Parallel planes = 1.5

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## Change in velocity direction or magnitude

Additional resistance to skin friction
Boundary layer separation
Sudden expansion
Sudden contraction
Fittings and valves

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## Friction loss from sudden contraction

Vena contracta
Kc is contraction loss coefficient
For laminar flow, this coefficient < 0.1
For turbulent flow

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Couette Flow

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Reynolds Number

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