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- J.fluids.engineering.1981.Vol.103.N1
- Pressure Drop in Pipe Fittings and Valves _ Equivalent Length and Resistance Coefficient
- 10.2 Pipe & Pipe Sizing
- Reynolds Number
- Friction Factor (Fluid Flow Set-Up)
- ejercicios resueltos
- CHAPTER 3 Velocity Disns in Turbulent Flow
- Steel Catenary Risers
- Rgpv Syllabus Cbgs Ce 3002 Fluid Mechanics
- Mec 3434
- The Reynolds Equation
- Orderly Structure in Jet Turbulence
- dra-161021104738
- Activity 1
- Kumar an 2016
- Durst Forced 4101
- Experiment 2 - Data
- Fluid Flow.pdf
- The Laminar Shear Stress
- Water

You are on page 1of 64

By

Farhan Ahmad

farhanahmad@uet.edu.pk

University of Engineering & Technology Lahore

Significance

Industrial processes - flow of fluids through pipes, conduits,

Circular cross-section

Non-circular cross-section

Flow of fluids in

Agitated vessels.

Shear-Stress Distribution

Consider the steady flow of a viscous fluid at constant

Shear-Stress Distribution

At wall

After subtraction

At r =0 , = 0

Pressure Drop

10

Friction Factor

ratio of the wall shear stress to the product of the density and

11

12

Flow in Pipe

Laminar

Turbulent

Fluid may be

Newtonian

Non-Newtonian

13

Velocity Distribution

Average velocity

Momentum and Kinetic energy correction factors

14

Velocity Distribution

Circular cross-section

Local velocity u depends on radius r

Consider a thin ring of radius r and width dr

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16

Maximum velocity

17

Graphical representation

18

Average Velocity

19

20

21

Hagen-Poiseuille Equation

22

23

24

Bingham-plastic fluids:

The general shape of the curve of u versus r in case of

the velocity gradient is confined to an annular space between

The center portion is moving in plug flow.

25

26

Bingham-plastic fluids:

For the velocity variation in the annular space between the

tube wall and the plug, the following equation applies;

and

27

Viscous Sublayer

Buffer layer

Turbulent core

28

Newtonian fluid

Turbulent flow at Reynolds No 10000

Smooth pipe

Turbulent core eddies large but of low intensity

Transition zone eddies small but intense

Kinetic energy

At centerline - isentropic turbulence anisotropic in turbulence core

29

It is customary to express the velocity distribution in turbulent

parameters defined by the following eqns;

30

31

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Average Velocity:

33

Reynolds Number Friction Factor Law for Smooth Pipe:

34

Kinetic Energy and Momentum Correction Factors:

For turbulent flow f is of the order of 0.004, and for this value

35

and

flow.

Relation between Maximum velocity and Average Velocity:

36

Effect of Roughness:

If a rough pipe is smoothed, the friction factor is reduced.

When further smoothing brings about no further reduction in

hydraulically smooth.

37

Effect of Roughness:

Roughness parameter k

f is a function of both NRe and the relative roughness k/D,

38

Effect of Roughness:

All clean, new commercial pipes seem to have the same type of

roughness.

Each

roughness parameter.

Old, foul and corroded pipe can be very rough, and the character

Roughness has no appreciable effect on the friction factor for

39

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For Laminar flow straight line with slope -1

For turbulent flow the lowest line represents the friction factor

for this line is the relation;

41

For Power Law Fluids

Comparing the

above two equations

42

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The effect on the velocity gradients is especially pronounced

temperature.

45

fluid temperature equals the mean bulk temperature, which is

defined as the arithmetic average of the inlet and outlet

temperatures.

2. The friction factor corresponding to the mean bulk temperature

is divided by a factor

<

46

Equivalent Diameter:

Hydraulic Radius:

It is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the channel to

the wetted perimeter of the channel.

47

48

For Parallel planes = 1.5

49

Additional resistance to skin friction

Boundary layer separation

Sudden expansion

Sudden contraction

Fittings and valves

50

51

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Vena contracta

Kc is contraction loss coefficient

For laminar flow, this coefficient < 0.1

For turbulent flow

53

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56

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58

Couette Flow

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60

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Reynolds Number

64

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