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Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET


CHEMICAL NAME

CRC PRESS/LEWIS PUBLISHERS DISCLAIMER: THE INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


PRESENTED HEREIN ARE BASED ON SOURCES BELIEVED TO BE RELIABLE . CRC MAKES NO REPRESENTATION ON
ITS COMPLETENESS OR ACCURACY. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE USER TO DETERMINE THE CHEMICAL'S
SUITABILITY FOR ITS INTENDED USE, THE CHEMICAL'S SAFE USE, AND THE CHEMICAL'S PROPER DISPOSAL. NO
REPRESENTATIONS AND/OR WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, OF THE MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR OF ANY OTHER NATURE, ARE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE INFORMATION
PROVIDED IN THIS MSDS OR TO THE CHEMICAL TO WHICH INFORMATION MAY REFER. CRC NEITHER ASSUMES NOR
AUTHORIZES ANY OTHER PERSON TO ASSUME FOR IT, ANY OTHER ADDITIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR
THE USE OF, OR RELIANCE UPON, THIS INFORMATION.

VINYL BROMIDE

HAZARD WARNING INFORMATION


HEALTH

FIRE

REACTIVE

OTHER

DEGREE OF HAZARD
0 = Minimum Hazard
1 = Slight Hazard
2 = Moderate Hazard
3 = Serious Hazard
4 = Severe Hazard

COLOR CODING
HEALTH = BLUE
FIRE = RED
REACTIVITY = YELLOW
OTHER = WHITE

OTHER CODES
OX = Oxidizer
ACID = Acid
ALK = Alkali
COR = Corrosive
W = Use No Water

SECTION I - GENERAL INFORMATION


Characterization

RCRA Number

EPA Class

Halogenated Hydrocarbon
DOT Proper Shipping Name

None

Not Applicable

Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Number

Vinyl Bromide (inhibited)


DOT Hazard Class and Label Requirements

593-60-2
DOT Emergency Guide Code

Flammable Gas

60

DOT Identification Number

Molecular Formula

UN 1085

CH2=CHBr

Synonyms

Bromoethene; bromoethylene.

SECTION II - HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS AND IDENTITY INFORMATION


Hazardous Components (specific identity)

Vinyl bromide (derivation: By reaction of acetylene with hydrobromic acid in


the presence of a catalyst such as mercury
halides, cerium, or copper; by partial dehydrobromination of ethylene dibromide with
alcoholic potassium hydroxide).

1 ppm = 4.45 mg/m3

OSHA Exposure Criteria

NIOSH Exposure Criteria

PEL:
Not
Established

REL:
Reduce to
Lowest Level

STEL:
Not
Established

Possible
Human
Carcinogen

Immediately Dangerous to Life


and Health (IDLH)

ACGIH Exposure Criteria

TLV:
5 ppm
22 mg/m3
Not
Determined

Suspected
Human
Carcinogen

SECTION III - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS


Boiling Point

60F (15.6C)
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg)

Specific Gravity (H2O = 1)

3.79 (gas) 1.49 (liquid at 60F)

Molecular Weight (atomic weight)

760 at 60.4F (15.6C)


Vapor Density (Air = 1)

107.0
Melting Point

-219F (-104C)

3.7
Solubility

Insoluble in water. Soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone, benzene, and chloroform.


Appearance and Odor

Colorless gas (or liquid below 60F) with a characteristic, pungent, but pleasant odor.

SECTION IV - FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA


Flash Point (method used)

Explosive Limits in Air % by Volume

Not Established

LEL: 9%

NFPA Classification

UEL: 15%

Autoignition Temperature

Flammable Gas or Class 1A Flammable Liquid

986F (530C)

Extinguishing Media

Stop flow of gas. Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide, water spray, or regular foam.
Special Fire Fighting Procedures

Poisonous gases are produced in fire. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and full protective
gear. Move containers from fire if it can be done without risk. Keep cooling sides of fire-exposed containers with water long after fire is out.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards

Dangerous fire and explosion hazard. Containers may explode in fire. Stay away from the ends of tanks.
Vapors are heavier than air and can travel for great distances to an ignition source to flashback and cause
fire or explosion.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

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SECTION V - REACTIVITY DATA


Conditions to Avoid

Under normal conditions of handling and storage, vinyl bromide is considered stable in closed containers.
Avoid heat, flame, other sources of ignition, and contact with incompatible materials and chemicals.

Stability
Stable

Unstable

Incompatibility (materials to avoid)

Reacts violently with strong oxidizers (chlorine, bromine, fluorine).

Conditions to Avoid

Hazardous
Polymerization
May Occur

Hazardous polymerization can occur upon exposure to sunlight.

Will Not Occur

Hazardous Decomposition or By-products

Poisonous gases and acrid fumes are produced in fire, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and
toxic fumes of bromine.

SECTION VI - HEALTH HAZARD DATA


Inhalation?

Primary Route(s) of Entry:

Absorption (skin/eye)?

Ingestion?

X (liquid)

Health Hazards

INHALATION: Causes depression of the central nervous system (CNS) with symptoms of headache, vertigo, nausea, and drowsiness. High concentrations may cause loss of consciousness.
There may be decreased mental status and confusion. Possible liver and kidney damage.
SKIN & EYES: Irritation with possible redness and pain to the skin and eyes. Eye contact may result in
mild to moderate irritation and possible inflammation. The compressed gas can lead to
tissue damage (frostbite) on contact with the skin or eyes.
INGESTION:

Unspecified gastrointestinal effects. An unlikely exposure route, but still possible.

Carcinogenicity

NTP Listed?

Suspected Human
Confirmed Animal

No

IARC Cancer Review Group?

OSHA Regulated?

Target Organs?

No

Eyes, skin, liver, kidney,


CNS.

Group 2A

Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure

None reported. However, liver, kidney, heart, and respiratory problems may be aggravated by exposure.
Emergency and First-aid Procedures

Eye contact: Do not allow victim to keep eyes tightly shut. Do NOT rub eyes. Flush immediately with
warm (tepid) water for 15 minutes (minimum); seek medical attention. Skin contact: Remove all contaminated clothing, including shoes. Immediately wash area with flooding amounts of warm (tepid) water for
15 minutes (minimum). Do NOT rub or use dry-blown heat on frostbitten tissue. Seek medical attention
immediately. For inhalation: Remove the person from exposure. Provide respiratory assistance and CPR.
Transfer to medical facility. If swallowed: Not a likely exposure route since vinyl bromide exists as a gas
at room temperature and pressure.

SECTION VII - PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING AND USE


Steps to be Taken in Case Material is Released or Spilled

Remove all ignition sources, wear SCBA respiratory protection. Restrict those not involved in cleanup
from entering area. Stop flow of gas if it can be done without risk. Provide explosion-proof ventilation.
Absorb liquids with vermiculite and deposit in sealed containers.
Preferred Waste Disposal Method

No citation.
Precautions to be Taken in Handling and Storage

Store cylinders in cool, well-ventilated location. Keep away from sources of heat and sunlight.
Other Precautions and Warnings

Cylinders must always be stored upright and properly secured (around the body of the cylinder, never the
neck). Never drag or roll cylinders. Metal containers should be bonded and grounded.

SECTION VIII - CONTROL MEASURES AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


Respiratory Protection (specify type)

No OSHA PEL established. For best protection, use a supplied-air respirator or a self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with full facepiece operated in positive pressure mode.
Ventilation

Local exhaust (preferred) at site of chemical work or general ventilation.


Protective Gloves

Impervious Thermal Gloves

Eye Protection

Chemical Goggles or Face Mask

Other Protective Clothing

Protective Apron if Splash is Likely

Work/Hygiene Practices

Always wash hands thoroughly after using chemical; never bring food, drink, or smoking materials into
vicinity of chemicals.
1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

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VINYL BROMIDE
CH2=CHBr

CAS: 593-60-2

H
C

Br

IDENTIFICATION AND TYPICAL USES


Vinyl bromide is a colorless gas with a characteristic,
pungent, but pleasant odor. It can also exist as a liquid
below 60F (15.6C). It is used as a co-monomer, a
chemical intermediate, a flame retarding agent for
acrylic fibers and plastics, and in leather and fabricated metal products.

RISK ASSESSMENT: HEALTH


General Assessment

Skin:

Irritation with potential for redness, pain, inflammation, and tissue damage (frostbite).

Eye:

Severe irritation, burning, pain, and permanent


damage possible.

Lung: Nose, throat, and respiratory tract irritation.


CNS:

Narcosis, headaches, lightheadedness, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, confusion,


decreased mental status, possible loss of consciousness.

As a gas, vinyl bromide is moderately toxic by inhalation. While absorption through the skin has not been
known to occur, skin contact can cause localized damage to tissues. Ingestion is rare but possible (liquid
threat only). Vinyl bromide is considered a suspected
human carcinogen and a confirmed animal carcinogen.
Mutation data have also been reported. Physiologically, it is an anesthetic and narcotic. The primary
human response to vinyl bromide is depression of the
central nervous system (CNS).
Inhalation causes some irritation of the eyes, nose,
and lungs. Symptoms of exposure and CNS depression include drowsiness, slurred speech, lack of coordination, and possible loss of consciousness.
Skin contact may cause localized burning at site of
contact as a result of frostbite damage. Eye contact
can result in severe irritation to the cornea, with redness and swelling. Damage can be serious if not immediately flushed from eye surface. Liver and kidney
damage have been reported in test animals.

0 Chronic Health Effects

1 Acute Health Effects

Other Chronic Effects: Long-term exposure has lead


to liver and kidney damage (tumors) in test animals. It
is not known whether exposure to vinyl bromide will
have this effect on humans. Vinyl bromide is a relatively new compound and few data exist on its toxicity.

The following acute (short-term) health effects may


occur immediately or shortly after exposure to vinyl
bromide:

The following chronic (long-term) health effects may


occur at some time after exposure to vinyl bromide
and can last for months or even years:
Cancer Hazards: According to information presented
in the references, vinyl bromide is considered a suspected human carcinogen and a confirmed animal carcinogen. Physically, chemically, and toxicologically,
vinyl bromide is very similar to vinyl chloride which
is a confirmed human carcinogen. Mutation data have
also been reported and many scientists believe that
exposure to such chemicals may pose a cancer risk in
the long-term. It is suggested that vinyl bromide be
treated as though it is a human cancer agent.
Reproductive Hazard: According to information presented in the references, vinyl bromide has not been
adequately tested for its ability to cause adverse reproductive effects in test animals.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

Page: 4

Recommended Risk-Reduction Measures

Other methods to reduce exposure include:

Personnel should avoid direct contact with vinyl bromide. The exact nature of it human toxicity has not
been clearly established. It is very possible that it is a
human cancer agent. Occupational poisoning occurs
most commonly by inhalation. If a less toxic material
or compound cannot be substituted for vinyl bromide,
then engineering controls are the most effective
method of reducing exposures. The best protection is
to enclose operations and/or provide local explosionproof exhaust ventilation at the site of vinyl bromide
release. While not always operationally feasible, isolating operations can also reduce exposure. Using respiratory protection is less effective than the controls
mentioned above, but is still advisable whenever
working with or around vinyl bromide. Caution
should be exercised when selecting respiratory protection since it is not known if exposure to vinyl bromide
will cause cancer in humans. The ACGIH has established a TLV of 5 ppm over an eight-hour period.
This level is extremely low and difficult to accurately
monitor. For exposures to high concentrations, or
when the concentration is unknown, use a supplied-air
respirator with full facepiece and mask operated in
positive pressure mode or a self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with full facepiece operated in pressure demand. If a full facepiece is not available, then
chemical goggles should be worn to protect the eyes.
A face shield should also be considered. To prevent
hand and skin exposures, impervious thermal gloves
should be worn.
Administrative controls should also be in place to
minimize the potential for human exposures. These
may include written procedures or policies which
specify the methods and techniques that will be practiced whenever personnel are to work with vinyl bromide.
All personnel should receive training on the use,
hazards, protective measures, emergency actions, and
other precautions per 29 CFR 1910.1200 (Hazard
Communication), prior to the first assignment in an
area where vinyl bromide is used or stored.
If symptoms develop or overexposure is suspected, the following recommended medical tests
should be considered:

Where possible, enclose operations and use local


exhaust ventilation at the site of chemical release.
If local exhaust ventilation or enclosure is not
used, respiratory protection should be mandatory.

Always ensure that proper protective clothing is


worn when using chemical substances and that
personnel have been properly trained in its correct use, care, and maintenance.

Wash thoroughly immediately after exposure to


vinyl bromide and at the end of the work shift or
before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying
cosmetics.

Hazard warning information should be posted in


the work area. In addition, as part of an on-going
education and training program, all information
on the health and safety hazards of vinyl bromide
should be communicated to all exposed and potentially exposed workers.

Eye wash stations should be provided in the immediate work area for emergency use. If there is
a possibility of skin exposure to vinyl bromide,
emergency shower facilities should be provided.

Workers whose clothing has been contaminated


by vinyl bromide should change into clean
clothes before leaving work.
Contaminated
clothing that is worn home can expose family
members to vinyl bromide. Contaminated work
clothing should be laundered only by individuals
who have been informed of the hazards of vinyl
bromide.

Where possible, automatically transfer liquids


containing vinyl bromide from drums or other
containers to process containers.

; Liver and kidney function tests.


; Nervous system evaluation.
Any evaluation should include a careful history of past
and present symptoms with an examination. Medical
tests that simply look for existing damage are not a
substitute for controlling exposures.

RISK ASSESSMENT: ENVIRONMENT


General Assessment
The environment is at risk of exposure during transportation, storage, disposal, or destruction of vinyl
bromide. In almost every scenario, the threat of environmental exposure is contingent upon the proper handling of the chemical substance. Accidental spills,
large or small, can result in contamination of the surrounding environmental mediums (water, soil, and
air).
Vinyl bromide is an extremely flammable gas. No
flash point has been determined by standard tests in
air, but when it contacts a high energy ignition source,
it reaches its explosive limits. In liquid form, vinyl

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

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bromide is considered a Class IA flammable liquid. It


is a dangerous fire and explosion hazard when exposed
to heat or flame. It is incompatible with strong oxidizers, such as chlorine, fluorine, and bromine, and can
polymerize violently on exposure to sunlight. Caution
is always required in handling, storage, transportation,
and disposal of vinyl bromide. Emergency responders
should be made aware of the presence of vinyl bromide at any emergency response situation.
Vinyl bromide can enter the environment from
industrial effluents and from spills.

Some substances increase in concentration, or bioaccumulate, in living organisms as they breathe contaminated air, drink contaminated water, or eat contaminated food. These chemicals can become concentrated in the tissues and internal organs of animals
as well as humans.
The concentration of vinyl bromide found in fish
tissues is expected to be about the same as the average
concentration of vinyl bromide in the water from
which the fish was taken.

1 Acute Ecological Effects

Recommended Risk-Reduction Measures

Acute (short-term) toxic effects may include the death


of animals, birds, or fish and death or low growth rate
in plants. Acute effects are seen 2 to 4 days after animals or plants are exposed to vinyl bromide.
Vinyl bromide has slight acute toxicity to aquatic
life. Insufficient data are available to evaluate or predict the short-term effects of vinyl bromide on plants,
birds or land animals.

Proper training of all transporters will reduce the likelihood of a mishap or accident resulting in a leak or
spill of vinyl bromide into the environment. Labels on
all containers, trucks, and rail cars must meet DOT
requirements and accurately reflect their contents to
enable emergency responders to react properly and
quickly to any disaster thereby reducing the potential
risk to the environment and to personnel.
Storage of vinyl bromide should be segregated
from other chemicals and materials to minimize the
risk of cross-contamination. Cylinders must always be
stored upright and properly secured (always around
the cylinder body, never around its neck). Cylinders
must never be dragged or rolled during handling.
They must be kept away from heat and direct sunlight.
If a spill or leak to the environment has occurred,
fire department, emergency response and/or hazardous
materials spill personnel should be notified immediately. Cleanup should be attempted only by those
trained in proper spill containment procedures using
non-sparking tools. Contaminated soils should be removed for incineration and replaced with clean soil. If
vinyl bromide should contact the water table, aquifer,
or navigable waterway, time is of the essence. It may
be insoluble and remediation may be successful. The
local and/or state emergency response authorities must
be notified. A comprehensive emergency response or
disaster preparedness/recovery plan should be in place
prior to any operations involving the use, transportation, storage, or disposal of vinyl bromide.
If vinyl bromide is spilled or leaked, the following
specific steps are recommended:

0 Chronic Ecological Effects


Chronic (long-term) toxic effects may include shortened life span, reproductive problems, lower fertility,
and changes in appearance or behavior in exposed
animals. These effects can be seen long after first exposure(s) to toxic chemicals.
Vinyl bromide has slight chronic toxicity to
aquatic life. Insufficient data are available to evaluate
or predict the long-term effects of vinyl bromide to
plants, birds, or terrestrial animals.

6 Water Solubility
Vinyl bromide may be insoluble to slightly soluble in
the aquatic environment. Concentrations between 1
and 100 milligrams may mix with a liter of water.

 Persistence in the Environment


As a gas vinyl bromide is non-persistent in water, due
to volatilization, with a half-life of less than 2 days.
The half-life of a pollutant is the amount of time it
takes for one half of the chemical to be degraded. Approximately 99.8% of vinyl bromide will eventually
end up in air; the rest will end up in the water. However, if released in moist soil, vinyl bromide may leach
into and contaminate ground water supplies. In dry
soil, it evaporates rapidly with no persistence expected.

O Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

Restrict persons not wearing protective clothing


from area of spill or leak until cleanup is complete. Use non-sparking tools.

If applicable, stop flow of leaking liquid or gas.


If leak source is a cylinder and the leak cannot be
stopped in place, remove leaking cylinder to a
safe place in the open air, and repair or allow

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.

Risk Management for Hazardous Chemicals

Page: 6

cylinder to empty. Use water spray to knock


down vapors that have not yet ignited.

Asante-Duah, D. K. 1993. Hazardous Waste Risk Assessment. New York:


CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.

Absorb any liquids in vermiculite, sand, earth, or


similar material and deposit in sealed drum.

Bloom, A. D. and F. J. DeSerres. 1995. Ecotoxicity and Human Health.


New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.

Ventilate area of spill or leak. Containers should


be removed to safer area if it can be done without
increasing the risk.

It may be necessary to dispose of vinyl bromide


as a hazardous waste. The responsible state
agency or the regional office of the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should be
contacted for specific recommendations.

Bueche, J. R. 1972. Principles of Physics, 2nd Edition. New York:


McGraw-Hill.
Calabrese, E. J. 1994. Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures. New
York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Cockerman, L. G., B. S. Shane. 1994. Basic Environmental Toxicology.
New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Cothern, C. R., N. P. Ross. 1994. Environmental Statistics, Assessment,
and Forecasting. New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Hallenbeck, W. H. 1993. Quantitative Risk Assessment for Environmental and Occupational Health, 2nd Edition. New York: CRC
Press/Lewis Publishers.

RISK ASSESSMENT: BUSINESS


General Assessment

Howard, P. H., et. al. 1991. Handbook of Environmental Degradation


Rates. New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.

Accidents or mishaps involving vinyl bromide can


present a serious threat to business operations. The
loss or damage of equipment or facilities can significantly affect fiscal viability. Lawsuits that may result
from personnel illness, injury/death, public exposures,
and/or environmental contamination will require a serious expenditure of resources. Media attention surrounding an injury, death, or environmental damage
can also result in a loss of profits and loss of current as
well as future business. Always remember that anytime terms such as cancer or carcinogen are used,
public emotion, hysteria, and ignorance can run
equally high. This must be carefully considered
whenever developing or implementing a public relations policy.

Recommended Risk-Reduction Measures


Company attorneys, safety and health professionals,
and environmental specialists should be involved in
the development of any procedures for responding to
chemical incidents. A company official should be predesignated as a public relations officer with specific
training in dealing with the press. Corporate plans and
policies should be developed, approved, and implemented long before any need for such arises.

Lewis, R. J., Sr. 1993. Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th


Edition. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Lewis, R. J., Sr. 1992. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Volumes 1, 2, and 3, 8th Edition. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold.
Manahan, S. E. 1994. Environmental Chemistry, 6th Edition. New York:
CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Meyer, E. 1990. Chemistry of Hazardous Materials. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Patnaik, P. 1992. A Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of
Chemical Substances. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Quigley, D. R. 1994. Handbook of Emergency Chemical Management.
New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Rea, W. J. 1995. Chemical Sensitivity, Vol. I-III. New York: CRC
Press/Lewis Publishers.
Richardson, M. 1995. Dictionary of Substance and Their Effects, Vol. IVI. New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Sacarello, H. L. A. 1994. The Comprehensive Handbook of Hazardous
Materials. New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Sheftel, V. O. 1995. Handbook of Toxic Properties of Monomers and
Additives. New York: CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.
Sherman, J. D. 1988. Chemical Exposure and Disease. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold.
Torkelson, T. R. V. K. Rowe. 1981. Pattys Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 2B. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

REFERENCES
Ahlbom, A. 1993. Biostatistics for Epidemiologists. New York: CRC
Press/Lewis Publishers.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1988.
Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 5th Edition (with updates). Cincinnati: ACGIH

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for


Occupational Safety and Health. 1994. NIOSH Pocket Guide to
Chemical Hazards. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
Office.

Anthony, C. P., and N. J. Kolthoff. 1971. Textbook of Anatomy and


Physiology. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company.

1996 by CRC Press, Inc.