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Dry Air is relatively uniform in composition, with primary constituents as shown below.
Ambient Air, may have up to about 5% (by volume) Water content and may contain a number of
other gases (usually in trace amounts) that are removed at one or more points in the Air
separation and product purification system.
Primary components of Dry Air

An air separation plant separates atmospheric air into its primary components, typically
nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes also argon and other rare inert gases.
The most common method for air separation is cryogenic distillation. Cryogenic air separation
units (ASUs) are built to provide nitrogen or oxygen and often co-produce argon. Other methods
such as Membrane, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption
(VPSA), are commercially used to separate a single component from ordinary air. High purity
oxygen, nitrogen, and argon used for Semiconductor device fabrication requires cryogenic


1.^ NASA Earth Fact Sheet, (updated November 2007)

2.^ Linde Group, Corporate History

3.^ Latimer, Chemical Engineering Progress (1967) Vol. 63 (2) pp. 35-59

4.^ R. Thorogood, "Developments in Air separation", Gas Separation & Purification

(1991) Vol. 5 June pp. 83-94 [1]

5.^ R. Agrawal, "Synthesis of Distillation Column Configurations for a Multicomponent

Separation", Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research (1996) Vol. 35 pp. 1059-1071

6.^ W.F. Castle, "Air Separation and liquefaction: recent developments and prospects for
the beginning of the new millennium", International Journal of Refrigeration (2002) Vol.
25, pp. 158-172 [3]

7.^ Particulate matter from forest fires caused an explosion in the ASU of a Gas to Liquid
plant, see [4]

8.^ Computer Chemical Engineering (2006) Vol. 30 pp. 1436-1446

9.^ Higman, Christopher; van der Burgt, Maarten (ed) Gasification (2nd Edition)
Elsevier 2008 ISBN 978-0-7506-8528-3 p. 324

10. Wikipedia.

11. LAir Liquide India Ltd, New Delhi.

Cryogenic liquification process

Distillation column in a cryogenic air separation plant
Pure gases can be separated from air by first cooling it until it liquefies, then selectively distilling
the components at their various boiling temperatures. The process can produce high purity gases
but is energy-intensive. This process was pioneered by Dr. Carl von Linde in the early 20th
century and is still used today to produce high purity gases
The cryogenic separation process requires a very tight integration of heat exchangers and
separation columns to obtain a good efficiency and all the energy for refrigeration is provided by
the compression of the air at the inlet of the unit.
To achieve the low distillation temperatures an air separation unit requires a refrigeration cycle
that operates by means of the JouleThomson effect, and the cold equipment has to be kept
within an insulated enclosure (commonly called a "cold box"). The cooling of the gases requires
a large amount of energy to make this refrigeration cycle work and is delivered by an air
compressor. Modern ASUs use expansion turbines for cooling; the output of the expander helps
drive the air compressor, for improved efficiency. The process consists of the following main
1. Before compression the air is pre-filtered of dust.
2. Air is compressed where the final delivery pressure is determined by recoveries and the
fluid state (gas or liquid) of the products. Typical pressures range between 5 and 10 bar
gauge. The air stream may also be compressed to different pressures to enhance the
efficiency of the ASU. During compression water is condensed out in inter-stage coolers.

3. The process air is generally passed through a molecular sieve bed, which removes any
remaining water vapour, as well as carbon dioxide, which would freeze and plug the
cryogenic equipment. Molecular sieves are often designed to remove any gaseous
hydrocarbons from the air, since these can be a problem in the subsequent air distillation
that could lead to explosions.[6] The molecular sieves bed must be regenerated. This is
done by installing multiple units operating in alternating mode and using the dry coproduced waste gas to desorb the water.
4. Process air is passed through an integrated heat exchanger (usually a plate fin heat
exchanger) and cooled against product (and waste) cryogenic streams. Part of the air
liquefies to form a liquid that is enriched in oxygen. The remaining gas is richer in
nitrogen and is distilled to almost pure nitrogen (typically < 1ppm) in a high pressure
(HP) distillation column. The condenser of this column requires refrigeration which is
obtained from expanding the more oxygen rich stream further across a valve or through
an Expander, (a reverse compressor).
5. Alternatively the condenser may be cooled by interchanging heat with a reboiler in a low
pressure (LP) distillation column (operating at 1.2-1.3 bar abs.) when the ASU is
producing pure oxygen. To minimize the compression cost the combined
condenser/reboiler of the HP/LP columns must operate with a temperature difference of
only 1-2 kelvin, requiring plate fin brazed aluminium heat exchangers. Typical oxygen
purities range in from 97.5% to 99.5% and influences the maximum recovery of oxygen.
The refrigeration required for producing liquid products is obtained using the JT effect in
an expander which feeds compressed air directly to the low pressure column. Hence, a
certain part of the air is not to be separated and must leave the low pressure column as a
waste stream from its upper section.
6. Because the boiling point of argon (87.3 K at standard conditions) lies between that of
oxygen (90.2 K) and nitrogen (77.4 K), argon builds up in the lower section of the low
pressure column. When argon is produced, a vapor side draw is taken from the low
pressure column where the argon concentration is highest. It is sent to another column
rectifying the argon to the desired purity from which liquid is returned to the same
location in the LP column. Use of modern structured packings which have very low
pressure drops enable argon purities of less than 1 ppm. Though argon is present in less to
1% of the incoming, the air argon column requires a significant amount of energy due to
the high reflux ratio required (about 30) in the argon column. Cooling of the argon
column can be supplied from cold expanded rich liquid or by liquid nitrogen.
7. Finally the products produced in gas form are warmed against the incoming air to
ambient temperatures. This requires a carefully crafted heat integration that must allow
for robustness against disturbances (due to switch over of the molecular sieve beds[7]). It
may also require additional external refrigeration during start-up.
The separated products are sometimes supplied by pipeline to large industrial users near the
production plant. Long distance transportation of products is by shipping liquid product for large
quantities or as dewar flasks or gas cylinders for small quantities.

2. Non-cryogenic industrial gas processes

2.1. Adsorption
Adsorption processes are based on the ability of some natural and synthetic materials
to preferentially adsorb nitrogen. In the case of zeolites, non-uniform electric fields exist
in the void spaces of the material, causing preferential adsorption of molecules, which
are more polarizable as those that have greater electrostatic quadrapolar moments. Thus,
in air separation, nitrogen molecules are more strongly adsorbed than oxygen or argon
molecules. As air is passed through a bed of zeolitic material, nitrogen is retained and an
oxygen-rich stream exits the bed. Carbon molecular sieves have pore sizes on the same
order of magnitude as the size of air molecules. Since oxygen molecules are slightly
smaller than nitrogen molecules, they diffuse more quickly into the cavities of the
adsorbent. Thus, carbon molecular sieves are selective for oxygen and zeolites are
selective for nitrogen.
Zeolites are typically used in adsorption-based processes for oxygen production. A
typical flowsheet is shown in Fig. 1. Pressurized air enters a vessel containing the
adsorbent. Nitrogen is adsorbed and an oxygen-rich effluent stream is produced until the
bed has been saturated with nitrogen. At this point, the feed air is switched to a fresh
vessel and regeneration of the first bed can begin. Regeneration can be accomplished by
heating the bed or by reducing the pressure in the bed, which reduces the equilibrium
nitrogen holding capacity of the adsorbent. Heat addition is commonly referred to as
temperature swing adsorption TSA., and pressure reduction as pressure or vacuum
swing adsorption PSA or VSA.. The faster cycle time and simplified operation
associated with pressure reduction usually makes it the process of choice for air
Variations in the process that effect operating efficiency include separate pretreatment
of the air to remove water and carbon dioxide, multiple beds to permit pressure energy
recovery during bed switching, and vacuum operation during depressurization. Optimization
of the system is based on product flow, purity and pressure, energy cost and
expected operating life. Oxygen purity is typically 9395 vol.%.

Adsorption based air separation process

Polymeric membranes
Membrane processes using polymeric materials are based on the difference in rates of
diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen through a membrane which separates high-pressure
and low-pressure process streams. Flux and selectivity are the two properties that
determine the economics of membrane systems, and both are functions of the specific
membrane material. Flux determines the membrane surface area, and is a function of the
pressure difference divided by the membrane thickness. A constant of proportionality
that varies with the type of membrane is called the permeability. Selectivity is the ratio
of the permeabilities of the gases to be separated. Due to the smaller size of the oxygen

molecule, most membrane materials are more permeable to oxygen than to nitrogen.
Membrane systems are usually limited to the production of oxygen enriched air
2550% oxygen.. Active or facilitated transport membranes, which incorporate an
oxygen-complexing agent to increase oxygen selectivity, are a potential means to
increase the oxygen purity from membrane systems, assuming oxygen compatible
membrane materials are also available.
A typical membrane system is shown in Fig. 3. A major benefit of membrane
separation is the simple, continuous nature of the process and operation at near ambient
conditions. An air blower supplies enough head pressure to overcome pressure drop
through the filters, membrane tubes and piping. Membrane materials are usually
assembled into cylindrical modules that are manifolded together to provide the required
A.R. Smith, J. KlosekrFuel Processing Technology 70 (2001) 115134 119
Fig. 3. Polymeric membrane air separation process.
production capacity. Oxygen permeates through a fiber hollow fiber type. or through
sheets spiral wound type. and is withdrawn as product. A vacuum pump typically
maintains the pressure difference across the membrane and delivers oxygen at the
required pressure. Carbon dioxide and water usually appear in the oxygen enriched air
product, since they are more permeable than oxygen for most membrane materials.
As with adsorption systems, capital is essentially a linear function of production rate
and product backup is typically not available without a separate liquid oxygen storage
tank and delivery support system. Membrane systems readily fit applications up to 20
tonsrday, where air enrichment purities with water and carbon dioxide contaminants can
be tolerated. This technology is newer than adsorption or cryogenics and improvements
in materials could make membranes attractive for somewhat larger oxygen requirements.
The fast start-up time, due to the near ambient operation, is especially attractive for
oxygen-use systems than exhibit discontinuous usage patterns. The passive nature of the
process is also appealing.

2.4. Ion transport membrane (ITM)

ITMs are solid inorganic oxide ceramic materials that produce oxygen by the passage
of oxygen ions through the ceramic crystal structure. These systems operate at high
temperatures, generally over 11008F. Oxygen molecules are converted to oxygen ions at
the surface of the membrane and transported through the membrane by an applied
electric voltage or oxygen partial pressure difference, then reform oxygen molecules
after passing through the membrane material. Membrane materials can be fabricated into
flat sheets or tubes.
For large energy conversion processes the pressure difference transport driving force

is the method of choice. Membranes, which operate by a pressure difference, ar referred to as

mixed conducting membranes since they conduct both oxygen ions and
electrons. The oxygen ions travel through the ITM at very high flow rates and produce
nearly pure oxygen on the permeate side of the membrane. The oxygen can be separated
as a pure product, or another gas can be used to sweep on the permeate side of the
membrane to produce a lower purity product. If a reactive sweep gas is used, an
oxidative product can be produced directly, e.g. natural gas methane sweep to make
synthesis gas for gas-to-liquid GTL. conversion.
Ion transport membrane air separation process

A simple schematic of an ITM oxygen separation process is depicted in Fig. 4. Air is

compressed and then heated to operating temperature by exchange against the hot
process streams non-permeate and oxygen product. and then auxiliary heat addition. In
general, the heating of air can be done by either indirect heat exchange andror direct
firing of fuel. The oxygen stream is compressed to delivery pressure for use in IGCC or
other applications. The pressurized nitrogen enriched non-permeate stream is used
elsewhere in balance of the energy conversion process, for instance, expanded in an
integrated gas turbine cycle to generat e electric power.

Comparisons of process alternatives

Adsorption and polymeric membrane processes will continue to improve in both cost
and energy efficiency through ongoing research and development of adsorbents and
membrane materials. Neither technology is expected to challenge cryogenics for large
tonnage production of oxygen, especially at high purities. Both adsorption and membrane
systems produce byproduct nitrogen containing significant amounts of oxygen. If
high purity nitrogen is required, an add-on deoxo or other purification system must be
employed to upgrade the quality of the nitrogen. Neither process has the ability to
directly produce argon or rare gases. Production of liquid oxygen or nitrogen for system
back-up requires an add-on cryogenic unit or delivery of product from a merchant
facility. On the other hand, adsorption and membrane processes are less complex and
more passive than cryogenic technology.
Chemical processes offer the potential for continuous operation and economies of
scale through large production output from single trains, but to date have not been able
to overcome material corrosion problems. ITM technology is currently foreseen as the
best candidate to challenge cryogenics for the production of high purity, tonnage
quantities of oxygen. As with the other non-cryogenic processes, ITM has limitations in
regard to production of pure byproducts and liquids for storage and backup. ITM is also
at an embryonic state of development, so the potential for improvement is large.
Table 1 compares the merits of the various technologies based on the following
categories. Status is the degree to which the technology has been commercialized,
varying from mature for cryogenics through developing for ITM. Economic Range is
the typical production range where the technology is currently economically feasible