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of Horticulture, VSU Visca, Baybay, Leyte
I. Historical Background • • • • 1740 - coffee (Coffea arabica) was introduced by the Spaniards and was first planted in Lipa, Batangas. 1880 – production peak; Philippines became the 4th largest coffee exporter in the world. 1894- coffee leaf rust caused by a fungus (Hemeleia vsatatrix) wiped out many coffee plantations; Philippines became a coffee importer. 1960- coffee development program was launched by the government the aim is to improve quality and volume of harvest. Plantations were established not only in Luzon (Cavite and Batangas area) but in Mindanao. Philippines again became a coffee exporter when a devastating frost destroyed coffee plantations in Brazil and Angola. 1980- new high yielding Robusta was introduced in the Philippines by Nestle’ which further improved volume of production. Philippines became an official member of International Coffee Organization (ICO). 1989- International Coffee Agreement collapsed resulting to the lifting of quotas, over supply and low price in the world market; coffee export of the country became unproductive. 1995- government was alarmed of the continuous reduction of the volume of coffee produced in the country; government initiated programs to slow down the rate of decline of the industry like signing of Proclamation # 876 declaring the period from October 12-19 as the Philippine Coffee Week and authorizing the holdings of annual search for excellence in coffee. 2002- National Task Force on Coffee Rehabilitation was created with 138 M peso budget. 2003 – 22,000 hectares of land planted to coffee in 22 provinces.
II.Status of the Philippine Coffee Industry Production • Based from the 22 years production data (1976-1989) coffee production in the country increased during the last 10 years with the biggest volume recorded in 1989. From 1989 until early part of 1996, production decreased. A slight increase in volume of production was recorded starting 1998 but beyond 1998, production continued to decrease. 2002- production was 35,000 MT or 583,000 60 kilograms bag. This is only equivalent to 0.012% of the total world coffee production.
Major Producing Regions in the Country: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Southern Mindanao (38%) Southern Tagalog (16%) Northern Mindanao (15%) ARRM (11%) Western Visayas
Domestic Consumption • • • • Export • • Price • • • • Farm gate price of coffee beans was relatively higher and stable in the later part of 70’s and early 80’s averaging 60 to 80 pesos/kilo og green beans. In the 90’s , price of coffee was fluctuating and unpredictable. Average farm gate price was 64 pesos/kilo in 1998 and only 50 pesos in 1999. Current price is between 45-60 pesos/kilo From 1977 up to 1989, export volume increased from 204,000 60 kg bags to 482,000 60 kg bags in 1989. From 1989 until at present export volume was drastically reduced from 482, 000 bags in 1989 to only 45, 000 bags in 1998. Domestic consumption increased from 369,000 60 kg bag in 1977 to 853,000 60 kg bags in 1998. Domestic consumption increased by 2.25% per year. Domestic consumption in 2002 was 55,000 MT or 916,000 60 kg bags. By 2005 domestic consumption was estimated to about 60,000 MT
Foreign Exchange Earnings • • Problems 1. Low production – national average yield is only 450 kg green beans/ha/year. 2. Presence of too many marketing intermediates. 3. Unpredictable price. Prospects 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. New production and post-production technologies are available Government and private sector’s support. Increasing domestic consumption. Philippine Robusta is now highly accepted in the world market. Large areas suited to coffee production are available. From 1980 until 1997, Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEE) generated from coffee exports amounted to 642,192,126.0 M dollars or an average of 66,471,569.66 M dollars/year. From 1980-89, average FEE was only 58 M dollars but from 1990 to 1997 it decreased to an average of only 6 M dollars.
III. Botany of Coffee Plant Family : Rubiaceae Genus: Coffea sp.- there are four commercial species (Arabica, Canephora or Robusta, Excelsa and Liberica) The Tree (General description) Some are bushes or trailing plants but most of them may be classified as trees. They are perennial , woody and with a resistant stem or trunk covered with bark. In some, the roots are characteristically rather superficial and in other, they are habitually deep in their penetration into the soil. The Leaves • • • • All have opposite leaves and opposite branches. Elliptical with sharply acuminate tips (Arabica and Robusta) or rounded with blunt end (Excelsa and Liberica). May have wavy (Robusta) or plain (Arabica, Excelsa and Liberica) leaf margin. Color of young shoots is bronze in Excelsa.
The Stem • • • The Flowers • • • • • • Developed from the nodes of plagiotropic branches. Packed closely together in a node with number varying from very few to as many as 50-60. Petals are white and vary from 4-9 depending on species. There are 4-5 calyx. Corolla tube is cylindrical, pistil is elongated with two parted receptive surfaces. Pollens in Liberica, Robusta and Excelsa are easily carried by light breeze (cross pollinated) while those of the Arabica are heavy and sticky and so are not readily distributed (self pollinated). Has two types of stem growth namely the orthotropic or vertical and the plagiotropic or the horizontal. Orthotropic – vegetative part of the tree structure that forms the trunk and central axis. It has nodes on it with opposite leaves and in the axils of these leaves are found the series of buds from which growth proceeds. Plagiotropic – this is the fruiting branch, nodes produce the flowers and fruits.
Fruits • • • • • • • • A drupe and also called berries or cherries. Has two seeds although some may have only one seed (pea berry). The seed has a crease down the middle of its flattened side. Embryo is somewhat curve and being wrapped in cotyledon. A seed commonly tapers a little to one end and the embryo is located there. The pulp is often juicy and envelops the endocarp or parchment shell. Next to the shell is the seed coat or silver skin in Arabica; not silver in color in other species. From anthesis it takes 9-11 months for the fruits to ripened.
IV. Environmental Conditions for Growing Coffee A. Plantation Site • • • • Accessible to transportation facilities. Be near market outlet. Have gently sloping land. Be relatively free from typhoon
B. Elevation • • Robusta, Excelsa and Liberica – sea level up to 900 meters above sea level Arabica – minimum at 700 meters above sea level; ideal at 900 to 1800 masl.
C. Soil Requirements • • • • • • • • Minimum depth of 1.5 meters. Free drainage, medium texture (loamy), good aeration. Good fertility and with high moisture holding capacity. Optimum soil pH of 5.5-6.5. Rich in OM, or with good humus content. Heavy soils should be avoided under type II climate. Poorer soils can be used satisfactorily provided rainfall is adequate or if irrigation facility is available. Superior soil should be selected in areas with marginal rainfall.
D. Climatic Requirements a. Temperature • • • b. Shade • • • With good management, especially with irrigation and mulching, shade trees are not normally necessary. Shade trees are needed only where latitude, elevation, and temperature are limiting. For relatively dry areas, controlled shading (25% shade) is recommended. Optimum temperature range from 20 0C (night) and 26 0C (day). Temperature is influenced by latitude, general topography, humidity and shade. Moderate soil temperature is important for root growth and should be maintained particularly in hotter areas by mulching.
c. Rainfall/water • • 190 to 200 cm/year Distribution is more important than total amount. An extended period of well-distributed rainfall followed by a 2 or 3 dry months is suitable.
Soil moisture must be adequate during maximum vegetative growth and berry development.
d. Humidity • 70-85% or medium high.
e. Typhoon • • Relatively free from typhoon Establish wind breaks
III. Types and Varieties of Coffee 1. Arabica ( Coffea arabica L.) locally known as Kapeng tagalong. • • • • • • • • Most widely grown and appreciated coffee variety in the world (75% of world wide coffee production) Has excellent aroma and flavor/quality Adapted to high elevation Early bearer producing fruits after 2-3 years from planting Yield 500-100 kg clean dry beans /ha/year Caffeine content of 0.6% to 1.3% Highly self pollinated Susceptible to pest particularly to coffee leaf rust koleroga, nematode and coffee berry diseases
2. Robusta (Coffea robusta L and Coffea canephora • • • • • • Widely grown in Asia (24% of world wide production) Fairly strong taste because of high caffeine content (2.0-2.5%) Bears fruit in the 3rd from planting More hardy and high yielder than Arabica (1,200 kg clean dry beans/ha/year Adapted to humid tropics Highly cross pollinated
3. Excelsa (Coffea excelsa) • • • • Wide leaves (young leaves shiny with bronze violet color), thinner but more rounded than Liberica Berries bigger than Robusta but smaller than Liberica Tolerant to drought, nematode and leaf rust than the other varieties Better flavor and aroma than Robusta and Liberica
Late maturing (bear fruits4-5 years from planting) Yield 1000 kg clean dry beans/ha/year.
4. Liberica (Coffea liberica) also known as Kapeng barako • • • • • • • Tall upright tree (9 meters tall) Leaves are thicker than Excelsa and twice as long as Arabica Has the largest berries among the 4 species; with rounded, thick pulp, more woody and darker color parchment Strong taste that is popular among the native coffee drinkers of Batangas Resistant to nematodes and tolerant to drought Yield 100 kg clean dry beans/ha/yr Cultivated less frequently and in fewer land because of its mediocre flavor and difficulty in handling
IV. Cultural Practices A. Nursery Practices Methods of propagation: a. Sexual or by seeds- applies to Arabica which is self-pollinated. b. Vegetative or asexual- applies to Robusta, Excelsa and Liberica which are cross pollinated. The methods include cuttings, grafting and budding. c. In vitro- coffee can be also propagated by tissue culture (shoot tip, nodal and via somatic embryogenesis) Nursery establishment a. Site selection- the site must be ; • • • • Within or as close to the future plantation as possible. Near to an adequate and reliable water supply Free from big trees or shaded area Has fairly drained or loose soil
b. Site preparation • Clean the area (by plowing and harrowing) and provide shade to cover the area (0ver head shade-75% shade)
Cover with palm (coconut) leaves, cut grasses or calibrated net on top to intercept about 70-75% of sunlight The height of the shade should allow convenient passage below
c. Seed bed preparation • • • • Prepare beds 1 meter wide, 15 cm high and of convenient length ( 1X 20 m long bed can accommodate 1 ganta of seeds; Arabica about 5000 seeds) Fill the seedbed with screened sand or any light top soil to allow good drainage Screen the soil or sand to remove stones, wood and hard soil A mixture of 1:1:1 sand, garden soil and compost is also ideal
d. Seed collection and preparation • • • • Source of seeds – healthy, high yielding, regular bearing trees from reliable farm/plantation. Seed preparation- float seeds in water, depulp, remove mucilage, clean and air dry seeds. Provide 50% allowance In case of delayed planting, air dry seeds and mixed with dry charcoal powder (1:3) and place in jute sack. Hang the sack (containing the seed-charcoal powder mixture) above a pail of water in a cool place. Seeds can also be mixed with moist charcoal powder (150 g water/ 1000 grams charcoal powder) and then placed in jute sacks; charcoal powder should be change monthly
e. Sowing of seeds • • • • • Make small and shallow furrows 3 cm apart and 0.5 cm deep on top of the bed Arrange the seeds in the furrows 2 cm apart with the grove facing down and then cover with fine soil or sand 2.0 cm thick Cover the bed with a thin layer of straw or cut grasses to ensure even temperature and moisture Remove the grass or straw when the seedlings start to come out of the soil (30-45 days from sowing) Water the bed daily or when necessary to keep the soil moist
Seeds germinate in about 45 days after sowing and are then transplanted (pricked to plastic bags at the button stage or match stick stage (70-80 days from sowing) or at the latest at the butterfly stage (90-100 days from sowing)
f. Pricking cuttings • • • • Water the received rooted cuttings and place in cool place Prick cuttings immediately Remove defective roots For rooted cuttings, make a hole in the soil using a dibble, soak cutting roots in mud solution, plant the rooted cuttings and pressed the soil around the roots/base.
g. Bag fillings • Use screened light top soil rich in humus or a mixture of 2 parts alluvial soil and 1 part rice hull charcoal • Use 6”x 8” x12” black plastic bag. The base must be perforated at the lower side and bottom to provide adequate drainage • Provide fence around the nursery to keep away from animals h. Nursery maintenance operations 1. Watering/ fertilization • • • After pricking, water the seedlings to keep soil moist especially during dry season Sprinkle seedlings thoroughly with water After 2 months and every 2 months thereafter water seedlings with urea solution (1 tbsp/liter of water) preferably late in the afternoon to prevent burning of leaves. Sprinkle seedlings with water the following day. When using 2:1 alluvial soil and rice hull charcoal medium, apply 1.5 grams Ammosul/seedling 2 months after bagging and every after two months.
2. Weeding • Weed the plants and the spaces between bags as often as necessary to minimize water and nutrient competition
3. Pest and disease control
• • •
Prevent damping off by choosing good light soil for good drainage. Spray with copper fungicide or conduct soil sterilization before bagging Prevent Cercospora spots by providing proper light and by spraying with copper fungicides Control the presence of caterpillars and other insects by spraying with appropriate insecticides
B. Plantation establishment a. Land Preparation 1. Cogonal areas – chop cogon manually or mechanically. Wait for new growth (15 cm tall) then blanket spray with Glyphosate herbicide (e.g. Round-up). Planting of shade trees should be done 1-2 years before the schedule of planting. Plow the area if terrain permits to effectively kill cogon. 2. Grassland other than cogonal- plow and harrow the land until weeds are suppressed. 3. Second growth forests- clear the area, but few trees (80-100 trees/ha) should be left to serve a partial shade. The cut underbrush, leaves and branches of trees are allowed to decay at strategic place in the plantation. b. Lay-outing, Staking and Holing The distancing of the plants in a plantation depends on several factors like the variety/species, topography, soil fertility, climate and management. The usual distancing of the different varieties are : Arabica – 2 m x 3 m, Robusta -3m x 3m ; Excelsa and Liberica – 4m x 4m. Straight row planting with an east west orientation is the recommended lay-out. Procedures: 1. Establish a straight base line along the boundary. Take note of the orientation of rows such that it will allow penetration of sunlight between them.. 2. Stake the rows and hills of coffee 3. Dig holes (40 cm x 40cm x 40cm) one month prior to planting 4. While digging the holes, separate the top soil from the sub-soil 5. Refill holes by putting back top soil and then overlay with sub-soil. Add well decomposed manure or organic fertilizer. 6. On rolling lands, lay-out rows of coffee in contours. Adopt SALT 7. If white grubs is a problem, mix thoroughly the recommended rates of Furadan to the soil during planting and then apply again after 6 months. 8. Before planting, weed about 50 cm around the entrance to the hole
c. Transplanting 1. Transplant when the seedlings have 6-8 pairs of leaves or when these are 6-8 months old. 2. Transplant at the onset of rainy season. 3. Cut the bottom of the plastic bag to take out bent roots. 4. When transplanting seedlings, make sure that the root collar is exactly at ground level to prevent root rot. 5. Press or compact the soil around the base of the seedling. 6. Apply superphosphate basally at the rate of 2-3 tbsps or 150-200 grams organic fertilizer per hill. 7. Provide temporary shade (coconut leaves) and water the newly transplanted seedlings. d. Care of the Plantation a. Pruning , Training and Rejuvenation – this is done to control the size and shape of the coffee trees for better yield and for ease in harvesting and management. By pruning, more lateral branches are stimulated to grow. Because coffee berries are borne at the nodes of lateral branches, higher yields can be obtained when more lateral branches are produced. Pruning techniques: 1. Single stem – recommended in areas with poor soils as well as in regions with drier climate. a. Cut the main stem at a height of 4-7 feet above the ground. b. Remove regularly the subsequent sprouts developed near the cut end/edges. c. Allow the secondary and tertiary branches to grow but cut severely every 4-5 years to allow the growth of new branches 2. Multiple stems- recommended in areas with good soil and well distributed rainfall. Procedures are as follows: a. Cut the main stem at about ½ to 1 foot from the ground. b. Select and allow 2-3 strong suckers to grow and produce lateral branches. c. Prune the matured stem (at the same height as the 1st pruning) every 34 years to produce new replacement suckers.
d. Another technique is to bend the plant about 45 degrees from the ground 1 or 2 months after planting to induce production of vertical sprouts. e. When the sprouts are about 10 cm long, remove some sprouts retaining 5 most vigorous sprouts. f. When the selected sprouts are about 30 cm long, remove the 2 least vigorous sprouts. g. Spreading- insert a bamboo triangle to spread the sprouts while the shoots are still young (green to brownish bark) h. Maintain the height of the three selected stems 3. Rejuvenation pruning – done when trees are run-down or when yield is already uneconomical. The procedures are as follows: a. Cut the trunk about 30-50 cm from the ground. b. When sprouts are about 10 cm high , select and then maintain 3 uniformly distanced sprouts around the stem. c. Pruning and rejuvenation should be done during the later part or after harvest season and should be immediately followed by fertilizer application. d. Program the weeding afterwards because the reduction of branches reduces the ground cover and favors the growth of weeds. e. The area in between space of coffee plants could be planted with intercrops such as peanut, mongo and vegetable crops. b. Weed control 1. Clean culture- regular weeding around the plant is necessary especially before application of fertilizer. a. For the 1st year, follow up ring weeding according to the growth of weeds. You may apply herbicides if necessary to weeds while still young. b. Blanket-spray the whole area or follow regular under brushing. c. For the following years, maintain regular weeding every 2 months either by mechanical or by chemical means. d. Ring-weed a circle of 1 m around the trunk of the coffee tree. Occasionally slash the weeds between between the rows, especially before the weeds bear seeds. 2. Mulching – may be practical in areas where there are plenty of dried mulching materials. The mulch is spread around the base of the tree.
3. Cover cropping – cover cropping with legumes controls weeds, prevent soil erosion and improves soil texture and fertility. The common legume cover crops ideal for coffee include Crotolaria, Centrosema, Calopogonium, Kudzu, Spineless mimosa and Flemingia Procedures: a. For Kudzu and Spineless mimosa, plant 2 rows in 1 line in the center between rows of coffee. Distance between hills must be 50-80 cm. b. For Flemingia, plant 3 rows between the rows of coffee. Plant 2 outer rows 1 m from the base of the coffee tree, and plant the center row between the outer rows. c. For Kudzu, soak the seeds in water overnight to hasten germination. Before planting make shallow furrows and apply superphosphate or rock phosphate to the furrows. Over the seeds thinly with soil. d. Perform regular and frequent ring-weeding around the coffee plant. e. During dry season, precaution should be made against fire that may burn the mat of dry leaves especially Calopogonium. c. Fertilizer application Have your soil analyzed for proper fertilizer recommendation. In the absence of soil analysis you may follow the following guide; Inorganic fertilizer 1st Year a. Apply urea at 20 g or 2 tbsp per plant once the newly planted seedlings or cuttings have established as shown by the production of new leaves. b. Using the same rate, apply again after every 2 months up to the end of the rainy season or approximately 4 times a year c. Use foliar fertilizer if available 2nd Year after planting Apply complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at the rate of 100-150
g/plant/year split in three applications (at the start, middle and end of the rainy season). For full bearing trees: a. Apply complete (14-14-14) and Muriate of potash of 1 kg/tree/year in three splits. b. If plants are yellowing (due to lack of N) and if extension of lateral branches is minimal, side dress urea of about 250 g/tree just before harvesting. Organic fertilizer 1. Processed organic fertilizer (Sagana 100) a. For full bearing trees use 1 kg or 3 -5 Caltex can /tree/yr b. For non-bearing trees, use only 50% of the amount for full bearing trees. 2. Non-processed organic fertilizer (e.g. compost and anima; manures) a. Use 5 Caltex cans/tree/yr. since compost is deficient of chloride and potassium, apply 1 Caltex can Muriate of potash. Use the following ratios: 1st year – 50% inorganic fertilizer+ 50% organic fertilizer 2nd year - 25% inorganic + 75% organic fertilizer 3rd year – use 100% organic fertilizer. 3. Foliar fertilizer- can be applied to supplement micro nutrients like zinc and boron. d. Shading – coffee grows well under shade, but higher yields can be obtained from plants under full sunlight. The growing of coffee under 25% shade can be valid under the following conditions: a. When coffee is grown under less ideal environment like long hot dry periods or in typhoon belts. The shade tree helps stabilize wide temperature fluctuations or serves as wind breaks.
b. When coffee is grown in marginal soils and very little capital in terms of fertilizer, pesticides and weeding, planting shade trees could help in sustaining the nitrogen supply of the soil and at the same time reduce weed intensity. Coffee grown under shade produces lower depletion of carbohydrate reserves and less vulnerability to diseases. c. Shade trees are necessary for newly established plants that do not have mutual shading yet. They are especially needed in areas of low elevation where natural cloudiness during hot months are insufficient. e. Catchcropping and Intercropping – during the 1st few years after planting, catch crops could be planted between rows of coffee. Fruit crops like banana, papaya and pine apple are being grown successfully by Cavite coffee farmers. Jackfruit and lanzones could also be planted as shade trees. Several vegetables, ornamentals and filed crops could be grown between rows of young coffee trees provided soils is suitable for them. Such crops as African daisy, gladiolus, beans , upland rice, ginger, mongo, peanut, soybeans, cucurbits, eggplant could be use as intercrops. Coffee could also be planted a intercrop to coconut, black pepper and abaca. f. Crop Protection- the following are the most common and destructive pests and diseases of coffee trees. Insect Pests 1. Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) – most destructive pest of coffee. Description : a small beetle, dark brown to black and approximately 1.5-2.0 mm long. The female dig holes in young berries to lay eggs which develop into larvae that destroys the beans. The presence of empty or partially filled berries underneath the tree is a positive sign of infestation. Control: a. Proper harvesting – collect and destroy berries ripened out of the normal harvest season. Pick all berries on the ground and or black berries on the tree at the end of the peak season including berries on the ground. b. Apply insecticides like Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin and Endosulfan 4 months after flowering (2 applications at 21-day interval). The size of the berries will be about the size of corn kernel. c. Observe proper sanitation/cleanliness. Plantation should not be too shaded and the trees should be well thinned out of water sprouts.
2. Twig borer (Xyleborus morstatti Haq.) Description- A small coleopteran (beetle). Female dig small hole on the surface of the branches (twigs) and tunnel into it to lay eggs. The twigs then dry up or breaks. Control - collect and burn the affected twigs preferably in the morning and late in the afternoon. Apply systemic insecticides. 3. White grubs (Holotrichia sp.) Description- the larva of a big coleopteran which eats the feeding roots of coffee seedling/tree. Young plants die while old plants become stunted. Control- dig, collect and kill grubs. When planting apply 10 grams Furadan granules to each hill. During summer (when adults lay eggs in the soil) apply Furadan in the vicinity of the root zone. 4. Mealy bugs (Ferrisia urigata and Planococcus lilacinus) and scales Description- Homoptera which lives on the tender parts of the plant (such as buds) and suck the sap. Associated with ants. Control a. Apply Malathion or Parathion on the patches. b. Remove weeds that harbor bugs and scales. 6. Catterpillars ( Leaf skeletonizer) Description- Eat leaves leaving irregular lace-like patches. In some cases, almost all parts of the leaf is eaten; only the veins and epidermis are left. Control: a. Control and kill whenever possible. b. Spray insecticides (Thiodan, Tamaron) on the affected parts. Diseases 1. Coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Br.)
Symptoms: Orange rusty spots on the lower surface of infected leaves but as the leaves are killed, visible on upper surface. Spots soon increases and cause loss of leaves. Control – clean the area and prune excess branches of sprouts to minimize high humidity which favors the development of spores. Spray copper fungicides (Dithane 45 and Attracol) on leaf undersurface (usually 2 times a year is enough). Plant resistant varieties like IC-7 and S-274. 2. Black rot (Koleroga noxis) Symptoms- blackening of infected leaves and twigs Control- clean and prune thick branches 3. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack) Symptoms- infect leaves, twigs and berries. Infected leaves show brown blights; infected twigs show dieback and infected berries show brownish depressions on the pulp. Control- Prune and burn the affected branches. Also spray fungicides (e.g. Benlate, Dithane -45 and Atracol) 4. Dieback – may be due to nutrient deficiency and is prevalent to Arabica. Not a disease but a nutritional disorder. Symptoms – branches dyeing back from tip; leaves turn yellow. Defoliation follows. Berry dry up. Usually occur after heavy fruiting. Control- proper plant nutrition, adequate water supply and regular pruning 5. Damping-off Description/symptoms- a soil borne nursery disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kiin. Attack the base of seedlings causing rotting of tissue just below the ground level and eventually result to death of the infected seedling. Control: 1. Have a good drainage of seedbed. 2. Do not sow seeds too thick.
3. when infection sets in, drench the affected seedbed and spray seedlings with copper fungicides (e.g. Benlate and Dithane-45) Harvesting – the most expensive and time consuming operation in coffee production. Maturity indices: 1. Calendar method – Arabica -6-9 months from flowering Robusta – 10-11 months from flowering Liberica and Excelsa – 12 months after flowering 2. Physical (color and firmness of the pulp) Green ripe mature – berries with yellow-green skin Hard-ripe mature – red in color but with firm skin and pulp Soft-ripe mature- red to dark red pulp color with soft and juicy pulp. Methods of harvesting : 1. Strip harvesting – only one round of harvesting. All berries strippedoff the tree onto the ground at harvest time. 2. Priming – selective harvesting; only the fully ripe berries are picked at 2-3 weeks interval. 3. Combination of 1 and 2- 1st harvest are done by priming and the last harvesting by strip
Preparing Land for Planting Coffee Introduction After a suitable site has been selected, land preparation is the next activity a coffee farmer will undertake. Thorough land preparation is a major requirement for the successful establishment of a coffee farm. A properly prepared field will not improve field survival, field establishment and promote growth of coffee plants but will also minimize future weed problems. Furthermore, a properly prepared field will also make other field operations easier and more efficient.
A. Land Clearing a. Cogonal areas – chop cogon manually or mechanically. Wait for new growth (15 cm tall) then blanket spray with Glyphosate herbicide (e.g. Round-up). Plow the area if terrain permits to effectively kill cogon. Planting of shade trees should be done 1-2 years before the schedule of planting coffee. b. Grassland other than cogonal- plow and harrow the land until weeds are suppressed. c. Second growth forests- clear the area, but few trees (80-100 trees/ha) should be left to serve as partial shade. The cut underbrush, leaves and branches of trees are allowed to decay at strategic place in the plantation. B. Field Lay-outing The distancing of the plants and the planting system to be adopted depends on several factors like the variety/species, topography, soil fertility, climate and cropping systems. Procedures:
1. Establish a straight base line along the boundary. The distance of the first row from the boundary line should be at least ½ of the planting distance of coffee. Take note of the orientation of rows such that it will allow optimum penetration of sunlight between them. 2. Square and triangular planting systems can be used in flat and slightly rolling areas. On rolling lands, lay-out rows of coffee in contours. Adopt SALT. When using square planting system rows could be oriented east-west but when using triangular planting system rows should be oriented north to south. 3. The recommended planting distances for the three varieties are as follows : Arabica – 2 m x 3 m, Robusta -3m x 3m ; Excelsa and Liberica – 4m x 4m. 4. Stake the rows and hills of coffee C. Hole Digging 1. Dig holes (40 cm x 40cm x 40cm) one month prior to planting 2. While digging the holes, separate the top soil from the sub-soil 3. Refill holes by putting back top soil and then overlay with sub-soil. Add well decomposed manure or organic fertilizer. 4. If white grubs is a problem, mix thoroughly the recommended rates of Furadan to the soil during planting and then apply again after 6 months. 5. Before planting, weed about 50 cm around the entrance to the hole
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