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Viewing the Morea


Du m ba rton Oa k s By z a n t i n e S y m p o si a a n d Col l o qu i a

Series Editor
Margaret Mullett
Editorial Board
John Duffy
John Haldon
Ioli Kalavrezou

Viewing the Morea

Land and People

in the Late Medieval Peloponnese
Edited by

Sharon E. J. Gerstel

Du m ba rto n Oa k s R e s e a rc h L i b r a ry a n d C ol l e c t io n

Copyright 2013 by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection

Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, DC
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Morea: The Land and Its People in the Aftermath of the Fourth Crusade
(Symposium) (2009 : Dumbarton Oaks)
Viewing the Morea : land and people in the late medieval Peloponnese /edited by
Sharon E. J. Gerstel.
pages cm. (Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine symposia and colloquia)
The majority of the chapters in this volume were presented as papers at the 2009
Dumbarton Oaks symposium Morea: The Land and Its People in the Aftermath
of the Fourth Crusade.
Includes index.
isbn 978-0-88402-390-6 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Peloponnesus (Greece : Peninsula)CivilizationCongresses.
2. Peloponnesus (Greece : Peninsula)AntiquitiesCongresses.
3. Excavations (Archaeology)GreecePeloponnesusCongresses.
4. FranksGreecePeloponnesusHistoryCongresses.
5. CrusadesFourth, 12021204Congresses.
6. Civilization, Medieval13thcenturyCongresses.
7. Civilization, Medieval14th centuryCongresses.
I. Gerstel, Sharon E. J., author, editor of compilation.
II. Dumbarton Oaks, issuing body.
III. Title.
df901.p4m66 2013
Designed and typeset by Melissa Tandysh
Cover: View from the Villehardouin Castle at Mystras toward Sparta and the hills
of Parnon (photo: S. Gerstel)
Frontispiece: Church of the Virgin Hodegetria, Mystras, ornamental detail
(photo: S. Gerstel)


Acknowledgments L ix
Introduction L 1
sharon e. j. gerstel
The Morea through the Prism of the Past L 9
Elizabeth Jeffreys
The Architectural Layering of History in the Medieval Morea:
Monuments, Memory, and Fragments of the Past L 23
Amy Papalexandrou
The Songbook for William of Villehardouin, Prince of the Morea
(Paris, Bibliothque nationale de France, fonds franais 844):
A Crucial Case in the History of Vernacular Song Collections L 57
John Haines
The Triangle of Power:
Building Projects in the Metropolitan Area
of the Crusader Principality of the Morea L 111
Demetrios Athanasoulis
Coinage and Money in the Morea
after the Fourth Crusade L 153
Julian Baker and Alan M. Stahl
The Frankish Morea:
Evidence Provided by Acts of Private Transactions L 187
Helen G. Saradi

Rural Exploitation and Market Economy

in the Late Medieval Peloponnese L 213
David Jacoby
People and Settlements of the Northeastern
Peloponnese in the Late Middle Ages:
An Archaeological Exploration L 277
Timothy E. Gregory
Greek, Frank, Other:
Differentiating Cultural and Ancestral Groups
in the Frankish Morea Using Human Remains Analysis L 309
Sandra J. Garvie-Lok
Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village:
Ecclesiastical and Rural Landscapes
in the Late Byzantine Peloponnese L 335
Sharon E. J. Gerstel
Reflections of Constantinople:
The Iconographic Program of the South Portico
of the Hodegetria Church, Mystras L 371
Titos Papamastorakis
A Brief History of the Morea as Seen through
the Eyes of an Emperor-Rhetorician:
Manuel II Palaiologoss Funeral Oration
for Theodore, Despot of the Morea L 397
Florin Leonte
A New Lykourgos for a New Sparta:
George Gemistos Plethon
and the Despotate of the Morea L 419
Teresa Shawcross
Mapping Melancholy-Pleasing Remains:
The Morea as a Renaissance Memory Theater L 455
Veronica della Dora
Abbreviations L 477
About the Authors L 481
Index L 485

Ac k now l e dgm e n ts


The majority of the chapters in this volume wer e pr esented as papers at the 2009
Dumbarton Oaks symposium Morea: The Land and Its People in the Aftermath of the Fourth Crusade.
On behalf of the authors, the editor would like to acknowledge the support of Jan M. Ziolkowski, Director
of Dumbarton Oaks. The editor also warmly thanks Alice-Mary Talbot, former Director of Byzantine
Studies, for organizing a wonderful symposium and Margaret Mullett, current Director of Byzantine
Studies, for helping to bring this volume to fruition.
With this publication we honor the memory of Titos Papamastorakis, one of the contributors to this volume. A joyful friend and innovative thinker, Titos devoted his career to writing about Byzantine art in
the Peloponnese. May his memory be eternal.




Corinth Isthmia
Ayios Vasileios


2000 m
1500 m

1000 m

Mystras Sparta


500 m


200 m




100 m



Mani Peninsula



200 km


Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village

Ecclesiastical and Rural Landscapes
in the Late Byzantine Peloponnese

Sh a ron E . J. Gerst el

n the last two decades, archaeologists, geographers, and anthropologists focusing on landscape have developed a rich theoretical framework to support discussions of settlement patterns, community identity, place, memory, and collective
ritual.1 In examining the southern Peloponnese I would like to consider overlapping landscapesagrarian, sacred, and artisticand the place of villagers, settlements, and churches within these landscapes.
Nominally returned to Byzantine control in 1263, the land and its people were knit together by the
relationship of peasant and overlord, a relationship that inscribed settlements within an agricultural
landscape that was centuries old and engaged villagers in a seasonal cycle regulated by planting and harvesting, growth and decline. Yet the landscape was also set under the protection of holy powers. Divided
by metropolitan jurisdictions and marked by monasteries, hermitages, and small shrines, this sacred
landscape was ordered by a calendar of ritual celebration that had other temporal dimensions.
The natural environment plays a critical role in initiating any discussion of landscape. The Taygetos
and Parnon mountain ranges divide the southern Peloponnese into geographic microregions of highlands and valleys (fig. 1).2 Through the valley that rests between them flows the Eurotas River, which starts
its journey at the border of Arkadia and flows south to meet the Lakonian Gulf below the fertile plains of
Helos. Its many tributaries, formed from the torrents of water that descend from Taygetos and Parnon,
carved out deep ravines that separated populations on a seasonal basis.3 Divisions in populations that
1 The bibliography on this subject is extensive. See, among others, J. B. Jackson, Discovering the Vernacular Landscape
(New Haven, 1984); K. F. Anschuetz, R. H. Wilshusen, and C. L. Scheik, An Archaeology of Landscapes: Perspectives
and Directions, Journal of Archaeological Research 9, no. 2 (2001): 157211; W. Ashmore and A. B. Knapp, eds., Archaeologies
of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives (Malden, 1999); E. Hirsch and M. OHanlon, The Anthropology of Landscape:
Perspectives on Place and Space (Oxford, 1995). For a recent analysis of landscape studies within a Greek context, see H. Forbes,
Meaning and Identity in a Greek Landscape: An Archaeological Ethnography (Cambridge, 2007), 949.
2 For a discussion of the regions topography, see A. Philippson, Der Peloponnes:Versuch einer Landeskunde auf geologischer
Grundlage (Berlin, 1891).
3 On the effects of these torrents, see P. Armstrong, W. G. Cavanagh, and G. Shipley, Crossing the River: Observations


Church of the
Virgin Hodegetria
Monastery, Mystras,
Chamber of the
detail of vault and
north wall (photo:
courtesy of the Fifth
Ephoreia of Byzantine
Antiquities, Sparta)

Figure 1

Map of the
Peloponnese (map
by M. Saldaa)

resulted from these barriers were established from

ancient times; they are reflected, to some extent,
in the boundaries of modern-day prefectures. In
the late medieval period, these geographical features created opportunities for the establishment
of segregated communities, as demonstrated by
the large number of small hermitages and cave
chapels burrowed into the stone walls of gorges
that were carved out of the land by millennia of
the waters flood and retreat.
Parnon divided the regions two largest population centers, Mystras and Monemvasia. In
the fourteenth century, each was a powerful
on Routes and Bridges in Laconia from the Archaic to
Byzantine Periods, BSA 87 (1992): 293310.


sharon e. j. gerstel

metropolitan center, and each was associated

with well-known monasteries. These ecclesiastical institutions were closely tied to the surrounding countrysidethe agricultural lands that
supported them and the tax revenue that ensured
their survival. This relationship is critical to
understanding the place of the villager within
the larger landscape, for in the Morea, as in
other regions of Byzantium, many villagers were
paroikoi (dependent peasants). Registered in fiscal surveys of ecclesiastical estates and listed in
imperial and patriarchal acts, they owed the monastery and metropolitan both taxes and labor. As
we shall see, divisions between these metropolitan centers, and the relations of these centers with
dependent monasteries and endowed villages,

also influenced artistic and architectural commissions in the region.

Written and material sources provide critical
information about the landscape and the location
of Orthodox settlements in the fourteenth century. A large number of imperial and episcopal
acts list the land holdings and privileges of monasteries and bishoprics in the region. These documents record endowments, including villages and
their paroikoi, but they also chart agricultural
features. The documents additionally mention a
large number of metochia or monydria, small satellite establishments that made the boundaries of
the central monastery visible and set the borders
under divine protection.4
The analysis of texts from three places allows
us to consider where endowed properties were
located and what their location reveals about mapping landscapes in this period.

wall connects the small chamber to the church

narthex (figs. 3, 8). At the apex of the vault was
once an image of the blessing Christ held aloft
by angels. Four rays emanate from the framed
figure and terminate in hands that hold broad,
open scrolls, one on each of the chambers walls
(fig. 4); these painted copies of chrysobulls sent
by the ruling emperor to the monastery were
rendered permanent and incontestable through
their inscription on the walls. Painted on surfaces usually reserved for images of standing

The Church of the Virgin Hodegetria,

Brontocheion Monastery, Mystras
The first set is painted on the walls of the southwest chamber of the Hodegetria church, the
katholikon of the powerful Brontocheion Mon
astery in Mystras (fig. 2).5 The vaulted chamber is
small3.1 meters long by 2.7 meters wideand
dark.6 The north wall is pierced by a steep stairway that leads through a narrow portal to the
galleries above;7 an arched doorway in the same
4 For a recent study of churches as boundary markers, see
L. Nixon, Making a Landscape Sacred: Outlying Churches and
Icon Stands in Sphakia, Southwestern Crete (Oxford, 2006).
5 I thank Panagiotes Perdikoulias of the 5th Directorate
of Byzantine Antiquities for providing me with images
from this chamber. Permission to use these images was
granted by the Regional Archaeological Council. I am very
grateful to the members of the council and to the former
director of the Fifth Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities,
Kalliope Diamante, for their support of this research.
I also thank Aimilia Bakourou, Evangelia Pantou, and
Michalis Kappas for their advice and assistance.
6 G. Millet, Inscriptions byzantines de Mistra, BCH 32
(1899): 98.
7 At some point in the churchs history this stairway was
rebuilt. The decoration of the chamber, which framed the
stairway with a stepped border, demonstrates that the space
was always intended as a pass-through from the lower floor
to the gallery above.

Figure 2

Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphentiko), Brontocheion Monastery,

Mystras, exterior from the east (photo: S. Gerstel)

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 3

Church of the Virgin

Hodegetria (Aphentiko),
Brontocheion Monastery,
Mystras, plan (after
H. Hallensleben,
Untersuchungen zur
Genesis und Typologie
des Mistratypus,
MarbJb 18 [1969]: 106)

Figure 4

Church of the Virgin

Hodegetria (Aphentiko),
Brontocheion Monastery,
Mystras, Chamber of the
Chrysobulls, view of vault
and north wall (photo:
courtesy of the Fifth
Ephoreia of Byzantine
Antiquities, Sparta)

sharon e. j. gerstel

saints, the monumental texts, held aloft by otherworldly hands and sealed with the likeness
of Christs face, are iconic.8 Placed below the
blessing Christ, the enumerated privileges are
thus sanctioned by heaven. This relationship is
spelled out in the iambic verse that is divided by
the angels into four stanzas that mention Christ
as the lord of lords, the Palaiologoi, and the
founder of the church, Pachomios.9
Painted in a single campaign, the chrysobulls
are ordered by date, beginning on the east wall
with a text of 131415 and ending on the north with
a text of 1322.10 The text on the north wall covers
an earlier one, most likely also a chrysobull.11 The
scrolls originally had likenesses of golden seals
at the bottom.12 Writing in 1892, Constantine
Zesiou observed the likeness of Christ on one,
but this image and the others are long gone.13 The
letters, painted reddish brown, are approximately
8 For a reading of illuminated chrysobulls as the animated record of imperial donation, see A. Cutler, Legal
Iconicity: The Documentary Image, the Problem of Genre,
and the Work of the Beholder, in Byzantine Art: Recent
Studies; Essays in Honor of Lois Drewer, ed. C. Hourihane
(Princeton, 2009), 6379.
9 Millet, Inscriptions, 99100; A. Rhoby, Byzantinische
Epigramme auf Fresken und Mosaiken, vol. 1 of Byzantinische
Epigramme in Inschriftlicher berlieferung (Vienna, 2009),
10 K. Zesiou, : ,
in idem, (Athens, 1892), 4571 (hereafter );
idem, :
, in , vol. 1,
(Athens, 1917), 7294, nos. 2014; Millet, Inscriptions,
97156; F. Dlger, Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des Ostr
mischen Reiches von 5651453 (Munich and Berlin, 1960),
4:2305, 2341, 2437, 2438, 2483, 2485, 2633. I am very grateful to
Liz James, who provided me with a copy of her unpublished
masters thesis, Four Chrysobulls from the Monastery
of the Brontochion, Mistra (University of Birmingham,
1986). For Byzantine chrysobulls, see A. E. Mller, Imperial
Chrysobulls, in Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies, ed.
E. Jeffreys, J. Haldon, and R. Cormack (Oxford, 2008), 129
35. For chrysobulls of Andronikos II, see P. Alexander, A
Chrysobull of the Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus in
Favor of the See of Kanina in Albania, Byzantion 15 (1940
41): 167207.
11 This chrysobull mentions the church of SS. Theodore.
It is the only one of the five to use the term Morea. Millet,
Inscriptions, 118.
12 For a discussion of golden seals, see P. Grierson, Byzan
tine Gold Bullae, with a Catalogue of Those at Dumbarton
Oaks, DOP 20 (1966): 23953.
13Zesiou, , 43; Millet, Inscriptions, 99 n. 1.

2 centimeters in height. The names of the reigning

emperors, Andronikos II and, in one of the texts,
Michael IX, originally scribed in red ink in imitation of the cinnabar used for imperial signatures,
have worn off, leaving only faint traces at the bottom of each scroll.
The texts begin with praise for the emperors
justice and then laud the most honorable abbot
of the monastery sited at Mystras, the archimandrite and protosynkellos, Lord Pachomios.
Then, as common in such texts, the chrysobulls
enumerate the properties and people, that is,
paroikoi, that were endowed to the monastery,
charting the relationship of village and landlord,
but also mapping the borders, of both monastic
holdings and Orthodox territories.14 The chrysobulls of 131415 and 1319, located on the east and
south walls, endow the monastery with substantial properties, paroikoi, mills, trees, fields, and
vineyards (fig. 5).15 According to these, the monastery is given:
a zeugelateion next to the river called
Brysiotos, as great and of such kind as it is,
with a two-eyed mill on it, at the site called
Kalyvitos, land of 150 modii; other land in
different places, also of 150 modii; vineyards, olive trees and various fruit-bearing
trees; paroikoi in the area of Mystras, in
various places, a two-eyed mill, an agrid
ion at the place called Philetos, known as
Dragobiaston,16 as great and of such kind
as it is with its surrounds; four paroikoi at
Delvina; a monydrion in the revered name
of St. Demetrios and known as Pelatos,
with its surrounds; a metochion dedicated
to the holy and all-praiseworthy apostle
and evangelist John the Theologian, and
known as Kausalos,17 with its paroikoi,
14Zakythinos, DGM, 1:19697, 29697.
15 Millet, Inscriptions, 103, lines 31104, line 37; 109,
lines 30110, line 38.
16 For the site of Dragobiaston, see N. Skagkos,

, in ()malvasia,
ed. I. Anagnostakes (Athens, 2008), 251 n. 130. This excellent
article came to my attention after this chapter was written.
Translations are by the author unless otherwise noted.
17 Ibid., 252 n. 135 where the author provisionally associates
the monydrion with the late Byzantine single-aisled chapel of

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 5

Church of the Virgin

Hodegetria (Aphentiko),
Brontocheion Monastery,
Mystras, Chamber of the
Chrysobulls, south wall
(photo: courtesy of the
Fifth Ephoreia of Byzantine
Antiquities, Sparta)

vineyards, choraphia, olive trees and other

fruit-bearing trees, and mills; another met
ochion dedicated to the more-than-holy
Theotokos, also called Kalogonia,18 with its
paroikoi, and the choraphia there and other
rights, including those of water for ploughing which this metochion takes from that
river, the Gephyratos, for the irrigation of
the choraphia; the agridion called Mitatova
with its surrounds;19 another metochion
St. John the Theologian at Vouvali in the modern village of
Mystras. For this chapel, see .. 51 (1996): 159, pl. b.
18 Kalogonia is immediately to the south of Sparta.
19 Modern-day Agrapidoula. For archaeological remains
of this settlement, see W. Cavanagh et al., Continuity and
Change in a Greek Rural Landscape: The Laconia Survey
(London, 2002), 1:393.


sharon e. j. gerstel

around Helos,20 dedicated to St. Basil,

with its paroikoi and choraphia and mills;
at Mouchlion,21 another metochion dedicated to the saints Theodore, and called
Brontochei[on], with the choraphia that
belong to it, paroikoi and a mill; another
metochion dedicated to St. Nicholas, and
20 For medieval Helos, see J. M. Wagstaff, The Devel
opment of Rural Settlements: A Study of the Helos Plain in
Southern Greece (Amersham, England, 1982); W. D. Taylour
and R. Janko, Ayios Stephanos: Excavations at a Bronze Age
and Medieval Settlement in Southern Laconia, The British
School at Athens, suppl. vol. 44 (London, 2008), 6069
(with collected bibliography).
21 On Mouchli and its relations with Mystras and
Amyklion, see E. Dark,
, .... 10 (1933):

Figure 6

Sites identified in the

chrysobull of 1319 (map
by M. Saldaa)

to Mouchlion






Mitatoba (Agrapidoula)


Mystras Kalogonia


known as Molochos, with its surrounds

and the choraphia that it possesses; another
monydrion at Androusa dedicated to the
honored commanders of the heavenly powers and known as Ligude, with its rights.22
22The monydrion should likely be identified as the church
of the Archangel Michael (. ), a monastic
church first constructed in the 10th or 11th century. Located
on a hill above the village of Polichne, approximately 20 km

Of the sites that can be identified, several are close

to the city of Mystras, including Kalogonia and
Mitatova (fig. 6). The Brysiotis and Gephyratos
north of Androusa, the monastic enclosure was transformed into a kastro in the later medieval period, the castle
of the Holy Archangel named in the Acciajuoli estate inventories. Most recently, see M. Breuillot, Chateaux oublis de
la Messnie mdivale (Paris, 2005), 190200 (with earlier
bibliography). I thank Michalis Kappas for bringing this
site to my attention.

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Astros,26 the Maleve plain around Cholodome

tikon, and around the site called St. Nicholas,
known as Phouska. The donor of these properties
is recorded as the Sebastos Ioannes Polemianitos,
a member of a Moreote noble family.27 At least one
church from the named regions can be linked to the
period in which the lands were deeded to the monastery. In Kato Meligou/Cheimerini near Astros,
remains of monumental decoration in the small,
single-aisled church of St. George, a metochion of
the Old Panagia Church, have been dated to the late
thirteenth or fourteenth century (fig. 7).28
The September 1322 chrysobull, painted on the
north wall, includes a number of additional properties gifted to the monastery by Lord Andronikos
Palaiologos [Asen], the kephale of the land of the
Peloponnese (
) (fig. 8).29 Gained in battle, these include:

Figure 7

St. George, Kato

Meligou, apse with
inscription (photo:
courtesy of the Fifth
Ephoreia of Byzantine
Antiquities, Sparta)

are tributaries of the Eurotas River. The list ends

with two known locations outside of Lakonia:
Mouchli, in Arkadia, and Androusa, across Tayge
tos, in Messenia.23
The two later texts secure the rights to properties at a greater distance from Mystras. According
to the chrysobull of February 1320 painted on
the chambers west wall the monastery purchased properties at Zaravos.24 The same text
records the donation of properties at Passava,25

23 That Pachomios had an interest in properties in Mes

senia should come as no surprise. Androusa, located in fertile agricultural lands, was sited at the west end of a pass that
connected Messenia and Lakonia. Material evidencein
this case fragments of ecclesiastical sculpture that had been
transported from Sparta to Mystrashave been linked to a
workshop active in the region of Androusa around the year
1200, demonstrating that even before the Frankish conquest
there was an artisanal connection between the two areas.
On this workshop see G. Pallis,
( 12 13 .), .
... 27 (2006): 91100 (with collected bibliography).
24 Millet, Inscriptions, 113, lines 59.
25 The fortress is located in the northeast corner of the
Mani. See M. Breuillot,
: ," .. 11 (1992), 299309.


sharon e. j. gerstel

a metochion in the area of Skorta30 dedicated to the more-than-holy Theotokos and

known as Bogale ( ),
with its rights being paroikoi, vineyards,
choraphia, olive trees (fig trees, apple trees),
26 Astros is located to the east of Mount Parnon. Although
the text specifies the shore, the lands must have included
properties in the hills leading up to Mount Maleve. For
Astros, see Bon, La More franque, 51517.
27 Kyr Ioannes Polemianitos is also mentioned as the
patron of a manuscript (Madrid, Escurial, cod. -II-5) dated
131119, which contains homilies of St. John Chrysostom.
The colophon identifies the scribe as Nicholas Malotaras.
See S. Lampros,
. 4 (1907): 16466, 357. In 1317 and 1319 the same
scribe produced a manuscript for Pachomios, abbot of the
Brontocheion Monastery (Serres, Monastery of John the
Baptist, cod. 74). For this manuscript, see P. N. Papageorgiou,
, BZ 3 (1894): 32223. That the
nobleman and the abbot employed the same scribe suggests
that the two men knew each other and that the gift of properties from the Sebastos to the monastery was a donation made
to a familiar institution.
28 For the church of St. George, see .. 36 (1981):
2.1:142. A large settlement of the eleventh or twelfth century
is located on the road between Astros and Oreini Meiligou
(the specific site is called Sabbanas after a small chapel dedicated to St. Sabbas at this location); see .. 29 (1973
1974): 2.2:423; BCH 104 (1980): 605.
29 Millet, Inscriptions, 115, lines 5161, line 11; Zakythinos,
DGM, 2:297.
30 For Skorta, see Bon, La More franque, 36366.

and other fruit-bearing trees; and also two

choria called Zourtza31 and Mountra,32
enclosing within their borders Pacheia,
Choutza, Pratzydake and Klenova, with
their mills and trees. Similarly he gave to
this monastery land gained at Pistiana,
Topolana, and at the site of St. John. In like
manner through the prostagma and the
patriarchal sigillion grammaton is attached
to the same monastery another metochion
on the plain of Karytaina dedicated to the
more-than-holy Theotokos and known as
the New Monastery, with its paroikoi, vineyards, choraphia, olive trees and mill. Also
[the monastery] has land of 600 modii at
Passava through purchase.
These sites stretched the geographical reach of
the monastery substantially to the north, plotting a chain of villages that ran in a line between
Byzantine and Frankish-held lands.
In May 1366 landowners deeded additional
lands to the monastery through a patriarchal sigil
lion.33 These properties are located in the immediate vicinity of Mystrasvineyards, mills, fields,
and paroikoi near the area of Brysi,34 Barsova,35
Kalybitas, Trypi,36 Kalogonia, and Theologos
31 For medieval building remains at Zourtza (modern Kato Phigaleia [Bon, La More franque, 389]), see C.
Bouras, Zourtza: Une basilique byzantine au Ploponnese,
CahArch 21 (1971): 13749. The basilica dates to the late tenth
century but was still in use in the later period. I thank Kostis
Kourelis for discussing the location of this village with me.
32 Modern-day Phaskomelia. See Bon, La More franque,
389. For a discussion of the legal and fiscal status of these
villages, see D. Jacoby, Un rgime de coseigneurie grcofranque en More: Les Casaux de Paron, MlRome 75
(1963): 11125; repr. in D. Jacoby, Socit et dmographie
Byzance et en Romanie latine (London, 1975), IV.
33 MM, 1:47983.
34 For , see A. Philippidis-Braat, Inscriptions
du Ploponnse: Inscriptions du IXe au XV e sicle, TM 9
(1985): 324.
35 Modern-day Ayia Eirene. A post-Byzantine church
may be built on the foundations of an older monument.
36 Several Byzantine churches are located in or close
to the village. SS. Theodore, now in ruins, was decorated
with wall paintings in the late thirteenth century. See N. B.
, .... 25 (1955): 3887. To the northeast
of the village is the cave church of St. Nikon, with paintings dated to the late thirteenth century. See K. Diamante,

(fig. 9).37 The acquisition of properties in close

proximity to Mystras was undoubtedly intended
to augment the finances of the monastery. Finally,
in 1375, landowners gave arable fields at Terkova to
the monastery.38

, .. 9 (1988): 34787.
37 Several churches around this village date to the fourteenth century. St. Nicholas Achragias is dated to the end of
the fourteenth century. For this church, see note 117 below.
The Old Monastery of the Forty Martyrs near Theologos
is decorated with wall paintings of the thirteenth century,
13045, and the fifteenth century. N. B. Drandakes,

, .... 16 (199192): 11538. The
church of the Virgin, between the village of Theologos and
the monastery, has wall paintings of 13045. PhilippidesBraat, Inscriptions, 32627. Drandakes recorded two
additional churches in the area that are in ruins. See N.
B. Drandakes,
, .. 13 (1996): 172.
38 The donation is recorded in a nonscribal colophon

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 8

Church of the Virgin

Hodegetria (Aphentiko),
Brontocheion Monastery,
Mystras, Chamber of the
Chrysobulls, north wall
(photo: courtesy of the
Fifth Ephoreia of Byzantine
Antiquities, Sparta)








Barsova (Ayia Eirene)


Figure 9

properties from
sigillion of 1366 (map
by M. Saldaa)

on fol. 244 of cod. Vat. Gr. 352. N. Bees,

, in
(Jerusalem, 1907), 24148; K. Maxwell, Another
Lectionary of the Atelier of the Palaiologina, Vat. Gr. 352,
DOP 37 (1983): 4754. The inscription of the colophon in
the Gospel Book, like the inscription of the chrysobulls
within the Hodegetria Church, was intended to safeguard
the terms of the donation. Is it possible that Terkova is the
village Tserova (modern-day Drosopege, located between
Areopolis and Gytheion)? Paintings in the church of St.


sharon e. j. gerstel

The Hodegetria chrysobulls form part of the

integral program of a single chambera test case
for considering the intersection of word, image,
and spatial experience. Serving as a transitional
zone, the chamber connected liturgical space on
the ground floor to what might have been a more
George in this village have been dated to the first quarter of
the fourteenth century. ... (1981): 26364. The
village is located near Karyoupolis.

private space of monastic contemplation or one

for administrative functions in the churchs galleries.39 Passing through the chamber literally
meant passing by lists of rites and properties, a visible proclamation as the bounty of the words proclaimed status and mapped landscapes. Like acts
written within Gospel books,40 the inscription of
chrysobulls on the walls of the chapel rendered
the privileges permanent and afforded protection to documents that were subject to removal
or destruction. In a sense, the chamber acted as a
small treasury, housing texts whose words translated into wealth and material sustenance.
In addition to endowing properties to the
monastery, the chrysobulls exempted the community from taxes and proclaimed the monasterys
alienation from the oversight of the local metropolitan. The documents thus empowered the
monastery and fostered its relative independence.
Yet the permanent inscription of endowed properties suggests that the monumental representation
of the chrysobulls also served a larger purpose in
mapping imperial territories in the region. The
inscription of churches and villages in contested
realms or recently conquered lands reveals an
attempt to establish boundaries among Byzan
tine, Frankish, and Venetian territories. Androusa
bordered Venetian-held properties in Messenia
as well as the large land estates that would come
39 Scholars have yet to understand the function of the
galleries in this church and others of the Mystras type.
The stairway to the upper level is steep and the galleries are
narrow. The unusual representation of life-sized figures of
the seventy disciples, visible from the ground floor of the
church (even if one allows for the restoration of screens),
made the gallery appear to be populated with standing figures and may indicate that the upper levels of the church
were more ceremonial than functional. On the galleries in
churches of Mystras, see most recently, G. Marinou,
, (Athens, 2002), 199
212. See also C. Delvoye, Considrations sur lemploi des
tribunes dans lglise de la Vierge Hodigitria de Mistra,
in Actes du XIIe CEB, vol. 3 (Belgrade, 1964), 4247; H.
Hallensleben, Untersuchungen zur Genesis und Typologie
des Mistratypus, MarbJb 18 (1969): 10518. On the imagery of the seventy disciples, which was later copied in the
Pantanassa Church at Mystras, see S. Dufrenne, Les pro
grammes iconographiques des glises byzantines de Mistra,
Bibliothque des Cahiers Archologiques 4 (Paris, 1970),
4344, 61, pls. 1416.
40 For the inscription of acts in Gospel books, see the
chapter by H. Saradi in this volume.

into the possession of the Florentine Acciajuoli.41

Mouchli, in Arkadia, and Skorta and its associated
villages bordering Elis, were close to Frankishheld territories in the northern Peloponnese. The
texts also provide evidence of land and population
exchange, mapping shifting political landscapes.
Two villages recently liberated from Latin control ( ) are included in
the texts.42 Moreover, the chrysobull on the south
wall of the chapel authorizes the resettlement of
eleutheroi (landless peasants) from Latin-held
lands onto monastic properties.43
The texts inventory settlements, workers, and
agricultural features that were necessary to sustain the monastery. These are precious sources for
the study of the agrarian economy of late medieval Lakonia. The chrysobulls carefully differentiate among zeugelateia, agridia, and choria, legal
terms concerning the size, nature, and duration of
agricultural settlements. Valuable information is
provided about the location of vineyards, arable
fields, and fruit trees that provided figs, apples,
and, of course, olives. Together with these are
listed the villagers, the paroikoi, who were bound
to the land and beholden to the monastery. Water
mills, frequently mentioned, were a common feature of agricultural communities, especially in
mountainous regions, where the kinetic energy of
fast-flowing streams exerted the necessary power
to turn the wooden paddle wheel that rotated the
millstone.44 The chrysobulls list both mills and
two-eyed mills, that is, two-channeled or twinflumed mills.45 The repeated mention of mills in
41 For the Acciajuoli estates in the region, see J. Longnon
and P. Topping, Le rgime des terres dans la principaut de
More au XIV e sicle (Paris, 1969). The residents of Androusa
(Drusa) are listed in the 1354 inventory of the estates of
Niccol Acciajuoli. See ibid., 9495.
42 Millet, Inscriptions, 118.
43 Ibid., 111; Zakythinos, DGM, 2:206
44 On middle Byzantine water mills, see J. Teall, The
Byzant ine Agricultural Tradition, DOP 25 (1971): 52.
45 An example of a two-channeled or twin-flumed mill of
the late Byzantine or early Ottoman period was recorded
by a British survey team during field reconnaissance in the
Langada Valley near Sparta. See W. Cavanagh et al., Con
tinuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape: The Laconia
Survey, vol. 2, Archaeological Data (London, 1996), 35255,
ill. 24.22. Ironically, Cardinal Bessarion, writing in 1444
to Constantine Palaiologos, despot of the Morea, seems to
advocate the introduction of vertical water wheels to the

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


the documents established title to these facilities

but also asserted control over their water sources.
The income derived from the use of the inventoried mills would have benefited the monastery.
Reciprocally, the oversight of the monastery
would have ensured the smooth operation of the
facility, which could have been used by a number
of villagers.46
Reference is also made to a sacred landscape
that is marked by the location and dedication of
chapels and hermitages. Noteworthy is the large
number of churches mentioned in the earlier
texts: two monydria and five metochia. The military saints, Demetrios and Theodore, are among
those who guard the territory of the monastery
through the dedication and placement of related
chapels. These small establishments presumably
maintained close links with the Brontocheion
Monastery, a link that was reified through the
duplication of the monasterys name, and the
name of one of its churches, for the dedication of
SS. Theodore, called Brontocheion, at Mouchli.47
The Mystras chrysobulls can be compared
to a small number of imperial edicts that were
recorded in churches, either in paint or in sculpture, beginning in the middle Byzantine period
but increasing in number in the late Byzantium.48
region. This technological innovation was used for waterdriven sawmills and iron mills in Italy and the West. A
transcription of the letter, found in Biblioteca Marciana,
cod. 533, was published by S. Lampros,

, . 3 (1906): 26, lines 510. See also A. G.
Keller, A Byzantine Admirer of Western Progress, Cam
bridge Historical Journal 11, no. 3 (1955): 34348.
46 This is surely one incentive for the donation of mills or
shares of mills to monasteries in the late Byzantine period.
The number of dishonest millers lampooned in paintings in
village churches, damned for eternity and strangled by the
weight of their filled sacks, scoops, millstones, and measures,
provides visual evidence that the smooth running of the mill
was critical to the village economy and also to social order.
47 Hagioi Theodoroi was the first church built in the
Brontocheion Monastery. On its foundation and decoration, see A. K. Orlandos, ,
, .... 12 (1936):
44348; Dufrenne, Les programmes iconographiques, 35.
48 On these texts, see most recently S. Kalopissi-Verti,
Church Inscriptions as Documents: Chrysobulls, Eccle
siastical Acts, Inventories, Donations, Wills, ...
. 24 (2003): 80 (with collected bibliography). An additional chrysobull, issued by Theodore Angelos of Epiros
in June 1228 and inscribed on marble, once found in the


sharon e. j. gerstel

The existence of permanent chrysobulls in katho

lika suggests the enhanced role of monasteries as
agents for the distant emperor in repatriating lands
(and people) that had been lost to Byzantium in
recent times of conflict. The chrysobulls concretized through permanent inscription the rights
to regained territories and tenants. And yet,
although the inscription of monumental chrysobulls in the Hodegetria chamber can be related to
an established Byzantine practice,49 it is also very
much the product of a Peloponnesian mentalit,
where the presentation of lengthy texts for public display had a long history.50 Such inscriptions
were common both at Mystras and, more broadly,
in Lakoniaa local and regional practice that
may have informed the design of the chrysobull
chamber and suggests something about the intentions of the abbot, Pachomios.
Understood within a local context, the painting of imperial chrysobulls may reveal an attempt
to define a closer boundary, one that was manifested in physical terms through the construction of the very walls that enclosed the monastery,
separating it not only from the lay public but
also from a neighboring church that occupied
the same corner of the city. St. Demetrios, the
metropolitan church, also contained permanent
inscriptions that listed properties and set boundaries, and these must be seen in connection with,
and in contrast to, the documents on display in
Pachomioss church.
Although Nikephoros Moschopoulos, the
builder of the church of St. Demetrios, gifted the
eighteenth-century collection of Senator Giacomo Nani
in Venice, is today in the Capitoline Museum in Rome. The
marble plaque, which measures 1.12 0.60 meters, has forty
lines of text. For the transcription of the text and a photograph of the stone, see I. Guidi, Iscrizione Greca medievale Cercirese, Bollettino della Commissione Archeologica,
Communale di Roma 9 (1881): 18996, pl. 12; A. Martin,
Inscription grecque de Corcyre de 1228, MlRome 2 (1882):
37989, pl. XIII. See also the chapter by Saradi above.
49 The Nemanid rulers of Serbia copied the Byzant ine
practice; these painted documents are also largely found in
churches close to the border of the empire. See KalopissiVerti, Church Inscriptions, 8083 (with collected
50 One has only to think of the Edictum Diocletiani,
promulgated in AD 301. Fragments of the lengthy inscription were built into churches in Geraki and Oitylon (Mani)
and have also been recovered in Gytheion (Mani) and in

Figure 10

Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphentiko), Brontocheion Monastery, Mystras, view of nave
(photo: S. Gerstel)

Figure 11

Church of St. Demetrios (Metropolitan Church), Mystras, view of nave (photo: S. Gerstel)
Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Brontocheion Monastery with an inscribed gospel

book (Moscow, Synodal Library, cod. gr. 12),51 it is
clear that he and Pachomios also vied with each
other over the acquisition of lands and the adornment of their churches. It is, perhaps, not by accident that the lower level of the Hodegetria church,
a basilica, appropriates an architectural type most
often associated with metropolitan churches in
the middle and late Byzantine periods (fig. 10).52
One catalyst behind the decoration of the chamber of the chrysobulls at the Hodegetria church
may have been an inscribed column in the metropolitan church, also in the southwest corner of the
building. This was the first of several columns that
would display the holdings of the Church. The
accretion of inscribed texts within the two buildings suggests that the metropolitans and abbots
were actively and simultaneously soliciting properties to sustain their respective establishments.

St. Demetrios, Mystras

Four episcopal acts are inscribed on columns in
the nave of the metropolitan church (fig. 11). These
acts record gifts of lands, villages, and paroikoi
primarily in the immediate vicinity of Mystras.53
The earliest of the texts, dated 1312 and linked to
the metropolitan Nikephoros Moschopoulos, is
carved into the westernmost column of the basilicas south colonnade, that is, to the right of the
west entrance to the church (fig. 12). The text mentions the acquisition of a mill at Magoula and vineyards at Leuki, both villages close to Mystras.54
51 See Archimandrite Vladimir, Sistematicheskoe opisanie
rukopisei Moskovskoi sinodalnoi biblioteki, vol. 1, Rukopisi
grecheskii (Moscow, 1894), 1213; Zakythinos, DGM, 2:285;
A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, ,
BZ 12 (1903): 220.
52 P. L. Vocotopoulos,

7 10 (Thessalonike, 1975),
53 Millet, Inscriptions, 12227; Zesiou, ,
1:2429; G. Marinou, :
(Athens, 2002), 23943. For a history of this metropolitan seat, see M. Galanopoulou,
(Athens, 1939), 1262.
54 Zesiou, , 1:24; 2:432; Millet, Inscriptions,
12223; Marinou, , 239; Zakythinos,
DGM, 2:282, 284; Papadopoulos-Kerameus,


sharon e. j. gerstel

The third column to the left of the west entrance,

that is, confronting the south portal, an act of 1330
of the metropolitan Luke, confirms the properties
mentioned in the first and adds a vineyard.55 Below
this act is another of 1341,56 under the name of the
metropolitan Neilos, which mentions the paroikoi
of the villages of Magoula, Leuke, Parori,57 and
Sapikos. Two other acts issued by Neilos in May
and December 1339, carved into the easternmost
column of the south colonnade, list more extensive properties, including a zeugelateion near
Brysi; paroikoi and unworked stasia near Magoula;
mills, olive trees, vineyards, and paroikoi in Parori
and Sapikos; properties at Leuke;58 and the
Monydrion of John the Baptist next to the river, a
location that has been identified as Trypi (fig. 13).59
The properties listed in the acts are all close to
Mystras (fig. 14). Several of them, such as Magoula
and Parori, have substantial Byzantine remains
dated to circa 1300, including three churches with
wall paintings from this period.60 Important evidence of habitation can also be seen in recent excavations at Parori, which unearthed modest graves
dating to the period in which the acts were promulgated (fig. 15).61 In addition to the remains of
, 220. See also the chapter by A. Papalexandrou
in this volume.
55 Zesiou, , 1:2627; 2:43536; Millet, Inscrip
tions, 12324; Marinou, , 240.
56 Zesiou, , 1:27; 2:43337; Millet, Inscrip
tions, 124; Marinou. , 242.
57 Paintings in the cave church of the Virgin Langadiotissa
outside of Parori have been dated to the fourteenth century.
According to Drandakes, the painted bishops stylistically
resemble the episcopal figures in the Hodegetria Church,
Mystras: N. B. Drandakes,
, .. (1994): 3133.
58 Spolia from the Byzantine period are incorporated into
the walls and pavement of the church of the Zoodochos Pege
in Leuke. See Drandakes, , 180 n. 9.
59 Zesiou, , 1:2629; 2:43235; Millet, Inscrip
tions, 12426; Marinou, , 24041. For surviving Byzantine structures at Trypi, see Drandakes,
, 87 n. 2.
60 The church of St. Nikander is located at Ambrazi, to
the right of the road from Magoula to Varsova. St. Nicholas
is located outside of the village, adjacent to the Salvara
tower, on the road that leads to Trypi. See N. B. Drandakes,
, ..
(1969): 49.
61 The rescue excavation in 1995 by D. Charalambous provided critical evidence for the existence of a late medieval

Figure 12

Church of St. Demetrios (Metropolitan Church), southwest

column of nave (photo: A. Papalexandrou). I had it (the church of
St. Demetrios) built to glorify God and the Holy Great Martyr of
God, Demetrios, and I also raised from the foundations five mills in
Magoula, and I also planted both an olive grove and an orchard in
Magoula, and in Leuke I planted vineyards. I also bought the houses
of the Chartophylax Eugenios right next to the church. Afterwards
he tried coercively or with whatever means he could to remove them
from the Church: Greek text in G. Millet, Inscriptions byzantines
de Mistra, BCH 23 (1899): 122.

Figure 13

Church of St. Demetrios

(Metropolitan Church),
southeast column of
nave (photo: S. Gerstel)

several individuals, the graves contained glazed

pottery and plain wares as well as iron shoe protectors. Connections between the metropolitan
church and its endowed properties must have
been tight. The similar, though later, inscribing
of columnsseventeen or eighteen lines divided
over five columnsin the church of the Virgin
at Parori shows that the practice of using church
settlement in this location. The excavation of eight tombs
yielded glazed and unglazed pottery, parts of shoes, clasps
from garments, coffin nails, and two Venetian torneselli,
one dated to the reign of Antonio Venier (13821400). See
.. 50 (1995): 145, 16869; BCH 124 (2000): 815. A
second rescue excavation in Parori, in 1997 and 1998, to the
west of the church of the Dormition of the Virgin, brought
to light three tombs and the grave of a child. An earring and
bells for the decoration of clothing were found in one of the
tombs housing the bones of a woman: .. 53 (1998):
2.1:22122 (and private conversation with the excavator).
I thank Ms. Charalambous for providing photos from her
excavation for this publication.

columns as surfaces for the inscription of lengthy

texts may have traveled from St. Demetrios to a
church in its dependent village.62 Further evidence
62 For the text of 1389 concerning Despot Theodore I
Palaiologos, which was once carved on five columns in the
church of the Virgin at Parori, see Millet, Inscriptions,
15155. For an English translation see the Appendix to the
chapter by Leonte in this volume. S. Kalopissi-Verti has
also noted the one-time existence of carved columns in
the katholikon of the monastery of Varnakova in Aetolia.
The columns were destroyed during the reconstruction
of the old church in 1831. See Kalopissi-Verti, Church

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village



Mystras Magoula


ot a s Riv

Figure 14

Identifiable properties from acts of the metropolitan

Neilos of 1339 and 1341 (map by M. Saldaa)

Figure 15

Parori, excavated
tombs (photo: D.

of a connection between St. Demetrios and Parori

may be detected in the hand of a sculptor who
may have carved reliefs in both the metropolitan
church and the village. The relief of a warrior saint
found at Parori and a capital from the sanctuary
screen of St. Demetrios carved with the figure
of a centaur display the same treatment of facial

Inscriptions, 84; K. Sathas,

: ,
1865; repr. Athens, 1962), 4244.


sharon e. j. gerstel

features; the figures hold their shields in a very

similar fashion (figs. 16, 17).63
Column shafts inscribed with lengthy texts
were found not only in St. Demetrios and at the
Church of the Virgin in Parori; such texts were
also displayed in other churches in Mystras and
elsewhere in Lakonia. A verse of forty-six lines
was carved into the four columns that formed the
portico of the church of St. Sophia at Mystras.64
fourteenth- or fifteenth-century testament carved
on a column shaft today in the Pikoulas Tower
Museum in Areopolis, Mani, records vineyards
and farmland from the bishoprics of Amyklion
and Kranoupolis given in exchange for memorial services (fig. 18).65 The columnar shape and
inscription of an act endowing properties recalls
the large number of boundary stones preserved
from Byzantium, many of them marking out the
limits of monastic properties and many terminating in curses placed upon anyone who might move
them.66 A document of 1755 describes a column of
63 Of bluish marble, the plaque measures 0.85 0.53
meters. See A. J. B. Wace, Lakonia, V: Frankish Sculptures at
Parori and Geraki, BSA 11 (19045): 13940; Bon, La More
franque, 592. For the centaur, see S. Gerstel, An Alternate
View of the Late Byzantine Sanctuary Screen, in Thresholds
of the Sacred: Architectural, Art Historical, Liturgical, and
Theological Views on Religious Screens, East and West, ed.
S. Gerstel (Washington, DC, 2006), 148, fig. 14.
64 Millet, Inscriptions, 14346. For the church, see M.
Emmanouel, :
, in
(19261996): (Ioannina, 2003),
65 The fragmentary column preserves seventeen lines
of the inscription: Philippidis-Braat, Inscriptions, 322
24 (with collected bibliography); R. Etzoglou, Karyou
polis: Une ville byzantine dserte, Byzantion 52 (1982):
83123, pl. II; Tales of Religious Faith in Mani, exh. cat.,
Pikoulas Tower Museum, Areopoli, Mani (Athens, 2005),
66 See, for example, a similar text on a white marble column shaft mentioning the metochion of the monastery of
St. Nicholas (located between the villages of
Loukas and Neochorio near Tripoli) in the region of Skorta.
The malediction of the 318 Nicaean fathers is close to that
inscribed on the columns at St. Demetrios: Philippidis-Braat,
Inscriptions, 34445; N. Bees,
, VizVrem 11 (1904): 6367. Such markers are also
found in other parts of the Byzantine world. An inscribed
marker from the region of Nicomedia, Bithynia, between
the Monastery () toward the west and
toward the east the monastery places a curse on

Figure 16

Figure 17

Parori, immured figure of a soldier

(photo: S. Gerstel)

Church of St. Demetrios (Metropolitan Church),

centaur capital from icon screen (photo: S. Gerstel)

1340 found at the monydrion of St. John the Baptist

at Trypi, which was inscribed with the name of the
metropolitan of Lakedaimonia and confirmed
the metropolitans possession of fields and a vineyard in that village. The monydrion of St. John the
Baptist at Trypi is recorded among the endowed

properties and institutions in the act of 1339

carved into the southeast column of St. Demetrios
(fig. 13).67 This valuable document demonstrates

whomever moves the marker: A. Avramea and D. Feissel, De

Chalcdoine Nicomdie, TM 10 (1987), 43233. The inscription is dated to the tenth or eleventh century. An engraved
column from Trikala, dated 137273, now in the Istanbul
Archaeological Museum, ensures the rights to the villages
(?) of Megalommatou and Monampelon. See A. Avramea
and D. Feissel, Inventaires en vue dun recueil des inscriptions historiques de Byzance, IV: Inscriptions de Thessalie,
TM 10 (1987): 38385, pl. IX.2. For common curses, see H.
Saradi, Cursing in the Byzantine Notarial Acts: A Form of
Warranty, 17 (1994): 441553.

67 Charles Buchon recorded an inscribed column of

1340 at the monastery of St. John the Baptist at Trypi. The
inscription listed the property endowed to the metropolitan of Lakedaimonia: J.-A. Buchon, Recherches historiques
sur la principaut franaise de More, 2 vols. (Paris, 1845), I.
LX, LXXIX. Buchon notes: La colonne subsiste cependant
encore; et si lglise du couvent, place dans une situation
ravissante, scroule avant peu, il sera facile de la transporter
Misitra (sic), qui nen est loigne que dune lieue. The document of 1755 reads:
, ,

, , ,

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 18

villages and broader regions under the jurisdiction of Frank, Florentine, Venetian, or Byzantine.
These boundary lines were not simply markers of
territory, but signifiers of power.68 Artificially created and dynamic in their frequent redefinition,
these boundaries exploited the natural landscape
of the region and fixed the place of villages and villagers within an imagined landscape.

Areopolis, Mani. Pikoulas

Tower Museum. Column
(after Tales of Religious
Faith in Mani, exh. cat.,
Pikoulas Tower Museum
[Athens, 2005], 70).
. . . are the same, irrevocably
and eternally not to be
returned, from the bishopric
of Amyklion the vineyard
of Yeranos, from that of
Kranoupolis (Karyoupolis?)
the vineyard of Daps/nou
and, by purchase from the
Vrysiotoi free farmland
and vineyards on this site,
in order to hold services
on three days of the week,
Monday, Tuesday, and
Thursday, in the church and
at the saints tomb. If anyone
dares remove any of the said
properties of the church, let
him have the curse of the
inspired fathers in Nicaea,
and of myself, the sinner.
Year . . . Indiction . . .

Monemvasia, located on the eastern coast of
the Peloponnese and divided from the region of
Mystras by Parnon, was also guaranteed lands
and people by imperial decree. A chrysobull of
June 1301 issued by Emperor Andronikos II to the
metropolitan of Monemvasia enumerates substantial properties given to the city.69 These rich
agricultural lands include:
the village of Ganganeas,70 with its
paroikoi, estates, its rights and its use, land
in the village of Nomia with its paroikoi,71

how inscribed and prominently displayed stone

markers established, irrevocably, the legal obligations of monastic landlord, subsidiary metochion,
and tenant farmers for the region.
In Lakonia, lengthy texts were inscribed on the
walls and columns of churches in order to delineate
and concretize the boundaries of monastic properties; to exert episcopal authority; and to place

(6848 = 1340).


sharon e. j. gerstel

68 On such a concept, see H. Kuper, The Language of

Sites, American Anthropologist 74 (1972): 41125.
69 MS Escor, S-I-12. Fols. 72r73r. E. Miller, Catalogue des
manuscrits grecs de la bibliothque de lEscurial (Amsterdam,
1966), 6165; MM, 5:16364. On the identification of
some of these villages, see T. Gritsopoulos,

, in
(Athens, 198283), 4546. For a rough translation of the text
and commentary, see H. Kalligas, Byzantine Monemvasia:
The Sources (Athens, 1990), 22327. Kalligass translation
changes the order of the listed villages; I have amended the
text to accord with the original Greek version, which lists the
village in roughly topographical order. A chrysobull of 1405
issued by Manuel II Palaiologos endows the metropolitan
with additional villages. For this text, see MM, 5:16870.
70 Outside of Ganganeas, the church of the Panayitsa or
Chrysaphitissa, the katholikon of a monastery, may have been
built on the remains of an earlier building: N. Drandakes,
S. Kalopissi, and M. Panayotidi,
, ... (1983): 237 (M. Panayotidi).
71 The double-naved Church of the Holy Apostles,
located at the site of Vrysika, between the villages of Lyra
and Nomia, has been dated to the first half of the fourteenth
century based on stylistic comparison of its wall paintings to others in Geraki and the Mani: N. Drandakes et al.,
, ... (1982):
39194 (V. Kepetzi).

and those in the village of Teria.72 A hamlet () in Lyra, with its paroikoi and
estates, of Mountouson, and estates at
Sion; a village in the plain called Episkopia
with its paroikoi and the land owned by
the church; fields in different locations of
Helos with water mills that were erected
by the church and a vineyard;73 a hamlet
called St. Kournoutos with its paroikoi;
another hamlet called Kamara with its
paroikoi and estates; the Monastery of
St. George at Prinikos with its paroikoi,74
a lake, and the entire contribution of
acorns, half of which previously went to
the civil administration;75 the village of
Peziamenoi with its paroikoi and estates
and all of the rights that go with it;76 the
village of Philodendron with its paroikoi
and estates; the monastery of St. John
the Baptist in Zaraphona with its paroikoi
72 The wall paintings in Terias cemetery church of the
Dormition have been compared stylistically to late thirteenth-century frescoes in the church of the Taxiarchs in the
village of Ayios Nikolaos near Monemvasia and the church
of St. Nicholas near Geraki: Drandakes et al., ,
... (1982): 38689 (V. Kepetzi). Wall paintings
in the chapel of St. Anna, attached to the north side of the
church of the Dormition, have been dated to the late twelfth
or thirteenth century based on style. See Drandakes et al.,
, ... (1982): 38991 (V. Kepetzi).
For an architectural study of the two buildings, see A. G.
Kalligas et al., A Church with a Roman Inscription in
Tairia, Monemvasia, BSA 97 (2002): 46990.
73 For the area of Helos, which is also mentioned in the
Mystra chrysobulls of 131415 and 1319, see above, note 20.
74 The site of the church of St. George at Prinikos can be
identified as Brinikon, modern Asteri. See Gritsopoulos,
, 45; G. A. Pikoulas,
: (Athens, 2001), no. 543.
75 Centuries later William Leake described Prinikos as
about a mile from the sea side; opposite to it begins the
lagoon which extends for a mile along the shore, and then
becomes a marsh as far as the south-eastern extremity of
the plain, where the beach ceases, and the hills end in cliffs
over-hanging the sea. The lake is about half a mile broad in
the widest part: W. M. Leake, Travels in the Morea, 3 vols.
(London, 1830), 1:199. Leake (200) also noted the ruins of a
chapel outside of the village.
76 Modern-day Glykovrysi. See Gritsopoulos, ,
45; Pikoulas, , nos. 884, 885 (). The church of
St. George in the cemetery of Ano Glykovrysi may have been
constructed in the Byzantine period. See Drandakes et al.,
, ... (1983): 236 (S. Kalopissi).

and all of the rights attached to it;77 vineyards at Phota;78 in the village of Pollon
Xenion the amount of 25 hyperpyra; a
hamlet at Ripiai with its neighboring site of
Kalamion and Dikasterion, and the possessions of the most holy church at Sorakas,79
Koulendia,80 Koumaraia, Voulkane, Mese,
and Dodaia, but also at Nodys, which also
comprises a lake, a tower, and an old castle.
Most of these villages can be located today, and
many preserve the remains of modest churches
that were painted in the late thirteenth or early
fourteenth century (fig. 19). Several of the villages,
including Zaraphona (modern-day Kallithea),
Phota (modern-day Phoutia), and Koulendia
(modern-day Helleniko), preserve two or even
three churches that can be dated to the late Byzan
tine period, a pattern of multiple church construction that is typical for agrarian villages of
this period.
Like the Mystras chrysobulls and acts, the
Monemvasia chrysobull includes agricultural
features such as mills, vineyards, and fields. The
77 Modern-day Kallithea. The cave church of St. John
the Baptist, outside of the village, is dated to the early fourteenth century: N. B. Drandakes,
- , in :
(Athens, 1991), 13640. In the fourteenth
century, a narthex was added to the impressive basilica at
the center of Zaraphona. See D. Hayer, La Dormition-dela-Vierge de Zaraphona (Laconie): Des lments nouveaux,
BZ 80 (1987): 36070.
78 Modern-day Phoutia. The church of St. John is found
north of the settlement of Ayia Sophia, which belongs to
Phoutia. The singled-aisled church is in ruins: Drandakes et
al., , ... (1982): 4012 (V. Kepetzi). The
single-aisled church of St. George, today the villages cemetery church, preserves paintings from circa 1400. The paintings have been compared stylistically to those preserved
in the Cheimatissa Monastery near Phloka: Drandakes
et al., , ... (1982): 4024 (V. Kepetzi).
V. Kepetzi,

, in : . .
(Thessalonike, 1994), 50830.
79 The church of St. John to the east of the abandoned village has been dated to the late thirteenth century: Drandakes
et al., , ... (1982): 400 (V. Kepetzi).
80 Modern-day Helleniko. At least three Byzantine
churches are preserved in the village and its surrounds: St.
Paraskeve, the Transfiguration, and St. John. See Drandakes
et al., , ... (1982): 4078 (V. Kepetzi).

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village




v er





Phota (Phoutia)
Figure 19

Identifiable properties
from chrysobull of 1301
(map by M. Saldaa)

terminology of settlements is precise, differentiating between villages (choria) and hamlets

(agridia). Within this text, one can relate the location of many of the villages to a local agricultural
product: grapes. Many of the named churches
and villages are clustered along roads or in valleys, mostly on the eastern side of the peninsula,
the side that had white, chalky soil capable of sustaining vineyards and the areas that had a longer
exposure to the sun. For example, the church of

sharon e. j. gerstel

A-Tzouras (Panagia Kyra) marks the medieval

site of Lyra (Lira), which is mentioned in the document as a hamlet (fig. 20).81 Archaeologists have
81 The church, in the middle of olive groves, is located
approximately 2 kilometers south of modern-day Lira and is
accessed by dirt roads. The cross-in-square church, today in
ruins and filled with vegetation, has cloisonn masonry on
the upper exterior walls. Traces of the base of a built feature,
perhaps a bishops throne, are preserved along the lower register of the east wall of the central apse. To either side of this

Figure 20

A-Tzouras (Panagia
Kyra), Lira, exterior
(photo: S. Gerstel)

noted fragments of medieval walls and at least one

wine press in the fields surrounding the church;
these material remains help test the accuracy
of the chrysobull. Phota (Phoutia), mentioned
together with its vineyards, is also located on
the eastern side of the peninsula; medieval wine
presses have been documented in that village as
well as in the villages of Sorakas and Koulendia.82
The iron-rich soil on the west, darker, side of the
peninsula was, and still is, used to grow other
crops such as olives. The chrysobull thus mapped
feature are still preserved paintings from the dado zone of
the apse, which was decorated to imitate marble revetment
with blue and red veining. I thank Mr. Petros Andresakis for
guiding me to the church and for discussing architectural
remains in the surrounding fields. According to Andresakis,
numerous walls belonging to houses have been dismantled in recent years. A wine press located in close proximity to the church was no longer visible in August 2010. Wine
presses in the region are discussed in G. Skagkou,
, in
()malvasia, ed. I. Anagnostakes (Athens, 2008),
30919. I thank Panayiotes Skagkos for discussing this site
and its agricultural features with me. For the church, see
Drandakes et al., , ... (1982): 39799
(V. Kepetzi). The paintings Kepetzi described have deteriorated dramatically.
82 Skagkou, , 31113, 317.

specific villages within the territorial borders of

Monemvasia, especially those with vineyards on
the eastern side of Epidauros Limera, guaranteeing the economic stability of the city by protecting
the source of its wine trade.
These documentschrysobulls and episcopal actsestablished boundaries between recaptured Byzantine territories and ones recently
gained from the Franks. The Hodeget
chrysobulls explicitly mention lands captured
by Andronikos Asen and given to the monastery,
the resettlement of populations from Latin-held
regions, and the names of villages in disputed
territories. In this fashion, and on behalf of the
emperor, the monastery guarded the frontier of
Byzantium, defending the line not only by settlements, but by the holy powers evoked through
the dedication of dependent churchesa meto
chion dedicated to the warrior saints Theodore
at Mouchli; a monydrion dedicated to the archangels, the commanders of the heavenly powers,
at Androusa; and a monastery dedicated to St.
George at Prinikos. Divine powers also protected
the boundary, summoning otherworldly assistance but also assuring the integrity of the borderline through the presence of the church building,
more permanent a marker than a boundary stone.

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 21

Chrysobull of Andronikos II, 1301, Byzantine and

Christian Museum, Athens, acc. no. 534 (courtesy
of the Byzantine and Christian Museum, Athens)
Figure 22

Chrysobull of 1314
(Athens National
Library 1462)
(courtesy of the
National Library of

Figure 23

Chrysobull of 1314
(Athens National
Library 1462)
(courtesy of the
National Library of


sharon e. j. gerstel

Figure 24


properties from
chrysobull of 1314
and boundary line
(map by M. Saldaa)


Zinzina (Polydroson)







Prophetes Elias




St. Euthymios



St. George Lykovouno

Zarax (Gerakas)


It is this belief in the eternality of consecrated

structures that is revealed in the abundant mention of churches and small chapels in the documentsa web of connected buildings endowed
to a single institution. We see this link between
churches in the two related columns, one in the
church of St. Demetrios and the other in its met
ochion at Trypi. By inscribing the columns, the
relationship of the churches is codified, in terms
of both a metropolitan church and its dependency,
but also of an urban church and its source of
income, that is, the agricultural and fiscal benefits
that accrued from the endowed village and taxes
paid or labor performed by its paroikoi.
The texts also set the boundaries between
metropolitan jurisdictions, especially in a region
where the status and possessions of the bishops
were still contested. The boundaries of the territory of Monemvasia are set out in an imperial
chrysobull related to the famous original of
1301 displayed in the Byzantine and Christian

Museum in Athens (fig. 21).83 The chrysobull

(Athens, National Library, cod. 1462, figs. 22, 23)
has until recently been considered a sixteenthcentury forgery of the earlier document. Charis
Kalligas has established convincingly, however,
that the chrysobull was actually issued circa 1314,
at approximately the same time when Andronikos
II issued his first chrysobull to the Hodegetria
church.84 The document of 1314 establishes
Monemvasias territorial border, which extends
north from Epidauros Limera along the coast to

83 S. Binon, Lhistoire et la lgende de deux chrysobulles dAndronic II en faveur de Monembasie, Macaire ou

Phrantzs? EO 37 (1938): 274311; W. Miller, Essays on the
Latin Orient (Amsterdam, 1964), 235.
84 H. Kalligas, The Miniatures in the Chrysobulls of
Andronikos II for Monemvasia, in Mare et litora: Essays Pre
sented to Sergei Karpov for his 60th Birthday, ed. R. Shukurov
(Moscow, 2009), 36578; eadem, Byzantine Monemvasia,
22839; MM, 5:15960.

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Astros (fig. 24).85 The borderline then turns west,

following the slope of Parnon, to the villages of
Kastanitza and Tzitzina (Polydroso).86 From
there the boundary extends to the church of St.
Euthymios, before turning south to the monastery
of St. George at Lykobouno.87 Claimed within the
borders of the city is the town of Socha at the foot
of Mount Taygetos.88 The line then extends over
the mountains to Pylos (later Navarino) on the
Messenian coast.
Ambitious in scope, the boundary lines en
compass towns and monasteries primarily on the
eastern side of Mount Parnon, before turning and
claiming properties on the east side of Taygetos
and then, farther west into Messenia, lands also
claimed by Mystras. Yet the border carefully, and
perhaps intentionally, skirts Amyklion, one of the
most contested bishoprics in this period. Nikolaos,
metropolitan of Monemvasia and Nikephoros
Moschopoulos, metropolitan of Lakedaimonia,
both fought over the bishopric of Amyklion,
located close to Mystras. The issue was settled
only in 1340, when Amyklion became a permanent
suffragan of the metropolitan of Lakedaimonia.89
We might see the attempt to draw the borderline
as an attempt to define metropolitan sees and

85Kalligas, Byzantine Monemvasia, 11213. For a topographical discussion of this text, see the excellent article
by G. Pikoulas, ,
.. 13 (1996): 393404. For Astros, see above, note 26.
86 A cave church dedicated to John the Baptist is located
outside of Polydroso. Preserved frescoes from the Byzantine
period include a representation of John the Baptist, the
Deesis, four frontal full-length bishops, and St. Nicholas.
An inscription in a narrow band above the Deesis asked the
Lord to Remember your servant, Leo the priest, and his
wife and child, Amen. A later inscription suggests that the
paintings were completed in 1335. See .. 35 (1980):
2.1:167, figs. 71a, b; N. B. Drandakes,
, in
, 19 (Athens, 199293): 1736.
87 K. Diamanti,
, .... 32 (2011): 1931.
88 See J. M. Cook and R. V. Nicholas, Laconia, BSA 45
(1950): 261 n. 3.
89 MM, 1:21621; Zakythinos, DGM, 2:28283; On
the complicated history of Amyklion, see E. Kislinger,
2 (1990): 7491.


sharon e. j. gerstel

constituencies in the period following Latin rule

over the region.90
The documents described above literally
mapped the landscape by accurately describing
features of topography, such as lakes, and built
features, such as churches and monydria. The listing of sites in an order that actually reflected their
position within the landscape further suggests
that the documents accurately mapped territorial
borders. Yet the documents also map an imagined
landscape, a landscape of loss and reconquest.
This imagined landscape conjured memories of
a distant ruler and ordered communities through
shared religious and political affiliations.

Sacred Landscapes
Borders are as important for the territories they
enclose as for those they exclude. Between the
boundaries and endowed villages of Mystras and
Monemvasia lay the elevated ground of Parnon,
whose sloping hills, occasionally cut by deep
ravines, played host to numerous monasteries and
hermitages. Like their brethren in other regions of
Byzantium,91 monks in the southern Peloponnese
created a sacred landscape that exploited dramatic
physical features of mountaintops and, conversely,
chasms carved into the earths surface. The monasteries of the Holy Forty Martyrs near Theologos
(fig. 25), the Virgin Chrysaphitissa in Chrysapha,
the Old Monastery at Vrontamas (fig. 26), and
St. George at Lykobouno (near Daphni)92 are all

90 A dated letter from Pope Nicholas III to Haymon,

bishop of Lakedaimonia, reveals that a Latin prelate was
still nominally present in the region in August 1292. See J.-A.
Buchon, La Grce continentale et la More: Voyage, sjour et
tudes historiques en 1840 et 1841 (Paris, 1843), 432.
91 A.-M. Talbot, Les saintes montagnes Byzance, in Le
sacr et son inscription dans lespace Byzance et en Occident,
ed. M. Kaplan (Paris, 2001), 26375; V. della Dora, Gardens
of Eden and Ladders to Heaven: Holy Mountain Geogra
phies in Byzantium, in Mapping Medieval Geographies, ed.
K. Lilley (Cambridge, forthcoming).
92 Drandakes,
, 11538; idem, ,
.. 43 (1988): 15994; J. P. Albani, Die byzantinischen
Wandmalereien der Panagia Chrysaphitissa-Kirche in
Chrysapha/Lakonien (Athens, 2000) (with collected bibliography); Diamante, .

Figure 25

Old Monastery of the Forty Martyrs

near Theologos (photo: S. Gerstel)

located in the highlands; their locations exploited

the rugged Lakonian topography in the late
Byzantine period to further the spiritual needs of
the brethren, who presumably sought more remote
locations to heighten spiritual contemplation.
These monasteries were connected to one another
through a network of paths and kalderimia that traversed the highlands of Parnon and ran through
the dry beds of the gorges the tributaries of the
Eurotas River formed on a seasonal basis.93
Dozens of hermitages that created intermediate points between the monasteries are located in
the ravines carved into the lower hills of Parnon,
and these charted their own landscape of eremitic
isolation, interrupted only by the occasional (and
seasonal) visits of pilgrims.94 The cave church of
A-Giannaki, at Zoupena, for example, attracted
pilgrims in the fourteenth century as it does today.
Medieval and later inscriptions are painted on or
scratched into the monumental icons on its walls,
naming supplicants such as the late Byzantine nun
Euphrosyne Glyka and a woman named Kale, her

93 A modern-day road connects the first three monasteries. According to local residents, a path that runs across
the plateau connects the monasteries at Vrontamas and
Lykobouno (near Daphni).
94 Cave chapels are found in a number of ravines, on both the
Taygetos and Parnon sides of the valley. See N. B. Drandakes,
, in
, 13 (198788): 21318; A. Bak
ourou, ,
(Athens, 198283), 40440; N. B. Drandakes,
, in ,
, ed. L.
Kastrinake, G. Orphanou, and N. Giannadakes (Heraklion,
1987), 1:7984; Drandakes,
, 1736; N. Dran
, in
(Athens, 1994), 1:8389; N. B. Drandakes,
.... 15 (19891990): 17993; Drandakes,
- , 13639;
N. B. Drandakes, - , .
... 17 (19931994): 22329.

Figure 26 Old Monastery, Vrontamas

(photo: S. Gerstel)

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 27

Cave chapel of
Zoupena (Hagioi
Anargyroi). St.
Catherine with
adjacent inscription
naming Kale Alype
(photo: S. Gerstel)

husband and child (fig. 27).95 Two other womens

names are inscribed adjacent to the figure of St.
Kyriake in the hermitage of St. John the Baptist
built into the cliffs of the Sophroni Gorge above
the Old Monastery of the Forty Martyrs (fig. 28).96
The painted cave was intended as a retreat for a hermit, judging from the imagery painted within and
its architectural plan, which incorporated a small
cell for the monk, which may have served ultimately as his burial chamber. In the ravines that
cut through Parnon, and also to some extent in the
craggy foothills on the east side of Taygetos, a population of monks and hermits occupying a spiritual
state between the living and the dead exploited a
95 N. B. Drandakes, -
, ... 13 (19851986): 7991.
96 N. B. Drandakes,
, 12938.


sharon e. j. gerstel

Figure 28

Chapel of St. John the Baptist, Monastery of the Forty

Martyrs near Theologos, St. Kyriake with adjacent
inscription naming Kyriake and Kale (photo: S. Gerstel)

topography that was, in and of itself, liminal. Not

only were the monasteries located within a mountain range, but they also fell between territorial borders that were both political and ecclesiastical.97
The southern Peloponnese included another
sacred landscape that can be tracked only through
analysis of church dedications in the region
(fig. 29). Both Monemvasia and Mystras promoted the Constantinopolitan cult of the Virgin
97 For such notions of liminality, see, for example, V.
Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure
(Chicago, 1969), 95.

Figure 29

Monasteries and
hermitages in Lakonia
(map by M. Saldaa)




St. John the Baptist


Forty Martyrs/St. John the Baptist


Panagia Hodegetria
Panagia Peribleptos
Panagia Pantanassa


Zaraphona (Kallithea)

Panagia Chrysaphitissa A-Giannaki

St. John the Baptist
Cave Chapel of St.John the Baptist



St. George

Zoupena (Hagioi Anargyroi)



Old Monastery


Panagia Cheimatissa

Cave Chapels

Hodegetria, a competition that may have caused

friction between the residents of Mystras and
Monemvasia, if not between their clergy.98 The
98 See the chapter by T. Papamastorakis in this volume
and the discussion of the icon of the Virgin Hodegetria
Monemvasiotissa below. In the early fourteenth century,
a nun and the metropolitan of Lakedaimonia were involved
in a dispute over possession of a copy of an icon of the Virgin

Panagia Hodegetria
(Hagia Sophia)

Panagia Kyra
Panagia Pantanassa

imposing monasteries of Mystras were all dedicated to aspects of the Virgin: the Hodegetria,
Peribleptos, Pantanassa; many of them were
also linked through specific imagery to important Marian cults in Constantinople, such as the
Zoodochos Pege. Monemvasia, too, promoted
Hodegetria. See N. Oikonomids, The Holy Icon as Asset,
DOP 45 (1991): 40.

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


the cult of the Virgin. The main church of the

kastro was dedicated to the Virgin Hodegetria.99
Additional monasteries dedicated to the Virgin
in lands and villages endowed to the city include
the Virgin Cheimatissa, the Virgin Pantanassa,100
and A-Tzouras (Panagia Kyra). The territories of
Monemvasia and Mystras were explicitly placed
under the protection of Christs mother, and her
presence was marked on the ground by the multiplication of shrines built in her name. Her presence sanctioned the reinstatement of Byzantine
hegemony in the region and established her spiritual over-ladyship.
The monastic zone of Parnon, to the contrary, was placed under the protection of John
the Baptist, the model par excellence of eremitic
monasticism. At least seven churches in the hills
are dedicated to the Baptist, most of them cave
chapels or hermitages.101 To these sacred locales,
as traced by inscriptions, villagers traveled, leaving their names alongside painted offerings.
The Landscape of Painting

Although scholars have cataloged surviving

churches and monasteries in the southern Pelo
ponnese, there has been little work done in mapping settlements, especially those in the region of
99 H. Kalligas, The Church of Hagia Sophia at Mone
mvasia: Its Date and Dedication, .... 9
(197779): 21721.
100 The five-domed church, the katholikon of a monastery, is located in Kryovrysi, between the villages of
Helleniko and Pantanassa: A. K. Orlandos,
, .... 1 (1935): 13951.
101 St. John the Baptist, Chrysapha (N. B. Drandakes,

, .. 9 [1988]: 30133); the cave chapel of St. John the Baptist near Chrysapha (Drandakes,
17996); the cave chapel of A-Giannaki near Zaraphona
(Drandakes, -
, 13640, pls. 6074); the cave chapel of St. John
the Baptist at Tzitzina (Drandakes,
, 1736);
the cave chapel of A-Giannaki near Verria (Bakourou,
, 404
24); Chapel of St. John the Baptist above the Old Monastery
of the Forty Martyrs (Drandakes, ,
12938); the cave chapel of A-Giannaki at Zoupena
(Hagioi Anargyroi) (Drandakes,
- , 7991).


sharon e. j. gerstel

Monemvasia. To the south of the village of Lira,

the remains of a medieval settlement is evidenced
by the scatter of sherds and fragmentary stone
walls that still remain in the fields surrounding
the church of A-Tzouras; the settlement has yet
to be studied.102 A British survey team has made
progress in charting the locations of some small
settlements in the region of Sparta through the
analysis of sherd scatter; the medieval names of
many of the sites, however, remain elusive.103 The
excavation of graves at two locations in Parori
(fig. 15), as noted above, revealed the bones of residents of that village, but other evidence of habitation, such as traces of domestic architecture,
has not been found.104 The one-time existence of
endowed villages and dependent villagers is best
witnessed in decorated churches of the period,
many of them still in fairly good condition. These
survive in abundancevillage churches and
cemetery churches in a surprisingly wide range of
architectural types.
Approximately eighty decorated churches
of the late Byzantine period survive in Lakonia
and fifty additional churches in the region of
Monemvasia. The painted cycles of many of these
remain unpublished; a number are in decay.105
The churches suggest, both in the rendering of
certain subjects on their walls and in the style of
their painting, an awareness of ecclesiastical jurisdictions and regional boundaries that mountains
and men set. The representation of certain saints,
for example, displays an interest in the biographies
of local holy men, which appears to have regional
significance. The portrait of St. Nikon, as Nikolaos
Drandakes has demonstrated, was particularly
common in churches in Lakonia, where there are
at least eighteen surviving monumental icons of
the saint.106 In only one case, as far as I know, is
his portrait included in the decoration of a church
102 See above, note 81.
103 Cavanagh et al., The Laconia Survey, vol. 2, Archaeo
logical Data.
104 See above, note 61.
105 Drandakes, , 167235.
106 Idem, ,
5 (1962): 30619. For the state of research on the
identification of the church of St. Nikon in Sparta, see R.
Sweetman and E. Katsara, The Acropolis Basilica Project,
Sparta: A Preliminary Report for the 2000 Season, BSA 97
(2002): 42968.

belonging to the metropolitan of Monemvasia.107

Conversely, the portrait of the ninth-century
saint, Theophanios of Monemvasia, is found in the
church of the Virgin Cheimatissa in Phloka,108 an
influential monastery close to the citys endowed
villages. His image is also included among the
saints represented in the church of St. Nicholas
in the village of Ayios Nikolaos, near Teria, a village mentioned in the Monemvasia chrysobull
(fig. 30).109 As far as I am aware, representations
of this saint are not found in the region of Mystras.
Other themes within church decoration may
suggest a certain affiliation to a church or metropolitan centerartistic corroboration of a territorial
boundary. The frequent representation of Christ
on the Road to Calvary in the lower register and
adjacent to the main entrance of small churches
in Epidauros Limera and on the island of Kythera
may reflect the popularity of a local cult focused
on Monemvasias icon of Christ Elkomenos,
which was located in the citys metropolitan
church.110 Although the icon, described by Niketas
Choniates as an
,111 was taken from Monemvasia by
the emperor Isaac II Angelos (11851195),112 the
holy palladion was so important to the region that
107 St. Andrew in Kato Kastania. ... (1982):
43033 (M. Panayotidi).
108 ... (1982): 355 (N. Drandakes). The paintings in the church are dated circa 1400. The half-length
portrait of the saint is found above the entrance to the diakonikon. For the saint, see H. A. Kalligas, Monemvasia: A
Byzantine City State (London and New York, 2009), 1011.
109 The portrait of the saint is located in the prothesis
chamber. See N. Drandakes,
, ...
. 9 (19771979): 4041.
110 The church, originally dedicated to St. Anastasia, was
renamed for the icon. See Kalligas, Monemvasia, 22, 138
42; N. A. Bees,

, BNJ 10 (193334): 199262. See also V.

, 14 (2001): 22957.
111 Niketas Choniates, , ed. J. L. van
Dieten (Berlin and New York, 1975), 3.5458 (442).
112 The icon was installed in the chapel of the Archangel
Michael of the Sosthenio in Constantinople. See R. Janin,
La gographie ecclsiastique de lempire byzantine, vol. 3, Les
glises et les monastres (Paris, 1969), 348.

later churches continued to evoke the power of the

prototype by including copies of the image in their
decorative programs.113 The dissemination of the
113 Annemarie Weyl Carr has recently suggested that an
image of Christ Elkomenos and Andronikos II now serving as the prefatory miniature for a twelfth-century lectionary (London, British Library, Add. 37006, fol. 1 verso) was
originally the top portion of Andronikoss chrysobull of
1284 for Monemvasia. Supplementing the views expressed
in this chapter about monumental representations of Christ
Elkomenos in the region of Monemvasia (and referring to
the oral presentation of this chapter), Carr sees the image
as visually manifesting the identity of the commune for
which the chrysobull was promulgated. See A. W. Carr,
The Illuminated Chrysobulls of Andronikos II? in
: Rivista di ricerche bizantinistiche 6 (2009): 45163.

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 30

St. Nicholas,
Ayios Nikolaos,
St. Theophanios
(photo: S. Gerstel)

image of Christ Elkomenos throughout the region

of Monemvasia, and even in churches in Geraki
and on Mount Parnon, suggests not only the power
of the icon but also the power of the metropolitan
church that promoted its cult. The clustering of
subject matter within a small number of churches
suggests that painters and patterns traveled within
limited regions and that certain subjects were
common within bounded areas.114 The question
of artistic style is harder to trace, particularly
given the still incomplete photographic record for
churches in the region.
Scholars well know the influence of Mystras
on painting in the region, and most studies of
local monuments refer to the Mystras School of
painters. Painters from this school, such as the one
who created the chrysobulls in the Hodegetria
church, were responsible for a number of churches
in the city of Mystras115 as well as ones in villages
in the surrounding region. Paintings, for example,
in the ruined church of St. George in the village
of Daphni (close to Mystras) have been attributed
to the same artist who was responsible for the
portraits of the apostles on the south wall of the
metropolitan church of St. Demetrios.116 Painters
from Mystras were also involved in the decoration
of the church of St. Nicholas Achragias on the outskirts of the endowed village of Theologos, and in
churches at Longaniko, Leondari, and Nikandri
in the Mani.117 Despite the fame of the Mystras

School, however, its skilled painters seem to have

been somewhat localized. Writing in 1973, Doula
Mouriki wisely observed that artistic activities at
Mystras were not far-reaching and did not affect
painting, for example, at Chrysapha or Geraki,118
that is, in areas that fell between the regional
boundaries of Mystras and Monemvasia.
Considering Monemvasias wealth in the same
period,119 it would be likely that a group of painters belonging to a Monemvasia School worked
in that city and in its hinterlands. As is the case
at Mystras, these painters would have benefited
from the citys close ties to Constantinople and its
extraordinary economic resources. Monumental
decoration surviving in Monemvasia is too fragmentary to provide an accurate picture of the
painting style that prevailed in the city.120 Close
ties to the Byzantine capital would have guaranteed that works painted in Constantinople, such
as manuscripts and icons, reached Monemvasia;
these may have influenced painting in the city and
its hinterlands. The icons at the top of the two
chrysobulls issued by the emperor, Andronikos II,
to Monemvasia, for example, exemplify the highstyle painting of the Byzantine capital in the early
fourteenth century (figs. 21, 22).121 Andronikos II
also sent a well-known icon, the Virgin Hodegetria
Monemvasiotissa to the city. Decorated with
pearls and precious stones, the famed icon is
recalled only in a surviving synaxarion from

114 For a type of the melismos found only in the region of

Monemvasia and in Geraki, see C. Konstantinide,
. ,
in : . . ,
6169 (with collected examples and bibliography).
115 N. Drandakes,
, .. (1995): 128.
116 Drandakes, , 182.
117 On St. Nicholas Achragias, see T. Papamastorakis,

(Athens, 2001),
4748, 31718, figs. 5254; S. Kalopissi-Verti,

, .... 27 (2006): 18192.
For a plan of the monastery and discussion of its outbuildings, see Cavanagh et al., The Laconia Survey, vol. 2, Archae
ological Data, 34850. For the churches in Longanikos, see
O. Chassoura, Les peintures murales byzantines des glises
de Longanikos, Laconie (Athens, 2002). For churches in
Leondari, see J. Albani, Die Wandmalerei der Kirche Hagios
Athanasios zu Leondari, JB 39 (1989): 25994; eadem, The
Painted Decoration of the Cupola of the Western Gallery in

the Church of the Holy Apostles at Leondari, CahArch 40

(1992): 16180. Aimilia Bakourou is publishing the chapel at
118 D. Mouriki, Stylistic Trends in Monumental Painting
of Greece at the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century,
in Lart byzantin au dbut du XIV e sicle: Symposium de
Graanica, 1973 (Belgrade, 1978), 74.
119 See H. Kalligas, Monemvasia, Seventh-Fifteenth
Centuries, in EHB 3:87997.
120 The very damaged paintings in the church of the
Virgin Hodegetria (now St. Sophia) have been dated to the
late twelfth or early thirteenth century. See E. Stikas,
.. 8 (1986): 271376. Traces of wall paintings are preserved in St. Andrew, a small, single-aisled church in the
lower city. The paintings have been dated to the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century. A single color image
of a female saint is reproduced in A. Bakourou, Tour of
Monemvasia (Athens, 2005), 30.
121 Kalligas, The Miniatures in the Chrysobulls, 36578.


sharon e. j. gerstel

Figure 31

Crucifixion, Athens,
Byzantine and
Christian Museum, acc.
no. 981 (photo: courtesy
of the Byzantine and
Christian Museum)

Zakynthos.122 Yet another famous icon, a representation of the Crucifixion, is said to have come
from the church of Christ Elkomenos (fig. 31).123
122 K. Kalogeras, , ,
TFByzNgPhil 46 (Athens, 1950), 2224; N. Katramis,
(Zakynthos, 1880), 188.
123 M. Chatzidakis, :
(Athens, 1984),

Dated to the second half of the fourteenth century, the icon is an example of the refined style of
2122, pl. 8; A. Xyngopoulos,
1 (1956): 2349. The icon, through stylistic comparisons to
paintings in the Peribleptos Church, has been attributed to
an artist from Mystras. Although the icon was found in the
church of Christ Elkomenos, Monemvasia, its original location in the city remains unknown.

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


between 1287 and 1302.124 A painter from the metropolitan center may have decorated the walls
of the Monastery of the Virgin Cheimatissa in
Phloka, in close proximity to Monemvasia.125 The
paintings of this unpublished katholikon have
been used as a stylistic benchmark for a number
of smaller monuments in the region, suggesting
the existence of an identifiable, regional style.126
Other churches in the region of Monemvasia
reveal a style of painting that is quite different from that of Mystras, but yet one that rivals
the quality of its monumental decoration. The
very abraded painting of a bishop in A-Tzouras,
for example, shows attention to modeling and
graded tonalities in color and reveals an awareness of the volumetric style of painting common in Constantinople in this period (fig. 32).
Unpublished paintings in the sanctuary of the
Pantanassa katholikon, located between the villages of Pantanassa and Geroumana (Kryobrysi),
are monumental in scale and of extremely high
quality (fig. 33).127 Unlike the flat, linear paintings found in many churches in the Lakonian
countryside, the preserved figures of Christ and a
frontal bishop in the five-domed church are modeled, and the color application is sophisticated.
Similarly, the fourteenth-century decoration of
the narthex of the church of St. George Babylas in

Figure 32

A-Tzouras (Panagia
Kyra), Lira, hierarch
(photo: S. Gerstel)

late Byzantine painting, which incorporated some

Italianate features.
As is the case at Mystras, where painters
from the city also worked on commissions in
the hinterlands, including at churches within
endowed villages, we might detect a similar
phenomenon in the region of Monemvasia. In
scriptions in churches on the island of Kythera
name painters from Monemvasia. According to
its founders inscription, St. Demetrios, Pourko
[]() by the hand of the archdeacon Demetrios of Monemvasia at some point

sharon e. j. gerstel

124 The paintings date to either 1287 or 1302, years in

which Kythera was under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of
Monemvasia. See M. Chatzidakis and I. Bitha, Corpus of
the Byzantine Wall Paintings of Greece: The Island of Kythera
(Athens, 1997), 181. See also the comments by C. Maltezou
in her essay From Byzantine to Venetian Kythera in the
same volume.
125 In a recent article, Maria Panayotidi linked the
Cheimatissa painter to a group of churches in the region.
She asserted, however, the influence of Mystras in the style
and in certain subject matter. See M. Panayotidi,

, .... 27 (2006): 193206.
126 ... (1982): 35262 (N. Drandakes).
127 Orlandos, who first published the church, dated it
architecturally to the twelfth century. See Orlandos,
, 13951. The church has
recently been redated by A. Loube-Kize to the fourteenth
century, which appears to correspond with the date of the
painting decoration, in my opinion. See A. Loube-Kize,
, 16 (2003): 35778. Neither
author refers to the paintings within the church, which were
first revealed in 2008.

Figure 33

Church of the Pantanassa, Geroumana/

Kryobrysi, Christ (photo: S. Gerstel)

a valley between Lachi and Belanidia, located to

the south of the villages listed in the Monemvasia
inventory, is of extremely high quality.128 At least
one of the painters working on the extended cycle
of the Last Judgment in the narthex was an artist
who used a broad color palette and was a master of
shading. The composition of the angels rolling up
the scroll of heaven, though damaged and coated
with salt accretions, displays a high style of painting reminiscent of, though not identical to, works
in Mystras (fig. 34). Indeed, the volume of the figures, the thickness of the neck, and the sharpness
128 ... (1982): 44550 (V. Kepetzi). According
to Kepetzi, the church is located near an old settlement.

of the folds on the drapery are much closer to the

style of Byzantiums metropolitan centers in this
period. The majority of painted cycles in the region
of Monemvasia are characterized by a flat, linear
style of painting familiar in churches in Geraki, on
Parnon, and in the Mani. However, the existence
of examples of fine painting suggests that painters with exceptional abilities were also at work in
Epidauros Limera. Whether these painters were
visitors to Monemvasia or permanent residents is
unknown. But a more complete assessment of the
regions painting, independent of a consideration
of Mystras, may yet reveal the existence of a group
of artists who accepted commissions in the region
of the areas most vital porta port and city that
maintained close connections to Constantinople
and other regions of the Byzantine world. This
landscape of painting has yet to be fully explored.
In the late medieval Peloponnese the landscapeboth natural and constructedwas

Mapping the Boundaries of Church and Village


Figure 34

Church of George
Babylas, Belanidia.
Angels rolling up
the scroll of heaven
(photo: S. Gerstel)

transformed through the interconnection of

(urban) monasteries or metropolitan jurisdictions and (rural) villages. Texts, whether in
scribed in churches or scribed on parchment
scrolls, place metropolitan and monastic centers and their endowed properties and peasants
together, binding them through mutual obligation and the understanding of setting. The
texts mapped the landscape, and, for the medieval viewer, set the boundaries of imperial and
regional jurisdictions. Artistic commissions
in the region, witnesses to a landscape of religious faith and community memory, may have
been influenced by the natural topography and
the boundaries drawn around and against institutions and neighbors. The texts also show us a
way to look at or question the remains of human
habitation on the landscape and to assess the


sharon e. j. gerstel

influence of monastic and metropolitan centers

on the villages and villagers in the valleys below
and the hinterlands beyond.
In the absence of actual maps, the inscribed
and scribed words and images established both
place and identity within a many-layered and
often-shifting landscape. These landscapes had
dimensions that were both temporal and geographical. In the Byzantine mind, sacred landscapes were both ritual and otherworldly. Shifting
landscapes mixed the present world with the
ancient world, reconsecrating caves and reinscribing ritual on the land. Mountains played off
chasms, and cities with villages. These landscapes
invited the medieval villager to consider intricate,
overlapping territories that were simultaneously
sacred, fiscal, agricultural, personal, bounded by
river and mountain, and divided by God and man.

A bbr e vi ation s


AHR American Historical


AJ Archaeological Journal

AJA American Journal of

AJPA American Journal of
Physical Anthropology


des Deutschen
Archologischen Instituts,
Athenische Abteilung

AnnalesESC Annales: Economies, socits, civilisations


ArtB Art Bulletin

AStIt Archivio storico italiano

AStNap Archivio storico per le
province napoletane

ASV Archivio di Stato,
Venice (unpublished

BCH Bulletin de correspondance

BEFAR Bibliothque des coles

franaises dAthnes et
de Rome
BHG Bibliotheca hagiographica
BHR Bulgarian Historical
Review/Revue bulgare
BMFD Byzantine Monastic
Foundation Documents:
A Complete Translation
of the Surviving Founders
Typika and Testaments,
ed. J. Thomas and
A. C. Hero, DOS 35
(Washington, DC, 2000)
BMGS Byzantine and Modern
Greek Studies
BNJ ByzantinischNeugriechische Jahrbcher
BSA Annual of the British
School at Athens
BSR Papers of the British
School at Rome
BullMon Bulletin monumental
ByzF Byzantinische
BZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift

CahArch Cahiers archologiques

CEB Congrs international des
tudes byzantines: Actes

CFHB Corpus fontium historiae
Chrysostomides, MP J. Chrysostomides,
ed., Monumenta
Documents for the History
of the Peloponnese in the
14th and 15th Centuries
(Camberley, Surrey,

CIG Corpus inscriptionum
graecarum, ed. A. Boeckh
et al. (Berlin, 182877)

ClMed Classica et mediaevalia

CSHB Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae

.... X

DGM See Zakythinos, DGM
A. R. Bellinger, P.
Grierson, and M. F.
Hendy, Catalogue of
the Byzantine Coins in
the Dumbarton Oaks
Collection and in the
Whittemore Collection
(Washington, DC,

DOP Dumbarton Oaks Papers

DOS Dumbarton Oaks

DV See Nanetti, DV
DVL G. M. Thomas and
R. Predelli, eds.,
Diplomatarium venetolevantinum sive acta et
diplomata res Venetas
Graecas atque Levantis
(Venice, 188099)

EcHistR Economic History Review
EHB A. E. Laiou, ed., The
Economic History of
Byzantium: From
the Seventh through





Gerland, NQ








Libro dabaco

Libro dele uxanze

Livre de la conqueste

the Fifteenth Century

(Washington, DC, 2002)
English History Review
Echos dOrient

tudes balkaniques
tudes byzantines
A. E. Gerland, Neue
Quellen zur Geschichte des
lateinischen Erzbistums
Patras (Leipzig, 1903)
Greek Orthodox
Theological Review
Inscriptiones graecae
(Berlin, 1873)
Journal of Archaeological
Journal of Hellenic Studies
Journal international darchologie
Jahrbuch der
Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians
Journal des savants
Journal of the Warburg
and Courtauld Institutes

G. Arrighi, ed., Libro
dabaco: Dal codice 1754
(sec. XIV) della Biblioteca
Statale di Lucca (Lucca,
A. Parmeggiani, ed.,
Libro dele uxanze e
statuti delo Imperio de
Romania, edizione critica,
Quaderni della Rivista di
Bizantinistica 1 (Spoleto,
J. Longnon, ed., Livre de
la conqueste de la prince
de lAmore: Chronique de
More (12041305) (Paris,

LT J. Longnon and P.
Topping, eds., Documents
sur le rgime des terres
dans la principaut de
More au XIV e sicle
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MarbJb Marburger Jahrbuch fr

MlRome Mlanges darchologie et
dhistoire, cole franaise
de Rome

MHR Mediterranean Historical

MittIG Mitteilungen des Instituts
fr sterreichische

MM F. Miklosich and J.
Mller, Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi
sacra et profana (Vienna,

MP See Chrysostomides, MP
Nanetti, DV A. Nanetti, ed.,
Documenta veneta Coroni
& Methoni rogata:
Euristica e critica documentaria per gli oculi capitales Comunis Veneciarum
(secoli XIV e XV), vol. 1,
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Ellenica delle Ricerche;
Istituto di Ricerche
Bizantine, Fonti 3 and 7
(Athens, 19992007)

NC Numismatic Chronicle

NCirc Numismatic Circular

NCMH New Cambridge Medieval
History (Cambridge and
New York, 19952005)


NQ See Gerland, NQ

OCP Orientalia christiana
ODB A. P. Kazhdan et al., eds.,
The Oxford Dictionary of
Byzantium (New York
and Oxford, 1991)

Pasquale Longo A. Lombardo, ed.,

Pasquale Longo notaio
in Corone, 12891293,
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patria per le Venezie,
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6 (Venice, 1951)

Pegolotti Francesco Balducci
Pegolotti, La pratica della
mercatura, ed. A. Evans
(Cambridge, MA, 1936)

PG Patrologiae cursus completus, Series graeca,
ed. J.-P. Migne (Paris,

PLP Prosopographisches
Lexikon der
Palaiologenzeit, ed. E.
Trapp et al. (Vienna,


RA Revue archologique
K. Wessel, ed.,
Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst
(Stuttgart, 1963)

REB Revue des tudes

RESEE Revue des tudes sud-est

RIN Rivista italiana di numismatica e scienze affini

RN Revue numismatique

ROL Revue de lOrient latin

RS H. Spanke, ed., G.
Raynauds Bibliographie
des altfranzsischen Liedes
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RSI Rivista storica italiana

Sathas C. N. Sathas, ed.,
Documents indits relatifs
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ST Studi e testi

StMed Studi medievali

StVen Studi veneziani

SdostF Sdost-Forschungen




Synaxarium CP H. Delehaye, ed.,

Synaxarium ecclesiae
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sanctorum Novembris
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TFByzNgPhil Texte und Forschungen
zur byzantinischneugriechischen
TIB H. Hunger, ed., Tabula
imperii byzantini
(Vienna, 1976)
TM Travaux et mmoires
TTh G. L. F. Tafel and G. M.
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VizVrem Vizantiiskii vremennik
Zakythinos, DGM D. A. Zakythinos, Le
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ZRVI Zbornik radova
Vizantolokog instituta,
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A b ou t t h e Au t hor s


Demetrios Athanasoulis is director of the

25th Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities. Charged
with the excavation, field research, and restora
tion projects of the medieval monuments and sites
in the Argolid (castles of Acronauplia and Argos),
Arkadia (Karytaina, Leontari, Tegea), Corinthia
(Corinth, Lechaion, Acrocorinth, Ayionori, the
Byzantine churches of Corinthia), and Elis (Glar
entza), he is also directing the installation of the
Byzantine museum of the Argolid and is a mem
ber of the committee for the restoration of the
castles of Pylia (Methone, Korone, Old and New
Navarino). Athanasoulis led the project to restore
Chlemoutsi castle and to establish within its
walls a museum devoted to the crusader Morea.
An architectural historian and archaeologist,
his many publications, including his disserta
tion Church Architecture of the Olena Diocese
during the Middle and Late Byzantine Periods
(2006), focus on Byzantine and Frankish archi
tecture in the Peloponnese.
Julian Baker is curator of medieval and mod
ern coins at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
University. He specializes in the monetary his
tory of late medieval southern Italy, Greece, and
Byzantium, on which he has published many
articles, including Coin Circulation in Early

Fourteenth-Century Thessaly and South-Eastern

Mainland Greece, in N. Moschonas, ed., Money
and Markets in the Palaiologan Period (Athens,
2003), 293336; Three Fourteenth-Century Coin
Hoards from Apulia Containing Gigliati and
Greek Deniers Tournois, RIN 102 (2001): 219
80; and (with M. Ponting), The Early Period of
Minting of Deniers Tournois in the Principality of
Achaa (to 1289), and Their Relation to the Issues
of the Duchy of Athens, NC 161 (2001): 20754.
His book Coinage and Money in Greece, 12001430
is forthcoming with Brill (Leiden).
Veronica della Dor a is Senior Lecturer
in Geographies of Knowledge at the School of
Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol. In
2011 she was a Fellow at Dumbarton Oaks, where
she worked on a project on Byzantine sacred land
scapes. Her research interests and publications
span cultural and historical geography, history
of cartography, and science studies, with a spe
cific focus on sacred geographies and the eastern
Mediterranean. She is the author of Imagining
Mount Athos: Visions of a Holy Place from Homer to
World War II (Charlottesville, 2011) and coeditor
of High Places: Cultural Geographies of Mountains,
Ice, and Science (London, 2008) and Visual and
Historical Geographies (London, 2010).

Sandr a J. Garvie-Lok is Associate Professor

in the Department of Anthropology at the
University of Alberta. She is a bioarchaeologist
specializing in the reconstruction of human diet
and mobility using stable isotope analysis. Her
current research interests include regional and
status-linked dietary variation in Late Roman
Greece and changing diet in the Peloponnese
in the Hellenistic through Ottoman eras. Her
recent publications include Breast-Feeding and
Weaning Patterns in Byzantine Times: Evidence
from Human Remains and Written Sources (with
C. Bourbou), in Becoming Byzantine: Children and
Childhood in Byzantium, ed. A. Papaconstantinou
and A.-M. Talbot (Washington, DC, 2009), as
well as contributions to the American Journal of
Physical Anthropology, the Journal of Anthropologi
cal Archaeology, and the International Journal of
Historical Archaeology.
Sharon E. J. Gerstel is Professor of Byz
antine Art and Archaeology at the University
of California, Los Angeles. An art historian
and archaeologist, her research focuses on
the late Byzantine village and on the intersections of art and ritual. She is author of Beholding
the Sacred Mysteries: Programs of the Byzantine
Sanctuary (Seattle, 1999) and has edited A Lost
Art Rediscovered: The Architectural Ceramics of
Byzantium (with J. Lauffenburger) (Baltimore
and University Park, PA, 2001); Thresholds of the
Sacred: Architectural, Art Historical, Archaeologi
cal, Liturgical, and Theological Views on Religious
Screens, East and West (Washington, DC, 2007);
and Approaching the Holy Mountain: Art and
Liturgy at St. Catherines Monastery in the Sinai
(with Robert S. Nelson, Turnhout, 2010). She
was a recipient of a John Simon Guggenheim
Fellowship in 2010.
Timothy E. Gregory is Distinguished Profes
sor of Byzantine History and Classical Archaeol
ogy in the Department of History and Professor
of Anthropology in the Department of Anthro
pology at Ohio State University, Columbus. He
has written or edited six books, the most recent of
which is A History of Byzantium, published in a second edition by Wiley-Blackwell in 2010. Professor


about the authors

Gregory has worked in archaeological excavations

and field projects in Cyprus, Athens, Corinth,
Voiotia, Messenia, and Kythera. He is currently
Director of the Ohio State University Excavations
at Isthmia (a project of the American School of
Classical Studies at Athens, in cooperation with the
Greek Ministry of Culture) and Deputy Director of
the Australian Paliochora-Kythera Archaeological
Survey (a project of the Australian Archaeological
Institute at Athens, again in collaboration with the
Greek Ministry of Culture).
John Haines is Professor of Music and Medi
eval Studies at the University of Toronto. He
has published on the music of the Middle Ages
and its modern reception in a variety of journals,
both musicologicalfrom Early Music History to
Popular Musicand nonmusicologicalfrom
Romania to Scriptorium. Recent books include
Medieval Song in Romance Languages (Cambridge,
2010) and Satire in the Songs of Renart le nouvel
(Geneva, 2010), number 247 in the series Publi
cations romanes et franaises. He is a contributor, among others, to The Cambridge History of
Medieval Music and The Oxford Handbook of Music
Revivals, both forthcoming.
David Jacoby is Emeritus Professor of History,
Department of History, the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem, Israel. He has been Visiting Professor
at several universities in the United States and
in Venice. He is the recipient of fellowships and
research grants in the United States, France,
Italy, Germany, Austria, and Greece. In 1973 he
was awarded the Prix Gustave Schlumberger of
the Acadmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
in Paris. He is a member of the editorial board of
the journals Mediterranean Historical Review and
Crusades. His research and publications focus on
Byzantium and its former territories, the crusader
states of the Levant, Cyprus, and Egypt, and cultural exchange between the West and the eastern
Mediterranean in the ninth to fifteenth centuries. He is currently writing a book on medieval
silk production and trade in the Mediterranean
region. His latest collection of studies is Latins,
Greeks, and Muslims: Encounters in the Eastern
Mediterranean, TenthFifteenth Centuries.

Elizabeth Jeffr eys is Emerita Bywater and

Sotheby Professor of Byzantine and Modern
Greek Language and Literature at the University
of Oxford, and Emerita Fellow of Exeter College,
Oxford. Her publications include The War of
Troy (with Manolis Papathomopoulos) (Athens,
1996); Digenis Akritis: The Grottaferrata and
Escorial Versions (Cambridge, 1998); The Age of
the (with John Pryor) (Leiden, 2006);
Iacobi Monachi Epistulae (with Michael Jeffreys)
(Turnhout, 2009); and Four Byzantine Novels
(Liverpool, 2012).
Florin Leonte is a doctoral candidate at the
Central European University, Budapest. He was
Junior Fellow at Dumbarton Oaks in 200910
and is currently finishing his dissertation on the
renewal of Byzantine imperial ideology during the
reign of Manuel II Palaiologos, under the supervision of Professor Niels Gaul.
A m y Papa lex a ndrou is an independent
scholar and research associate at the University of
Texas at Austin, where she occasionally teaches.
She is an art and architectural historian as well as
archaeologist, working primarily on the monuments and material culture of late antiquity and
Byzantium. Her publications have appeared in various journals and collected studies, most recently
t ium, in A
The Memory Culture of Byzan
Companion to Byzantium (Malden, MA, 2010) and
On the Shoulders of Hera: Alternative Readings
of Antiquity in the Greek Memoryscape, in
Archaeology in Situ: Sites, Archaeology, and Com
munities in Greece (Lanham, MD, 2010). She is
currently investigating the soundways and sonic
environments of premodern cultures, especially
that of Byzantium. This interest had its beginnings
in her fieldwork on the ninth-century church of
Skripou, in central Greece, the study of which she
is currently moving toward publication.
Titos Papa m astor akis (19612010) was
Associate Professor of Byzantine Archaeology
and Art in the Department of History and Archae
ology of the University of Athens. In addition to
Iconography of the Dome in Churches of the Palae
ologan Period in the Balkan Peninsula and Cyprus

(Athens, 2001), Papamastorakis published numerous book chapters and articles, including A
Visual Encomium of Michael VIII Palaeologos:
The Exterior Wall-Paintings of the Mavriotissa at
Kastoria, .... 15 (198990): 22138;
Funerary Representations in the Middle and Late
Byzantine Periods, .... 19 (199697):
285303; Ioannes Redolent of Perfume and His
Icon in the Mega Spelaion Monastery, Zograf 26
(1997): 6573; Tampering with History: From
Michael III to Michael VIII, BZ 96 (2003): 193
209; and Pictorial Lives: Narrative in ThirteenthCentury Vita Icons, 7 (2007):
Helen Sar adi is Professor of Byzantine His
tory and Byzantine Civilization at the University
of the Peloponnese. Her research interests lie in
the Byzantine notarial system and related socioeconomic issues, the Byzantine city, and the
ancient tradition and monuments in Byzantium.
Her publications include Le notariat byzantin
du IX e au XV e sicles (Athens, 1991), Il sistema
notarile bizantino (VIXV secolo) (Milan, 1999),
and The Byzantine City in the Sixth Century:
Literary Images and Historical Reality (Athens,
2006). She is currently working on the rhetoric of
the city in the Palaiologan period.
Ter esa Shawcross is Assistant Professor in
Byzantine History at Princeton University. Her
research is concerned with the history and culture
of the eastern Mediterranean in the late medieval period. Recent work has explored the consequences of the fragmentation of the Byzantine
Empire in the period between the crusader and
Ottoman conquests. She is currently writing
on Byzantine political theory. Her publications
include The Chronicle of Morea: Historiography
in Crusader Greece (Oxford, 2009). She received
a New Directions Fellowship from the Mellon
Foundation in 2012.
A lan Stahl is Curator of Numismatics at
Princeton University and a lecturer in the Depart
ments of Classics and History. His work focuses
on the coinages of the medieval Mediterranean
and the history of Venice in the Middle Ages

about the authors


and the Renaissance. Among his books are The

Venetian Tornesello: A Medieval Colonial Coinage
(New York, 1985) and Zecca: The Mint of Venice in
the Middle Ages (Baltimore, 2001). He has edited
for Dumbarton Oaks The Documents of Angelo de
Cartura and Donato Fontanella: Venetian Notaries
in Fourteenth-Century Crete (2000) and is coeditor


about the authors

with Pamela O. Long and David McGee of The

Book of Michael of Rhodes: A Fifteenth-Century
Maritime Manuscript (Cambridge, MA, 2009). He
is a recipient of a 2008 John Simon Guggenheim
Fellowship and the 2010 Medal of the Royal
Numismatic Society.

i n de x


Page numbers in italics indicate illustrative material. Medieval persons are listed, when possible, by family name. Kings,
popes, patriarchs, and persons with toponyms (e.g., Guillaume le Vinier) are listed by first name, except where the
toponym is especially familiar (e.g., Joinville, John of). Churches are found under their location rather than under the
name of the church unless otherwise indicated (e.g., the church of the Koimesis at Merbaka is listed under Merbaka).
Manuscripts are gathered under the main entry manuscripts and then listed by city and institution.
Abouri, Andrea (notary), 192
Abulafia, David, 73
Acciajuoli, Angelo, 251
Acciajuoli, Antonio, 202
Acciajuoli, Bartolomea, 202
Acciajuoli, Bindaccio, 203
Acciajuoli, Donato, 297n70
Acciajuoli, Francesca, 202
Acciajuoli, Giovanni, 204
Acciajuoli, Nerio, 195, 2012, 204, 226, 25859, 265
Acciajuoli, Niccol
historical writing and sense of the past, 15, 19
private legal transactions of, 209
rural exploitation and market economy, 15, 19, 218,
220, 222, 22831, 241, 246, 258, 259
settlement analysis and, 297, 298
Acciajuoli, Renier, 171
Acciajuoli family and lands in the Morea, 5, 299, 341n22,
345, 448
Achaia. See Frankish Morea; Morea
acorn cups and kermes, 226, 230, 26367
cotton exports and, 261
fall of (1291), 28081, 284

Bordone on, 465
castle of, 127, 130, 137, 140, 280
coins found at, 154n12, 160, 171
Ad Thaliarchum (Horace), 54
Address to the Despot Constantine (Bessarion, 1444), 445
Address to the Emperor Manuel on the Affairs in the
Peloponnese (Plethon, 14071418), 42223, 434, 435,
438, 439, 443, 447
Adeliza of Louvain (queen of England), 6566
Adenet le Roi (poet and musician), 92
Advisory Address to the Despot Theodore on the Peloponnese
(Plethon, 14071418), 42223, 434, 435, 438, 439, 443,
Aegean ware, 281
Aegina, Omorphi Ekklesia, 37n49
Aeneas, foundation myths associated with, 10, 443, 462
Against Plethons Doubts about Aristotle (Gennadios),
Agallon, Nicholas Boullotes, 421n16
Agapitos, Panagiotis, 18
Agathias (monk), 444
Agesilaus (ruler of ancient Sparta), 437, 444
Agnes of Courtenay, 77


Agnes (Anna Komnena Doukaina) of Epiros, 58, 97100,

101, 107, 1078, 114, 137n133
Agnes of France (princess), 80
Agnes panel, 2325, 24, 25, 35, 107, 1078, 114
agrarian economy. See rural exploitation and market
Aigues-Mortes, France, 3, 88, 116, 125
Aipeia (Messenia), church of St. George at, 29n20
Akova, castle of, 140, 293
castle of, 125
coins found at, 154n12, 160
Albanians in the Morea, 22122, 224, 256, 262, 268, 411,
Alberic of Trois-Fontaines (chronicler), 76, 80, 82n146
Albigensian Crusade, 68, 78, 79
Alexander the Great, 437
Alexios I (emperor), coins of, 157, 236n176
Alix of Brabant, 92
Almyros, Battle of (1311), 286
Alphonse of France, 81, 89, 161
Alype, Kale (supplicant), 35960, 360
Amadeo VI of Savoy, 169
Amauri (Amaury) of Jerusalem, 1415n37, 75n94
Ambelos (site), 299
Ambroise of Evreux, 67
amorevolezza, 88, 90
Amyklion, bishopric of, 350, 358
Anagnostakis, Elias, 393
Ancelin of Toucy, 80, 81, 101, 102
ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of skeletal remains, 31415
Ancona pennies, 174
abandonment of, 115, 142
as administrative center, 11315, 114
political geography of Frankish Morea and, 112, 113, 141
rural exploitation and market economy, 230, 247, 252
St. James, cathedral church of, 35n1, 8384, 107, 115, 201
St. Sophia, church of, 35n1, 110, 11314, 114, 124
St. Stephen, church of, 115
William of Villehardouin and, 8384, 101, 102
Andreas son of Mathey de Bononia, 193
Andrews, Kevin, 51n98, 140
Andronikos II Palaiologos (emperor), 177, 220, 223, 247,
264, 265, 339, 352, 356, 363n113, 364, 373, 374, 389, 392,
393, 425
Andronikos III Palaiologos (emperor), 425
Andronikos IV (emperor), 401, 404, 406, 407, 412,
Andronikos V Palaiologos (emperor), 413
Brontocheion properties in, 342, 345, 355
castle of, 126, 137, 140, 141
rural exploitation and market economy, 229, 245
St. George, church of, 28n20, 150
as urban center, 126, 131



Angel, J. Lawrence, 314

Angelov, Dimiter, 415
Anglo-Norman England, origins of vernacular writtenout songs in, 6368, 67
Anilio, church of the Koimesis at, 28n20
Ankara, Battle of (1402), 414
Anna Komnena Doukaina (Agnes) of Epiros, 58, 97100,
101, 107, 1078, 114, 137n133
Anne of Savoy, 18
Anonymous of Trani, 98
Antonio de Reis (witness to will), 201
Antonios (patriarch), 42425n36
Antonius Stephani de Campo Fellone (notary), 193
apanage, 8182
Aphendiko. See Brontocheion monastery, Church of the
Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras
Aphthonius, 400
Apokaukos, Alexios, 425
Apokaukos, John, 13, 20
Apophthegmata (Plutarch), 436
appactuatio, 23233
apprenticeship contracts, 205
archaeological evidence. See ceramic evidence; entries at
settlement analysis; skeletal remains
architecture of Frankish Morea, 3, 11151
Andravida, as administrative center, 11315, 114. See
also Andravida
Byzantine churches, Frankish and local architectural
idiom in, 14251, 14345, 14750. See also specific
churches, by town name
Chlemoutsi, 12741, 12836. See also Chlemoutsi,
castle of
Glarentza, 11527, 117, 118, 12025. See also Glarentza
Gothic architecture, 113, 123, 138, 141, 142, 14451
identity politics of, 151
political geography of principality and, 112, 113,
spolia, incorporation of. See spolia
architecture of Frankish Morea and, 112, 142, 145
Brontocheion monastery, iconography of south portico of, 399
Plethon and, 44243, 448
rural exploitation and market economy, 219, 225,
23436, 23839, 241, 269, 270, 274
castle of, 140
coins found at, 152, 154, 157, 158, 160, 161, 171
Ottoman abduction of citizens from, 269
Ottoman capture of, 430
private legal documents, loss of, 196
rural exploitation and market economy, 216, 221, 223,
225, 245, 256, 25759, 265, 271, 272
St. John the Baptist, knotted cross panel from church
of, 2324n2
as Venetian stronghold, 431
Argyropoulos (merchant), 432

Argyropoulos, John, 425

Aristotle, 5, 3335, 401n40, 420n12, 436, 437, 438n141, 439,
448, 457
Arkadia (Kyparissia)
castle at, 20, 4951, 51, 140
coins found at, 157
Arlos, castle of, 299
Armiro (village), 250
Armstrong, Pamela, 11
Arras and songbook production, 58, 7375, 91, 9397
Arras Puy, 73, 89, 96
Arrian, 14
arrow slits, 119, 127, 137, 139, 140
Asanes, Manuel, 415
Asen, Andronikos Palaiologos, 219, 342, 355, 393
Asopos, 226
Asperti, Stefano, 104n301
aspron trachy (coin), 155n16
Assizes of Jerusalem, 82
Assizes of Romania, 82, 166, 192, 2023, 207, 209, 218,
232n144, 233
Astrona, castle of, 299
Astros (site), 342, 358
Athanasios I (patriarch), 373
Athanasoulis, Demetrios, 3, 26, 111, 481
Athanassopoulos, Effie, 304
Attiki Odos chapel, 306n98
church of the Virgin, Parthenon, 2012
coins found at, 155, 156, 159, 160, 174
coins issued by lords of, 163, 17475
Hephaisteion, burials at, 312, 32122
Little Metropolis, church of, 53
palace at, 133
Parthenon, 30n29, 46n75, 51, 201
St. John Mangoutes, church of, 52
St. Nicholas, Orthodox sanctuary of, Agora, 311,
skeletal remains, Agora, 311, 312, 32122, 324, 33132,
as Venetian stronghold, 431
Atlante Veneto (Coronelli, 1692), 456, 462
Atlas (Hondius, 1606), 462, 466, 473
Atlas (Mercator, 15781588, 4th ed. 1616), 458, 462, 466
Attaleiates, Michael, 191, 196
Audefroi le Bastart, 73
Ayionori, 140, 294, 299
Ayios Nikolaos
church of St. Nicholas at, 363
church of the Taxiarchs in, 353n72
Ayios Vasileios. See San Basilio
baccini (bowls immured in church walls), 27, 29, 30, 46, 53
Badoer, Giacomo (merchant), 242, 243, 273n538, 432
Baker, Julian, 3, 153, 154n4, 157, 481
Balard, Michel, 171n193, 195

Baldwin I (Latin emperor of Constantinople; Baldwin IX

of Flanders), 75, 160
Baldwin II Courtenay (Latin emperor of
Constantinople), 86, 87, 1023, 161, 165
Barbarigo, Agostino (doge of Venice), 174
Barbarigo, Gregorio (Bishop of Padua), 463
Bardi family, 448
Barnes, Ethne, 28485, 31314
Baroncelli, Aldobrando, 245, 247, 253, 268
Barons Crusade, 83
barrels, casks, and coopers, 251, 258
Barsova (village), 343
barter economy
Bessarions proposals regarding, 44546
feudal institutions and, 200
Plethons proposals regarding, 429, 435, 43839, 447
survival of, 242, 271, 273
Basil I (emperor), 415
Basilicu, 219, 228, 229n112
Bayezid (sultan), 401, 404, 405, 411n89
Beck, Jean and Louise, 59, 75n94, 90, 100, 104n301
Belanidia, Church of St. George Babylas at, 36667, 367
Belvoir Castle, 132n1034, 136n119, 139
Benedeit, Brendan, 66
Benedict of St. Alban, 67
Benevento, Battle of (1266), 103, 104
Benot de Sainte-Maure
Chronique des ducs de Normandie (London, BL
Harley 1717), 56, 67, 69
Roman de Troie, 17, 18, 19, 20, 70n66
Berbati, coins found at, 161, 162
Berger, Roger, 89
Bernart de Ventadorn (troubadour), 63, 6465, 95, 96
Bessarion, Cardinal, 5, 14, 273, 436n127, 44546, 460
Bestourns, 73n87
billon trachy (coin), 152, 153, 15657, 158, 160
Bintliff, John, 292n54, 304
Blachernai, monastery church of, Glarentza
architecture of Frankish Morea and, 112, 145, 146, 147,
148, 149, 150, 151
spolia, use of, 2829, 3539, 3638
Blachernai church, Constantinople, 374, 392
Black Death, 218, 222, 223, 224, 244, 249, 26770,
Blegen, Carl, 293
Blondel (John II of Nesle), 75, 79
Boccaccio, 15
Bodonitza (Mendenitsa), 466
Boeotia, church of St. Nicholas sta Kambia in, 36n49
Boiano, Nicola de, 221
Bon, Antoine, 11, 20, 30n29, 51n98, 120, 140, 293
Boniface of Montferrat, 156
Bono, Lorenzo (chancellor of Nauplion), 203
Book of Essays (Metochites), 441
Book of Laws (Plethon, ca. 1428), 423, 44041, 447



Bordone, Benedetto (cartographer), 462, 46465, 468

Boscio, 219, 22829, 231, 247
Boulogne-sur-Mer, castle of, 132, 139
Bourbou, Chryssa, 332
Bourbouhakis, E. ca., 402n42
Bouvines, Battle of (1214), 79
Bracciolini, Poggio, 448n205
Branaina of Branas, 80, 81
Branas, Theodoros (general), 80
Brasidas, 13
Brauron, coins found at, 160
Brendan (Benedeit), 66
Bresciano, Antonio (priest and notary), 196n56
Brindisi, mint at, 177
Broneer, Oscar, 287
Brontocheion monastery, Church of the Virgin
Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras
Chamber of the Chrysobulls, 13, 33748
agricultural landscape, information about,
dedicatory epigram, 37374
endowments enumerated in texts, 33743, 341,
integral landscape program of, 34446
painter of south portico and, 38691, 387, 388, 390,
purpose of paintings, 346, 348, 355
script of chrysobulls, 39495
vault and north wall painting and texts, 334, 337,
338, 340, 343, 387, 388
exterior, 337, 370
founding of, 37374
galleries, 345n39
interior nave, 347
Mystras school of painting and, iv, 364
narthex and nave, iconography of, 374, 38889
plan, 338
rural exploitation and market economy, 223, 247,
34546, 374
St. Demetrios, Mystras, and, 34548
sigillion, 343, 374, 389
south portico iconographic program, 5, 37195
Constantinopolitan cults of the Virgin, Mystras
identified with, 374, 39193
dating, 38990
decorative motifs, iv, 38687, 387, 39091
Dormition of the Virgin, 375, 38185, 38286,
38890, 392
Hodegetria icon, dispute over ownership of, 393
Magi, visit of, 375, 379
Massacre of the Innocents, 375, 376, 37980, 380,
381, 390, 391
Nativity cycle, 37579, 37679, 391
painter of Chamber of the Chrysobulls and,
38691, 387, 388, 390, 391
plan of, 375, 376



Protevangelium of James text, 375, 376, 377n25, 379,

380, 39192
St. Demetrios, Mystras, nave and narthex paintings of, 390, 39091, 391
script of inscriptions in, 39495
state of preservation, 37476
Synaxarium of Constantinople text, 375, 376, 381,
385, 391, 392
as textual pictures or pictorial texts, 38586
Zacharias, murder of, 375, 376, 380, 381, 391, 392
Theodore I Palaiologos as monk Theodoretos, northeast chapel, 396
town, relationship to, 374
Zoodochos Pege, 375, 389, 392
Brown, R. A., 67
Bruni, Leonardo (historian), 426, 42628, 448n205
Brut of Wace, 17
Brysi, 343, 348
Bucho, Nichola (cellar keeper), 298
Buchon, Charles, 351n67
Buchon, Jean, 2, 76n100, 76n107, 80
Buchthal, Hugo, 17
Buondelmonti, Cristoforo, 461, 464
Buondelmonti, Maddalena, 253
burials. See skeletal remains
Byzantine churches of Frankish Morea, 14251, 14345,
14750. See also specific churches, by town name
Byzantine Despotate. See also Funeral Oration for
Theodore, Despot of the Morea; Mystras; Orthodox
landscapes; Plethon; rural exploitation and market
casaux de paron or partitioned villages on borders of,
21819, 226, 270
establishment of, 2, 45, 12, 1012, 216, 372
expansionist policy, 443, 446
historical writing and sense of the past in, 1314, 2021
in latter part of 15th century, 42325
local hostility to Palaeologian despots, 44143,
Byzantine reconquest of Constantinople, 9798, 100103,
Caesarea, stable isotope analysis of skeletal remains
from, 318, 325, 326
Caffa, Genoese colony of, 195
Calivia (village), 225, 250
Calomiti, Abraam, 260
Canakari, Andrea, 259
Candia, 223n70, 243n241, 256, 262, 263
Carceri, Alberto dalle, 85, 87
Carceri, Berta dalle, 85, 87
Carceri, Carintana dalle, 8588, 87, 90, 95, 97, 99
Carceri, Felisa dalle, 86, 87
Carceri, Guglielmo I dalle, 85, 87, 97, 99
Carceri, Guglielmo II dalle, 87, 88
Carceri, Isabella dalle, 85, 87

Carceri, Marino I dalle, 85, 87

Carceri, Narzotto dalle, 85, 87
Carceri, Ravano dalle, 85, 86, 87
Carceri, Rizzardo dalle, 85, 86, 87
Carceri family, 8081, 81, 82, 95, 97, 99
Carr, Annemarie Weyl, 363n113
Carruthers, M., 35n45
cartography. See Renaissance memory theater, maps of
the Morea as
casaux de paron or partitioned villages, 21819, 226, 270
casks, barrels, and coopers, 251, 258
Catalans in Morea, 12, 108
Almyros, Battle of (1311), 286
ceramic evidence of, 127
coins and money, 157, 167, 168, 175
Corinth, sack of, 284
rural exploitation and market economy, 221, 242n227,
245, 255, 266
catastica, 225
Catello family, 258
Catherine de Valois, 15, 16, 19
Catzicova, 229, 230
Cavaa, Pietro, 26667
Cavaza, Giovanni and Maria, 203
Celsi, Marco, 264
ceramic evidence. See also specific pottery types, e.g.,
Aegean ware, Imitation Luster ware, ProtoMaiolica ware
at Corinth, 28184, 282, 291n53, 292, 3056, 330
from Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey
(EKAS), 3013
of economic and political relationships of Frankish
Morea, 12627
immured bowls in church walls (baccini), 27, 29, 30,
46, 53
at Isthmia, 289, 29092, 292, 3056
from Nemea Valley Archaeological Project (NVAP),
Parori, 349
at San Basilio (Ayios Vasileios), 297
settlement analysis in southern Peloponnese, 362
at Zygouries, 299
Chalkokaidides, John, 193
Chalkokondyles, Laonikos, 14, 372, 413n100, 446n199
Chalkoprateia church, Constantinople, 374, 39192
Chamber of the Chrysobulls. See Brontocheion
monastery, Church of the Virgin Hodegetria
(Aphendiko), Mystras
chamotsoukin, 76
Les chansons au Roy de Navarre (Thibaut IV), 93
Chantore, Antonio, 201
Chappe, Pierre (Cypriot baron), 69
Charitonymos, Hermonymos, 438
Charles I of Anjou
apanage of, 81
architecture of Kingdom of Naples and, 141n182

coins of, 161, 165, 169, 176

as commissioner of songbook of William of Anjou,
15n37, 58, 59, 60, 8993, 99100, 102, 104n301
in possession of songbook of William of Anjou, 1045
as prince of the Morea and king of Naples and Sicily,
1035, 107, 161, 165, 216, 248, 269, 284
in Seventh Crusade, 8990, 91
War of Troy and, 19
Charles II of Anjou (prince of the Morea), 166, 286
Chartia of Klabazos (1572), 196
Chartres, William of Ferrires, Vidame of, 79, 93
Chasini, Nichola (bailiff), 298
Chatzidakis, Manolis, 389
Chazaud, A.-M., 70n65
cheese and dairy products
rural exploitation and market economy, 22526, 234,
stable isotope analysis and consumption of, 33031
Le chiese (Coronelli, 1709), 473
Childe, V. Gordon, 278
children, weaning and feeding, 332
Chlemoutsi, castle of, 12741
abandonment of, 141
architectural influences and castralization of the
palace, 13236, 13839
bathing facilities, 134n119
Byzantine churches of Frankish Morea influenced
by, 142
ceramic evidence from, 126
chapel, 131, 13233, 133, 134, 13637
Chronicle of the Morea and, 119, 127, 140
coins found at, 154n12, 171
compared to other castles, 127, 130, 13334, 137, 138,
139, 14041
defensive architecture of, 12730, 129, 130, 13739
fireplaces, 130, 137
first and second building stages of, 12730, 129, 140
Glarentza and, 119, 129, 138
great hall, 13134, 13234, 13637
kitchens, 131, 134, 13637
latrines, 130, 136
plan and layout, 127, 128, 131
political geography of Frankish Morea and, 112, 113,
private apartments, 130, 131, 13436, 13437
purpose of, 12930, 137, 140
spolia, use of, 23, 35
third, palatial phase of, 13036, 13037
Chlemoutsi, monastery at, 144
Chomatenos, Demetrios, 1213, 206
Choniates, Michael, 11, 12
Choniates, Niketas, 13, 281, 282n21, 330, 363
Chora Monastery, Constantinople, 386
Chortasmenos, John, 415
Choumnos, John, 253
Choumnos, Phokas, 193
Chrtien de Troyes, 68



Christ Elkomenos, Monemvasia icon of, 36364

Chronicle of Fredegarius, 10
Chronicle of the Morea
Chlemoutsi and, 119, 127, 140
Glarentza in, 115, 120
historical writing and sense of the past in, 2, 1516,
19, 20
on mints, 164
on Mystras, 372
on private legal transactions, 196, 201
on San Basilio (Ayios Vasileios), 293
songbook of William of Villehardouin and, 76, 77, 80,
83, 84, 88, 95, 99, 101, 104, 107, 108
spolia and cultural perspective on the past in, 28,
on tournament at Isthmia, 286
The Chronicle of Muntaner, 77n112
Chronik 42, 20n76
Chronique des ducs de Normandie (Benot de SainteMaure; London, BL Harley 1717), 56, 67, 69
monastery of the Virgin Chrysaphitissa, 35859
St. John the Baptist, 363n101
Chrysobulls, Chamber of the. See Brontocheion
monastery, Church of the Virgin Hodegetria
(Aphendiko), Mystras
Chrysokephalos, Matthew, 400n19
Chrysoloras, Demetrios, 415
Chrysoloras, Manuel, 398n5, 399, 400, 402, 403, 415, 416,
420n9, 460
Chrysostomides, Julian, 416
Cicero, 457, 458
Clement IV (pope), 102
Clement, Paul, 287, 288n49, 289
Clementia of Hungary (queen of France), 61
Clver, Philipp, 462
coins and money, 23, 15384. See also mints, and specific
types of coin
Bessarions proposals to limit, 44546
checklist of coin finds, 154n4, 17984
in early modern period, 174
excavated single coins, 154
first Achaian petty denomination issues of 1250s, 152,
15859, 16364, 177
founding of Glarentza, as evidence of, 115
Fourth Crusade and first half of thirteenth century,
15663, 158, 178
Greshams Law, 167
hoards, 154, 171, 17981
international dimensions of, 17678
local counterfeits and imitations, 15660, 158, 159, 164,
167, 169, 173, 174, 175
local Peloponnese terminology for, 156
from mid-13th to mid-14th century (12671353), 159,
Moreote hyperpyron of account, 17173
Plethons proposals to limit, 429, 435, 43839



regional variations in circulation patterns, 17476

rural exploitation and market economy, monetization by, 27273
settlement analysis and, 28990, 290, 29697
significance of, 153, 178
sources and evidence, 15455
Turkish coins, 174, 177
twelfth century, 15556, 158
Venetian dominance of Morean coinage from mid14th century, 16971, 175, 176, 434
of William II of Villehardouin, 84, 85, 163, 16465,
Colart le Boutellier, 94, 9495
Colonna, Guido della, 17
columns, commemorative meaning of, 4647
commemorative medals, 46364, 464
commutation of labor service, 22829
confraternities, 424
Conon of Bthune, 14, 73, 75, 79
Conrad I Hohenstaufen (king of Sicily), 87, 97, 115
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (emperor), novels of,
Constantine XI (emperor), 425
Constantine Palaiologos (despot), 127, 193, 263, 421,
443n177, 44546
acorn kermes shipped to, 26566
Blachernai church, 374, 392
Byzantine reconquest of, 9798, 100103, 284
Chalkoprateia church, 374, 39192
Chora Monastery, 386
cults of the Virgin at, 36061, 374, 39193
foodstuffs, importation of, 234, 237, 270
Fourth Crusade (1204), 2
in Funeral Oration for Theodore, 400
as New Rome, 2, 10
Ottoman siege of (13941402), 413
Ottomans, fall to (1452), 424
in The Present State of the Morea (Randolph, 1689),
The Constitution of the Lakedaimonians, 436
Contredit, Andrieu, 89
coopers, casks, and barrels, 251, 258
Corfu, mint at, 175
ceramic evidence, 28184, 282, 291n53, 292, 3056, 330
coins found at, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162,
16667, 171, 173, 174, 177
dietary evidence from, 28183, 282, 330, 331, 333
fortifications at, 84
Isthmia excavations and, 289, 291n53, 292, 3056
Kraneion basilica, 174
mint at, 15556, 160, 162n92, 16364
Nemea Valley Archaeological Project (NVAP) and,
rural exploitation and market economy, 22021, 231,
235n173, 247, 248, 251, 25760, 26669, 273

St. John, monastery of, 174

sale of, in Funeral Oration for Theodore, 410
settlement analysis, 27885, 279, 280, 282
skeletal remains at, 28485, 309, 311, 312
children, weaning and feeding, 332
dietary evidence, 330, 33132, 333
morphological analysis, 31314
stable isotope analysis, 32021, 32227, 32326,
thalassemia, 285, 314
in Tutte lisole del mondo (Bordone, 1528), 46465
Corinthia, analysis of settlements in. See settlement
analysis in northeastern Peloponnese
Cornaro, Federico, 258
Coronelli, Vincenzo, 45557
Atlante Veneto (1692), 456, 462
Le chiese (1709), 473
classical focus of, 469
dramatic geography of, 47072, 471, 472
as globe-maker, 456
locus amoenus, the Morea viewed as, 468
on melancholy-pleasing remains of the Morea, 455,
Memorie istoriografiche delli regni della Morea e
Negroponte (An Historical and Geographical Account
of the Morea, Negropont, and the Maritime Places,
1687), 2n5, 45556, 456, 459n20, 468n52, 471, 474
on Morosini, 46263, 463
power, maps as instruments of, 47273, 473, 474, 475
Ritratti di celebri personaggi, 462
on shape of the Morea, 459
Teatro della guerra (1708?), 454, 45657, 463, 470, 472
Venetian-Ottoman war and, 45556, 46970, 470,
471, 472
Coroneus, Nicolaus, 218n16
cortesia, 88, 90
corve labor (angareia, servicium personale, or sputica),
218, 22730, 231, 245
Cosgrove, Denis, 475
cotton production and export, 26063
Coucy, Castellan of, 79, 93
Coucy Castle, 132, 138
Covens, Johannes, 47375, 474
Crvecoeur Castle, 127, 140
Crimolisi, Jani, 202, 24243, 265
Crucifixion icon, Monemvasia School, 265, 26566
Crusades. See also Fourth Crusade
First Crusade, 16
Second Crusade, 10n5, 67, 71
Third Crusade, 68, 80
Fifth Crusade, 78
Seventh Crusade, 5758, 60, 68, 77, 8890, 91, 93, 95,
103, 104
Albigensian Crusade, 68, 78, 79
Barons Crusade, 83
Holy League of 1684 and Venetian-Ottoman war in
the Morea (16831714), 45556, 475

songbook of William of Villehardouin, as favored

theme in, 68, 73, 7879
Cyriacus of Ancona, 2021, 31n31, 53n111, 372, 446
Daimonoioannes, Georgios, 253
dairy products and cheese
rural exploitation and market economy, 22526, 234,
stable isotope analysis and consumption of, 33031
dalle Carceri family. See entries at Carceri
Damala, coins of lordship of, 159, 16768n145
Damianos of Corinth, 259
Damietta, siege of (1218), 69
Dante, 98
Dares the Phrygian, 19
Datini trading company, 248, 264
De architectura (Vitruvius), 457
De Wit, Frederick (cartographer), 47273, 474
defensio, 199
Definitions (Plato), 420
della Dora, Veronica, 56, 455, 481
demesne and estate lands, 227, 23031, 252
St. Demetrios, 366, 372
Demetrios the Magister, 400n19
Demetrios Palaiologos (despot), 4, 247, 421, 440n155
Demosthenes, 13
denier tournois (coin), 153, 158, 159, 16162, 164, 16668,
171, 17378
Descent/Journey to Hades (Mazares/Mazaris), 20, 21, 195,
372, 442
Description of the Entire Peloponnese, Coastal and Interior
(Plethon), 436
Despotate of the Morea. See Byzantine Despotate
Dialogue with His Mother the Empress on Marriage
(Manuel II Palaiologos, 1396), 398, 413
Dictys of Crete, 19, 2021
Didaskalos, Nikolaos, 259
Didymoteichon, 466
children, weaning and feeding, 332
cooking pots, evidence derived from, 28183, 282
stable isotope analysis, evidence from, 32832, 333
Diocletian, price edict of (301), 43, 346n50
Diodorus Siculus, 436, 437
Black Death, 218, 222, 223, 224, 244, 249, 26770,
Florence, mortality rates in, 450
thalassemia, 285, 314
DNA analysis of skeletal remains, 31415
Dokeianos, Ioannes (John), 14, 445n187
Dolfin, Giovanni (doge of Venice), coins of, 152, 159
Dominicans, 29, 33, 35, 39
donations to churches and monasteries, 188, 191, 192, 196,
199, 200, 2057



Donato family, 255

Dormition of the Virgin, south portico, Brontocheion
Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko),
Mystras, 375, 38185, 38286, 38890, 392
Dorotheos of Monemvasia, 99n257
Dossopatri, Todero and Damiano, 298
Douglas, David, 68
Dragoumis, Stephanos, 373
drama. See theater
Drandakes, Nikolaos, 362
ducat (coin), 16869, 171, 173
Dunbabin, Jean, 105
dyeing and tanning agents from acorn cups and kermes,
226, 230, 26367
Dyggve, Holger Petersen, 79
Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey (EKAS), 3014,
economic issues. See barter economy; coins and money;
rural exploitation and market economy; taxes and
Economics (attrib. Aristotle), 448
Edictum Diocletiani (301), 43, 346n50
Edwards, K. M., 157
Eleanor of Aquitaine (queen of England), 17, 66
electrum trachy (coin), 155, 156
Elis. See Frankish Morea
emphyteusis, 208, 209
Encomium of St. Demetrios (Symeon of Thessalonike), 415
Enguerrand III (Lord of Coucy), 138
enthroned Christ, icon of, with knotted cross, 23n2
Enzio (king of Sardinia), 72
Epidauros Limera, 355, 357, 363, 367
Epistolary Discourse (Chrysoloras, 1415), 403, 415
Erart, Jean, 95
Erier, Thomas, 73
Esopo, 226n83
estates and demesne lands, 227, 23031, 252
Estoir des Engleis (Gaimar, 1140), 65, 108
Estoire de la guerre sainte (Ambroise of Evreux), 67
Estoire de Joseph, 66
ethnic communities of the Morea, 4, 5, 1112. See also
private legal transactions; skeletal remains
Etymologies (Isidore of Seville), 458
Etzeoglou, Rodoniki, 374
Euboea (Negroponte), 8587, 95, 97, 104, 172, 220, 230,
249, 253, 256n380, 265
Eudamonoiannes, George, 432
Eudamonoiannes family, 11, 239
Eudes of Nevers, 70, 73
Eudo III of Burgundy, 89
Eugenikos, John, 14, 227
Eugenios (metropolitan of Lakedaimon), 372
Eugenios (metropolitan of Mystras), 44
Eugenius IV (pope), 448



Euphrosyne-Marinia (nun), 393

Evergates, Theodore, 80, 82n141
Everist, Mark, 75n92
Evrenos Beg, 430
Falier, Marino (doge of Venice), 159, 265
Farmers Law, 206
farming. See rural exploitation and market economy
Ferdinand of Majorca, 146, 166n126
Fermor, Patrick Leigh, 5354
Ferrara-Florence, Council of (14391439), 419, 438
feudal system
imperial finances and, 43031
Orthodox landscapes marked by, 335
private legal transactions and, 187, 192, 193, 196, 200,
201, 207, 209, 210, 211
rural exploitation and market economy, 216, 232,
songbook of William of Villehardouin and, 8283
Ficino, Marsilio, 420, 422
Fifth Crusade, 78
figs and fig trees, 204, 225, 257, 258, 259
Filangieri, Riccardo, 70n62
Filippo di Novara, 6970, 78n113
First Crusade, 16
consumption of, 329, 33132, 333
meanings associated with depictions of, 3334, 34,
Flamun, Anna, 206
Florence. See also entries at Medici
On the Constitution of the Florentines (Bruni), 426,
Ferrara-Florence, Council of (14391439), 419, 438
the Morea and, 5
mortality rates in, 450
Plethons economic and political philosophy and,
Praise of the City of Florence (Laudatio Florentinae
Urbis; Bruno), 427
Procession of the Magi (Benozzo Gozzoli), 418, 423
Florent of Hainaut (prince of the Morea), 114, 125, 166,
168, 169
florin (coin), 159, 16869
Folda, Jaroslav, 70, 91, 95
Folena, Gianfranco, 70, 72n78
Foro, Pietro, 298
Foundations of an Imperial Education (Manuel II
Palaiologos, 1406), 398, 413
Fourth Crusade (1204)
coins and money in the Morea and, 15663, 158, 178
establishment of Frankish Morea and, 2, 18
songbook of William of Villehardouin and, 68, 73, 75,
76, 7879
Franciscans, 29, 35, 39
Frangopoulos, Manuel, 432

Frankish Morea. See also architecture of Frankish

Morea; coins and money; private legal transactions
in Frankish Morea; rural exploitation and market economy; settlement analysis in northeastern
Peloponnese; skeletal remains; songbook of William
of Villehardouin
casaux de paron or partitioned villages on borders of,
21819, 226, 270
end of, 216
establishment of, 24, 1112, 7576, 21516
Greek subjects in, 111, 112, 145, 151
historical writing and sense of the past in, 1420
political geography of, 112, 113, 14142
spolia, use of, 2325, 2839. See also spolia
Frankopoulos, Ioannes, 14
Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (Holy Roman Emperor and
king of Sicily), 72, 87, 98, 139
Funeral Oration for Palla Strozzi (Oratio Funebris; Bruno),
Funeral Oration for Theodore, Despot of the Morea
(Manuel II Palaiologos, ca. 1410), 5, 397417
composition, delivery, versions, and circulation
of, 398400
extended nature of narrative elements of, 4012
ideological implications of narrative in, 41216
laconism, revival of, 444
literary and political significance of text, 39798
metanarrative of, 405
narratological analysis, 40512
narrators homodiegetic relationship to, 4025, 416
outline of Manuels narrative, 4089
outline of Morea narrative, 40910
outline of Theodores narrative, 4078
political history of despotate included in, 401
rhetorical templates and, 400401
Gabrielopoulos, George, 444
Gace Brul (troubadour), 6162, 68, 78, 79, 93, 95, 102
Gaimar, Geoffrey, 65, 66, 108
Galani-Krikou, M., 160
Ganganeas (village), 265, 352
garum, 330
Garvie-Lok, Sandra, 4, 285, 309, 332, 482
Panagia Katholike (church of the Virgin) at, 27, 29,
112, 145, 146, 306
rural exploitation and market economy, 224, 246
Gattilusio burials, Mytilene, church of St. John, 311, 312,
322, 328, 331, 332, 333
Gautier de Coincy (troubadour), 6869, 100
Gautier dEpinal (troubadour), 68n49
Gemistos, George. See Plethon
Geanakoplos, Deno, 99n260
Genette, Grard, 404n58
Gennadios (patriarch; formerly George Scholarios), 5,
423n21, 440, 445n187, 447n203

Geoffrey of Karytaina, 97, 101, 107

Geoffrey of Villehardouin (chronicler and uncle of
Geoffrey I), 75, 77, 79, 88n189, 89n192, 90n200
Geoffrey I of Villehardouin (prince of the Morea)
architecture of Frankish Morea and, 112, 127, 141
burial of, 84
coins and money, 164
establishment of Frankish Morea, role in, 2, 12,
7576, 215
family tree, 77
as literary patron, 14
spolia and, 49
will of, 200
Geoffrey II of Villehardouin (prince of the Morea)
court of, 7677
dying requests of, 8384, 85
as literary patron, 14
marriage of, 77, 80
rule of Frankish Morea by, 2, 12, 76, 82
spolia and, 35
verbal will of, 201
in will of Geoffrey I, 201
geography. See also Renaissance memory theater, maps of
the Morea as
empirical objects, association of geographical forms
with, 459
as information system, 45758
paradoxical geography of the Peloponnese, 45758
Geography (Ptolemy), 465
Geoponika, 250
Gephryratos, 341
Christ Elkomenos images in churches of, 364
Mystras School of painting not affecting, 364
St. George, church of, 3943, 40, 41, 53
St. John Chrysostom, church of, 42, 4344, 44, 47, 53
St. Nicholas, church of, 353n72
Gerard (scribe), 437
Gerland, Ernst, 188, 204, 205, 209
Gerokomites, Andreas, 204
Geroumana, Church of the Pantanassa at, 112, 366, 367
Gerstel, Sharon E. J., 1, 45, 44, 83, 311, 335, 387, 482
Ghisi, Bartolomeo, 16
gigliato (coin), 159, 168
Gille le Vinier (troubadour), 73, 89, 95
gimorum tax, 261n436
Giovanetta, wife of Viviano the shoemaker, 252
Glarentza, 11527
abandonment of, 116, 127, 142
acorn cups and kermes, 265, 26667
Aigues-Mortes, France, resemblance to, 3, 116, 125
Andravida, administrative capital transfered
from, 115
Blachernai, monastery church of
architecture of Frankish Morea and, 112, 145, 146,
147, 148, 149, 150, 151
spolia, use of, 2829, 3539, 3638



Glarentza (continued)
Chlemoutsi and, 119, 129, 138
coins found at, 115, 154, 171, 177
cotton exports, 26061, 263n451
currants and currant trade, 257, 259
East Gate, 119, 120
as economic center of Frankish Morea, 116, 12627
founding of, 11516
grain sales and exports, 248
htel des princes at, 120, 122, 141
as military and strategic site, 116, 119
mint, 3, 115, 119, 120, 126, 159, 162n92, 163, 16470, 172,
175, 176
monetization of economy and, 273
olive oil consumption in, 242
plan, fortifications, and gates, 11620, 117, 118, 12022,
political geography of Frankish Morea and, 112, 113,
population, 117
St. Francis, church of, 123, 12325, 124, 125, 144, 151
St. Mark, Venetian church of, 12023
Sea Gate, 11819
as urban settlement, 120, 12526
as Venetian stronghold, 431
Villehardouin family castle at, 84
wine exports from, 255
Glatsa, churches of the Panagia and the Savior at, 14546,
Glyka, Euphrosyne, 359
Gonia, 301
Gorgias (Plato), 420n9
Gospel books, private legal transactions written in,
18891, 189, 190, 196, 345
Gothic architecture, 26, 38, 113, 123, 138, 141, 142, 14451
Gothic manuscripts, 19, 105
Gozzoli, Benozzo (painter), 418, 423
mills and milling, 24648, 34546
rural exploitation and market economy, 225, 23132,
24549, 270
stable isotope analysis and consumption of, 32829,
Grandes Chroniques de France, 17
Greek Despotate. See Byzantine Despotate
Greek subjects
in the Frankish Morea, 111, 112, 145, 151. See also
settlement analysis in northeastern Peloponnese;
skeletal remains
under Ottoman and Venetian rule, 468, 47273
Gregoras, Nikephoros, 372, 424, 434
Gregory IX (pope), 83n153
Gregory the Monk, 421n16
Gregory of Nyssa, will inscribed on omophorion of,
St. Nicholas, Klenia, 186, 191, 2034
Gregory, Timothy E., 4, 5, 277, 482
Greshams Law, 167



Grierson, Philip, 157

Grizi, 221, 232, 241, 245, 267, 268
gros tournois (coin), 168, 176
grosso, Venetian (coin), 153, 158, 162, 168, 174
Guarino Veronese (scholar), 39798, 399, 414, 416
Guillaume le Vinier (troubadour), 73, 94, 95, 106
Guillielmo di Napoli, 298
Guy, Castellan of Coucy, 73, 75, 79
Guy of Enghien (Lord of Argos and Nauplia), 257
Guy I of La Roche (Duke of Athens), 84, 86, 88, 90, 97, 101
Guy II of La Roche (Duke of Athens), 168
Hagioi Notarioi (Markianos and Martyrios), 194, 195
Haines, John, 3, 57, 482
Halcyon (Plato), 420
Harley, Brian, 458
Harmenopoulos, Constantine, 206
Harvey, Alan, 248n201
Helen of Epiros, 98, 99
Helena Angela, lady of Karytaina, coins of, 159, 16768
Helleabourkos family, 442
Hellenika (Xenophon), 438
helots, 439
Hendy, Michael F., 177n243
Henri III of Brabant, 8889, 90, 9293
Henry I (king of England), 65, 66, 108
Henry II (king of England), 17, 66, 67, 68
Henry III (king of England), coins of, 158
Henry the Liberal of Champagne, 68
in Funeral Oration for Theodore, 444
in Plethons works, 435
herbadigo or jus herbagii, 226
Hermogenes, 400
Hermoniakos, Constantine, 19
Herodotus, 5, 14, 52, 439
Hexamilion Wall, 117, 268, 285, 287, 288, 290, 413, 435
Histoire universelle, 95
historical writing and sense of the past, 23, 921
administration of the Morea before and after 1204
and, 1012
in Byzantine Despotate, 1314, 2021
Byzantine Greek background, writers with, 1213, 21
in Byzantium, 910
Chronicle of the Morea, 2, 1516, 19, 20
in Frankish Morea, 1420
MS Koutloumousiou 220, 20
St. Nikon, Life of, 11, 12
Plethon and, 14
Roman empire, sense of continuity with, 910, 425
War of Troy, 3, 1621
in Western Europe, 10
History of John Kantakouzenos (emperor), 372
hoardings, 127, 138

Hodegetria church, Mystras. See Brontocheion monastery,

Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras
Hodegetria icons
Mega Spelaion icon, dispute over ownership of, 393
Monemvasiotissa, 26465
Holy League of 1684 and Venetian-Ottoman war in the
Morea (16831714), 45556, 475
Homer, 2, 12, 1819, 20
Hondius, Jodocus, 462, 466, 473
Honorius III (pope), 76
Hopf, Karl, 84n159, 87, 97, 102, 107
Horace, 54
Hospitallers (Knights of St. John of Jerusalem)
architecture of Frankish Morea and, 112, 132, 137, 139
coins and money, 176
Funeral Oration for Theodore and, 401, 4046, 408,
409, 41114, 416
historical writing and sense of the past, 12, 15
rural exploitation and market economy, 216, 259
Hugh V of Berz, 68, 73, 75, 79
Hugh of Brienne (Count of Brienne and Lecce), 168
Hugh IV of Burgundy, 70, 89, 9193, 96n246, 103, 104
Hugh of Les Baux, 103n289
Hugh of Oisi, 102
Hugh of Saint-Quentin, 79
human remains analysis. See skeletal remains
Hunger, Herbert, 10n4
Huon, Castellan of Arras, 94
Hutter, Irmgard, 19
hyperpyron (coin), 153, 155, 156, 158, 161, 162, 163, 17173
Christ Elkomenos, Monemvasia icon of, 36364
Crucifixion icon, Monemvasia School, 265, 36466
enthroned Christ with knotted cross, 23n2
Mega Spelaion icon of Virgin Hodegetria, dispute
over ownership of
Hodegetria icons, 393
Virgin Hodebetria Monemvasiotissa, 26465
identity politics of architecture in Frankish Morea, 151
al-Idrisi, 459
Iliad (Homer), 19
Imitation Luster Ware, 289
inheritance agreement between husband and wife, 204
Innocent III (pope), 52
Innocent IV (pope), 81, 87
Innocent XI (pope), 455
Inscription of Parori (1389), 413, 417
Insula (Nesi), 221
Introductio in universam geographiam (Clver, 1652), 462
iron plowshares, 22324, 246, 270
irrigation and water resources, 23031, 270
Isaac II Angelos (emperor), 297, 363
Isabelle of Villehardouin (princess of the Morea), 99, 103,
104, 108, 165, 166, 167

Isidore of Kiev, 399, 400, 402, 413n101, 414n109, 415

Isidore of Seville, 458
isolarii (island books), 458, 461, 46162, 470
Isolario (Sonetti, 1480), 458
Lisole piu famose del mondo (Porcacchi, 1575), 461, 462,
Isova Monastery
church of Our Lady, 143
church of St. Nicholas, 143, 144
ceramic evidence, 289, 29092, 292, 3056
coins found at, 154, 161, 28990, 290
Corinth excavations and, 289, 291n53, 292, 3056
Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey (EKAS)
and, 301, 3023, 303
Nemea Valley Archaeological Project (NVAP) and,
Poseidon, Panhellenic Sanctuary of, 154, 28687, 301
St. John the Baptist, church of, 289
settlement analysis of, 28592, 286, 287, 29092
Italy. See also specific cities
castles of Frederick II Hohenstaufen in, 139
coinage of, 16869, 174
governmental reform in, 42528, 447
Plethon in, 41920, 423, 44852
song collections and songbooks, 7273
Jacoby, David, 4, 5, 69, 70, 163n98, 213, 305, 482
Jann de Broera, 201
Jansonius, atlas of, 473
Jeanne of Toucy, 81, 91
Jeffreys, Elizabeth, 3, 9, 483
Jenkins, Romilly, 28687
John III Vatatzes (emperor), 97, 158, 162
John V Palaiologos (emperor), 404, 406, 412, 414
John VI Kantakouzenos (emperor), 13, 14, 210, 372,
John VII Palaiologos (emperor), 254, 412, 413
John VIII Palaiologos (emperor), 174, 195, 400, 402, 413,
414n109, 421, 425, 433n102, 448
John (king of England), coins of, 160
John of Brienne (king of Jerusalem and Latin regentemperor of Constantinople), 72, 73, 76, 77, 7879, 80,
82, 87, 93, 97, 9899
John III Sobieski (king of Poland and grand duke of
Lithuania), 455
John the Baptist, Parnon monastic zone dedicated to, 362
John Chrysostom, 13
John of Gravina, 166
John of Ibelin, 69
John de la Roche (Duke of Athens), 52, 175
John II of Nesle (Blondel), 75, 79
John II of Rousi, 79n120
Joinville, John of, 57, 58, 61, 75n9598, 79n117, 79n123,
88n189, 89n192, 90n200
Joseph the Monk, 400n19, 4023



Journey/Descent to Hades (Mazares/Mazaris), 20, 21, 195,

372, 442
Joyner, Louise, 28183, 284n28
Juan Fernandez de Heredia, 15, 20
jus herbagii or herbadigo, 226
Justinianic Code, 204
Justinianic Novels, 192, 203n97
castle of, 49, 8182, 107, 201
rural exploitation and market economy, 240, 241,
245, 265
castle of, 293
Mega Spelaion monastery, 393
Kaldellis, Anthony, 51
Kalekas, Manuel, 413n102
Kalligas, Charis, 357
Kalligopoulos brothers, 145
Kallimachos, 1718
Kallinike (nun), 200
Kalogonia, 341, 343
Kalopheros, John Laskaris, 433
Kalybitas, 343
Kamateroi (Chamateroi), 11
Kantakouzenoi, 444
John VI Kantakouzenos (emperor), 13, 14, 210, 372,
Manuel Kantakouzenos (despot), 4, 372, 413
Matthew Kantakouzenos (despot), 372
Karbuqa, 283n21
Karpozilos, A., 28283n21
castle of, 133, 137, 138, 140
coins minted at, 159, 16768, 175
Kastanitza, 358
Kastri, coins found at, 160
Kato Kastania, St. Andrew in, 363n107
Kato Meligou, church of St. George at, 342
Kaukesel, Guibert, 73
Kavakes, Demetrios, 438
Kazhdan, Alexander, 282n21
Kenchreai, 167, 301
Kinney, Dale, 46
Kiveri (Myloi), 118, 140, 247
Klenia, church of St. Nicholas, will inscribed on
omophoroion of Gregory of Nyssa in, 186, 191, 2034
Knights Hospitallers. See Hospitallers
Knossos, stable isotope analysis of skeletal remains from,
knotted cross motif, 2324n2, 24
kommerkion tax, 431, 432
Kontogiannis, Nikos, 312
Kordokopi, coins found at, 161, 162
Kordosis, Michael S., 297



Korone (Coron)
acorn cups and kermes, 264, 265, 266, 267
coins and money, 172
cotton, 261, 262, 263
currants, 257n398, 258n409, 260
export-oriented agriculture and, 270, 272
grains, 246, 248
labor service, 227n97
in Liber insularum archipelagi (Buondelmonti, 1420),
livestock for slaughter in, 268
monopolies, absence of, 272
olives and olive oil, 236, 23944
peasant workforce, 216, 217, 21923, 225, 269
pirate attacks on, 102
polyculture and polyactivity, agricultural, 226
private legal transactions, 188, 204, 205
as Venetian port city, 12, 85, 431, 432
wine and vineyards, 250, 251, 254, 255, 256
Kosmina, 218, 229, 240, 241
Kotychi, 230, 247
Koudouma, monastery at, 315
Koulendia (Helleniko), 353, 355
Kountoura, 240
Kourelis, Kostis, 125n72, 14142n176
Krak des Chevaliers, 127, 130n101, 132, 139
Kreipe, Heinrich, 54
Kremmydi, 218n16, 240, 24546, 252, 253
Krestena, 218, 229, 241, 251, 252, 253, 273n534
Kritoboulos, Michael, 372
Krokodeilos family, 442, 443n172
Kryovrysi, 362n100
krypteia, 439
Kydones, Demetrios, 372, 44445
Kyprianos (abbot of Brontocheion monastery, Mystras),
Kyriakakis, James, 310, 311
Kythera, 194, 195, 363, 366
La Borria, 231n134
labboraggio tax, 255, 258
labor service/corve labor (angareia, servicium personale,
or sputica), 218, 22730, 231, 245
Laborde, Jean-Benjamin de, 58
laconism, revival of
Florence, Plethon, and Cosimo de Medici, 452
medieval view of ancient Sparta, 441
Mystras as new Sparta, 44346, 448
by Plethon, 43541, 437, 447
precursors to and influences on Plethon, 43640,
successors of Plethon on, 44546
Ladies Parliament, 101
Laiou-Thomadakis, A., 217n13, 273n537
The Lakedaimonian Constitution, 436
Lakonian churches, spolia used in, 3947, 4042, 44, 45

Lakonica, 436
Lampoudios, Matthew, 438
Lampros, P., 169
Lampros, Spyridon, 20, 188, 210
Lampsakos, 228n110
Lando, Marco, 222
landscapes, Orthodox. See Orthodox landscapes
Laskaris, Nikolaos, 31011
Laurent, Vitalien, 373
Laws (Plato), 438n140, 440, 447
Le Goff, Jacques, 68
Le Vot, Gerard, 60n17
Leake, William, 286, 353n75
leases of land, 20710, 23233, 251, 271
leasing of olive oil presses, 241
legal transactions, private. See private legal transactions
in Frankish Morea
Leo X (pope), 420
Leondari, 364
Leonessa, Aikaterina de, 203
Leonessa, Egidio de, 201
Leonessa, Niccol de, 207, 210
Leonte, Florin, 5, 397, 483
Lepanto, 431
Leslie, Brian, 327
Letter to the Emperor on the Isthmus (Plethon, 14071418),
42223, 434, 438, 439, 443, 447
Leuke, 348
Liber de Podagra (Demetrios Pepagomenos), 254
Liber insularum archipelagi (Buondelmonti, 1420), 461,
Libro dabaco, 261
Libro de varie romanze volgari, 72, 73, 91, 93, 9899, 100
Life of St. Louis (John of Joinville), 57, 58, 61
Lignages dOutremer, 8283
coins found at castle of, 154n12
cotton grown at, 261, 262
Likinnioi, 20
Limenites, Nicholas, 437
Lira. See Lyra
literary spolia, 31, 4748
Lithero, 231n136, 268
Liudprand of Cremona, 330
Livadi, Kythera, Hagioi Notarioi in church of St. Andrew
at, 195
lives of saints. See saints lives in Peloponnese
livestock, 22526, 268, 270
Livistros and Rhodamne, 17, 18, 19
Livre de la conqueste (French version of Chronicle). See
Chronicle of the Morea
livre des usages, 95
Longaniko, Laconia, 364
Longo, Pascquale, 169, 188

Louis VII (king of France), 67, 80n128

Louis VIII (king of France), 75, 80, 89, 158, 161
Louis IX (king of France)
architecture of Frankish Morea and, 3, 11516, 125, 141
coins and money, 158, 161, 164, 176, 177
historical writing and sense of the past, 19
songbook of William of Villehardouin and, 5758, 76,
81, 82, 8889, 91, 95, 97, 103
Louis X (king of France), 61
Louis de Bourgogne, 146
Louvre Castle, Paris, 138
Lug, Robert, 71, 79n120
Luke (metropolitan of Mystras), 348
Lurier, Harold, 58
Lusignan Cyprus, political geography of, 112
Lykobouno, Laconia, monastery of St. George at,
Lykourgos (Lycurgus; lawgiver in ancient Sparta),
43537, 43941, 44447
Lyra (Lira), Epidauros Limera, 353, 35455, 355
A-Tzouras (Panagia Kyra), 35455, 355, 362, 366
Macona, 246, 251
Procession of the Magi (Benozzo Gozzoli), 418, 423
south portico, Brontocheion Church of the Virgin
Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras, 375, 379
Magoula, 348
Mahaut of Brabant, 96
Mahaut of Hainaut (princess of the Morea), 115, 159,
166, 167, 175
Byzantine reconquest of Peloponnese and, 2, 101
fortifications at, 84
rural exploitation and market economy, 220
Maiolica ware, 297
Makarios of Ankara, 412
maledictions, 199200, 350n66
Maliscura, Barduccio, 298
malmsey (Malvasia wine), 25354, 25657, 424
Malotaras, Nicholas, 342n27, 393
Malvasia. See Monemvasia
Malvasia wine (malmsey), 25354, 25657, 424
Mamonas family, 239
Manfred (king of Sicily), 7273, 9899, 100, 103
Manfred Bible, 98, 100
Mangani, Giorgio, 457
Maniatochori, 252
Palaiopanagia at, 14648, 147
Panagia Katholike at, 146
Mansourah, Battle of (1250), 89
Mantinea, 247
Manuel I Komnenos (emperor), 155, 158, 163, 296, 415



Manuel II Palaiologos (emperor). See also Funeral Oration

for Theodore, Despot of the Morea
Address to the Emperor Manuel on the Affairs in the
Peloponnese (Plethon, 14071418), 209, 42223,
434, 435, 438, 439, 443, 447
coins of, 159, 173, 174, 434
Dialogue with His Mother the Empress on Marriage
(1396), 398, 413
Foundations of an Imperial Education (1406), 398, 413
Hexamilion Wall, reconstruction of, 288, 435
literary reputation of, 398, 41315
Plethon and, 209, 421
political position of, 41213
rural exploitation and market economy, 254, 262
Seven Ethico-Political Orations (Manuel II
Palaiologos, 14041408), 413
on traditional imperial authority, 425
on Venetian trade freedoms, 432
Manuel III Palaiologos (emperor), 401n36
Manuel Kantakouzenos (despot), 4, 372, 413
Manuel Komnenos Doukas (ruler of Thessalonica and
Thessaly), 10, 158
Athens, Byzantine and Christian Museum, acc. no.
534, 356, 357
Athens, National Library of Greece
MS 70, 189, 190
MS 1462, 356, 357
Cambridge, Pembroke College 113, 67
Erfurt, Universitts- und Forschungsbibliothek,
Dep. fol. Erf. CA. (Amplonianus) 80 32, 67
Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana
Laurentianus 691, 437n132
Plut. 85.9, 420, 422
Leiden, University Library Perizonianus F. 6, 438n135
London, British Library
Add. 5117, 188, 189
Add. 37006, 363n113
Harley 1717, 56, 6667, 67, 69
Harley 3775, 67, 68
Royal 20 D 1, 17n56
London, Lambeth Palace Library 1681, 6162, 62
Madrid, Escurial, cod. -II-5, 342n27
Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana
Ambrosianus 1000 (D. 538), 437n132
Ambrosianus graecus 348, 437n132
Modena, Biblioteca Estense
MS 144, 437n134
MS R. 4.4, 6263, 6465, 71, 96
Moscow, Synodal Library, cod. gr. 12, 348
Mount Athos
Koutloumousiou 210, 48n83
Koutloumousiou 220, 29
Oxford, Bodleian Library
Ashmole 125, 67
Rawlinson G. 22, 67
Roe 22, 13n30
Paris, Bibliothque nationale de France



fonds fr. 844. See songbook of William of

fonds fr. 12615, 9394
fonds fr. 20050, 61, 71, 75
fr. 1610, 17n56
fr. 12473, 71, 72
gr. 135, 19n17
gr. 708, 13n30, 373n13
gr. 1634, 14n31
gr. 1672, 438n137
gr. 1699, 437n132
n. acqu. fr. 10036, 66, 67
Patmos, monastery of St. John
Patmiacus 103, 14n30
Patmiacus 275, 13n30
Serres, Monastery of John the Baptist, cod. 74,
Vatican Library
gr. 632, 402
gr. 2236, 438n136
lat. 36, 98
lat. 3793, 72
Ottob. 67, 14n31
Palat. 256, 437n132
Psalter 381, 386
Reg. Lat. 1659, 67, 68
Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana
Marc. gr. 379, 436n127
Marc. gr. 517, 436n127
Marc. gr. Z. 406, 426, 436n127, 437
Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Tabula
Peutingeriana (Codex Vindobonensis 324), 459
Map, Walter, 52
maps, Renaissance. See Renaissance memory theater,
maps of the Morea as
marble in the Peloponnese, 27n15
Margaret of Flanders, 91
Margaret of Toucy, 81
Margaret of Villehardouin, 99
Margat, 130n101, 132
Marguerite of Passava, 196
Marie de Champagne, 68
Marinou, Georgia, 45
Marinus of Ragusa, 205
market economy. See rural exploitation and market
marriage agreements, 204
St. Martin of Tours, 84n159
Martinos, Iohannes (John), 207, 210
Martoni, Niccol de, 2, 257
Mary of Bourbon, 168, 169, 231, 245
Massa, Andrea de, 260
Massacre of the Innocents, south portico, Brontocheion
Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko),
Mystras, 375, 376, 37980, 380, 381, 390, 391
Massaio, Pietro del, Ptolemaic Table of the Peloponnese
(ca. 147080), 45960, 460, 46566

massarie or zevgilateia, 228, 23132, 245, 246, 247, 249, 268,

269, 298n73
Matilda of Brabant, 92
Matilda of Scotland (queen of England), 65
Matteo da Napoli, 265
Matthew I (patriarch), 412
Matthew Kantakouzenos (despot), 372
Maure, Erard le, 16
Maurice II of Craon, 79n123
Maurice III of Craon, 79
Maurozoumes, 432
Mavrion, 247
Mayer, H. E., 60n12
Mazarin, Cardinal, 105
Mazaris (Mazares), 20, 21, 195, 372, 442
Mazze, Filippo dalle, 2023
meat, Greek versus Latin consumption of
cooking pots, evidence from, 28183, 282
stable isotope analysis, evidence from, 32832, 333
medals, commemorative, 46364, 464
Medici, Averardo de, 257
Medici, Cosimo de, 420, 422, 423, 427, 44852
Medici, Lorenzo de, 420, 452n240
Medici family and bank, 420, 44849, 450
Medio, Zanino de, 265
Megalopolis, 467
Megara, 245, 248
Mehmet II (sultan), 440n155
Melachrinos, Nicholas, 437
Melikes, Matheos Rhalles, 247
Melingoi, 5, 11n17
Memorie istoriografiche delli regni della Morea e Negroponte
(An Historical and Geographical Account of the Morea,
Negropont, and the Maritime Places, Coronelli, 1687),
2n5, 45556, 456, 459n20, 468n52, 471, 474
memory and the past, 23, 56, 457. See also historical
writing and sense of the past; Renaissance memory
theater, maps of the Morea as; spolia
Menander, 400
Merbaka, church of the Koimesis (Panagia) at, 22, 2835,
30, 32, 34, 3637, 38, 39, 11112, 150, 151
Mercator, Gerardus, 458, 462, 466
Mesarites, Nikolaos, 253
Mesochori, 252
Mesqui, Jean, 139
Messene, coins found at, 154n8
Methone (Modon)
acorn cups and kermes, 265, 266, 267
coins and money, 172
cotton, 261, 262, 263
currants, 257n398
export-oriented agriculture and, 270, 272
Geoffrey Is landing at, 2
grains and milling, 246, 247, 248, 249
labor service in, 227

in Liber insularum archipelagi (Buondelmonti, 1420),

461, 464
messarie, 232
monopolies, absence of, 272
olives and olive oil, 23537, 23945
peasant workforce, 216, 217, 21921, 22325, 269
private legal transactions in, 188, 204, 205
spolia, 49
as Venetian port city, 5, 12, 431, 432
William II of Villehardouin and, 85, 102
wine and vineyards, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256
metochia, 337, 346
Metochites, Theodore, 424, 432n102, 441
Metrios (peasant), 271n526, 273n537
Metz, episcopal-bourgeoisie rivalry in, 71
Michael (metropolitan of Old Patras and Lakedaimon),
Michael VIII Palaiologos (emperor), 100102, 115, 158,
162n93, 177, 216, 239, 37172, 392n54
Michael IX (emperor), 223, 339
Michael II Angelos Doukas Komnenos (despot of
Epiros), 9798, 99, 100, 101, 108, 114
Mila castle, 133, 137, 141
Millard, Andrew, 318, 325
Miller, William, 58
Millet, Gabriel, 373, 382
mills, grain, 24648, 34546
Minio, Bartolomeo, 22122, 466n47
mints. See also coins and money
Athens, coins issued by lords of, 163, 17475
Brindisi, 177
Corfu, 175
Corinth, 15556, 160, 162n92, 16364
Glarentza, 3, 115, 119, 120, 126, 159, 162n92, 163, 16470,
172, 175, 176
Karytaina, 159, 16768, 175
Monemvasia, 4, 173
Mystras, 4, 173, 434
Naupaktos, 166, 175
Negroponte, 172
Neopatras, 175
Salona, 175
Thebes, 155, 166, 172, 175
Thessalonike, 155, 157, 158
Tinos, 175
Miracles de Nostre Dame (Gautier de Coincy), 6869, 100
Mitatova, 341
Mitchell, Piers, 318, 325
Mocenigo, Tomaso (doge of Venice), 174, 297
Mokista, St. Nicholas and the Archangels at, 52
Monceaux, Paul, 286
Monemvasia (Malvasia)
Byzantine reconquest of Peloponnese and, 2, 101, 216,
Christ Elkomenos, icon of, 36364
chrysobulls, Orthodox landscapes delineated in,
35158, 354, 356, 357, 363n113, 364


Monemvasia (Malvasia) (continued)

coins minted in, 4, 173
cults of the Virgin at, 36062
fortifications at, 84
as metropolitan center, 336
paintings in village and cemetery churches of,
36268, 363, 36567
private legal transactions from, 188, 210
in Renaissance cartography, 46667, 468
rural exploitation and market economy, 220, 221, 226,
228n107, 239, 242, 246, 247, 249, 25354, 25657,
26466, 424
St. Andrew, 364n120
St. Sophia (formerly Virgin Hodegetria), 362,
settlement analysis in, 362
as Venetian stronghold, 431
Virgin Hodegetria Monemvasiotissa and
Crucifixion icons, 26466, 365
money. See coins and money
Moniot dArras (monk and composer), 6263, 6465, 73,
monopolies, 241, 248, 252, 257, 259, 264, 265, 271, 272
monydria, 337, 346, 358
Morea, 16
before 1204, 1011
agrarian economy of, 4, 21375. See also rural exploitation and market economy
architecture of Crusader kingdom, 3, 11151. See also
architecture of Frankish Morea
Byzantine Despotate, 2, 45, 12, 1012. See also
Byzantine Despotate
Byzantine reconquest of Constantinople and, 9798,
100103, 284
ethnic communities of, 4, 5, 1112
etymology of term, 12
Florence and, 5
Frankish kingdom in, 24, 1112. See also Frankish
Funeral Oration by Manuel II Palaiologos and, 5,
397417. See also Funeral Oration for Theodore,
Despot of the Morea
historical writing from, 23, 921. See also historical
writing and sense of the past
maps, x, 78
numismatics of, 34. See also coins and money
Orthodox landscapes of, 45, 33568. See also
Orthodox landscapes
Ottoman rule in, 5, 12, 20, 108, 127, 210, 216, 221
past, importance of, 23, 56
Plethon (George Gemistos) and, 5, 41952. See also
private legal transactions in, 4, 187211. See also private legal transactions in Frankish Morea
as Renaissance memory theater, 56, 45575. See also
Renaissance memory theater, maps of the Morea as
settlement analysis in, 4, 277306. See also settlement
analysis in northeastern Peloponnese



skeletal remains from, 4, 30933. See also skeletal

songbook of William of Villehardouin of, 3, 57109.
See also song collections and songbooks; songbook of William of Villehardouin
spolia, use of, 3, 2354. See also spolia
Venetian influence in, 34, 5, 11, 12. See also Venice
moriai, 206
Morosini, Antonio, 263, 274
Morosini, Francesco, 46264, 463, 464
morphological analysis of skeletal remains, 31314
Mortier, Cornelis, 47375, 474
Moschopoulos, Nikephoros, 13, 44n68, 4647, 34648,
358, 373, 390, 39193
act of donation from, 188, 198
Brontocheion properties in, 340, 342, 345, 346
Mount Athos, monastery of Iviron on, 222
Brontocheion property in, 343
church of St. Anne in, 146, 148
Mourmouris family, 258
Mousks, Philippe, 76, 89
Mouzalon, Nikolaos, 11
Munista (village), 221, 269, 272
murder of Zacharias, south portico, Brontocheion
Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko),
Mystras, 375, 376, 380, 381, 391, 392
must (young wine), 252
Mycenae, aDNA analysis at, 315
Mystras, 45, 37172. See also Brontocheion monastery,
Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko),
Mystras; St. Demetrios, Mystras
A-Giannaki, chapel of (outside walls of Mystras),
architectural idiom of, 146
book copying at, 5
Byzantine Despotate and, 2, 4, 13, 101
coins found at, 154n9
coins minted in, 4, 173, 434
cults of the Virgin at, 36062, 374, 39193
Frankish fortifications at, 84, 86
in Funeral Oration for Theodore, Despot of the Morea
(Manuel II Palaiologos), 5
historical writing and sense of the past in, 13, 2021
in latter part of 15th century, 424
as metropolitan center, 336
as new Sparta, 44346, 448
Ottoman rule of, 5
painted churches and painting style of, 4, 125, 364,
palace at, 120n56, 133, 140
Pantanassa church and monastery, 8, 14
private legal transactions and notaries in, 193, 195
in Renaissance cartography, 466
St. Sophia, 350

Mytilene, church of St. John, Gattilusio burials at, 311, 312,

322, 328, 331, 333
Myzithras. See Mystras
Nafplioti, Argyro, 318, 326
Nanetti, Andrea, 188, 204, 24950n307
Naples, Kingdom of
architecture of, 141n182
ceramic evidence from Glarentza and Chlemoutsi,
coins of, 159, 168, 176
founding of Glarentza and, 115, 116
Napoli Vechio, 466
Narjot II of Toucy, 80, 81
Narjot III of Toucy (Latin regent-emperor of
Constantinople), 8081, 81, 87
Nativity cycle, south portico, Brontocheion Church of
the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras, 37579,
37679, 391
Naud, Gabriel, 1057
Naupaktos, mint at, 166, 175
castle of, 140
private legal transactions in, 196, 202
in Renaissance cartography, 46667
rural exploitation and market economy, 216, 226,
235, 236, 245, 246, 248, 25560, 262, 263, 265, 266,
271, 272
as Venetian stronghold, 431
Navari, Leonora, 471
Navarrese in the Morea, 13, 127, 202, 413, 420
Neapolites, Nicholas, 192, 195
Neidinger, Giovanni Francesco, 463, 464
Neilos, metropolitan of Mystras, 348
coins found at classical sanctuary of, 154, 155, 160, 161,
162, 171
stable isotope analysis of skeletal remains at, 321, 322,
323, 324, 331, 333
Nemea Valley Archaeological Project (NVAP), 3045,
Neopatras, mint at, 175
Neophytos (monk), commemoration of, 46n75
Neoplatonism, 419, 420n12, 438, 447, 448, 452
coins from, 157n34, 162
malediction of 318 Fathers of (Council of 325), 47,
199200, 350n66
nicarii, 228
Nicholas III of St. Omer, 286
Nicholas, son of Joannes Allelouia, 205
Nicol, Donald, 98n251
Nicola II (Cola) of Monforte, coins of, 159
Nicolaus son of Iohannes of Neapolis, 193
Nicosia, siege of (1228), 69
Nikandri, Mani, 364

Nikolaos (metropolitan of Monemvasia), 358

St. Nikon the Metanoeite
Life of, 11, 12, 31n34, 48, 23334, 236, 441
portraits of, 36263
will of, 53n114
Nilsson, Ingela, 402n42
Nivelet, 219
Noise, Parrin, 71
Nomia, Mani, 352
Nomikos, Basilakes, 373n13
Nora, Pierre, 458
notary, office of, 19295, 194, 19697
numismatics. See coins and money
Oikonomides, Nikolaos, 195
olives and olive oil, 23345
assets, olive trees as, 23941
domestic consumption, 242
exports, 23439, 24245
importance of, 233, 23839, 330
Lakonia, olive tree in, 212
leasing of presses, 241
price of oil, 24142
production of, 23334, 235n172, 23941, 244
prohibition on felling olive trees, 240
qualities or grades of oil, 242
omophoroion of Gregory of Nyssa, St. Nicholas, Klenia,
will inscribed on, 186, 191, 2034
On the Constitution of the Florentines (Bruni), 426, 42628
On the Events after the Battle of Mantinea (Plethon),
43637, 437
On How Plato Differs from Aristotle (Plethon, ca. 1439),
419n4, 440n156
On Memory and Reminiscence (Aristotle), 35
Opheomachos, Damianos, 195
Orsini, John, of Epiros, 19
Ortelius, Abraham, 457, 458, 46263, 463, 470, 472
Orthodox landscapes, 45, 33568
boundaries, setting and describing, 35758
Chamber of the Chrysobulls, Brontocheion monastery. See under Brontocheion monastery, Church
of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras
ecclesiastical institutions in, 335, 33637
eternality of consecrated structures, belief in, 35557
feudal relationships marking, 335
in Monemvasia chrysobulls, 35158, 354, 356, 357,
363n113, 364
natural environment, 33536, 336
paintings in village and cemetery churches of
Monemvasia, 36268, 363, 36567
Parnon highlands, monasteries and hermitages of,
35862, 35961
Parori, church of the Virgin column shaft, 34850,
Pikoulas Tower Museum engraved column shaft,
350, 352



Orthodox landscapes (continued)

St. Demetrios, Mystras, episcopal acts on columns
of, 34652, 347, 349, 350, 351, 357
St. Sophia, Mystras, engraved column shafts, 350
Trypi, monydrion of St. John the Baptist at, 348, 351,
Osphino, ruins of church at, 49, 50
Otho of Cicon, 86, 87
Otho of La Roche, 84
Ottens, atlas of, 473
alliance of Theodore I Palaiologos (despot) with, 413,
414, 417, 430
coins of, 174, 177
fall of Constantinople to (1452), 424
rule in the Morea, 5, 12, 20, 108, 127, 210, 216, 221
siege of Constantinople by (13941402), 413
threat to existence of Palaiologan polity in the Morea
from, 430
Venetian-Ottoman battle for control of the Morea
(16841714), 45556, 462, 46971, 475
Vienna, defeat at (1683), 455
Pachomios (abbot of Brontocheion monastery), 339,
342n23, 342n27, 348, 37374, 39193
Pachymeres, 37172
Page, Gill, 15, 48n87, 60n12
painting. See also Brontocheion monastery, Church of the
Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko), Mystras; icons
Monemvasia chrysobull miniatures, 356, 363n113
Monemvasia School, 36268, 363, 36567
Mystras School, 4, 125, 364, 366
Parnon highlands, monasteries and hermitages of,
35960, 360
Procession of the Magi (Benozzo Gozzoli), 418, 423
song collections and songbooks, painted miniatures
in, 59, 71, 72, 73, 74
songbook of William of Villehardouin, miniatures
in, 59, 73, 74, 84, 92, 94, 95, 96, 102, 105
pakton, 2079
Palaiochora, coins found at, 161
Palaiologan romances, 1718, 19n70
Palaiologos, Manuel (kephali of Vassilika), 203
Paliomonastero, monastic church of the, 28n20
Palladio, Andrea, 457, 458
Pallas, Demetrios, 287
Palormo, 260
Panakton (site), 300, 300301, 306
Pandopulos, Giovannino, 204
Panegyric for John VIII Palaiologos (Isidor of Kiev), 400,
402, 413n101, 414n109, 415
Papachatzes, Nikos, 51n98
Papadopoulou, Pagona, 15760
Papalexandrou, Amy, 3, 23, 483
Papamastorakis, Titos, 5, 371, 483
Parallel Lives (Plutarch), 436, 437, 439



parataxis, 410
Pardos, Gregory, 11
Paris, lack of songbooks for, 63
Paris-Acre Master, 95
Parnon highlands, monasteries and hermitages of,
35862, 35961
paroikoi (villeins), 21617
burials at, 34849, 350, 362
church of the Virgin in, 13, 34850, 350, 441
Inscription of Parori (1389), 413, 417, 44142
Parthenon, Athens, 30n29, 46n75, 51, 201
Parti de mal (song, London, BL Harley 1717), 56, 66, 67,
partitioned villages or casaux de paron, 21819, 226, 270
Passava, 342
past, importance of, 23, 56. See also historical writing
and sense of the past; Renaissance memory theater,
maps of the Morea as; spolia
fortifications at, 140
guesthouse of Latin archbishop in, 2
private legal transactions from, 188, 19293, 195,
197200, 2037, 210
rural exploitation and market economy, 220, 222, 234,
240, 242, 245, 247, 248, 250, 255, 260, 262, 267, 273
St. Nicholas, monastery of, 207, 210
as Venetian stronghold, 431
Paul the Confessor, 195
Pausanias, 51n99, 438
Pazzi Conspiracy, 452n240
corve labor (angareia, servicium personale, or
sputica), 218, 22730, 231, 245
paroikoi (villeins), 21617
surplus production, 27172
workforce demographics, 21625, 26769
Pegolotti, Francesco Balducci
on coins and money, 161, 172, 177
rural exploitation and market economy, 242, 244,
248n293, 255, 257, 259n413, 260, 261, 265, 266
Pelagonia, Battle of (1259), 2, 101, 103, 104, 167
Peloponnese, as term, 12. See also Morea
Penna, Vasso, 157
Pepagomenos, Demetrios, 254
Pericles, 427
Perpignan, Palace of the Kings of Majorca at, 139, 140
Peruzzi family, 448
Petenello, Stefano, 222
Peter I of Courtenay (Latin emperor of Constantinople),
23n2, 80
Peter II of Courtenay (Latin emperor of Constantinople),
Peter of Argos, 11n16
Petoni, 23031, 239, 24748, 253, 264

Petrarch, 15
Peutinger Table (Codex Vindobonensis 324), 459
Philibert de Naillac, 137, 259
Philip II Augustus (king of France), 3, 137, 13839, 161
Philip III (king of France), 19
Philip of Anjou, 103, 104, 107, 165
Philip of Savoy, 108n316, 164, 166, 286
Philip of Taranto, 166, 167
Philip of Toucy (Latin regent-emperor of
Constantinople), 80, 81, 87
Philippe dAlsace, 68
Philippe de Thaon, 66
Philippidou-Braat, Anna, 189
Phlious, church of Rachiotissa at, 28n20
Phloka, Epidauros Limera, church of the Virgin
Cheimatissa at, 363, 366
Phota (Phoutia), 353, 355
Piada (village), 240, 261
Piccolomini, Aeneas Sylvius (later Pope Pius II), 449n216
Pierre of Craon, 79
Pierre de Saint-Supran, 201
Pigkes, Theodore, 192, 193, 195, 198, 205, 206
Pikoulas Tower Museum column shaft, 350, 352
pine resin, 251
piracy, 85n169, 102, 22021, 248, 267, 268, 284, 403, 468
Pius II (pope; formerly Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini),
Plato and Platonism, 41920, 422, 436, 43840, 44748,
452, 457
Platsa, church of St. Nicholas in, 389
Plethon (George Gemistos), 5, 41952. See also laconism,
revival of
Address to the Emperor Manuel on the Affairs in the
Peloponnese (Plethon, 14071418), 209, 42223,
434, 435, 438, 439, 443, 447
Advisory Address to the Despot Theodore on the
Peloponnese (Plethon, 14071418), 42223, 434,
435, 438, 439, 443, 447
Against Plethons Doubts about Aristotle (Gennadios),
Book of Laws (c. 1428), 423, 44041, 447
Byzantium and Morea, ties to, 42023
contemporary conditions in the Peloponnese,
response to, 43035
Cosimo de Medici and, 420, 422, 423, 427, 44852
death of, 42324
Description of the Entire Peloponnese, Coastal and
Interior, 436
On the Events after the Battle of Mantinea (Plethon),
43637, 437
Funeral Oration for Theodore and, 399400, 402, 444
in Gozzolis Procession of the Magi, 418, 423
grave at Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini, 419, 421
historical writing and sense of the past, 14, 2021
On How Plato Differs from Aristotle (c. 1439), 419n4,

ideological framework, political philosophy as means

of recreating, 44748
Italian governmental reform influencing, 42528,
in Italy, 41920, 423, 44852
Letter to the Emperor on the Isthmus (Plethon, 1407
1418), 42223, 434, 438, 439, 443, 447
local hostility to Palaeologian despots and, 44143,
Mystras proposed as new Sparta by, 44344
Plato and Neoplatonism, 41920, 422, 436, 43840,
44748, 452
practicality of ideas of, 44647
private legal transactions and, 209
reform proposals of, 42329, 43435
Regarding Scholarioss Beliefs In Favor of Aristotle
(Plethon), 440n155
rural exploitation and market economy and, 262, 273
school of philosophy of, 371
writings of, 42223
Pliny the Elder, 461n18
Plotinus, 420, 438
plowshares, iron, 22324, 246, 270
Plutarch, 5, 43640, 437
Poe, Elizabeth, 72n78
Polemianitos, Sebastos Ioannes, 342
Polemitas, church of the Archangel Michael, inscriptions
from, 191, 207, 239
Polichne, church of the Archangel Michael at, 341n22
Politics (Aristotle), 436n126, 438n141
Polyphengi, 305
polyphonic motets, 72, 75
Pons de Capduelh, 73n88
Porcacchi, Thomaso, 461, 462, 466
Porcari, Stefano, 448n205
Porphyrios, Andreas, 204
Porphyry, 438
Port-de-Jonc castle, 140
Porto delle Botte, 251
Potamos, Kythera, Hagios Notarios in church of St. John
at, 194, 195
pottery. See ceramic evidence
Praise of the City of Florence (Laudatio Florentinae Urbis;
Bruno), 427
preferential right (protimesis), 200
Prny, Helois de, 71
The Present State of the Morea (Randolph, 1689), 467,
46768, 469
price edict of Diocletian (301), 43, 346n50
Prinet, Max, 79n123
Prinikos, St. George at, 353, 355
private legal transactions in Frankish Morea, 4, 187211
Assizes of Romania and, 192, 2023, 207, 209
church walls, inscriptions on, 186, 191, 2034, 346. See
also Orthodox landscapes



private legal transactions in Frankish Morea (continued)

donations to churches and monasteries, 188, 191, 192,
196, 199, 200, 2057
feudal system and, 187, 192, 193, 196, 200, 201, 207, 209,
210, 211
form of the acts, 196200
Gospel books, written in, 18891, 189, 190, 196, 345
leases of land, 20710, 23233, 251, 271
maledictions, 199200, 350n66
marriage agreements, 204
notarial registries and acts, 187, 188
notary, office of, 19295, 194, 19697
olive oil trade and, 235
range of social classes and professions involved in,
sales and business contracts, 205
significance of, 187, 21011
subject matter and purpose of, 187
surviving acts, number, publication, and study of,
titles of ownership, 19596
trees, ownership of, 2067
warranty, formulas of, 198
wills, 200204
Procession of the Magi (Benozzo Gozzoli), 418, 423
Prodromos, Manganeios, 10n5
Prokopios, 287
pronoia, granting of estates in, 430
property titles, 19596
Propp, Vladimir, 416n119
Protevangelium of James, 375, 376, 377n25, 379, 380, 39192
protimesis (preferential right), 200
Proto-Maiolica ware, 281, 284, 289, 297, 305
Psalidas, Nicholas, 206
Psimares, Iohannes, 204
Ptolemaic Table of the Peloponnese (Pietro del Massaio, ca.
147080), 45960, 460, 46566
Ptolemy, 436, 437, 45960, 462, 46566, 470
Puy of Arras, 73, 89, 96
Pyla, 219, 232, 250, 253
Pylos (Navarino), 358
Quartier, Lise du, 224, 225, 270
Queen Melisandes Psalter, 95
Randolph, Bernard, 467, 46768, 469
Raoul of Soissons, 87, 89, 90
Raynaldus de Odonibus de Vedano, 193
Regarding Scholarioss Beliefs In Favor of Aristotle
(Plethon), 440n155
Renaissance memory theater, maps of the Morea as, 56,
45575. See also Coronelli, Vincenzo
ancient and medieval maps of the Morea, 45960
antiquarian versus scientific nature of mapping
Greece, 46566
concept of memory theater, 45758, 458



contemporary enterprises, the Morea as stage for,

459, 47075, 47174
isolarii (island books), 458, 461, 46162, 470
Lisole piu famose del mondo (Porcacchi, 1575), 461,
462, 466
Liber insularum archipelagi (Buondelmonti, 1420),
Korone and Methone in, 461, 464
locus memoriae, the Morea as, 458, 45964, 460, 461,
463, 464
Mercator/Hondius atlases, 458, 462, 466, 473
palimpsest or container of loci, the Morea as, 458,
459, 46470, 465, 467, 469, 470
power, maps as instruments of, 47273, 473, 474, 475
The Present State of the Morea (Randolph, 1689), 467,
46768, 469
Ptolemaic Table of the Peloponnese (Pietro del
Massaio, ca. 147080), 45960, 460, 46566
selective nature of maps, 45859
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Ortelius, 1570), 457, 458,
46263, 463, 470, 472
Totius Graeciae Descriptio (Sophianos, 1550), 465, 466
Tutte lisole del mondo (Bordone, 1528), 462, 46465
Venetian Morea, new myth of, 45556, 459, 462
64, 463, 464, 46667, 46975, 47174
Renart the fox, in song collections, 6970
Renaut of Magny, 79n120
Rendi, Dimitri, 195, 202
Republic (Plato), 420n9, 438n141
Rhetoric (Aristotle), 401n40
Rhodian penny, 17576
Richard I Lionheart (king of England), 67, 68
Ritratti di celebri personaggi (Coronelli), 462
Ritsos, Yiannis, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21
Robert (emperor), 164
Robert of Anjou (king of Sicily), 159, 166, 167
Robert of Artois, 81, 82, 89, 91, 92, 96
Robert VI of Bthune, 79
Robert VII of Bthune, 79
Robert of Taranto, 159, 164, 167, 169, 170, 220, 223, 297
Roger II (king of Sicily), 235n168
Roger of Hovedon, 236
Roger of Lluria, 220
Roman de Troie (Benot de Sainte-Maure), 17, 18, 19, 20,
Roman empire, historical sense of continuity with, 2,
910, 425
Rosenberg, Samuel N., 78
Rubenichi, 222, 268
Rudel, Jaufre, 61, 71, 72
Runciman, Steven, 69, 80, 87, 103, 106
rural exploitation and market economy, 4, 21375. See also
olives and olive oil; peasants
acorn cups and kermes, 226, 230, 26367
advances in, 27071
beasts of burden, 22728
Bessarions proposals regarding, 44546

Black Death, effects of, 218, 222, 223, 224, 244, 249,
cheese production and sale, 22526, 234, 237
commutation of labor service, 22829
Constantinople, importation of foodstuffs by, 234,
237, 270
coopers, casks, and barrels, 251, 258
cotton, 26063
currants, 25760
demesne and estate lands, 227, 23031, 252
documentary sources, 21415, 27475
feudal system and, 216, 232, 27172
in fifteenth century, 424, 43334
figs and fig trees, 204, 225, 257, 258, 259
grains, 225, 23132, 24549, 270
hired labor, 232, 271
interplay of three political entities in Peloponnese,
21315, 214
iron plowshares, 22324, 246, 270
labor service/corve labor (angareia, servicium
personale, or sputica), 218, 22730, 231, 245
land as backbone of, 217, 225
landowners, commercial exploitation of production
by, 27273
lease contracts, 23233, 251, 271
livestock, 22526, 268, 270
massarie or zevgilateia, 228, 23132, 245, 246, 247, 249,
268, 269, 298n73
mills, grain, 24648
monetization of economy, 27273
monopolies, 241, 248, 252, 257, 259, 264, 265, 271, 272
Plethons proposals regarding, 429, 435, 43839, 447
political and territorial history, 21516, 26970, 27374
polyculture and polyactivity, 22527
silk industry, 237, 239, 261, 263, 26467, 270, 271, 272
stasis or stasia (household unit), 218
taxes and taxation, 21620, 223, 22527, 229, 230,
231n133, 238, 240, 242, 243n241, 24446, 252,
25558, 261, 262, 267, 269, 27175
warfare and political upheaval, effects of, 21822,
268, 269
water resources and irrigation, 23031, 270
wine and vineyards, 231, 232, 233, 24957
woodland and scrubland products, 22627
Rutebeuf (poet), 101
Sabatini, Francesco, 70
Saccocci, Andrea, 167
St. Demetrios, Mystras
construction of, 37273
episcopal acts on columns of, 34652, 347, 349, 350,
351, 357
interior, nave, 347
nave and narthex paintings, 390, 39091, 391
spolia, 13, 4447, 45, 53
town, relationship to, 374
St. Martin of Tours, coins issued by Abbey of, 161
saints, cults of, 194, 195, 36062, 363, 374

saints lives in Peloponnese, 11, 31

salamander motif, 23n2, 24
Salic Law, 166
Salona, mint at, 175
San Basilio (Ayios Vasileios)
castle, 140, 276, 294, 295, 297, 299
ceramic evidence, 297
coins found at, 29697
rural exploitation and market economy, 258, 265
settlement analysis of, 276, 292301, 29396, 306
Sancto Arcangelo, castle of, 222, 226, 228, 245n256, 251,
253, 341n22
Sanders, Guy, 29, 289, 305
Santomeri castle, 140, 141
Santorini, cotton from, 263
Sanudo, Fiorenza (Florence), 204, 263
Sanudo, Giovanni I, 204
Sanudo, Marco II, 88
Sanudo Torsello, Marino, 58, 76, 88, 97, 99, 102, 164,
Saphlaouro castle, 127, 133, 137, 141
Sapikos, 348
Saradi, Helen G., 4, 31, 187, 483
Saronic Gulf Group coins, 158, 160
Sathas, Constantine, 208
Sauvage of Bthune, 73n87, 79
Savracu family, 218
Schenk, atlas of, 473
Schilbach, Erich, 259n413
Schlumberger, Gustave, 169
Schmitt, Oliver Jens, 402
Scholarios, George (later Patriarch Gennadios), 5,
423n21, 440, 445n187, 447n203
Schwan, Eduard, 63
scribes, notaries operating as, 19293
Second Crusade, 10n5, 67, 71
secondary burial, 311
Serbia, Nemanid rulers of, 346n49
Serragli, Niccol dAgnolo, 449
settlement analysis in northeastern Peloponnese, 4,
277306. See also ceramic evidence
coins, 28990, 290, 29697
Corinth, 27885, 279, 280, 282
Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey (EKAS),
3014, 3023
Isthmia, 28592, 286, 287, 29092
maps of sites, 293, 302, 303
Nemea Valley Archaeological Project (NVAP),
3045, 306
Panakton, 300, 300301, 306
San Basilio (Ayios Vasileios), 276, 292301, 29396,
settlement analysis in southern Peloponnese, 362
Seven Ethico-Political Orations (Manuel II Palaiologos,
14041408), 413



Seventh Crusade, 5758, 60, 68, 77, 8890, 91, 93, 95, 103,
Sgouroi, 11
Shawcross, Teresa, 5, 6, 14, 15, 18, 419, 483
Short, Ian, 65
Short Chronicles, 372
Sichna, 247
Sicilian School of poetry, 7273, 75, 91, 93, 9899, 100
The Sicilian Vespers (Runciman), 103
sigillion, Brontocheion monastery, 343, 374, 389
Sigismund (Holy Roman Emperor), 427
Sigoli, Simone, 265
silk industry
Plethons reform proposals and, 422, 429, 433, 443,
rural exploitation and market economy, 237, 239, 261,
263, 26467, 270, 271, 272
Simona of Villehardouin, 99n259
Siripando, Giovanni, 229
skeletal remains, 4, 30933. See also stable isotope
ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, 31415
Athenian Agora, 311, 312, 32122, 324, 33132, 333
Corinth. See under Corinth
dietary insights, 32832, 333
Gattilusio burials, Mytilene, church of St. John, 311,
312, 322, 328, 331, 332, 333
morphological analysis, 31314
Nemea, 321, 322, 323, 324, 331, 333
osteological approaches, 309, 313
Parori, 34849, 350, 362
stylistic approaches to establishing Greek versus
Frankish identity, 31012
Stymphalos, 307, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 331, 333
thalassemia lesions, 285, 314
Zaraka, Cistercian monastery at, 312, 321, 322, 323,
324, 327, 331, 333
Sklavochori, 250
slaves and slavery, 205, 220, 235n166, 430
Socha, 358
soldino (coin), 152, 159, 167, 169, 17071, 17273, 175
Solon, 13, 445n184
Sonetti, Bartolommeo da li, 458
song collections and songbooks, 6075
attribution issues, 6263, 6465
crusades as favored theme in, 68
earliest extant songbook, 61, 71, 75
international nature of songbook production and
trade, 58, 6061, 63, 66, 73
Italian and Sicilian songs, 7273, 75, 91, 93
Levant, written-out song in Old French koine from,
nonbook song collections, 6162, 62
organization and structure of, 6263, 71, 72, 73
origins of vernacular written-out songs in AngloNorman England, 6368, 67
painted miniatures in, 59, 71, 72, 73, 74



place of William of Villehardouins songbook in history of, 7375

polyphonic motets, 72
tables of contents, 62, 71, 72
transition from castle to city, 7071
from Venice, 7172, 73, 75, 88
songbook of William of Villehardouin (Paris, BN fonds
fr. 844), 3, 57109. See also William II of Villehardouin
alternative commissioners of, 99100
Arras or Arrageois scribes, production by, 58, 7375,
91, 9397
attribution of songs in, 63, 6465
Au novel tans quant je voi la muance, 109
Charles of Anjou, as commissioner of, 15n37, 58, 59,
60, 8993, 99100, 102, 104n301
Charles of Anjou, in possession of, 1045
in context of songbook history, 7375
crusades as favored theme in, 68, 73, 7879
dating of compilation, 93, 94, 95, 100
feudal system and, 8283
history of possession of, 1047, 108
later additions to, 105, 106
Levant, evidence of written-out song in Old French
koine from, 70
literary activity in princely entourage and, 1415
Loiaus amours qui malume, 78, 109
organization and structure of, 73, 75, 9091, 93, 100
painted miniatures in, 59, 73, 74, 84, 92, 94, 95, 96,
102, 105
polyphonic motets in, 72, 75
li prince de le Moure, songs of, 14, 75, 9091, 102n280,
108, 109
reordering, rebinding, and later restoration, 59
research and study of, 5860
table of contents, 73, 78, 8283, 95, 100, 109n320
transition of songbooks from castle to city and, 70, 73
unfinished nature of, 102
unique features of, 72, 75
vandalization of, 105
Venetian and Sicilian elements, 75, 88, 90, 91, 99, 100
Virgin Mary, opening songs to, 75, 83n151, 84, 90, 95,
105, 106
Sophianos, Ioannes, 432
Sophianos, Michael or Paul, 432
Sophianos, Nikolaos, 465, 466
Sophianos family, 239
Sophiko, 303
Sorakas, 355
Sorba, Balthazar de, 267
Soteras, church at, 150
Souliardos, Michael, 438
Spanke, Hans, 90, 105
coins found at, 154, 155, 157, 162, 167, 171, 173, 175, 177
rural exploitation and market economy, 23339, 241,
San Nicol, Venetian church of, 235
settlement analysis in, 362

Sparta, ancient. See laconism, revival of

Sparta, Mystras mockingly referred to as, 372
Sperone, 253
Spetia, Lucilla, 96n238
Sphrantzes, George, 195, 372n2, 425n39
spolia, 3, 2354
Agnes panel, 2325, 24, 25
Blachernai, monastery church of, 2829, 3539, 3638
Chronicle of the Morea and, 28, 4852
columns, commemorative meaning of, 4647
cultural perspectives on the past and, 28, 4344,
exterior walls of churches, focus on, 2628
in Frankish Morea, 2325, 2839
church of St. George at, 3943, 40, 41, 53
church of St. John Chrysostom at, 42, 4344, 44,
47, 53
in Glarentza fortifications, 119, 122
Greek versus Latin use of, 47, 5152, 53
in Lakonian churches, 3947, 4042, 44, 45
Leuke, church of the Zoodochos Pege in, 348n58
literary, 31, 4748
Merbaka, Church of the Koimesis at, 22, 2835, 30, 32,
34, 3637, 38, 39
Mystras, church of St. Demetrios at, 4447, 45, 53
new spolia, 33
outside the Peloponnese, 5253
overtly pagan images, meaning of use of, 31
patrons interests and use of, 3335, 39, 52, 53
planned use of, 3031, 38
in post-antique construction generally, 27
stable isotope analysis, 310, 31533
Athenian Agora, 32122, 324, 33132, 333
Caesarea, 318, 325, 326
children, weaning and feeding, 332
Corinth, 32021, 32227, 32326, 33033
Gattilusio burials, Mytilene, church of St. John, 322,
328, 331, 332, 333
Knossos, 318
map of site locations, 320
Nemea, 321, 322, 323, 324, 331, 333
nonlocal origins, evidence of, 32228, 323, 328
Stymphalos, 307, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 331, 333
summary of key site information, 320
theory and applications, 31519
Zaraka, Cistercian monastery at, 312, 321, 322, 323,
324, 327, 331, 333
stage. See theater
Stahl, Alan M., 3, 153, 48384
Stas, Valerios, 289n50
Staniario, Dobramiro, 23435
Staniaro, Pietro, 235n166
Stasino family, 218n19
stasis or stasia (household unit), 218
Steiermark, Ottokar von der, 255
sterling penny, English, 158, 16061, 168n158, 17273

Strabo, 461n18
Strategopoulos, Caesar Alexios, 392n54
Strovoiati, Dimitrius, 241
Strozzi, Palla di Palli, 427, 449
Strozzi, Salamone di Carlo, 449
Stymphalos, stable isotope analysis of skeletal remains at,
307, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 331, 333
Succhyna, 220
Summa Theologiae (Thomas Aquinas), 426
surnames, kinship patterns, and population stability,
21718, 219
Symeon of Ragusa, 205
Symeon of Thessalonike, 412, 415
Symes, Carol, 73
Synaxarium of Constantinople, 375, 376, 381, 385, 391, 392
Synkrisis (Demetrios Chrysoloras), 415
Synopsis Minor, 197
Tabula Peutingeriana (Codex Vindobonensis 324), 459
Tagliacozzo, Battle of (1268), 103, 104
Taillebourg, Battle of (1242), 96
Talbot, Alice-Mary, 311
tanning and dyeing agents from acorn cups and kermes,
226, 230, 26367
Taranto, Nicola, 233n152
taverns, 252
taxes and taxation
coins and money, 178
French taxes on travelers, 68
land taxation in 15th century Morea, 43031
Orthodox landscapes and, 336, 345, 357
Plethon and, 42829, 43032, 435, 438, 442n169
private legal transactions and, 200, 207, 209
rural exploitation and market economy, 21620, 223,
22527, 229, 230, 231n133, 238, 240, 242, 243n241,
24446, 252, 25558, 261, 262, 267, 269, 27175
settlement analysis and, 29799
Venetian, 472
Venetian trade freedoms in the Morea, 43132
Taxiarches of Kontostephanos, monastery of, 210
Teatro della guerra (Coronelli, 1708?), 454, 45657, 463,
470, 472
Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza, 457, 458
Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini, grave of Plethon at, 419,
Teria, 353, 363
Terkova, 343
Ternaria document (1285), 172
tetarteron (coin), 15556, 15760, 158, 174
Teutonic Knights, 140
textiles. See also silk industry
cotton production and export, 26063
fifteenth-century trade patterns and, 43334
thalassemia, 285, 314



theater. See also Renaissance memory theater, maps of the

Morea as
as metaphor in Renaissance culture, 458
Morea narrative in Funeral Oration for Theodore as
drama, 41011
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Ortelius, 1570), 457, 458,
46263, 463, 470, 472
coins found at, 173
grain trade, 248
mint at, 155, 166, 172, 175
palace at, 133
textile production at, 237, 239, 266
wine measure of, 255
Theodericus dictus Sroter de Louffenberg, 193
Theodora (wife of Despot Demetrios Palaiologos),
Theodore Angelos of Epiros, 346n48
Theodore I Palaiologos (despot), 1314, 202, 349n62, 372,
396, 399, 417, 425, 430, 434n110. See also Funeral Oration
for Theodore, Despot of the Morea
Theodore II Palaiologos (despot), 14, 413, 421
Brontocheion properties in, 343
hermitage of St. John the Baptist, 360
Old Monastery of Holy Forty Martyrs, 35859, 359,
St. Nicholas Achragias, 364
St. Theophanios of Monemvasia, 363
Theotokos Krivitzon, private legal transactions of monastery of, 188, 207
Theotokos Podarea, or Podariotissa, private legal transactions of monastery of, 189, 191, 199, 204, 2067, 210
cotton production in, 261
Holy Apostles Church, 386
mint at, 155, 157, 158
Thibaut II of Bar, 73n87, 8081, 81, 89, 9192, 92
Thibaut IV of Champagne (king of Navarre), 62, 68, 78,
82, 89, 93, 96
Third Crusade, 68, 80
Thomas Aquinas, 426
Thomas Becket, 67
Thomas Palaiologos (despot), 4, 127, 207, 210
Thomas of Verona, 258n409
Thompson, Margaret, 157
Thucydides, 12, 427, 436, 437, 439
Tinos, mint at, 175
titles of ownership, 19596
Tocco, Carlo, 21, 201, 202
Tocco, Leonardo I, 127, 253
Tocco Chronicle, 116, 119, 120, 372
Topping, Peter, 209, 269n506
tornese (coin), 159, 172, 173, 177, 178
tornesello (coin), 159, 164, 167, 17071, 17378, 434



Torre, Giovanni della, 258

Toscano, Bernardo, 232
Totius Graeciae Descriptio (Sophianos, 1550), 465, 466
Toucy family, 8081, 81, 83, 85, 87, 91
tournament at Isthmia, 286
tournois coins
denier tournois, 153, 158, 159, 16162, 164, 16668, 171,
gros tournois, 168, 176
Traversari, Ambrogio, 397
trees, ownership of, 2067
Tripolitza (Tripolis), 466, 467
Tritsaroli, Paraskevi, 33132
Trivoles, Demetrios, 438
troubadour and trouvre songs. See song collections and
songbooks; songbook of William of Villehardouin
Troy, origin myths associated with, 23, 10, 1621, 52
Trypi, 343, 348, 351, 357
Turchio, Marata, 233n152
Turks. See Ottomans
Tutte lisole del mondo (Bordone, 1528), 462, 46465, 468
Tyrtaeus, 438
Tzakonians, 11n17
Tzavara, Angeliki, 261n431
Tzetzes, John, 2, 19
Tzitzina (Polydroso), 358
Tzykandyles, Manuel, 14, 19
tzykanion, 424
Umur I Beg (ruler of Aydin), 220
Urban IV (pope), 103
Val de Calamy, 216, 229
Valentin, Frdrique, 332
Van der Vin, J. P. A., 52n108
Vanni, Franca M., 167
Vasilikata, 221, 231, 239, 245, 251, 259, 26162
Vasilitsi, church at, 312
Venerio, Antonio, 297
Veneto ware, 289
Arras and, 96
coins and money, 152, 158, 159, 162, 16871, 173, 175,
176, 434
Fondamenta dei Mori, 432, 433
in Fourth Crusade, 75
influence in the Morea, 34, 5, 11, 12
new Venetian Morea, myth of, 45556, 459, 462
64, 463, 464, 46667, 46975, 47174
Ottoman-Venetian battle for control of the Morea
(16841714), 45556, 462, 46971, 475
silk industry, 266
songbooks from, 7172, 73, 75, 88, 91

territories in Peloponnese, 216. See also rural exploitation and market economy
trade freedoms in the Morea, 43132
William of Villehardouin and. See under songbook of
William of Villehardouin
Venier, Dolfin, 26263, 274
Veroli, Leonardo de, 15, 19, 70, 73, 81, 90, 101, 107, 202
Vervena, 270
Viadro, Marino, 264, 265
Vidal, Pierre, 61, 71
Vilain of Arras, 94
Villehardouin coat of arms, architectural elements displaying, 114, 120, 122
vineyards and wine, 231, 232, 233, 24957
Virgil, 10
Virgin Mary. See also specific churches dedicated to the
Virgin, under place name
cults of, 36062, 374, 39193
Filippo di Novaras songs in honor of, 69
Hodegetria icons
Mega Spelaion icon, dispute over ownership of,
Monemvasiotissa, 26465
maledictions of, 199200
songbook of William of Villehardouin and, 75,
83n151, 84, 90, 95, 105, 106
Zoodochos Pege, cult of, 361, 374, 375, 389, 392
Viterbo, Treaty of (1267), 19n70, 103, 104, 105, 115, 116, 126,
164, 165
Vitruvius, De architectura, 457
Vituri, 231
Vostitsa (Aigion), 221, 466
Vourkano, 240, 247
Vouvali, chapel of St. John the Theologian at, 33940n17
Vranoussi, Era, 188, 199, 207
Vrontomas, Old Monastery at, 35859, 359
Vrysika, Church of the Holy Apostles, 352n71
Walcheren, Battle of (1253), 91, 93n87
War of Troy, 3, 1621
warranty, formulas of, 198
water resources and irrigation, 23031, 270
William I the Conqueror (king of England), 65
William II of Villehardouin. See also songbook of
William of Villehardouin
Anna Komnena Doukaina (Agnes) of Epiros, third
marriage to, 58, 97100, 107, 1078, 114, 137n133
Byzantine Greeks, war with, 9798, 100103, 115,
21516, 220, 284, 372
Carintana dalle Carcere, second marriage to, 8588,
87, 90, 95, 97, 99
church and castle building by, 8385, 86, 151
coins of, 84, 85, 152, 158, 159, 163, 16465, 177
death of, 107, 165
family background, birth, and upbringing, 7579, 77

Glarentza, establishment of, 115, 141

imperial ambitions of, 8688, 99
literary activity in princely entourage of, 1415
Marguerite of Passava, grant of land to, 196
Monemvasiot families and, 239
in princely role, 8182, 83, 88, 90
Seventh Crusade and, 5758, 60, 68, 77, 8890, 91,
93, 95
Toucy, first marriage to Lady of, 8081, 81, 82, 85, 87
Venice, rivalry with, 73, 75, 83, 8487, 95, 96, 97
will of, 201
in wills of Geoffrey I and Geoffrey II, 201
William of Barre, 153
William of Champlitte, 12, 14, 112, 215
William of Dampierre, 88
William of Ferrires, Vidame of Chartres, 79, 93
William de la Roche of Athens, 168, 175n225
William of Malmsbury, 65n36
William of Moerbeke, 29, 3335, 53, 11112
Williams, Charles, 27985, 289, 292, 305
wills, 200204, 222, 252, 260, 262
wine and vineyards, 231, 232, 233, 24957
wine cellars, 25152
woodland and scrubland products, 22627
Xenocrates, 420
Xenophon, 5, 12, 436, 437, 438, 439
Yakub Pasha, 430
Yolanda of Brienne, 72
Yolanda of Flanders, 23n2
Yolanda of Montferrat, 18
Zaccaria, Centurione II, 267
Zaccaria, Martin, 168n145
Zacharias, murder of, south portico, Brontocheion
Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Aphendiko),
Mystras, 375, 376, 380, 381, 391, 392
Zakythinos, Dionysios A., 14, 20
Zane de Visnadelis, Bartholomaeus, of Triviso, 193, 203
Zaraka, Cistercian monastery at
burials at, 312, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 331, 333
coins found at, 154, 161
Zaraphon, monastery of, 265
Zaravos, 342
Zariphona (Kallithea), 353
Zeno, Reniero (doge of Venice), coins of, 158
Zervos, Orestes H., 160
Zesiou, Constantine, 339, 373
Zeuxippos and Zeuxippos-derivative wares, 281
zevgilateia or massarie, 228n101, 23132, 245, 246, 247, 249,
268, 269, 298n73
Ziani, Sebastiano (doge of Venice), 254
Zibaldone da Canal, 261



Zigabenos, 13
Zink, Michel, 71n74
Zoodochos Pege, cult of, 361, 374, 375, 389, 392
Zorzi, Bertolome, 68
Zorzi, Ermolao, 266
Zoupena, cave church of A-Giannaki at, 35960, 360,
Zourtza (Kato Phigaleia), 343
zovaticum, 246
Zufferey, F., 71n75
Zygouries, 293, 299