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LRFD and Geotechnical Design and

Construction
September 6, 2007
Jeff Horsfall
Wisconsin Department of Transportation

Discussion Topics
WisDOT Geotechnical guidelines
and variances from AASHTO code
Process Description
Plan Documents
New Pile Driving Specification

Session Goals:
How the WisDOT Policies vary from
the AASHTO Code and Guidelines
Process for WisDOT to evaluate
bridge foundations using LRFD
What to put on the Bridge Plans
What is the new pile specification

The Code is more what you call guidelines


than an actual rule.
Captain Barbosa to Miss Swan
aboard the Black Pearl

WisDOT Geotechnical
Guidelines, variances from AASHTO
code and the old Bridge Manual
Old Bridge Manual
Chapter 10 Substructures - General
Chapter 11 Piling
Revised Bridge Manual
Chapter 10 Geotechnical Investigation
Chapter 11 Foundation Support

Revised Bridge Manual


Chapter 10 Geotechnical Investigation
Geotechnical Bulletin #1
AASHTO Table 10.4.2-1

WisDOT Policy and


exceptions to the AASHTO
Shallow Foundations

WisDOT exception to AASHTO:


It is WisDOTs current policy to design
shallow foundations using the Allowable
Stress Design (ASD) method.

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOTs policy to place the bottom of
shallow foundations at embedment depths of
4 feet unless founded on competent bedrock.

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOTs policy to permit a maximum of
1 inch of horizontal movement at top of
substructure unit and 1.5 inches of total
estimated settlement.

WisDOT policy item:


The normal ground water level is used to
determine the allowable bearing capacity of
footings.
At stream crossings, the mean annual high
water level is used to compute a factor of
safety for bearing capacity. This factor of
safety must be reasonable, but can be less
than that specified for design (FS=3).

WisDOT Policy and


exceptions to the AASHTO
Deep Foundations

WisDOT policy item:


WisDOTs minimum pile spacing is 2-6 or 2.5
pile diameters, whichever is greater.
WisDOTs maximum pile spacing is 8-0,
based on abutment or pier structural designs.

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOTs policy to use a minimum 6-inch
pile embedment in the footings, but there are
conditions where more embedment is
required.

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOTs policy to place the bottom of
pile-supported footings below the final
ground surface at a minimum depth of 2.5 feet
for sill abutments and at a minimum depth of
4 feet for piers and other types of abutments.

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOT policy to limit the yield strength
to 36 ksi for steel piles.

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOTs policy to limit the horizontal
movement at top of substructure unit to 0.5
inch or less at the service limit state.

WisDOT policy item:


WisDOT requires at least four (4) piles per
group to support each substructure unit,
including each column for multi-column
bents.
WisDOT does not reduce geotechnical
resistance factors to satisfy redundancy
requirements to determine axial pile
resistance. Hence, redundancy of resistance
factors in LRFD [10.5.5.2.3] is not applicable
to WisDOT structures.

WisDOT exception to AASHTO:


Recommended values of nominal lateral
resistance for battered or vertical piles used
by the Structures Design Office, are as
follows:
A detailed analysis
A minimum value based on pile type
A table of typical values

WisDOT policy item:


It is WisDOT policy to initially compute a
design resistance capacity for piling and then
to drive the piles such that the driven
resistance capacity meets or exceeds the
design capacity.
Hence for piles prone to scour, the driven pile
capacity will exceed the design capacity to
compensate for extreme events when a
portion of the embedded pile length is
exposed.

WisDOT policy item:


WisDOT policy requires a multi-column bent
to be designed as a redundant rigid frame.
Hence when a bent contains at least 4
columns then the resistance factors should
be increased by 20 percent.

Process Description

Process

Soil Boring Example

SPT Hammer Efficiency Correction, AASHTO Code

SPT Hammer
Efficiency
Correction

FHWA Driven Software

Site Investigation Report Table

Drivability Evaluation - GRLWEAP Software

10 Diameter CIP Pile using a D-16-32

Plan Documents

Current Language
Abutments to be supported on HP 10 x 42
steel piling driven to a minimum bearing value
of 55 tons per pile.
Estimated Length 70 feet.
New Language
Abutments to be supported on HP 10 x 42
steel piling driven to a Required Driving
Resistance of 275 tons per pile as determined
by the modified Gates dynamic formula.
Estimated Length 70 feet.

New Language for General Plan Notes


The factored axial resistance of piles in
compression used for design is the required
driving resistance multiplied by a resistance
factor of 0.4 using the modified Gates
dynamic formula to determine driven pile
capacity.

New Pile Driving Specification


Purpose: To revise the current
specification, which has three sections
508 Timber Piling
510 Cast in Place Concrete Piling
511 Steel Piling
to one comprehensive specification
508 Driven Piles (modified Gates or
WEAP)

Why make the Change ?


1. The old specification is written for
wood piles and then steel piles.
2. The old specification uses the
modified ENR formula to determine an
allowable bearing, FS could ranged
from 0.6 to 20.
3. The old specification does little to
address the pile driving system.
4. The old specification do not discuss
pre-cast concrete piles.
5. Pile specification are over three
sections

Pile Hammer
System

WisDOT Contacts ?
Scott Becker, Structure Development
scot.becker@dot.state.wi.us
608-266-5161
Bob Arndorfer, Geotechnical Unit
robert.arndorfer@dot.state.wi.us
608-246-7940
Jeff Horsfall, Geotechnical Unit
jeffrey.horsfall@dot.state.wi.us
608-243-5993

Questions and Comments