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49150-Prestressed Concrete Design

Autumn 2015
University of Technology, Sydney
Faculty of Engineering & IT

Coordinator and Lecturer: Dr. Shami Nejadi


CB11.11.220, Shami.Nejadi@uts.edu.au

The main notes are taken from Concrete Structures by RF Warner, BV Rangan, AS Hall, KA Faulkes; and
Design of Prestressed Concrete by R.I. Gilbert and N.C. Mickleborough. Some slides and figures were
developed by Ken Faulkes and Zora Vrcelj.

INTRODUCTION
Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used
structural materials in construction.
Due to the low tensile strength of concrete,
steel
t lb
bars are iintroduced
t d
d tto carry allll iinternal
t
l ttensile
il fforces.
Most reinforced concrete beams are cracked under service loads.
Cracked cross-sections resist the applied moment by a force in the
concrete, C (compressive) & a force in the steel, T (tensile).

w
Section

Reinforcing bars

cracked section

C
S

linear stresses

BEAM UNDER 3
SERVICE LOADING

LECTURE 1 - OUTLINE
Introduction
History of Prestressing
Methods of Prestressing
Material Properties
Transverse Forces Caused by Draped Tendons
Equivalent Loads
Calculation of Elastic Stresses:
- Combined Load Approach
- Load Balancing Approach
Stress Distribution
- Special Cases

INTRUDUCTION
Professor
Gustav Magnel
from the
University of
Ghent in Belgium.

The books on the


bottom are like precompressed concrete:
using a compressive
force, they support their
own weight plus
significant superimposed
loads, represented by the
books on top.
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HISTORY OF PRESTRESSING

WHAT IS PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Early attempts foiled by losses due to the creep and


shrinkage strains in the concrete.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE is a particular form of


reinforced concrete, which involves the application of an
initial compressive load on a structure to reduce or
eliminate the internal tensile forces and thereby control or
eliminate cracking.

Freyssinet
F
i t off France
F
(1930s).
(1930 )
Advent of high-strength and high-ductility steel.

The initial compressive force is imposed and sustained by


highly tensioned steel reinforcement reacting on the concrete.

A prestressed concrete section is considerably


stiffer than the equivalent cracked reinforced section.
Prestressing may also impose internal forces which
counterbalance external loads and may reduce or
eliminate deflection.

Later, Leonhardt of Germany, Mikhailov of Russia,


and T. Y. Lin of USA, also contributed a great deal
to the art and science of prestressed concrete
design.
g
Australia - Warragamba ice tower was constructed
in 1950s to serve as an ice tower for use in the
production of concrete at the Warragamba Dam
site.

Why prestress ?

HISTORY OF PRESTRESSING

To improve service load performance


- control deflection and cracking.
To achieve economy
- Allows for thinner more economical floor slab

EUGENE FREYSINNET who proposed methods


to overcome prestress losses through the use of
high-strength and high-ductility steels.

systems.

YVES GUYON, a student of Freysinnet once


summarized the importance of the method saying:

There is probably no structural problem to


which prestress cannot provide a solution, and
often a revolutionary one

Smaller sections
Slender members
Longer spans

Especially in structures where self


self--weight is a high
proportion of the total load.

When Should You Prestress?

METHODS OF PRESTRESSING

Each job needs to be considered on its own merits, but

Prestressing is applied to a concrete member by highly


tensioned steel reinforcement (wire, strand, or bar)
reacting
ti on the
th concrete.
t

as a guide, this graph gives a good comparison of costs

versus span :
For spans up to
about 7.5 m it is
generally more
economical to adapt
a reinforced
i f
d solution.
l ti
Over 7.5 m, post
tensioning will
become cheaper.

The high strength steel is most often tensioned using

hydraulic jacks.

The tensioning operation may occur before or after the


concrete is cast and results in two classifications:

(i) PRE - TENSIONED


(ii) POST - TENSIONED

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The three stages required for post-tensioned


concrete member are as follow:

The three stages required for pret-tensioned


concrete member are as follow:

hollow duct

Tendons
T
d
stressed
t
d
between supports

1. Concrete cast and


cured

uplift forces

Concrete cast
and cured

Tendons released
and prestress
transferred.

2. Tendons stressed &


t
t
f
d
prestress
transferred

live end
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TENSILE
FORCE
COMPRESSIVE
FORCE

dead end
3.Tendons anchored
& duct grouted 12

Material properties

Reinforcing steel
There are some assumptions that are made initially:
- The strain distribution in the section is linear.
- Steel behaves in an elastic
elastic-plastic
plastic manner
manner.

Concrete

For prestressed
construction,
strengths typically
35 - 50 MPa

500
MPa
=0.002

Es = 200,000 MPa

Typical uniaxial stress-strain


response of concrete in compression
0.0025

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Transverse forces caused


by draped tendons

Prestressing steel
Often idealised to elastic-plastic:

In addition to the longitudinal force, P exerted on a


prestressed member at the anchorages,
anchorages transverse
forces are also exerted on the member wherever
curvature exists in the tendons.

Approx. values
For strand:
strand
fpy 1600 MPa

Assumptions:

Ep 195,000 MPa

Angles are assumed SMALL and are


measured
d in
i RADIANS, then
th

For bar:
bar
fpy 950 MPa
Ep 170,000 MPa
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Cos = 1 & Sin = Tan =


Can also use ARC = RADIUS x
or (radians ) = ARC / RADIUS

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Transverse forces caused by


draped tendons (cable with a kink)

FORCES AT ANCHORAGES

Remember:

P cos = P,

P sin = P

Bent up tendon

P
e

M = Pe

L/2

L/2

R = 2Psin

P P cos

P P cos

P P sin

FBD

Small ()0
Cos = 1
sin tan
e /(L/2)

in radians) = tan = h / L

Bending
Moment
Diagram

P P sin

R = 2Psin

P sin

L
Pe
2

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Transverse forces caused by


draped tendons (cable with a kink)
sin

From statics

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FORCE DUE TO A PARABOLIC


CABLE
e
L/2

At each anchorage the cable has a horizontal component of


P cos P and a vertical component of P sin = 2Pe/L.

R 2 P sin 2 P

e
4 Pe

L/2
L

L/2

Th b
The
beam iis said
id tto b
be self
lf stressed.
t
d

L/2

No external reactions are induced at the supports (if ws.w.=0).


The beam suffers curvature and deflects upward owing to the
internal bending moment caused by prestress.

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PARABOLIC TENDON PROFILE

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GENERAL PARABOLA
The parabola shown below has length L and at its mid-length has
an offset (sag), relative to the line joining its ends (chord), of h.

D
A

L/2

h
I

(Symmetric)

x x 2
y 4h
L L

B h

Parabolic Cable Profile

L/2

CABLE SLOPE
A _

AI and CI are the tangents at A and C respectively

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Transverse forces caused by


draped tendons
At anchorages x = 0 and x = L

Horizontal force at anchorage = P


Vertical force at anchorage:
4Ph/L = P

dy 4h 2 x

1
dx L
L

A = C = 2h/(L/2) = 4h/L radians

= cable profile

d 2 y 8h
2
dx 2
L

= slope
= curvature

The curvature or rate of change of the cables slope is


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constant for a parabola

Equivalent Load

dy
4h

dx
L

wp = Equivalent Load per


unite length due to prestress

w o = vertical
distributed forces

Ph P

p - curvature
unit length
(very small length)

4h
Pv
P
L

wo= wp = R
P cable forces

The curvature is the angular


change in direction of the
cable per unite length

Small = sin tan


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p R = P sin p
= P p

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Equivalent Load

Equivalent Load

The negative sign indicates that wp acts upwards when the


sag h is downwards. The equivalent load for any parabolic
cable segment
can be obtained from Eq
that the
g
q 1.1,, provided
p
mid-span sag h is measured from the straight line joining the
two ends of the segment (chord).

An upward force exists in the cable where R = wp = P p.


This upward force is an equivalent distributed load along
the member such that:

w p P p

8 Ph
L2

(Eq. 1.1)

8h
L2

wp

wp
P

wp is the force per unit length exerted by the concrete on


the cable, which is of course equal and opposite to the
cable exerts on the concrete.

8 Ph
L2

P
h

4Pe/L

It acts radially, but for small angles can be considered to


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act vertically with negligible error.

Calculation of elastic
stresses

L/2

L/2

4Pe/L
(e = h)

cable

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Calculation of elastic
stresses

The components of stress on a prestressed concrete


section caused by the prestress, the self-weight, and the
external loads are usually calculated using simple beam
theory and assuming linear elastic behaviour.

There exists two methods to calculate stresses:

(i) Combined load approach

The section properties of the gross-section are used,


provided it is uncracked.

(ii) Load balancing approach

If an elastic calculation indicates that cracking may occur


at service loads, a cracked section analysis is then
necessary. (this will be considered later in the course)
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i) COMBINED LOAD
APPROACH

i) COMBINED LOAD APPROACH


Stresses due to prestress only (at any arbitrary section with e):
Cross section

Elevation

Elevation

Due to Prestress only:


e

Stresses due to prestress

P/A

Due to P

P
Mp=Pe

-Pey/I

P/A-Pey/I

=
Moment
due to Mp= Pe

Due to External
Moment only:

Combined Stresses:

P/A+Pey/I
Resultant

My
I

M
Total stress due
to loading

P Pey My

A
I
I
Total stress
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ii) LOAD BALANCING APPROACH

ii) LOAD BALANCING APPROACH

Therefore, if w = wp, the bending moment and shear force


caused by the gravity load on every cross-section are
balanced by the equal and opposite values caused by wp.

Within the service load range, prestressed members


are usually designed so that they behave essentially
linear elastically
elastically.

wub w w p 0

Therefore, superposition procedures are valid, and


analysis at service loads is conveniently related to
conditions at the balanced load.

wp

8 Ph
L2

(Eq. 1.1)

w
P

Complete load balancing would be achieved if the


upward
d fforces due
d tto cable
bl curvature
t
exactly
tl
counteracted a selected service load.
At balanced condition bending moments, shear forces
and deflections would then all be zero.

Total stress due


to prestress

P Peyy

A
I

wpL/2
or 4Ph/L

L/2

wL/2
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wp

h
L/2

P
wpL/2

B or 4Ph/L
wL/2
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ii) LOAD BALANCING APPROACH


If w = wp

ii) LOAD BALANCING APPROACH

LOAD BALANCING OCCURS

wL2
M
8

Mp

If w wp

Unbalanced Moment, Mub caused by


unbalanced load must be calculated:

w p L2
8
M ub

Thus stress due to Mub = M Mp is 0


calculate corresponding
p
g stresses at balanced
condition:

P
A

2
wub L2 w w p L

8
8

Add corresponding stresses to the balanced


condition:

Beam does not


deflect

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EXAMPLE 1.1

P
A

M ub y
I

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EXAMPLE 1.1

(Gilbert & Mickleborough)

(Gilbert & Mickleborough)

Calculate the elastic stress distribution at mid-span of


the simpl
simply ssupported
ppo ted beam sho
shown
n belo
below:

COMBINED LOAD APPROACH:


Moment calculations

30 kN/m (includes self weight)

Mp due to
prestress

e = 250 mm
parabolic
curve
6000 mm

Unbalanced Load, wub = (w - wp)

6000 mm

Mw due to
load

A 220 103 mm 2 P 1760 kN I 20000 106 mm 4


P is assumed to be uniform along the beam.

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P 1760 kN;
M p Pe 1760 250 10 3 440 kNm

Mw

wL2 30 12 2

540 kNm
8
8
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EXAMPLE 1.1

EXAMPLE 1.1

(Gilbert & Mickleborough)

(Gilbert & Mickleborough)

Stress calculations
Stress due
to P

t b

Stress due

P 1760 103

8 MPa
A 220 103

to Mw

Myt 540 106 485

13.1 MPa
I
20000 106

Myb
540 106 415

11.21 MPa T
I
20000 106

COMBINED APPROACH-STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS

Stress due
to
Mp= Pe :

Peyt
440 106 485
t
10.67 MPa
MP T

I
20000 106

Peyb 440 10 415

9.13 MPa C
20000 106
I

EXAMPLE 1.1

9.13

17.13

-11.21

P + Pe

5.92

P + Pe + M

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Top fibre stress


upward

Unbalanced load

P M ub yt

10.43 MPa
A
I
10.43

downward

Bottom fibre stress

Unbalanced moment

wub L2 5.55 122

100 kNm
8
8

(Gilbert & Mickleborough)

LOAD BALANCING APPROACH:

wub w w p 30 24.4 5.55 kN/m

=
Pe

10.43

EXAMPLE 1.1

(Gilbert & Mickleborough)

8Pe 8 1760 103 250


wp 2
24.4 kN m
120002
L

13.10

-2.67

-10.67

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M ub

8.0

P M y
b ub b 5.92 MPa
A
I
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5.92
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Stress Distribution and Special Cases

Stresses due to prestress only

Statics of FBD
Note: Small angle
approximations: Ph P
Vc

Ph

C
P

Pv

Concrete stress
resultants: C = P,
Vc = Pv=P.

C
Vc

Mp
C

Pv

Ph
P

Concrete stress
resultants: C = P,

Stresses due to
axial compressive
force P

Vc = P. & Mp = P.e

= P/A

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Stresses due to prestress plus applied loads


(including self-weight)

+
C

Total stresses due to


eccentric prestress

= P.e.y/I

= P/A + P.e.y/I
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Stress distributions with increasing bending


moment, prior to cracking (Special Cases)

=
Figure 1.1

Total stresses
due to eccentric
prestress

Stresses due to
couple Mp= P.e

Stresses due to
applied bending
moment

Combined
stresses

Zero curvature moment (Figure 1.1-d)

Decompression moment (Figure 1.1-f)


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Cracking moment (Figure 1.1-g)

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Zero Curvature Moment


= P/A

= Mp .y/I

Decompression moment

MzeroCurv = Mp

= MzeroCurv .y/I

P
A

T
C

C
T

Zero curvature
moment

Prestress
alone

Stress at all
levels = P/A

Prestress
alone

Decompression
moment

Zero bottom
fibre stress

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Example 1.2

Cracking moment

(W.R.H.F. Book, Page 120)

T
C

C
T
T
Prestress
alone

Cracking
moment

Bottom fibre tensile


stress b = fct

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compressive

resultant

---------

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Success is not final, Failure is not fatal.


It is the Courage to Continue that counts.

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