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You are on page 1of 13

Autumn 2015

University of Technology, Sydney

Faculty of Engineering & IT

CB11.11.220, Shami.Nejadi@uts.edu.au

The main notes are taken from Concrete Structures by RF Warner, BV Rangan, AS Hall, KA Faulkes; and

Design of Prestressed Concrete by R.I. Gilbert and N.C. Mickleborough. Some slides and figures were

developed by Ken Faulkes and Zora Vrcelj.

INTRODUCTION

Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used

structural materials in construction.

Due to the low tensile strength of concrete,

steel

t lb

bars are iintroduced

t d

d tto carry allll iinternal

t

l ttensile

il fforces.

Most reinforced concrete beams are cracked under service loads.

Cracked cross-sections resist the applied moment by a force in the

concrete, C (compressive) & a force in the steel, T (tensile).

w

Section

Reinforcing bars

cracked section

C

S

linear stresses

BEAM UNDER 3

SERVICE LOADING

LECTURE 1 - OUTLINE

Introduction

History of Prestressing

Methods of Prestressing

Material Properties

Transverse Forces Caused by Draped Tendons

Equivalent Loads

Calculation of Elastic Stresses:

- Combined Load Approach

- Load Balancing Approach

Stress Distribution

- Special Cases

INTRUDUCTION

Professor

Gustav Magnel

from the

University of

Ghent in Belgium.

bottom are like precompressed concrete:

using a compressive

force, they support their

own weight plus

significant superimposed

loads, represented by the

books on top.

4

HISTORY OF PRESTRESSING

shrinkage strains in the concrete.

reinforced concrete, which involves the application of an

initial compressive load on a structure to reduce or

eliminate the internal tensile forces and thereby control or

eliminate cracking.

Freyssinet

F

i t off France

F

(1930s).

(1930 )

Advent of high-strength and high-ductility steel.

highly tensioned steel reinforcement reacting on the concrete.

stiffer than the equivalent cracked reinforced section.

Prestressing may also impose internal forces which

counterbalance external loads and may reduce or

eliminate deflection.

and T. Y. Lin of USA, also contributed a great deal

to the art and science of prestressed concrete

design.

g

Australia - Warragamba ice tower was constructed

in 1950s to serve as an ice tower for use in the

production of concrete at the Warragamba Dam

site.

Why prestress ?

HISTORY OF PRESTRESSING

- control deflection and cracking.

To achieve economy

- Allows for thinner more economical floor slab

to overcome prestress losses through the use of

high-strength and high-ductility steels.

systems.

summarized the importance of the method saying:

which prestress cannot provide a solution, and

often a revolutionary one

Smaller sections

Slender members

Longer spans

self--weight is a high

proportion of the total load.

METHODS OF PRESTRESSING

tensioned steel reinforcement (wire, strand, or bar)

reacting

ti on the

th concrete.

t

versus span :

For spans up to

about 7.5 m it is

generally more

economical to adapt

a reinforced

i f

d solution.

l ti

Over 7.5 m, post

tensioning will

become cheaper.

hydraulic jacks.

concrete is cast and results in two classifications:

(ii) POST - TENSIONED

10

concrete member are as follow:

concrete member are as follow:

hollow duct

Tendons

T

d

stressed

t

d

between supports

cured

uplift forces

Concrete cast

and cured

Tendons released

and prestress

transferred.

t

t

f

d

prestress

transferred

live end

11

TENSILE

FORCE

COMPRESSIVE

FORCE

dead end

3.Tendons anchored

& duct grouted 12

Material properties

Reinforcing steel

There are some assumptions that are made initially:

- The strain distribution in the section is linear.

- Steel behaves in an elastic

elastic-plastic

plastic manner

manner.

Concrete

For prestressed

construction,

strengths typically

35 - 50 MPa

500

MPa

=0.002

Es = 200,000 MPa

response of concrete in compression

0.0025

13

14

by draped tendons

Prestressing steel

Often idealised to elastic-plastic:

prestressed member at the anchorages,

anchorages transverse

forces are also exerted on the member wherever

curvature exists in the tendons.

Approx. values

For strand:

strand

fpy 1600 MPa

Assumptions:

Ep 195,000 MPa

measured

d in

i RADIANS, then

th

For bar:

bar

fpy 950 MPa

Ep 170,000 MPa

15

Can also use ARC = RADIUS x

or (radians ) = ARC / RADIUS

16

draped tendons (cable with a kink)

FORCES AT ANCHORAGES

Remember:

P cos = P,

P sin = P

Bent up tendon

P

e

M = Pe

L/2

L/2

R = 2Psin

P P cos

P P cos

P P sin

FBD

Small ()0

Cos = 1

sin tan

e /(L/2)

in radians) = tan = h / L

Bending

Moment

Diagram

P P sin

R = 2Psin

P sin

L

Pe

2

17

draped tendons (cable with a kink)

sin

From statics

18

CABLE

e

L/2

P cos P and a vertical component of P sin = 2Pe/L.

R 2 P sin 2 P

e

4 Pe

L/2

L

L/2

Th b

The

beam iis said

id tto b

be self

lf stressed.

t

d

L/2

The beam suffers curvature and deflects upward owing to the

internal bending moment caused by prestress.

19

20

GENERAL PARABOLA

The parabola shown below has length L and at its mid-length has

an offset (sag), relative to the line joining its ends (chord), of h.

D

A

L/2

h

I

(Symmetric)

x x 2

y 4h

L L

B h

L/2

CABLE SLOPE

A _

21

draped tendons

At anchorages x = 0 and x = L

Vertical force at anchorage:

4Ph/L = P

dy 4h 2 x

1

dx L

L

= cable profile

d 2 y 8h

2

dx 2

L

= slope

= curvature

22

constant for a parabola

Equivalent Load

dy

4h

dx

L

unite length due to prestress

w o = vertical

distributed forces

Ph P

p - curvature

unit length

(very small length)

4h

Pv

P

L

wo= wp = R

P cable forces

change in direction of the

cable per unite length

23

p R = P sin p

= P p

24

Equivalent Load

Equivalent Load

sag h is downwards. The equivalent load for any parabolic

cable segment

can be obtained from Eq

that the

g

q 1.1,, provided

p

mid-span sag h is measured from the straight line joining the

two ends of the segment (chord).

This upward force is an equivalent distributed load along

the member such that:

w p P p

8 Ph

L2

(Eq. 1.1)

8h

L2

wp

wp

P

the cable, which is of course equal and opposite to the

cable exerts on the concrete.

8 Ph

L2

P

h

4Pe/L

25

act vertically with negligible error.

Calculation of elastic

stresses

L/2

L/2

4Pe/L

(e = h)

cable

26

Calculation of elastic

stresses

section caused by the prestress, the self-weight, and the

external loads are usually calculated using simple beam

theory and assuming linear elastic behaviour.

provided it is uncracked.

at service loads, a cracked section analysis is then

necessary. (this will be considered later in the course)

27

28

i) COMBINED LOAD

APPROACH

Stresses due to prestress only (at any arbitrary section with e):

Cross section

Elevation

Elevation

e

P/A

Due to P

P

Mp=Pe

-Pey/I

P/A-Pey/I

=

Moment

due to Mp= Pe

Due to External

Moment only:

Combined Stresses:

P/A+Pey/I

Resultant

My

I

M

Total stress due

to loading

P Pey My

A

I

I

Total stress

30

29

caused by the gravity load on every cross-section are

balanced by the equal and opposite values caused by wp.

are usually designed so that they behave essentially

linear elastically

elastically.

wub w w p 0

analysis at service loads is conveniently related to

conditions at the balanced load.

wp

8 Ph

L2

(Eq. 1.1)

w

P

upward

d fforces due

d tto cable

bl curvature

t

exactly

tl

counteracted a selected service load.

At balanced condition bending moments, shear forces

and deflections would then all be zero.

to prestress

P Peyy

A

I

wpL/2

or 4Ph/L

L/2

wL/2

31

wp

h

L/2

P

wpL/2

B or 4Ph/L

wL/2

32

If w = wp

wL2

M

8

Mp

If w wp

unbalanced load must be calculated:

w p L2

8

M ub

calculate corresponding

p

g stresses at balanced

condition:

P

A

2

wub L2 w w p L

8

8

condition:

deflect

33

EXAMPLE 1.1

P

A

M ub y

I

34

EXAMPLE 1.1

the simpl

simply ssupported

ppo ted beam sho

shown

n belo

below:

Moment calculations

Mp due to

prestress

e = 250 mm

parabolic

curve

6000 mm

6000 mm

Mw due to

load

P is assumed to be uniform along the beam.

35

P 1760 kN;

M p Pe 1760 250 10 3 440 kNm

Mw

wL2 30 12 2

540 kNm

8

8

36

EXAMPLE 1.1

EXAMPLE 1.1

Stress calculations

Stress due

to P

t b

Stress due

P 1760 103

8 MPa

A 220 103

to Mw

13.1 MPa

I

20000 106

Myb

540 106 415

11.21 MPa T

I

20000 106

Stress due

to

Mp= Pe :

Peyt

440 106 485

t

10.67 MPa

MP T

I

20000 106

9.13 MPa C

20000 106

I

EXAMPLE 1.1

9.13

17.13

-11.21

P + Pe

5.92

P + Pe + M

38

upward

Unbalanced load

P M ub yt

10.43 MPa

A

I

10.43

downward

Unbalanced moment

100 kNm

8

8

=

Pe

10.43

EXAMPLE 1.1

wp 2

24.4 kN m

120002

L

13.10

-2.67

-10.67

37

M ub

8.0

P M y

b ub b 5.92 MPa

A

I

39

5.92

40

10

Statics of FBD

Note: Small angle

approximations: Ph P

Vc

Ph

C

P

Pv

Concrete stress

resultants: C = P,

Vc = Pv=P.

C

Vc

Mp

C

Pv

Ph

P

Concrete stress

resultants: C = P,

Stresses due to

axial compressive

force P

Vc = P. & Mp = P.e

= P/A

41

(including self-weight)

+

C

eccentric prestress

= P.e.y/I

= P/A + P.e.y/I

42

moment, prior to cracking (Special Cases)

=

Figure 1.1

Total stresses

due to eccentric

prestress

Stresses due to

couple Mp= P.e

Stresses due to

applied bending

moment

Combined

stresses

43

44

11

= P/A

= Mp .y/I

Decompression moment

MzeroCurv = Mp

= MzeroCurv .y/I

P

A

T

C

C

T

Zero curvature

moment

Prestress

alone

Stress at all

levels = P/A

Prestress

alone

Decompression

moment

Zero bottom

fibre stress

45

46

Example 1.2

Cracking moment

T

C

C

T

T

Prestress

alone

Cracking

moment

stress b = fct

47

48

12

compressive

resultant

---------

49

50

It is the Courage to Continue that counts.

51

52

13

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