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In order to enforce the Jim Crow laws in the South , "Colored Only" and " for White Only"
signs were put up. Here are some of the signs that used to be found in the deep South
Africa during the Jim Crow Laws era. How did these signs affect Afro-American people living
in the South ? With the help of the documents you have read, write down a caption under
each sign.

- Under Jim Crow they were expected / were required to wait

in separate waiting rooms reserved for Black or colored people.

Black people were forced to use separate restaurant entrance

doors .
- Some restaurants were segregated. Black people were told that they could not
eat in the same restaurants as white people.

Black people were forced / compelled to sit at the back of a

- They were prohibited

to sit in the front .

Black people were forbidden by law to drink from the white

water fountains.
- They were forbidden from /banned from drinking from the same water fountain
as white people or from using the same restrooms.
- They were deprived of the right to use clean water fountains.
-They were not allowed to use public water fountains which had been build for

Black people were forced to use separate amenities or water

fountains from those used by white people.

- They were forbidden to share the same showers as white people.

- They were required to / expected/ supposed to use colored showers. / It was

not allowed for Blacks to use showers reserved for whites.

Black people were denied access to restrooms for white

- Black people were denied the right to use the same restrooms as white people.
-They were compelled to use separate restrooms.
- Black people were deprived of the right to use the same restrooms as white people
as they were believed to have diseases.

Black or colored people were compelled to attend Black theaters.

- They were not allowed to see a play in a white theater. Black people were forced
to use separate amenities or water fountains from those used by white people.

The right to demonstrate was granted to Blacks and was not

punished in some southern states.

- They were denied the right to be taught like white people.

- In the southern states black children and white children were not allowed to attend
the same schools. That is why in some southern states black people were fighting for
school desegregation. Non - violent marches were organized to denounce
segregation in schools.

Considering what you have just learnt and taking the documents provided
into account , write your own definition of Segregation in the form of an essay written
in the passive form so as to describe the hopeless situation of Black and Coloured
people when segregation was in practice in the deep South. (250 words)

You will make use of Passive Forms in order to put forward the people who were

affected by those unfair laws. / you will express obligation /necessity /prohibition
in the past

used to + BV (pass rvolu) / would + BV to emphasize the idea that the Jim

Crow Laws are no longer in practice today.

Segregated = to be set apart from others
Segregation = the practice or policy of creating separate but equal facilities within the same society for the
use of a minority group

Jim Crow was a character ( a crippled African slave

called Jim Cuff or Jim Crow) in an old song (1828) who was
revived by a white comedian called Daddy Rice. The song
and dance was done in blackface by Thomas Darmouth.

Rice used the character to make fun of black people and the
way that they spoke. The term Jim Crow came to be used
as an insult against black people. The expression to jump
jim crow came to mean act like a stereotype stage
caricature of a black person
Many people believed that Blacks would be treated equally after the Civil War, but they weren't. Although Black
people had been granted the right to vote by the Constitution , they were kept from voting by racist Southerners for
one hundred years after the Civil War. Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws which stopped Blacks from getting almost all
of their rights, were created in southern states.
Although slavery had been abolished and the Reconstruction of the South was well under way, it was believed that
blacks were inferior .Slavery, though outlawed, was merely (=simplement) replaced with racial discrimination and
injustice. It is often said that The Jim Crow laws were a consequence of white fear.
Jim Crow was the practice of discriminating against black people, through a set of laws which were passed in
the Southern states, after black people had earned their freedom from slavery. From the 1880s to the 1960s,
segregation laws were enforced in many American states. In order to prevent black Americans from being equal,
the southern states passed a series of laws known as Jim Crow laws which discriminated against blacks and
made sure that they were segregated (treated unequally) from whites.
In 1881, Tennessee passed the first Jim Crow law, which segregated train cars. By 1915, every Southern state had
passed laws that created two separate societies , one black and one white . As a result colored people were kept
apart from the White world.
These laws were discriminatory and racist laws which were meant to enforce racial segregation in the southern
states in the aftermath of the Civil war. Under Jim Crow Black people were discriminated against. Blacks were
treated unfairly as whites thought colored people were different and should be treated as second-class citizens. As
a consequence, one hundred years after the Civil War, Blacks had to sit separately from Whites. Black and white

people were separated in all public places. Jim Crow laws strictly enforced public racial segregation in almost every
aspect of Southern life. In order to enforce racial segregation and racial hate , signs were put up to separate
facilities saying "whites only" and "coloured" or "Negroes" and Signs reading "Colored Only" or "White Only" could be
seen everywhere ( parks, toilets, waiting rooms, theatres, and water fountains for example. ) Blacks used to be
treated unequally at school, at work, and almost everywhere they tried to go. Under Jim Crow, there used to be
separate restrooms, neighborhoods, hotels, and restaurants for black people and white people. Jim Crow laws
segregated railways and streetcars, public waiting rooms, restaurants, boarding houses, theaters, public parks,
libraries and cemeteries. Separate schools, hospitals and other public institutions, generally of inferior quality, were
designated for blacks . Black people could not / were not allowed to eat in the same restaurants, drink out of the
same water fountains, watch movies in the same theaters, play in the same parks, or go to the same schools as
whites. Blacks had to / were expected to sit in the back of buses and give up their seats to whites when instructed
to do so. Blacks could not /were not allowed to nurse whites in hospitals. During the American segregation Black
people used to sit in different sections in buses. They were compelled to drink in segregated bars.. At the time when
the Jim Crow laws were in practice, black people would use separate phone booths and bathrooms, and in some
cases, were deprived of their right to vote. Blacks were excluded from all newspapers and from trading. Colored
people could not buy houses in the same neighborhoods as whites. Economic and educational opportunities for black
Americans were greatly restricted. In addition to laws, there were certain unwritten social expectations. For
example, a black man was not to shake hands with a white man and he could not make eye-contact with a white
woman or else he would be accused of highly inappropriate sexual advances. When speaking, blacks were
expected to address whites as "Mr.," "Sir," or "Ma'am." If blacks violated Jim Crow rules, they could expect brutal
punishment, such as whippings or even death. Many blacks were killed (often lynched) for attempting to exercise
their right to vote, for being members of political organizations and for attending school for speaking out for equality.

Dont forget to learn about the brave men and women who fought to end discrimination and who helped to outlaw
racial discrimination . = Civil rights activists who fought for desegregation.
Homer Plessy
One man named Homer Plessy tried to end segregation on trains. He had gotten on a "white car" when he wasn't supposed to. After going
through several courts, his case, Plessy v. Ferguson, finally reached the Supreme Court and he was found guilty of breaking the law. This court
decision was very important because it made it legal to separate Blacks and Whites in almost every way possible.
Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks worked to end segregation on buses. She played a role by refusing to move from her seat when the bus driver asked her to move to
the back of the bus. The police were called and she was arrested. This helped start the Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped end segregation in
the South. Parks stand triggered not only a boycott of the bus system, but also sit-ins and protest marches .
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Another person who fought for desegregation was Martin Luther King, Jr. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott that Rosa Parks helped start. Martin
Luther King, Jr. gave many speeches and led many marches to help end segregation. He thought you should fight for equal rights peacefully, and
gave his life helping people do that.
Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson also played a role in the fight against segregation. He became the leader of Operation Breadbasket, a peaceful group that worked
for more job opportunities for Blacks. Later he went on to become the most successful black man to run for President of the United States.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X is another leader who fought for desegregation. Unlike Martin Luther King, Jr. and Jesse Jackson, Malcolm X thought you should fight
for equal rights "by any means necessary," even with violence.
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey was another person who fought for equal rights. He wanted Blacks to go back to Africa, even if they were born in America. He
thought this was the best way for Blacks to keep from being treated badly by white people.
President John F. Kennedy

President Kennedy helped fight segregation from the White House. He helped pass laws saying that it was illegal for Blacks to be segregated in
theaters, restaurants, restrooms, trains, buses, and schools. He also helped the Little Rock Nine become the first black students in an all-white high
Many famous leaders helped fight for equal education for all people. Linda Brown, Mary McLeod Bethune, and Ruby Bridges all helped black
students get a good education. The Little Rock Nine was a group of black students who couldn't get into a high school because the Governor of
Arkansas wouldn't let them. Although they were attacked for standing up for what they believed in, they fought the governor and won!