You are on page 1of 3

God is awesome

God is awesome
God is awesome
The reader should remember about Gulika that the portion
owned by Saturn. on the week-day of the birth, belongs to Gulika.
For this purpose, divide the Dinmana in eight-equal parts and
the lord of each Maburata will be computed from the week day
of the birth. The portion allowed 10 Saturn will belong to Gulilea.
In the case of night birth divide the Ratrimana in eight equal
parts and count the Stb Muhurata from tbe ,week-day of the
birth and find out tbe portion belonging to Saturn, that will be
called Gulika. In short, note the week-day of the birth and
divide its Ratrimana or Dinmana by eight. The eighth part will
be one Muhul3ta. In the day birth the lord of the first Mahurata
will be denoted by the planet owning the week day of the birth
and in the case of night-birtb it will be the 5tb from tbe lord of
the week~ay . Write this Maburata in one place and count the
position of Saturn; such as, Sunday as 7th. Tuesday as Stb and
Wednesday as tbe 4th etc. In the night-birth count from the Sth
planet denoted by the week-day. Note the position of Saturn.
This should be multiplied by the 8th portion of the Ratriman.
The product will give tbe Ishta of Gulika. Compute with tbis
100 Lagna, it will give Gulika Sphuta Lagna or Gulika Sphuta.
The Accelerator Effect Expectations, at least in part, are thus likely to determ
ine the level
of planned investment spending. At any interest rate, the level of investment is
likely to be higher
if businesses are optimistic and lower if they are pessimistic. A key question i
s then what determine
expectations? One possibility, is that expectations are optimistic when aggregat
e output (Y)
is rising and pessimistic when aggregate output is falling. At any given level o
f the interest rate,
expectations may be more optimistic and planned investment higher when output is
growing
rapidly than when it is growing slowly or falling. It is easy to see why this mi
ght be so.When firms
expect future prospects to be good, they may plan now to add productive capacity
, and one indicator
of future prospects is the current growth rate.
If this is the case, the result will be what is called an accelerator effect. If
aggregate output
(income) (Y) is rising, investment will increase even though the level of Y may
be low. Higher
investment spending leads to an added increase in output, further accelerating the
growth of
aggregate output. If Y is falling, expectations are dampened and investment spen
ding will be cut
even though the level of Y may be high, accelerating the decline.
Excess Labor and Excess Capital Effects
In practice, firms appear at times to hold what we will call excess labor and/or
excess capital. A
firm holds excess labor (or capital) if it can reduce the amount of labor it emp
loys (or capital it
holds) and still produce the same amount of output. Why would a firm want to emp
loy more
workers or have more capital on hand than it needs? Both labor and capital are c
ostly a firm has
to pay wages to its workers, and it forgoes interest on funds tied up in machine

ry or buildings.
Why would a firm want to incur costs that do not yield revenue?
To see why, suppose a firm suffers a sudden and large decrease in sales, but it
expects the lower
sales level to last only a few months, after which it believes saleswill pick up
again. In this case, the firm
is likely to lower production in response to the sales change to avoid too large
an increase in its stock
of inventories. This decrease in production means that the firm could get rid of
some workers and
some machines because it needs less labor and less capital to produce the now-lo
wer level of output.
However, things are not that simple. Decreasing its workforce and capital stock
quickly can
be costly for a firm.Abrupt cuts in the workforce hurt worker morale and may inc
rease personnel
administration costs, and abrupt reductions in capital stock may be disadvantage
ous because of
the difficulty of selling used machines. These types of costs are sometimes call
ed adjustment
costs because they are the costs of adjusting to the new level of output. There
are also adjustment
costs to increasing output. For example, it is usually costly to recruit and tra
in new workers.
Adjustment costs may be large enough that a firmchooses not to decrease its work
force and capital
stock when production falls.The firmmay at times choose to have more labor and c
apital on hand
than it needs to produce its current amount of output simply because getting rid
of them is more
costly than keeping them. In practice, excess labor takes the formof workers not
working at their normal
level of activity (more coffee breaks and more idle time, for instance). Some of
this excess labor
may receive new training so that productivity will be higher when production pic
ks up again.
The existence of excess labor and capital at any given moment is likely to affec
t future
employment and investment decisions. Suppose a firm already has excess labor and
capital due to
a fall in its sales and production.When production picks up again, the firm will
not need to hire
as many new workers or acquire as much new capital as it would otherwise. The mo
re excess capital
a firm already has, the less likely it is to invest in new capital in the future
. The more excess
labor it has, the less likely it is to hire new workers in the future.
Inventory Investment
We now turn to a brief discussion of the inventory investment decision. Inventor
y investment is
the change in the stock of inventories. Although inventory investment is another
way in which a
firm adds to its capital stock, the inventory investment decision is quite diffe
rent from the plantandequipment investment decision.
The Role of Inventories Recall the distinction between a firm s sales and its outp
ut. If a firm
can hold goods in inventory, which is usually the case unless the good is perish
able or unless the
firm produces services, then within a given period, it can sell a quantity of go

ods that differs from