Animal Husbandry A Case Study of Tarebhir (Baluwa VDC) and Mulkharka (Sundarijal VDC

)

An Excursion Report Submitted To Fulfill The Partial Requirement of I.A. level (2nd Year) in Geography in Tribhuvan University

By Group 'B' Rajendra K.C. BSAM, Geography Deparment Sallaghari, Bhaktapur 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter - 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Introduction Statement of Problem Objectives Research Questions 1 4 5 5

Chapter - 2 Methodology 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Selection of the Study Area Rationale of the selection of the study Sample size and method Nature of the data and data production method 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5 Primary data and source Secondary data and source 6 6 6 7 7 7 7

Field experience

Chapter - 3 Animal Husbandry 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Introduction Importance of Animal Husbandry Mangement of Animals Fodder Management 3.4.1 Fodder Mangement in Private Land Changing pattern in Animal Husbandry Relation between land holding size and Animal Husbandry Problem of Animal Husbandry Possibilities in Animal Husbandry 9 10 10 11 12 13 15 15 17

Chapter - 4 Conclusion and Recommendation 4.1 4.2 Conclusion Recommendation and Possibilities 19 20

Appendix Reference Sample of Questionnaire List of Plates

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
According to the T.U. syllabus of P.C.L. Arts Second Year Geography, our Mahavidyalaya had managed geographical excursion to Shivapuri National Park and in its buffer zone namely Tarebhir of Baluwa V.D.C. and Mulkharka of Sundarijal V.D.C.of Kathmandu district, in the topic of Animal Husbandry. The Excursion was held from 2062/12/20 to 2062/12/23. The present study would not have been successful without the support and guidance of our respected geography teachers of our Mahavidyalaya Mr. Dal Prasad Pun & Mr. Ishwor Karki without whose guidance excursion report would not have been successful and Mahavidyalaya staffs, and specially the local people who provided necessary information during our field survey/excursion. So, we would like to express our sincere thanks to the local villagers of Tarebhir and Mulkharka villages. Similarly, we would like to present hearty gratitude to our respective teachers House Master Kumar Gurung sir had also equally helped in conducting field survey and had accompanied us for his proper observation and care. At last, but not the least, we would like to express our regards to the Principal Ms. Indumani Chemjong, Liaison Officer of our Mahavidyalaya / Pastoral vice Principal Lt. Col. Prayog Jung Bahadur Rana, Department head of Arts and Management Mrs. Jyoti Thapa, Burser Officer Major Jitendra Thapa, Mr. Binaya Shrestha (for computer setting) and other army personals, cooks, warden and other army staff of Shivapuri National Park, specially Major Bhim Prasad Lamichhane for managing necessary arrangement in every step at the excursion period.

Thank you.

ABSTRACT
This is a comparative study of the animal husbandry that prevails in Tarebhir of Baluwa VDC and Mulkharka of SUNDARIJAL VDC, which are located outside and inside the Shivapuri National Park respectively. This study explores how the animal husbandry is affected after the establishment of the National Park which is based on primary as well as secondary data, collected in the field. The primary data is obtained by observation and questionnaire method, direct interaction with the locals and secondary data is obtained with the help of brochures, Ranger of Shivapuri National Park, excursion report of 2061 prepared by BSAM students and the population census of 2001. The study has revealed that the animal husbandry of both VDC is affected by their landholding size, occupational base, location (inside and outside conservation area), agricultural imports etc. Animal husbandry in both the villages is an important component of their agricultural system and day-to-day livelihood. Animal husbandry is mostly done for milk, meat, manure and economic reasons. The study also shows that the people there are facing various problems in animal husbandry due to which they are not able to improve their standard of living.

CHAPTER - ONE
1.1 Introduction
Nepal is a small country with an area of 147,181sq.km. between 800 4`E to 88012` E longitude and 26022` N to 30027` N latitudes. It is surrounded by Tibet (China) in the North and India in the South, East and the West. It approximate east to West length is 885km and average North to South breadth is 192km.Nepal is a landlocked country with its nearest access to the sea at a distance of about 1120km. from the border. It is a Himalayan country. Since mountains and hills covers most of its land, Nepal is a mountainous country. The Terai region covers 25,020sq.km.(17%) while Hills cover 100,083sq.km.(68%)and Himalayan region covers 22,077sq.km.(15%) of the total land area of Nepal.

National Park, Reserves and their Aims in Nepal
In Nepal, game hunting and poching were recognized as treats to wild lives and thus major protection act was promogulated in 1958. This was enacted to take stern legal actions for any violation the first National Parks and wildlife conservation acts, 1973 A.D. Thereafter, the Mahendra Kunja of wildlife sanctuary meant for game hunting was converted into the National Park of Nepal, The Royal Chitwan National Park. Such acts opened the door to establish a number of National Parks, wildlife reserves, hunting reserves and conservation area in the country. These are also called protected areas. There are various aims to designate protected areas such as prohibit illegal hunting, encroachment, destruction of the natural habitats, to conserve flora and fauna and their habitats, protect landscape with a certain degree of uniques such as cultural/religious to permit for scientific study, to manage game animals for recreational and sustained hunting etc.

Shivapuri National Park

The Shivapuri National Park is located at 12 Km North from Ratnapark, the heart of Kathmandu. Extending 20 Km in length from Chisapani in the East to Kakani in the West and 9 Km in breadth from South to North. The National Park covers an area of 142 Sq Km. It adjoints 23 VDCs of Kathmandu, Nuwakot and Sindhupalchok districts. It is a unique National Park in the world in the sense that no other National Parks in the world is so closely located to the capital city of a nation. Situated in the middle mountain region of Nepal, The Shivapuri National Park was recognized as the ninth or the latest National Park of Nepal.

Special Features Of Shivapuri National Park
• It lies in an transitional zone between the temperate and sub-tropical climates. Different micro climates formed by altitudinal variation, mountain aspects and micro soil type etc. and various processes jointly produced variety of plants species in the forest including pine, oak, kafal, rhododendron etc. • • • Among the wildlife, himalayan black-bear, leopard, jungle cat, common langoor, wild Similarly about 177 species of birds, 102 species of butterflies and 129 species of The Shivapuri National Park is one of the main source of fresh drinking water to the boar etc are found. mushroom, different types of herbs also have been recorded in the National Park. densely populated Kathmandu valley. Water tapped from Bagmati, Bishnumati, Nagmati, Shyalmati and numerous streams are supplied through the pipelines from the water reserved situated at Sundarijal, Panimuhan, Tokha, Alle, Dhakalchare & Panchmane. The catchments area provides about 45 millions litres of water daily.

The Shivapuri National Park is an important religious place for both Hindu & Buddhist.

Many religious places exist in the park area such as Baghdwar, Bishnudwar, Nagigumba & Tarkeshwor Mahadev, etc. • Shivapuri is also very important from the tourism point of view. Impressive view of high himalayan can be seen from the peak and northern slope. Similarly a good scene of Kathmandu valley can be appreciated from the peak. The main trekking route to Nagarkot, Gosaikunda, Helambu, the Langtang National Park passes through the National Park. • • This National Park is a natural laboratory for environmentalists, natural scientists, The National Park is protected by a boundary wall running 111 km settlements within the researchers, and students and for the peace lovers as well. park area were displaced except for the two densely populated villages of Mulkharka and Okhreni. The Royal Nepalese Army has been deputed in the park area with different security posts. • A route of 95 km has been constructed around the National Park and foot trails of 82 km have been improved. An area of 1193 hectares inside the Park and 786 hectares outside park has already been afforested. The present study focus on the Animal husbandry in Tarebhir, Baluwa VDC and Mulkharka, Sundarijal VDC that are located outside and inside the national park respectively. The animal husbandry of Baluwa VDC is entirely subsistence type. According to the population census of 2001 the total households in Baluwa VDC is 833. Most of the people are engaged in animal husbandry and agricultural related activities as according to the population census of 2001 about 94.48% of the population is dependent on agriculture. Most of the locals are friendly and cooperative and most of them belong to Tamang ethnic group. We have surveyed 34 households and found that locals are poor with small land holdings. The animal husbandry of Sundarijal VDC is also subsistence type. It is inside the national park. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture or related activities. According to this population census of 2001 the total household in Sundarijal are 491 and population is 2499. Most of the locals are Tamang ethnic group. We have surveyed 36 households and found that locals are poor.

So within both VDCs forest is the most important elements of their day to day lives. After the establishment of National Park some changes have occurred in agricultural system like fodder, grazing area. Most of the people are illiterate and they don’t know how to manage livestock. So they still use National Parks resources illegally. Hence, animal husbandry is one of the main source of livehood, it is still far intensive and is entirely based on subsistence. The major economy of local people is agro based. Due to the restriction of using forest resource after the establishment of the National Park we can see direct effect of it on animal husbandry system of these 2 VDCs.

1.2 Statement of the problem
Nepalese economy is predominantly agricultural. Approximately 81.3% of the total population of our country is involved in agriculture census 2001. So, most of the land used for agriculture and related purposes. The agricultural sector generates over 40% of the total income. It provides almost 80% of raw materials required for the industrial sector. An export of agricultural commodities constitutes over 90% of total export from Nepal. Thus, income from the agricultural sector accounts for a major portion of government’s revenue. Owing to illiteracy are other socio - economic factors most of the people of Nepal are dependent upon agriculture but the outcome is not sufficient for the growing population. ‘The population growth rate is 2.27% per annum according to 2001 concur. But the production has been decreasing due to problems like famine, drought etc. The subsistence rural agro based economy of Nepal depends almost entirely on animal husbandry. The rural people of the country depend upon animal husbandry for manure, milk, meat, household purpose, raw materials etc. These conditions are also found in the study area i.e. Sundarijal and Baluwa VDCs. According to our field survey 88.89% of the population in Mulkharka of Sundarijal VDCs and about 79.41% of the population in Tarebhir of Baluwa VDCs are largely based upon animal husbandry. Animal husbandry has been one of the most important aspect of agriculture of their lives. So we have conducted study on the animal husbandry of Baluwa VDCs and Sundarijal VDCs. This study tries to find out how the animal husbandry of these VDCs are influenced after the establishment of the national park. This study shows how the existence of National Park effects the locals in these two VDCs.

Animal husbandry, as it is an important aspect of the agro based economy of these places, should be developed to develop the living standard of local people, this study tries to find out the major issues related with the animal husbandry, which will help to develop socioeconomic condition of the locals through anima husbandry.

1.3 Objectives
The major objectives of study are as follows: a. To study the animal husbandry in the study area. b. To study the problems and prospects of animal husbandry in study area.

1.4 Research questions
To fulfill the above mentioned objectives following research questions have been setup. a. How important is the animal husbandry in the everyday lives of local people? b. Is there any change in animal husbandry? c. Is there any relationship between landholding size and animal husbandry? d. What are the major problems of animal husbandry in the study are? e. What are the major possibilities in the animal husbandry?

CHAPTER - TWO
METHODOLOGY 2.1 Selection of the study area:
They are located outside and inside the Shivapuri National Park respectively. About 88.39% of Tarebhir and 79.41% of Mulkharka are dependent on animal husbandry. Animal husbandry is the main source of livelihood of the people. We had surveyed 34 households in Tarebhir and 36 households in Mulkharka. Agriculture and animal husbandry are the combined economic activities of the people. The economy of these two VDCs is agro-based in which animal husbandry has a great importance. Tarebhir of Baluwa VDC and Mulkharka of Sundarijal VDC were the two sample villages selected for this study.

2.2 Rationale of the selection of study area:
The selection of sample villages was based on the following reasons. a. Both villages are typical hilly villages of Nepal, which are in transition period of modernization; animal husbandry is the main step of livelihood in the two villages. Tarebhir is located adjacent to the National Park and Mulkharka is located inside the national park. Hence, physical access to the National Park differs. b. As the information obtained from the precious research, several programs had been launched for villages to improve economic status, generate employment, to reduce firewood consumption etc. c. Although these two villages are not as for from the capital city Kathmandu, it is still far; less developed and represents rural villages of Nepal.

2.3 Sample size and method:

This study is based almost entirely upon field survey. The households were selected purposively for this study. The total of 34 households were surveyed in Tarebhir, Baluwa VDC and 36 household were surveyed in Mulkharka, Sundarijal VDC. Almost all the data and information used in the study have been collected in the field using observation and questionnaires. Field observation and study of relevant documents and brochures were also considered while analyzing the report. The field survey was conducted by a group of 22 students of geography 2nd year for 4 days from 2062/12/20 to 2062/12/24.

2.4 Nature of data and data production method:
This study is based almost entirely upon field survey. Almost all the data and information that are used in the study have been collected in the field using observation and questionnaires. Beside these, information was also derived by conducting meeting with the ranger of the Shivapuri National Park. Two types of data's were collected:

2.4.1 Primary data and source:
We have collected the information from the local people by direct interaction and observation. The sources used while collecting primary data are interviewing the locals directly by the students. Some photographs have been taken in the field while studying the area.

2.4.2 Secondary data and sources:
We have used brochures given by the ranger of the Shivapuri National Park for our study. The excursion report of 2061, become handy for us. The population census of 2001 was also used for the study of the subject.

2.5 Field Experience:
Our geographical excursion was held from 2062/12/20 to 2062/12/23 in Tarebhir of Baluwa VDC and Mulkharka of Sundarijal VDC. Our excursion was educational as well as entertaining. The local people were very friendly and co-operative. We also enjoyed the scenic beauty during our excursion. However, during our survey, we had to face certain difficulties. Lack of means of transportation was one of the main problems. We had to walk all the way to reach the villages which were tiresome. In same places, the people didn't respond positively. They neglected us and hesitated to provide the required information. The local people there were usually drunk. During

the period of our excursion, we breathed fresh air we gained a lot of knowledge about the rural way of life and about the problems they had to face. As the students from our college have been repeatedly visiting the same area for research and have been interacting with the same people, during our survey, we felt that they often get irritated and don't respond positively. Time constraint was also one of the problem. If the time had been sufficient, we would have been able to collect more information. Although we had to face some difficulties during our excursion, it was memorable.

CHAPTER - THREE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 3.1 Introduction
We had selected Mulkharka of Sundarijal VDC and Tarebhir of Baluwa VDC for our study. We studied the animal husbandry of these two villages. There are many similarities in the way of animal rearing in Tarebhir and Mulkharka. Since the economy of both places is agro based, animal husbandry played a vital role in the day to day life of the local people. Animal husbandry in these two places has been influenced to some extent by the establishment of national park. As Tarebhir is located outside the boundary of National Park, 97% of the people depend on the National Park for fodder. However 75% of the people of Mulkharka depend on the national park for fodder management as it is located inside the national park. Although the national park has restricted grazing of animals and getting fodder from inside the jungle, most of the people in both the villages get fodder for their livestock from the jungle. The local people of Tarebhir and Mulkharka depend very much on animals for their livelihood. In both the villages, animals are the means of supporting their economic conditions. Animals are the source of food, money as well as the means of manure and compost for them. As the cost of chemical fertilizer is high, manure from the animals is only alternative. Thus animal rearing has helped them a lot in their agro based economy. In both the villages, mostly animals like goat, hen, buffalo, and cow are reared whereas ox and pigs are few in number. Almost every household have reared animals. Among the other animals, goat is the most dominant animal. We found that the more land the people have, the more animals they keep and vice versa.

3.2 Importance Of Animal Husbandry
Since the economy of both Tarebhir and Mulkharka is agro based, animal husbandry is of great importance to support the economy of the people of both places. Animals are of great importance to the people. Animals are the source of food as well as income earnings. People earn by selling the animals, offspring, milk and milk products. Apart from this, animals fulfill the requirement of manure which is the most important.

Table 1: Purpose of animal husbandry in Tarebhir: Purpose Frequency milk 8 meat 12 manure 20 economic reason 21 others 1 Source: Field visit, 2062, Chaitra % of total household (34) 23.52 35.2 58.8 61.76 2.94

Table 2: Purpose of animal husbandry in Mulkharka Purpose Frequency Milk 15 Meat 18 Manure 22 Economic Reason 27 Others 2 Source: Field visit, 2062, Chaitra % of total household (36) 41.6 36.1 61.1 75 5.5

Conclusion
From the above data of Tarebhir and Mulkharka, we can say that animal husbandry is given emphasis mostly for economic reason and secondly for manure. In Tarebhir, 61.76% of the people keep animals for economic reason, i.e. for selling animals, offspring, meat, milk and milk products, etc. In Mulkharka, 75% of people rare animals for economic reason. The least importance is given for milk. Very few people keep animals for other purposes like ploughing. It may be because of lack of fodder which do not support large animals like cow and buffaloes.

3.3 Management Of Animals
During our survey, we found out that the way of management of animals is one of the major hindrances in animal husbandry. This difficulty has araised after the establishment of National Park. After the National Park was established, people were restricted to graze their animals and take fodder from the jungle. Therefore, most of the people manage their animals by stall feeding. People who have large amount of land graze animals in their own field. In both Tarebhir and Mulkharka, stall feeding is most common way of managing the animals. Table 3: Management of animals in Tarebhir Management stall feeding grazing both Frequency 17 4 13 % out of 34 households 50 11.76 38.23

Source: Field visit, 2062, Chaitra Table 4: Management of animals in Mulkharka Management Frequency % out of 36 households stall feeding 18 50 grazing 3 8.33 both 15 41.6 Source: Field visit 2062, Chaitra

Conclusion
From the above mentioned data of the way of managing animals in Tarebhir and Mulkharka, we can say that, half of the people in both of the places manage their animals by stall feeding. In both places, 50% of people manage their animals by stall feeding. In Tarebhir, 11.76% of people graze their animals and 38.23% people manage their animals both by stall feeding and grazing. In Mulkharka, 8.33% of the people graze their animals and 41.6% by both stall feeding and grazing. We can also say that very few people manage their animals by grazing.

3.4 Fodder Management
In both Tarebhir and Mulkharka, people are facing problems regarding the fodder management. This problem has further increased after the establishment of the national park. The national park has restricted the grazing of animals and taking fodder from inside the jungle. However, people partly depend on the national park for fodder. The people who don’t have their own land depend fully on the jungle for fodder. However, people may have planted fodder trees in their own land, to some people, it is sufficient but in case of insufficiency, people bring fodder from the jungle.

Table 5: Management of fodder in Tarebhir Fodder tree in No. of % 20.6 79.4 private land household Yes 7 No 27 Source: Field visit 2062, Chaitra Sufficiency Yes No 1 5 Source National Park 5 27 of

Table 6: Management of fodder in Mulkharka Fodder tree in No. of % 50 50 private land household Yes 18 No 18 Source: Field visit 2062, Chaitra Sufficiency Yes No 9 9 Source National Park 7 18 of

Conclusion
According to the above data, in Tarebhir 97% of the people depend on national park for fodder management and in Mulkharka 75% of the people depend on national park for fodder management, although it has been restricted. In Tarebhir, 20.6% of the people have planted fodder tree in private land among which to 14.3%, it is sufficient and for the rest, it is not sufficient. 79.4% of the people totally depend on the jungle for fodder. In Mulkharka, 50% of the people have planted fodder trees and 50% depend on the jungle.

3.4.1 Fodder management in private land
In Tarebhir, 20.5% of the people have planted fodder trees in private land among which to 14.3 percent is sufficient and to the rest, it is insufficient. 79.4% of the people totally depend on the jungle. In Mulkharka 50% of the people have planted fodder trees among which for half of the people, it is sufficient and insufficient for the remaining. So, the remaining people have to depend on the jungle for fodder. 50% of the people totally depend on the jungle as they haven’t planted any fodder tree in their private land. In Tarebhir, the commonly grown fodder trees are Kafal, Katush, and Daleghans. In Mulkharka, more species are found. They are Kutmiro, Dudhilo, Khasru, Daleghans, Falant, Paiyu, Mayal,

Pati, Babiyo, etc. In Tarebhir, less species are available due to lack of seeds or plants. All the people have planted fodder trees in their private land, it is insufficient. So, they depend on the jungle.

3.5 Changing Pattern In Animal Husbandry
The establishment of national park has changed the pattern of animal husbandry in Tarebhir and Mulkharka as well. The commonly reared animal in the both places are cow, buffalo, goat, hen, pig, ox, etc. The number of cows and buffalos have gradually decreased because these animals require more fodder which is not possible to provide as the national park has restricted taking fodder from the jungle and there is lack of labour and grazing land as well. Animal disease is also one of the cause. On the other hand, the possibility of goat and poultry has increased. Goat require less fodder, less labour and are a good source of income and meat as well. Therefore the number of goat is gradually increasing. In both the places, there is possibility of rearing goat. Table 7: Change in animal husbandry in Tarebhir Animals Cow Increased 1 (2.94%) 1 (2.94%) Causes Decreased Increased in 5 agricultural (14.7%) land Increased in 8 labour (23.53%) Causes Lack of labour, lack of fodder, lack of grazing land Problem of national park, lack of fodder, lack of grazing land Lack of labour and fodder, problem of national park, disease, lack of land, traditional reason Polluted surroundings Same Causes -

Buffalo

2

Economic reason

Goat

12 (35.29%)

Meat, 11 sufficient (32.35%) fodder, economic reason, easy to keep

2

Meat, easy 1 to keep, (2.94%) economic reason Source: Field visit 2062, Chaitra

Poultry

3 (8.82%)

-

Easy to rear, lack of economic source, lack of facilities, no improvement in surroundings -

Table 8: Change in animal husbandry in Mulkharka Animals Increased Causes Decreased Causes Same Causes

Cow

1 (2.78%)

Buffalo

1 (2.78%)

Increased in agricultured land and manpower Increased in agricultured land and manpower

3 (8.3%)

Lack of 1 fodder (2.78%)

Manure, household

8 (22.2%)

Goat

10 (27.78%)

Poultry Ox

2 (30.56%) -

Economic reason, meat, easy to rear, sufficient fodder Meat, economic reason -

5 (13.8%)

1 (2.78%) -

Lack of fodder, lack of labour, lack of money, difficult to rear, disease Lack of fodder, disease, problems of national park Disease -

6 (16.6%)

Milk manure, meat

8 (22.2%)

Meat manure, limited resource Meat Economic reason, plugging

2 (30.56%) 2 (30.56%)

Source: Field visit 2062, Chaitra

Conclusion
According to the above data, the number of goats have increased in both Tarebhir and Mulkharka. In Tarebhir, in 35.29% of the household, the number of goats has increased and in Mulkharka, in 27.78% of the household, the number of goats has increased. It is because due to economic reason, for meat and because they require less fodder and labour. However, in Tarebhir, in 32.35% of the household and in 13.8% of the household in Mulkharka, the number of goats has decreased due to lack of fodder and animal diseases. The number of animals like cows and buffaloes is less in both the places. In very few households, the number of cows and buffaloes have increased but in rest, it has decreased because they require more fodder and labour and also due to lack of grazing land. Poultry has also increased in 8.82% household in Tarebhir and 30.56% in Mulkharka, the number of poultry has increased due to economic reasons.

3.6 Relation Between Land Holding Size And Animal Husbandry

In both the VDCs, we found out that the numbers as well as the types of animals are very much depending on the land holding size. If the land holding size is high, the number of animals is also high and as the land holding size is less, the number of animals is also less. For example: if a household has a large land, he keeps large number of animals and a big animals like cows and buffalos as well but in case of a small land holding size, the number and size of animals is also small. We also found out that even a household possessing no land at all kept animals. Table 9: Relation between land holding size and animal husbandry in Tarebhir Land Household Goat holding Total size (in ropani) Landless 3 12 0-5 20 94 5 - 10 9 63 10 - 15 2 15 Total 34 184 Source: Field Visit 2062, Chaitra Buffalo Cow Sheep Hen Avg. Total Avg. Total Avg. Total Avg. Total Avg. 4 4.7 7 7.5 5.41 5 2 1.6 1 1 1 0.05 0.1 2 0.1 39 14 10 1.95 0.7 0.5

Table 10: Relation between land holding size and animal husbandry in Mulkharka Land Household Goat holding Total size (in ropani) 0-5 12 56 5 - 10 17 82 10 - 15 5 39 > 15 2 1 Total 36 178 Source: Field Visit 2062, Chaitra Buffalo Cow Sheep Hen Avg. Total Avg. Total Avg. Total Avg. Total Avg. 4.66 4.82 7.8 0.5 4.94 2 18 5 14 0.16 1.05 1 7 1 4 1 0.08 0.23 0.5 8 0.47 49 37 33 3 4.98 2.17 6.6 1.5

Conclusion
From above data of Tarebhir and Mulkharka, we can say that there is a direct relationship between the land holding size and animal husbandry in both the places.

3.7 Problems Of Animal Husbandry
Animal husbandry is one of the main supporting elements in the economic progress of the villagers of both VDCs. While raising the animals, the people have to face a lot of problems and the problems in both the VDCs are quite common which are as follows:  Lack of fodder

 Encroachment of wild animals  Lack of grazing land  Disease  Economic problem  Lack of animal service center, etc. The people are restricted to use fodder from inside the jungle. If they do so, they have to pay Rs. 500 as penalty. Establishment of national park has created problem in animal husbandry. People in Mulkharka have more problem of wild animals as it lies inside the national park. Due to the lack of animal service center, if any animal suffers from any kind of disease, there is less chance of survival. Table 11: Problems of animal husbandry in Tarebhir Problems Landless Lack of fodder Lack of labour Problems of national park Wild animals Lack of grazing land Disease Lack of vetenary Economic problem Market facility Source: Field Visit 2062, Chaitra 0-5 7 1 1 1 7 5 - 10 10 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 10 - 15 4 4 1 1 3 1 1 Total 21 7 2 2 2 15 2 2 1

Table 12: Problems of animal husbandry in Mulkharka Problems Landless Lack of fodder 2 Lack of labour Problems of national park Wild animals Lack of grazing land 2 Disease Lack of vetenary Economic problem Market facility Source: Field Visit 2062, Chaitra 0-5 10 3 4 1 5 1 1 5 - 10 5 2 1 1 2 10 - 15 2 1 1 1 Total 19 2 5 4 5 7 2 1 1

Conclusion
As mentioned in the table above, in both the places lack of fodder is the major problem. 61.7% of the people in Tarebhir and 52.7% of the people in Mulkharka have the problem of fodder. In Tarebhir, 44.1% of the people have problem of animal disease, 5.8% of people have problem of wild animals, restriction from national park, lack of grazing land, lack of vetenary, economic problem, etc. In Mulkharka, 19.4% have the problem of animal disease, 5.5% have problem of labour and vetenary, 13.8% have problem of grazing land and from national park. However, the major problem is lack of fodder and disease.

3.8 Possibilities In The Animal Husbandry
The economy of the people in Tarebhir and Mulkharka is agro based. Animal husbandry plays a vital role in an agro based economy. The people largely depend upon animal husbandry for their livelihood. Animal husbandry is the source of income, food and manure. People mostly earn from their animals. Due to the importance of animals, at present the number of animals has also increased. Therefore, if improved, there are good possibilities of animal husbandry in this region. Table 13: Earning from animals in Tarebhir Earning from Selling animals offspring Yes 27 22 No .7 Source Field Visit 2062, Chaitra Selling milk and milk product 4 Selling animals 10 Others -

Table 14: Earning from animals in Mulkharka Earning from Selling animals offspring Yes 32 18 No 4 Source Field Visit 2062, Chaitra Selling milk and milk product 15 Selling animals 14 Others 2 -

Conclusion
In Tarebhir, 79.41% people earn from their animals among which 64.7% of the income comes by selling offspring, 11.76% by selling milk and milk products and 29.41% by selling animals.

In Mulkharka, 88.89% people earn from their animals among which 50% is earned by selling offspring, 41.6% by selling milk and milk products and 38.89% by selling animals as a whole combining both places about 84.15% of the people earn from their animals.

3.9 CONCLUSION
We can conclude from our survey that animals help a lot in economic progress of the people of both VDCs. As a total production from the agriculture is not sufficient, they use their animals for food also. Animals are the main source of income and manure as well. The main problems faced by the people of both the VDCs are related with national park like encroachment of wild animals, lack of fodder, lack of grazing area, etc. and the other problems are animal diseases, lack of animal service center, etc. As the people depend on animal husbandry for livelihood, animal husbandry should be developed to enhance the economic condition of the people of Tarebhir and Mulkharka.

CHAPTER - FOUR
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.1 Conclusions
Animal husbandry is the chief source of income of the rural people of Tarebhir, Baluwa VDC and Mulkharka, Sundarijal VDC. This study was carried on in order to understand the condition and possibilities of animal husbandry of both VDCs based on both primary and secondary data. Tabular method has been used in the study area. Almost all the people of both VDCs are involved in animal husbandry. They depend on animal to meet their day to day needs. Animal husbandry is the major source of income for the people. The animals that are commonly raised in these VDCs are cow, goat, buffalo, hen, ox, pig etc. The number and size of the animals depend on the landholding size. There is direct relationship between number of animal and land holding size, i.e. larger the amount of land greater the number of animals and vice-versa. The people manage their animals either by stall feeding or grazing or both majority of the locals manage their animals by stall-feeding which accounts 50% in Tarebhir and 50% in Mulkharka. The dominant animal is goat. Most of the people prefer to keep goats as they require less fodder, land and labor. People can earn more from goat as well by selling offspring or meat. Animal are also of great importance regarding the requirement of manure. People are facing different problems in animal husbandry. National park is the main obstacle for them as they are restricted to take fodder from the jungle and graze the animals there. Lack of fodder and animal disease is the major problem. Others common problems are – lack of labor, attack by wild animals, lack of grazing land, lack of animal service centre, economic problem, market facilities etc. The problem has increased further after the establishment of national park. Even though the wild life of the national park affect a lot in animal husbandry of both VDCs, the locals are not getting any kind of compensation. In fact, there is no good relationship between the park and the people. Although there is restriction for the people to take fodder from the jungle, people use it illegally as the fodder tree of their land is not sufficient.

4.2 Recommendations and Possibilities
The relationship between the park and the people is not so good. So it has an adverse effect on the animal husbandry. So, in order to develop animal husbandry in both the VDCs, the park authorities should co-operate with the locals and provide them certain trainings about animal husbandry. The local people also should conserve the properties of national park. There is a high possibility of goat rearing in both villages. So, they should be encouraged to keep more animals. The local people should be allowed to take fodder from the jungle without hampering its ecosystem. The national park should provide seeds of different fodder trees which they can plant in their own land so that people would stop taking fodder from the forest. There should be proper management of transportation and communication so that the local people can sell their product in the market from which they can improve their standard of living. There is a greater possibility of animal husbandry especially goat farming in Tarebhir and Mulkharka as the economy is agro based but due to various problems the development is not so satisfactory. Apart from these, other alternative employment opportunities should be provided so that dependency on agriculture can be decreased.

Appendix
Reference
1. B.S.A.M, 2004,Geographical excursion report on farming system inBaluwaVDC and SundrijalVDC, Kathmandu. 2. Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation,2003,"Shivapuri national park",Baburmahal Kathmandu. 3. Department of Nationalpark and Wildlife Conservation, 2057,"Shivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve", Panimuhan,Budhanilkantha Kathmandu 4. Department of Statistic, 2001, Population Census2001, Kathmandu.

SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN SUNDARIJAL AND BALUWA VDCs, 2062 (KATHMANDU) The purpose of this interview is strictly academic and will not be used for any other purposes. Interview No. : Household Head’s Name : Place of interview : Occupation : Family size : Male : Questions: • • How long have you been in this area? . . . . . . . . . . . . years. How much land do you have? . . . . . . . . . . . . ropanis. Land Type Size (in Ropani) Bari Khet Do you have domestic animals? Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . No . . . . . . . . . . . . If No, why? If Yes,
Animals Co w Ox . Buff buff He. g Pi She Go He Duc D Othe ep at n k og r

Address : Sex : Time : Education : Female :

Do you have special preference for certain animals? Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . No . . . . . . . . . . . If Yes, why? Why do you keep domestic animals? Purpose Milk ( ) Meat ( ) Economic reason ( ) Others (

Manure ( )

)

Which fertilizers do you prefer in your agricultural land? 1. Compost ( ) Why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Chemical fertilizers ( ) Why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Both ( ) Why ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How do you manage your animals? By, 1. Grazing ( ) 2. Stall feeding (

)

3. Both (

)

Have you planted fodder trees in your land? Yes ( ) No ( ) If Yes, what are they . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................. If No, why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................ Is the fodder produced from land (agricultural residues + fodder trees) enough to feed your animals? Yes ( ) No ( ) If No, how do you manage your animals? ........................................................................ ........................................................................ Is there any change in animal’s number and composition in last 10/15 years? Yes ( ) No ( ) If Yes, which animals and why? Animals Increased Decreased

• •

Same

Why

Do you earn from animals? Yes…….No……… If Yes, how? 1. Selling offspring ( ) 3. Selling animals ( )

2. Selling milk and its milk products ( 4. Others ( )

)

What problems have you faced in animals husbandry? ........................................................................ ........................................................................ What have you done to solve such problems? ........................................................................ ........................................................................ In your view what can be done to improve animal husbandry in this area? ........................................................................ Do you receive any support from government or National Park? Yes . . . . . . . . . . No . . . . . . . . . . If Yes, what type of support do you get? ........................................................................ How frequently? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................................................................... Do you have anything to say or add? ........................................................................ THANK YOU

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