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THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

Created Annually by
San Beda College Alabang

Bedan Psychological Society


2015
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THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

FOREWORD

This journal of qualitative psychological researches is in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the course Research Report 2 for the degree Bachelor of Arts in
Psychology. The issue includes the work of twelve undergraduate students, who
took the path of various kinds of qualitative research, of the Bachelor of Arts in
Psychology for the Academic Year 2014 2015. The topics reflect the varied
research interests and focus of the students and their advisers. The articles were
written following the latest APA (American Psychological Association) format.

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THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With our sincerest gratitude, we, the graduating students of the Psychology Department Class
2015, would like to thank the following people:

To Prof. Paul Hilario PhD, Prof. Rodelando Ocampo, Prof. Theresa Masilungan, Prof. Fatima
Bullecer, Prof. Juli-ann Alonzo, and Prof. Eva Castronuevo, for their patience and unceasing
mentorship that encouraged us to strive for excellence during the completion of our study and attain
the highest possible standards set by the department,
To all the participants who devoted their time and helped us with our data gathering,
To our families and friends, for their undying support and understanding that sustained us
throughout this challenging but fulfilling journey,
To the Bedan Community, for nurturing our work values, keeping us grounded as Christ centered
individuals and standing as a constant reminder of St. Benedicts philosophy -Ora et Labora, and last
but not the least,
To God, Our Father and Provider, who is the source of our strength and inspiration, making all
things possible not only in our college life but in all the aspects of our lives.

"O give thanks unto the LORD, for he is good: for his mercy endures forever...
Psalm 107:1

Ut In Omnibus Glorificetur Deus!


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THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

About the Cover Page Design & Crest

The three colors of the brain represents the Id, Ego, and Superego taking
the concept from Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic school of thought.
Regarding the gradient background colour of dark to light, represents the
shadow and the realization of the shadow, taking inspiration from Carl
Jungs Analytical psychology.
Delaunay Triangulation pattern represents the complexes that envelops
ones personal consciousness. For the geometrical patterns was once
intended to signify that consciousness can be portrayed into a beautiful
geometrical illustration.
The Bedan Psychological Society crest is a combination of the Greek
alphabet, psi, which is also the first letter of the Greek word psyche,
meaning mind or soul, and The Red Lion. Combined, these two characters
form a flaming torch. It symbolizes the role of Psychology as a profession
that brings light to the ignorance of man on our own conscious and
unconscious processes.

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pananaw ng mga Kababaihan sa Nueva Ecija Ukol sa Konsepto ng Tsismis


Bilang Gawi ng Pamumuhay: Isang Palarawang Pag-aaral at Pagsusuri

Chennie Alyssa B. Regala & Eva Castronuevo

Parental Involvement of Single Mothers in Sibling Conflict


Bernard Ishidore C. Soriano & Eva Castronuevo

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Optimism, Role of Social Support and Coping Skills among Breast Cancer Survivors

35

Hannah Mica A. Beato & Maria Theresa C. Masilungan


A Qualitative Study of the Subjective Well-Being of Senior Citizens
and their Social Connectedness

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Verbayne N. Occenola & Eva Castronuevo

Experiences of Belongingness in Parasocial Relationships: A Descriptive Case Study


of Filipino Band Fanatics

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Kathrina R. Fernando & Eva Castronuevo

Experiences of Loss Aversion among Filipino Lawyers

86

Anthony Miguel Capili & Juli-ann Alonso-Balmonte

Parenting Strategies of Single Fathers to Discipline and Monitor


Childs Academic Performances

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Anne Nicole I. Lammatao & Maria Theresa C. Masilungan

The Source of Motivation of Students with Hearing Impairment from their


Experiences in School Environment

Bianca Camille Francia & Fatima Bullecer

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Perception and Experiences of Filipino Males being in the Friend Zone

148

Pancho Hernandez & Eva Castronuevo

Stereotypes on Female Basketball players by College Students

164

Irene Romina L. Jardiniano & Fatima Bullecer

The Perception on the MOMOL Phenomenon: A Descriptive Analysis

182

Joffrey A. Javier & Eva Castronuevo

Parenting Styles and Disciplinary Practices of Working Mothers on


Adolescents with Alcohol Dependency

Joshua Simon & Eva Castronuevo

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INTRODUCTION
Its been a longstanding tradition that theses of students are binded as an
individual book. With the innovative thought to collate each research into a
series of theses merged into onepaved way for the creation of The Bedan
Journal of Psychology.
Behind this idea is the vision of the Dean of the College of Arts and
Sciences, Paul V. Hilario, to raise the level and quality of theses done by the
students.
Beyond this idea lies a wealth of opportunity for researchers to expand their
avenues of exposure and even participate with local and international
conferences in furthering the body of knowledge in the field of Psychology.
Volume II hosts a myriad of Qualitative studies; and the order of the
studies are based upon careful consideration of the theme, creativity,
motivation, depth, and organization delivered by the researchers during the
period of their defense

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Pananaw ng mga Kababaihan sa Nueva Ecija Ukol sa Konsepto ng Tsismis


Bilang Gawi ng Pamumuhay: Isang Palarawang Pag-aaral at Pagsusuri
Chennie Alyssa B. Regala
Eva Castronuevo

Abstrak
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga kababaihan ukol sa
konsepto ng tsismis bilang gawi ng kanilang pamumuhay. Sa kabuuan,
mayroong labing-apat na kababaihan ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik na
isinagawa sa San Roque, Nueva Ecija. Ang mananaliksik ay gumamit ng
katutubong pamamaraan partikular ang pagtatanung-tanong at
pakikipagkwentuhan sapagkat ito ay naaayon sa kamalayang Pilipino. Ang
resulta ng nasabing pag-aaral ay naglalaman ng negatibo at positibong
pananaw ng mga kababaihan ukol sa tsismis. Hindi maikakaila na ang tsismis
ay mayroong hindi kaaya-ayang epekto sa pamumuhay ng mga kababaihan
katulad ng pagkasira ng kanilang relasyon sa kapwa tao. Mayroon din ibatibang pagtugon ang mga kalahok ukol sa tsismis katulad na lamang ng
pagpapasa-Diyos at pagsugod sa tsismosa. Nais magrekomenda ng
mananaliksik sa susunod na pag-aaral na pagtuunan pansin rin ang pananaw
ng mga kalalakihan ukol sa tsismis upang magkaroon ng paghahalintulad.

Ang wika at kultura ay may kalakip na ugnayan ayon kay Covar (1999). Iminungkahi rin
ng dalubhasang si Covar na ang kultura ay likha ng tao samantalang ang wika ay taal sa tao. Kahit
na ang wika ay isang taal sa tao, ito ay likha rin ng tao gaya ng kultura. Ayon sa kanyang pagaaral, ang ating kapaligiran ay nahahati sa dalawa, ang kalikasan at kalikhaan. Ang kalikasan ay
ang mga bagay na nadatnan na ng mga tao sa mundong kinauukulan katulad ng likas na yaman,
hayop, halaman at marami pang iba. Ang kalikhaan naman ay ang mga bagay na gawa lamang ng
mga tao. Maaari ding pakahulugan ang kalikhaan bilang kultura sapagkat ang kultura ay likas na
gawa ng tao at paraan ng pamumuhay na nakagawian ng tao.
Katulad ng sinabi ni Covar, ang wika ay likha ng tao na ginagamit sa pakikipagtalastasan
o komunikasyon. Ang tao bilang isang likas na nilalang ay may pangangailangang makipag-usap
sa taong nakakasalamuha nila upang maipahayag ang kanilang saloobin o damdamin at sa gayon
ay magkaroon ng kakayahan upang malaman ang nais iparating ng taong kinakausap. Ayon sa
perspektibo ng mananaliksik, ang komunikasyon ay may kaakibat na importanteng aspeto sa buhay
ng tao dahil naiiwasan nito ang gulo na maaaring madulot ng hindi pagkakaintindihan sapagkat
nauunawaan ng magkabilang panig ang nais iparating ng isang tao. Isa pa sa magandang
naidudulot ng komunikasyon ay ang pagkakaroon ng mga kaibigan. Nagkakaroon tayo ng mga
kaibigan sa pamamagitan ng komunikasyon dahil may interaksyon na nagaganap sa pagitan ng
dalawang tao at may posibilidad na may mabuong relasyon sa isat isa.

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

Maliban sa mga positibong naidudulot ng komunikasyon, mayroon din itong masamang


epekto. May mga taong sadyang sinasamantala ang mabuting layunin ng komunikasyon sapagkat
nagkakalat sila ng sari-saring pahayag na pawang walang katotohanan o hindi kaya ay maling
impormasyon. Ito ang tinatawag na tsismis o gossip sa Ingles.
Noong ika-labing dalawang siglo, ang salitang gossip o tsismis sa Tagalog ay hango sa
sinaunang Ingles na kung saan ang pinagmulan ng salitang ito ay god-sibbs. Ang God-sibbs ay
tumutukoy sa mga ninong o ninang na pinag-uusapan ang mga nangyari sa binyag o kahit anong
okasyon ng kamag-anak (Berkos, 2003). Pagkalipas ng ika-apat na siglo, ang terminong ito ay
nagkaroon ng panibagong kahulugan na kung saan ito ay tinawag na idle chat o pagkukwento dahil
walang magawa. Ito ay karaniwang naiuugnay sa mga kababaihan na mahilig magsabi ng mga
pahayag na dapat ay hindi naman ikalat.
Noong panahon naman ng Kastila, ang tsismis ay may mabuting naidudulot sa mga tao. Ito
ay dahil sa pagkakalat at pagsasalin ng mga nasagap na impormasyon sa ibat ibang tao upang
mahuli ang magnanakaw sa espesipikong bayan. Lilitisin ng hukuman ang sinoman na nasangkot
sa tsismis base sa kuro-kuro na nalikom. Ang tsismis ay naging laganap na gawain ng nakakarami
noong panahon ng mga Kastila dahil sa represyon sa pagpapahayag ng saloobin laban sa
mananakop at dahil ang mga Kastila mismo ay mahilig sa tsismis. Kaya hango sa salitang Kastila
chisme ang salitang tsismis.
Ayon kay Flores (2012), nasubukan ni Dr. Rizal na patunayan na ang makabuluhang
impormasyon ay maaaring magbago kapag ito ay naisasalin sa ibat ibang tao sa pamamagitan ng
paggamit ng isang psychological exercise. Pinapila ni Dr. Rizal ang mga bata at binulungan niya
ang unang bata ng isang pangungusap at hinayaang ipasa upang makarating sa pinakadulong bata.
Katulad ng inaasahan, ang pangungusap ay nag iba na ng kahulugan.
Sa makabagong panahon ang salitang tsismis ay nagbago na ng kahulugan sapagkat ito na
ay isang termino na tumutukoy sa pagkalat ng hindi makatotohanan na impormasyon na maaaring
makasira ng repotasyon ng ibang tao. Ang mga Pilipino ay di -hamak na maraming komento sa
isang bagay at ito ay maaaring mangyari sa pagitan ng isang simpleng pag-uusap ng dalawang
magkaibigan tungkol sa isang maliit na bagay na maaaring maging malaking iskandalo kapag itoy
kumalat. Ang mga tsismosa/tsismoso ay walang pinipiling lugar maging sa opisina man, palengke,
kalsada, paaralan o kahit sa simbahan.
Ayon sa perspektibo ng mananaliksik, di hamak na lahat ng mga Pilipino ay nakaranas na
ang pangungutya babae man o lalaki sapagkat kalakip nito ang komunikasyon at
pakikipagkwentuhan. Ang kadalasang tawag sa mga babae na mahilig dumako sa tsismis ay
tsismosa, madada, madaldal, matabil o satsatera at sa lalaki naman ay tsismoso o satsatero ngunit
hindi maitatanggi na mas marami sa mga kababaihan ang lumalagay sa asal na ito. Nakakabit na
ang salitang tsismis sa mga kababaihan dahil sila ang madalas na nariringgan ng mga tsismis
(Levin at Arluke, 2011). Ayon sa obserbasyon ng mananaliksik, hindi maiiwasan na may mga
grupo ng mga nanay na nagkukwentuhan tungkol sa kanilang asawa o anak tuwing sila ay
magkikita, may mga estudyanteng babae na pinagkukwentuhan ang kanilang gustong lalaki at ang
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kanilang kinaiinisan na babae sa paaralan at may mga lola na hindi maiwasan mag kwentuhan
pagkatapos ng misa. Tila nakasanayan na ito ng nakararami kaya nakagawian na nila ito sa
kanilang pamumuhay.
Ang pag-aaral na ginawa ay isinagawa sa bayan ng San Roque Nueva Ecija. Napili ng
mananaliksik na gamitin ang bayan na ito dahil ayon sa kanyang pagdalo sa nasabing lugar, nasabi
ng mga tagaroon na ang San Roque ay ang pinaka sentro ng tsismis sa buong Nueva Ecija na
napatunayan ng mananaliksik. Ayon sa karanasan ng mananaliksik sa tuwing siya ay bumibisita
dito, talagang nakakaakit ang kultura ng San Roque sapagkat ang mga tao ay masisipag at walang
ginawa kundi magtrabaho. Maraming tanim na gulay at mga prutas sa bawat bakuran ng mga
bahay at ito ang pinipitas nila upang maging pagkain sa umaga at tanghalian. Bukod paglalagay
nito sa hapag kainan, ginagawa rin nila itong hanap buhay at binibenta sa mga kapitbahay. Masipag
na nagtatanim ang mga magsasaka ng mano-mano sapagkat walang mga makabagong materyales
na magagamit. Lahat ng mga tao dito ay magkakakilala at magkakaibigan dahil magkakalapit
lamang ang mga kabahayan doon na kung saan ay natatanaw na agad ang mga kapitbahay. Simple
at payak ang pamumuhay nila sapagkat wala silang ibang hinahangad kung hindi ang maging
masaya, kuntento at mabuting kalagayan ng kanilang pamilya ngunit ang simpleng pamumuhay
ng mga tagarito ay tila napalitan ng hindi kanais-nais. Sa muling pagbisita ng mananaliksik,
kapansin-pansin na pili na lamang ang mga masipag na tao at ang karamihan ay naging mga tamad.
Madalas ang alitan ng mga kalalakihan sa kung sino ang magmamay-ari sa lupa. Ang mga
kababaihan naman ay nagsimulang manira ng imahe at reputasyon ng ibang tao upang alipustahin
at dungisan ang pangalan ng pamilyang kalaban. Nagsimulang mabuo ang kanya-kanyang grupo,
payamanan at pagandahan ng bahay. Kaunting maling galaw ay gagawan na ng mga tao ng isyu.
Nagsimulang maging sarado ang isip ng tao dahil sa tsismis na nakagawian nilang gawin.
Pinili ng mananaliksik na alamin ang pananaw ng mga kababaihan sa bayan ng San Roque
Nueva Ecija dahil kapansin-pansin ang pagkahilig ng mga babae, kahit anong edad pa man na
gumawa ng kwento na hindi totoo o pag-usapan ang buhay ng ibang tao. Tuwing pumupunta ang
mananaliksik sa nasabing lugar, tila walang kapagod-pagod ang mga tao sa pakikipagkwentuhan
dahil hindi nauubos ang kanilang sasabihin. Kapansin-pansin na kulang pa ang tatlong araw sa
dami ng kwentong paulit-ulit. Nais malaman ng mananaliksik kung may mabuti bang naidudulot
ito sa kanila maliban sa pampalipas oras.

Layunin ng Pag-aaral
Sadyang napakaganda ng kahulugan ng tsismis noon ayon kay Berkos (2003) na kung saan
ito ay pagkakamustahan lamang sa pagitan ng mag-anak ngunit ito ay natabunan na ng hindi kaayaayang kahulugan lalo na sa makabagong panahon. Dahil dito ay naging interesado ang
mananaliksik na pag-aralan ang tsismis upang magkaroon ng mas malawak na kaalamanan. Hindi
kailanman naging madaling pag-aralan ang tsismis sapagkat ito ay maselang paksa at di hamak na
mailap ang mga taong saklaw sa aktwal na karanasan na ito. Ang pangunahing layunin ng pagaaral na ito ay malaman ang pananaw ng mga kababaihan ukol sa tsismis bilang gawi ng
pamumuhay.

THE BEDAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY 2015 | VOLUME II

Sinikap ng mananaliksik na sagutin ang mga sumusunod na katanungan:


1. Anu-ano ang pananaw ng mga kababaihan sa konsepto ng tsismis bilang gawi ng kanilang
pamumuhay?
2. Ano ang epekto ng tsismis sa buhay ng mga tao sa San Roque Nueva Ecjia?
3. Paano nila tinutugunan ang posibleng epekto ng tsismis sa kanilang buhay?

MGA KAUGNAY NA PAG-AARAL


Pananaw tungkol sa Tsismis
Mayroong ibat-ibang daan upang bigyan ng kahulugan ang tsismis ngunit ang pinaka
madalas na ginagamit na depinisyon nito ay hango sa pag-aaral na ginawa ni Foster (2004). Ang
terminong tsismis ay isang salita na tumutukoy sa tao na tumatalakay at nakikipag palitan ng
impormasyon maging positibo o negatibo man sa masuring paraan (positibo o negatibo) ng wala
ang presensya ng taong pinag-uusapan.
Sino ang madalas dumako sa tsismis?
Ang mga tsismosa o tsismoso ay tila uhaw sa atensyon ng mga tao. Nais nilang iparating
sa buong mundo na may alam siyang sikreto na maaaring ikalat. Kapag nagsimula na magkwento
ang tsismosa, lahat ng atensyon ay nakatuon sa kanya na kung saan nakamit niya ang kanyang
kagustuhan. Kung tutuusin, karamihan ng naturingang tsismosa ay nais maging lider sa anumang
bagay. Sa pag-aaral na ginawa ni Farley, Timme at Hart (2010), binigyan nilang kahulugan ang
taong mahilig magkalat ng tsismis bilang isang high gossiper o tsismosa. Ipinakita sa kanilang
pag-aaral na ang ang mga high gossiper o tsismosa ay may kagustuhan na mamuno. Kung
tutuusin, sila ay naging tsismosa dahil sila ay hindi masyadong gusto ng mga taong nasa paligid
nila (Farley, 2011). Upang ito ay mapatunayan, gumawa ng eksperimentong pag-aaral sina
Angelis, Bonezzi, Peluso, Rucker at Costabile noong taong 2012 ng sa gayon ay malaman nila
kung ito nga ay tama. Nang matapos ang pag-aaral, natagpuan nila na sa pamamagitan ng tsismis
nais nilang pataasin ang kanilang pagkatao kasabay ng pagmamaliit at pangungutya ng kanilang
kapwa (Angelis et. al., 2012).
Sino ang madalas nasasangkot sa tsismis?
Ayon sa pag-aaral na ginawa ni Turcotte (2012), ang indibidwal na hindi kabanta-banta
ang asintado ng mga tsismosa. Gayundin ang kinalabasan ng pag-aaral nila Farley (2011) at
Angelis et. al (2012) na kung saan sinabi ng mga mananaliksik na ang taong madalas magkalat ng
walang katotohanan na impormasyon ay isang mahinang tao. Dahil sa katotohanan na nalikom ng
mga mananaliksik, di-hamak na kaya ginagawang paksa ng mga tsismosa ang hindi kabantabantang tao ay sa kadahilanan na sila mismo ay isang hindi kabanta-bantang indibidwal (Farley,
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2011). Naniniwala ang mga taong tsismosa na kapag nagkalat sila ng hindi magandang
impormasyon sa kapwa ay magiging sikat sila sa paningin ng ibang tao (Angelis et.al, 2012).
Tsismis bilang isang Impormasyon
Ang tsismis ay maaaring maging paraan upang tayo ay makalikom ng impormasyon at
bigyan ng kaalaman ang mundo tungkol sa isang partikular na tao. Sa pamamagitan ng tsismis,
ang isang tao ay nagkakaroon ng maraming impormasyon tungkol sa mundong ating ginagalawan
sa paraang mas madali at makabuluhan kumpara sa pagkuha ng impormasyon sa personal na
karanasan ng isang tao na mas maaaring maging delikado (Tucortte, 2012).
Ang Tsismis at Pagkakaibigan
Marami sa atin ang kumikilala sa tsismis sa negatibong paraan ngunit ang tsismis ay hindi
lamang nakasentro sa negatibong aspeto ngunit pati narin sa positibong aspeto. Ang tsismis ay
kinikilala bilang parte ng kalidad ng oras ng mga magkakaibigan. Itinataas nito ang pagkakataon
upang sila ay magkasundo at magkaroon ng pagkakaisa na kung saan sila ay nag babahagian ng
impormasyon sa isa't isa at ibinabahagi ang ilan sa taong kanilang pinagkakatiwalaan. Ayon sa
pag-aaral nila McAndrew, ang mga tao ay walang interes sa pakikinig sa isang tsismis kung ito ay
tungkol sa hindi nila kakilala. Ito ay ibinabahagi nila sa kanilang malalapit na kaibigan kumpara
sa mga taong kakikilala lamang o yung hindi talaga nila kakilala (McAndrew, Bell, at Garcia,
2007).
May ilan pang pag-aaral (Angelis et. al, 2012; Grosser, 2010 at Sommerfeld, Krambeck,
Semmann at Milinski, 2007) ang naisagawa at pinagtuunan ng pansin ang positibo at negatibong
tsismis. Ayon sa pag-aaral ni Angelis et.al (2012), na kung saan ang mga mananaliksik ay tumugon
ng isang pagsisiyasat sa isang daan at dalawamput siyam na kalalakihan at kababaihan na kalahok
ang relasyon ng perspektibo nila sa lugar pagawaan sa tsismis. Naipakita ng mga mananaliksik na
depende sa samahan ng tsismoso o tsismosa sa taong laman ng tsismis kung negatibo ba ang
kanyang ibabahagi. Tulad nang ginawang pag-aaral ni Grosser (2010) natagpuan ng mananaliksik
na dapat may pagkakaibigan at pakikisama munang naganap bago makipagpalitan ng negatibo o
positibong tsismis sa isat isa. Parehong mga mananaliksik (Angelis et. al, 2012; Grosser, 2010)
ang nagbunyag na dapat ay may pagkakaibigan at may ugnayan bago maganap ang pagpapalitan
ng tsismis. Bukod dito, ang pagkalat ng tsismis tungkol sa matulungin na indibidwal ay may
posibilidad na makatanggap ng positibong tsismis kaysa sa mga taong hindi matulungin. Tumataas
ang antas ng pagtutulungan ng tao kapag mas nakakatanggap ito ng positibong tsismis at bumababa
naman kapag nakatanggap ng negatibong tsismis (Sommerfeld et al. 2007).
Ayon sa isa pang pag-aaral na naisagawa, ang mga kababaihan ay nagpapalitan ng kumento
sa iisang bagay upang magkaroon ng kaibigan samantalang ang mga lalaki naman ay
nakikipagkaibigan muna bago makipagkwentuhan tungkol sa isang bagay o tao (Gouveia, Vuuren
at Crafford, 2005). Ipinapakita dito na ang pangunahing dahilan ng pakikipag-tsismis ay upang

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magkaroon kaibigan at dapat ay mag pagkakaibigan muna na namamagitan sa dalawang tao bago
maisagawa ang tsismis.
Tsismis bilang isang Libangan
Ayon kay Hartung at Renner (2013) gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment
purposes o ang tsismis ay may layon na magbigay-aliw at kasiyahan. Ang tsismis ay maaaring
magbigay aliw sa mga tao sapagkat sila ay interesado sa kung ano ang nararamdaman, iniisip,
kinikilos at pakikisalamuha ng ibang tao at ito ay naging gawi upang maubos ang oras at mawala
ang pagkabagot.

SINTESIS
Ang tsismis ay may kakayahang magbigay ng impormasyon sa mga tao sa positibo at
negatibong paraan. Sadyang malawak ang saklaw ng tsismis dahil ito ay isang impormal na usapan
na maaaring mangyari kahit na naglalaman ng kahit anong paksa na tinatalakay. Ito ay maaaring
maging isang libangan kaya naman mayroong mga taong nahihilig makilahok sa tsismis at hindi
maiiwasan na may taong nagiging biktima nito. Sa kabuuan, nalaman natin na ginagawa ang
tsismis upang makalikom ng impormasyon, magkaroon ng kaibigan at maging libangan o
pampalipas oras. Lahat ng resulta na nakuha ng mananaliksik ay hango sa banyagang literatura
dahil sa kakulangan ng artikulong pang lokal sa internet. Sa kadahilanan na ito, nais pag-aralan ng
mananaliksik ang konsepto ng tsismis sa kamalayang Pilipino bilang gawi ng kanilang
pamumuhay.

METODO NG PAG-AARAL
Disenyo ng Pananaliksik
Ang pag-aaral na ito ay isang palarawang pag-aaral na gumamit ng makapilipinong
pananaliksik partikular ang pagtatanung-tanong at pagkikipagkuwentuhan. Sa paggamit ng
metodong ito, binigyan ng kakayahan ang mananaliksik na malikom ang mga saloobin ng mga
kababaihan tungkol sa kanilang pananaw ukol sa tsismis bilang isang gawi ng pamumuhay ng
walang balakid. Nalikom din ng mananaliksik ang mga mabuti at masamang naidudulot nito sa
kanilang pamumuhay at kung paano nila ito tinutugunan.

Mga Kalahok
Ang mga kalahok sa pananaliksik na ito ay mga kababaihan partikular ang mga maybahay
na nagmula sa San Roque Nueva Ecija. Ang maybahay ay laging nakatuon sa kanilang tahanan at
hindi malabong maghanap ng libangan na nakakawili. Mayroong labing-apat na kalahok and
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nakapanayam ng mananaliksik ngunit wala itong espesipikong edad sapagkat binase lamang ito
ng mananaliksik sa mga babaeng may anak na nananatili lamang sa kanilang pamamahay.
Instrumento ng Pananaliksik
Ang mananaliksik ay gumagamit ng mga libro at internet upang magkaroon ng mas
malawak na kaalaman tungkol sa paksa dahil limitado lamang ang mga datos na nasa magasin at
iba bang babasahin. Minarapat ng mananaliksik na rekorder at panimulang tanong lamang ang
gamitin upang maiwasan ang anumang hadlang sa pagkuha ng pananaw at saloobin ng mga
nasabing kalahok sa pag-aaral.

Paraan ng pagkuha ng datos


Ang paksa ng pag-aaral na ito ay tungkol sa tsismis. Hindi maikakaila na may mga
sensitibong impormasyon na nalikom sa pagitan ng pakikipanayam ng mananaliksik sa kalahok.
Sa pook rural ginanap ang pag-aaral na kung saan ang mga tao dito ay hindi sanay sa
experimentong pamamaraan ng pag-aaral. Sa kadahilanang ito, minabuti ng mananaliksik na
gumamit ng makaPilipinong pamamaraan ng pananaliksik upang i-ayon sa kamalayang Pilipino
at nang sa gayon ay maiwasan ang ibang maaaring maging balakid sa pagkuha ng datos.
Ang mga sumusunod na paraan ng pagkuha ng datos ay tinulad sa pag-aaral na ginawa ni
Gonzalez (1982). Ang pangunahing hakbang na ginawa mananaliksik ay nakibagay sa mga
kababaihan upang walang maging hadlang sa pakay ng pag-aaral. Hindi kinailangan ng
mananaliksik na magsuot ng magarbong damit o damit na kapansin-pansin upang makipag-usap
sa mga kababaihan dahil sa posibilidad na masangkot sa tsismis. Sinimulan ng mananaliksik na
magpaalam sa mga kalahok kung sang-ayon na itala ang kanilang mga sagot gamit ang rekorder.
Matapos magpaalam, gumamit ang mananaliksik ng mga panimulang tanong upang masimulan
ang pakay ng pag-aaral. Hindi nag-iisa ang mananaliksik bagamat mayroon siyang kasamang mas
nakakatanda na mas pamilyar sa lugar upang gabayan sa pangangalap ng datos. Madaling nakalap
ng mananaliksik ang tiwala ng mga respondete maging ang magandang interaksyon ng mga
kalahok sa pakikipanayam dahil sa pagtulong ng mas nakakatanda sa pakikipagkwentuhan.

PRESENTASYON AT INTERPRETASYON
Ang isinagawang pag-aaral ay tungkol sa pananaw ng mga kababaihan ukol sa konsepto
ng tsismis bilang isang gawi ng pamumuhay at ito ay base sa makapilipinong pamamaraan na
kinailangan ng maingat at masusing pagkalap ng datos. Sa kabuuan mayroong labing-apat na
kalahok ang nakapanayam ng mananaliksik na may edad na tatlongput walo at pataas. Ang
layunin ng pag-aaral na ito ay mabigyang kasagutan ang mga sumusunod: (1) ang pananaw ng
mga kababaihan ukol sa konsepto ng tsismis bilang gawi ng kanilang pamumuhay, (2) epekto ng
tsismis sa buhay ng mga tao sa San Roque Nueva Ecjia, at (3) paraan kung paano nalalagpasan
ang posibleng epekto ng tsismis sa kanilang buhay. Isang masusing pag-aanalisa at pakikinig ang
isinagawa ng mananaliksik upang mabigyang katuturan ang ginawang pag-aaral. Bilang patunay,
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ihahayag ng mananaliksik ang bawat pahayag ng mga kalahok patungkol sa tsismis na tumugon
sa mga nais mabigyang linaw na tanong sa pag-aaral na ito.
Pananaw ng mga Kababaihan sa Tsismis
Labing-tatlo sa labing-apat na kababaihan ang nagbahagi ng kanilang pananaw at kuwento
tungkol sa tsismis. Mayroong negatibo at positibong pananaw ang nalikom ng mananaliksik sa
mga kababaihan sa Nueva Ecija ukol sa konsepto ng tsismis. Ang karamihan na nagbahagi ng
negatibong pananaw ay mayroong hindi kanais-nais na karanasan patungkol sa tsismis. Kahit ibatiba ang pananaw ng mga kalahok hindi maikakaila na mayroon din na nagkatugma sa kanilang
pananaw. Ang mga sumusunod na pahayag ay sinipi ng mananaliksik:
Positibong Pananaw
Syempre yung mga intrigang ganyan natural sa buhay e kung hindi mo naman
aanuhin, wala ka naman ginagawang masama bakit papatulan mo sila diba? Narong
nagtitinda ng shabu, tumama sa lotto e lugawan lamang naman ito hindi naman
talaga mawawala sa tao yun - Maybahay 1
Yung bida-bida, hindi talaga yan nawawala sa tao siguro kasi diba kunwari ako,
nasa bahay ako, busy sa gawaing bahay bukod sa gawaing bahay e syempre ano use
ng kapitbahay mo edi magchichikahan kayo ganito ganyan pampalipas oras ba
kumbaga - Maybahay 5
Diba ang tsismis nagiging tsismis lamang kapag kung kani-kanino na naipasa yung
kwentong balbal? Kasi syempre may bibig tayo natural gagamitin natin para
makipagkwentuhan - Maybahay 6
May nakakabuting tsismis...Nakakabuti kasi parang ano ba ah yung ano yun yung
parang nakakatuwa bang makinig ng bago at kakaiba - Maybahay 8
E may naidudulot din kasing maganda tong tsismis, kunwari may nakakitang ganun
sa asawa mo e malalaman ng babae syempre kahit masakit, at least diba nalaman
niya na niloloko siya kumbaga parang information...Sa tsismis na yan madalas
tindera syempre kumpol-kumpol e, edi nagkaroon pa sila ng kaibigan edi nagkasundo
pa sila sa buhay nila -Maybahay 10
Maraming tsismis... merong nakakabuti - Maybahay 14
Karamihan sa mga nakapanayam ng mananaliksik na maybahay ay mayroong sariling
hanap-buhay sa kani-kanilang tahanan. Ito ang naging daan kung bakit nananatili lamang sila sa
kanilang munting tahanan. Mula sa labing-apat na nakapanayam ng mananaliksik, anim lamang
ang nagbahagi ng positibong pananaw patungkol sa tsismis. Ayon sa maybahay 1 at 5, natural
lamang na makaranas ng tsismis sa buhay dahil ito maiiwasan. Idinagdag naman ng maybahay 6
na aanhin pa natin ang ating bibig kung ititikom lamang natin ito, mas mabuti na ito ay gamitin sa
pakikipag-usap ngunit siguraduhin na ito ay hindi gagamitin sa masamang aspeto. Ayon naman sa
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pahayag ng maybahay 8 at 5, ang tsismis ay nakakapagbigay aliw at nakakaubos oras na tumugma


sa pag-aaral na ginawa nila Hartung at Renner (2013). Tila naaaliw ang ika-walong maybahay
dahil sa mga kakaiba at bago niyang naririnig na nagmula sa tsismis. Ayon naman sa pananaw ng
maybahay 10, ang tsismis ay may layon na makapagbigay ng impormasyon sa taong kinauukulan
na alinsunod sa pag-aaral ni Turcotte (2012). Nagbigay ng halimbawa ang maybahay 10 na kung
saan malalaman ng magkarelasyon na may ibang kinakasama ang kanyang kasintahan sa
pamamagitan ng tsismis. Ipinahayag din ng maybahay 10 na madalas magkumpulan ang mga
tidera upang pag-usapan ang isang bagay. Ang tsismis din ay di umanoy nakapag-uugnay ng mga
tao at bumubuo pa ito ng bagong grupo ng kababaihan na tinuringan ding mga tsismosa. Katulad
ng pag-aaral na ginawa nila Gouveia, et. al. (2005) ang kababaihan ay talagang nagkakasundo
kapag nagkakapalitan sila ng kumento sa iisang bagay.
Negatibong Pananaw
Yung iba nakakadagdag balita e yung iba nakasasama naman.. Paano wala nga silang
mapagbidahan kaya ayun, pagkatapos maggawa sa bukid sa hapon tsismisan na,
magtotong-itan. Ganyan yung mga libangan nila may utang ng may utang
pakikielamanan, nakita ka lamang na nakabihis Nako saan eka pupunta yun, siguro
kako magreremi sa utangan. Ginagawan lahat ng dahilan! Kanina magkasama eka
yung dalawang yan... Aba e minsan bibili ka lamang ng gamot eh, katulad ngayon
nakakapalakad-lakad na ako e, minsan maririnig mo...saan ba eka pupunta yun... Abay
ano ba kako ang pakielam niyo e bibili lamang ako ng gamot. Edi nung isang araw
naman pinatawag ako ni ate Elvie kasi dumating nga yung biopsy kaya pumunta ako
dun kasi nga magiinterview kaya nagpantalon ako. Ayan, san kaya eka pupunta yun?
Sabi ko sayo nandito lamang ako sa bahay kaya pag lalabas ako, matsitsismis na ako
- Maybahay 3
Inuubos lamang nila time nila sa pagbibida, libangan kasi nila pag-usapan yung ibang
tao kahit magsuot ka lamang ng simple o kaya pantalon nako tiyak na laman ka na ng
tsismis. Tsinitsimis din ako kasi nasa loob lamang ako ng bahay lagi, as in lagi ha. Pag
may bibilin ako uutusan ko yung bata diyan syempre pagka silip ko makikita nila ko
maririnig ko na yung sutsutan nila, ano kaya ginagawa nyan sa loob ng bahay?,
nasisiraan na ata ng ulo yan e kumbaga parang hindi sila sanay ng taong nasa loob
lamang ng bahay parang hindi tao tingin nila sayo - Maybahay 4
Malala na yung tsismis dito dati pa kasi yun yung libangan e Pero kasi may iba kasi
na hindi lamang kwento yung ano e, yung ikinuwento, minsan yung buhay kasi ng iba
ewan ko ba, buhay kasi nila yun e - Maybahay 6
Minsan hindi naman talaga nila yan pampalipas oras yan e talagang ugali na nilang
magtsismis na yan e, kasama na sa pamumuhay nila pagka eka walang magawa e
kasama na yang tsismis na yan, marami, ibang klase maririnig mo sa bunganga ng mga
tsismosa na yan, kumbaga katulad ng kasabihang manganganak pa lamang yung
manok, bilang na nila, nangunguna na kunwari sa mag-asawa, may kabit-kabit,

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syempre hindi yan alam ng asawa pero dahil sa tsimis na yan syempre malalaman, yung
asawa naman mabibigla kaya ayun sumusugod - Maybahay 7
... May nakakasama, basta pag tsismis, buhay ng buhay ng iba ang itotopic mo. Never
akong nakipag tsismisan kasi wala ka naman makukuha dyan kasi mahirap lamang
kami.. ...Pero kasi nga masama kasi baka gawa-gawa lamang.. minsan kasi dito di mo
na alam totoo at hindi - Maybahay 8
Diba wari bang yung pinag uusapan yung ibang tao, kunwari may utang siya e marami
siyang utang, edi pag-uusapan siya yun lamang yung mga ganun lamang kasi nasa
bahay lamang naman ako e hindi nakakarinig ng mga kwentong walang kwenta Maybahay 9
Paninira yang tsismis, kasi may dagdag yan.. walang kulang. Puro dagdag kaya
tungkol sa mga kung anu-ano wariy nakita ng ganun ganyan ganito... - Maybahay 10
Tsismis parang cancer yan!! Lumabas lamang ako e nakatingin na agad sayo mga tao
e, lalo na pag nakabihis na ay nako Diyos ko, sasabihin pa sayo e Sama eka ako dyan,
pagkakaperahan ba yan? Sama ako ha...Pakialamera pa yaan mga yan, pati ospital na
pinagdalan ko sa mister ko pinakielaman pa e, sa Good Samaritan ko kasi dinala, e sabi
nila Good sa Money lamang yan e, pakialam ba nila? E asawa ko yun e.. sa palagay ko
inggit manaman talaga punot dulo ng tsismis niya e tsaka papansin, nagpapapansin
lamang yan eka - Maybahay 11
Tsismis e nakakasira ng buhay ng tao, kasi yung tsismis nakakalala yun ng problema
ng tao, pag may tsismis lumalaki... Walang magawa sa buhay at puro inggit nasa
katawan...Minsan naman edi may mabibida sakin, syempre yun nga hanggang sa akin
lamang kasi sabi ko hindi naman totoo e, pero mamaya maya eto dadating, pareho ng
sinabi, edi malalaman mo na totoo kasi may patunay. Pero ayoko pa rin, baka mamaya
ako maging punot dulo - Maybahay 12
Nako pag nakarating na doon, doon at saka doon, edi humaba na. Para bang assuming
mga tao ganun minsan magsuot lamang ng maikli e, bukas bilog na tyan niyan, o kaya
naman e yung matanda dun sa hulo, nagkasakit lamang e may kumalat na tsismis na
patay na eka yun. Hala edi kinabukasan magugulat ka kasi naglalakad dun sa harap e
- Maybahay 13
...Ibat-iba merong nakakasama...katulad ng mga hindi totoo, kunwari pag may
nakakakita sayo, naiinggit, makakita lamang sayo kunwari e aalis ka, pagkadating mo
sisitsitan ka na - Maybahay 14
Kagaya ng sinabi nila Hartung at Renner (2013), ang tsismis ay may layon na magbigayaliw at kasiyahan ngunit ayon sa pananaw ng Maybahay 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 at 11, ang mga sumusunod
na libangan ng mga tsismosa ay purong nakasasama sa kapwa. Isinaad nila na ang libangan ng
mga tsismosa ay ang buhay ng ibang tao katulad na lamang ng pakikialam ng mga tsimosa sa suot
o damit ng iba, kung ano ang kanilang ginagawa o gagawin pa lamang, kung saan sila pupunta at
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ang utang ng may sariling utang. Ayon sa nabanggit ng mga maybahay, walang magawa ang mga
tsismosa sa kanilang buhay kaya interesado sila sa buhay ng ibang tao sa paraan na pangungutya
na kung saan it ay halintulad sa pag-aaral nina Angelis, et. al, (2012). Sa kadahilanan na ito, lalo
lamang nakasisira at nakalalala ng problema ang mga tsismosa ayon sa pananaw ng maybahay
12. Ukol sa pananaw ng maybahay 10, ang tsismis ay isang balitang walang kulang ngunit
mayroong karagdagan. Isinaad din ng maybahay 7 na ang tsismis ay nakapagbibigay ng
impormasyon na tumugma sa pag-aaral ni Turcotte (2012) ngunit ang impormasyon ay maaaring
naglalaan ng sensitibo at negatibong laman na maaaring makasira sa relasyon ng taong kabilang
sa tsismis. Gayundin ang pananaw ng maybahay 13 na kung saan pinapangunahan ng mga tsismosa
ang mga hindi dapat mangyari at nagbibigay ng mga maling impormasyon upang may ikuwento
lamang sa iba. Sinabi ng maybahay 14 na puro inggit lamang ang nasa katawan ng mga tsismosa
kaya sinisiraan na lamang nila ang mga taong nakikita nilang masaya at may kaya sa buhay.
Epekto ng tsismis sa buhay ng mga kababaihan sa San Roque Nueva Ecija
Mayroong labing-tatlo sa labing-apat na kababaihan ang nag bahagi ng kanilang saloobin
sa mga naging epekto ng tsismis sa kanilang buhay. Tila namuno ang negatibong epekto ng tsismis
hindi lamang sa kanilang pamumuhay kundi pati na rin sa mga taong nasa paligid nila. May ilan
namang walang pakialam dahil mas mahalaga sa kanila na pagtuuan ng pansin ang kanilang anak
sapagkat ito na lamang ang maitutulong nila sa kanilang asawa.
Sa business kasi hindi nawawala ang inggit.. Minsan kapitbahay minsan hindi rin
naiba sayo naninira sayo - Maybahay 1
Pinakasikat ng tsismis ang San Roque dito, narong bigayan ng pera sa simbahan,
ganun hindi kagaya nung sa Sto. Cristo at sa Calaba kasi dito kasi maraming nag shashabu, pati mga babae dito, lahat ng klase ng babae dito nandoon sa riverside, tapos
puro sugalan, basta maparinet maparoon naku puro sugalan kahit araw walang
pinipiling oras, pagkatapos e yung mga asawa rin e nagpapalit palitan, yung mga utang
utang, yung mga kabit, may babae eka si ganun si ganito. Dahil wala kaming anak e
lagi kaming natsitsismis pero pag ako nagsabi siguradong totoo ayoko ng matsitsismis
ako ng hindi totoo talagang susugurin ko sila pagka hindi pero basta totoo
papanindigan ko sabi ko sayo. Nakakainit ng ulo Abay ang mga tsismosa lagi silang
magkakasama! Apero lagi din naman silang nagbabangayan, dito sa kabilang bakuran
namin laging may nagbabangayan dun, minsan nga nagkakabaranggayan pa e Pero
kunyari kung ako tinitignan nila ako ng pa-backstab edi magagalit ako. Diba sino ba
naman yung hindi magagalit pag tinitira ka patalikod diba? - Maybahay 3
Minsan napapaisip ako lalo, may inferiority complex kasi ako kaya lalo akong
nadedepress sa sarili ko kaya pinaguusapan ako ng ganun sabi ng psychiatrist ko
kumausap naman daw ako ng ibang tao bukod sa asawa ko - Maybahay 4
Natural magagalit ang sino man na makarinig na ginagawan siya ng kwento sige
kunyari katulad mo, narinig ko napagusapan ka na rin Sino ba eka yung maputing
babaeng yun nagkukumpulan na sila dun kanina.. ang bilis no.. Basta pag yung
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pinag-usapan niyo naman useless wala naman pahahantungan yang masama e, siguro
naubos lamang yung time mo sa gawaing bahay o kaya naman e magagalit ka lamang
pero bukas wala na kasi madali naman magpatawad saglit lamang buhay e Maybahay 5
Mga tsismosa mga nagtatagaan mga yan, minsan napupunta sa pananakit kasi minsan
masakit Minsan dahil sa ganyan may nagsusuntukan na dun, e minsan naman talaga
nagsabunutan na din, pagka talaga sa tsismis e nako wala pagka ano basta- Maybahay
6
Kung ano yung nakikita nila sa magulamang nila ginagaya ng mga bata kaya ayan,
ultimo mga bata tsumitsimis na rin kahit saan yan yung mga batang maliit, nako,
marunong na yan - Maybahay 7
Siguro nasisira buhay nung ibang pamilya syempre kasi diba minsan madaling
napapaniwalaan yung walang katuturan na bagay naman talaga, kumbaga kulang sa
tiwala - Maybahay 8
Edi nagkakasira yung relationship ng ibang tao pero depende sa tsismis minsan kasi
hindi naman mabigat, yung iba mabigat na nakaka-watak ng status - Maybahay 9
Kadalsan nag aaway, sabunutan, kasi pag pinatulan mo yan lalong lalala yan Maybahay 10
E abay lagi kang napapaaway sa mga kapitbahay. Tamo ayan kita mo yung bahay na
yaan, yan ang reyna ng tsismosa dito lahat. Ang trabaho ng tsismosa kunyari pag may
nakita siyang magka-close na parang kapatid na magturingan, gagawan at gagawan
niya yan ng tsismis! Kahit nasa loob lamang ng bahay yun, alam niya lahat ng
nangyayari sa labas. Yung tenga nga nun dinidikit lamang sa pader e, paano minsan
nagkkwentuha kami tapos alabas siya alam din niya!! Oo, kaya ayun nahuhuli namin
yun yung tenga nga ganyan oh, nakadikit sa pader, nasa sulok Wala na siyang
kapitbahay, paano lahat ng kapitbahay niya tinitira niya edi ngayon walang may gusto
at naniniwala sa kanya. Minsan sa tsismis nabugbog ng ama tong anak ko, kasi inutusan
ng teacher na bumili sa labas ng eskwelahan, ede tong anak ko pumayag naman, e may
nakakita eka, Ine, yung anak mo nag-gagala wala sa eskwelahan Edi etong asawa
ko sugod, e ayan lamang yung eskwelahan sa tapat namin e, saktong nakita ng asawa
ko, sinabunutan dyan sa harap ng eskwelahan. Tapos itong guro nag-sorry kasi
inutusan lamang naman niya estudyante nya - Maybahay 11
Kunyari may dalawang mag-asawang masayang nagsasama, inggit na inggit na katingkati yung katawan na sirain yung ano diba merong ganun Nakakasira ng pamilya Maybahay 12
Matanda ang madalas na magtsismis lalo na yung mga alagad ng simbahan. Minsan
umaga pa lamang mag susutsutan na yan sa simbahan e. Ikaw taimtim kang nagdarasal
e yung nasa likod mo naman bulungan ng bulungan. Siyang pari natsitsismis, syempre
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pari nasa kumbento, e may taga laba siya dun si ate Belen. Tapos meron siyang inampon
na bata, palaki niya yun si Dino. Ayan na naman yung tsismis na naanakan daw ni
father si Aleng Belen tapos pinalabas na lamang nila na inampon yung bata, yung mga
ganung tsismis ba Eto meron pa, lagi daw nasa bar si father sabi nila, e ang totoo
kasi may kaklase siya nung kabataan niya na yumaman tapos nakapunta ng America
kaya niregaluhan siya nung Apple na Ipod bay un? Abay nung una hindi niya alam kung
paano gamitin. Edi diba minsan nagbibigay sa basket sa simbahan, e sabi kinukurakot
daw ni father yun! Syempre dahil sa sutsutan nakakawalan ba ng gana magsimba
mamabutihin mo na lamang na mag stay sa bahay tapos dun na lamang magdasal wala
pang maingay - Maybahay 13
Watak-watak ganun, naghihiwalay mga asawa, nagkakaaway mga kaibigan ganun
matanda na kasi ako kaya parang normal na sa akin yan - Maybahay 14
Ukol sa pag-aaral na ginawa ni Farley (2011), naging tsismosa ang mga naturingan na
tsismosa dahil hindi sila gusto ng mga taong nasa paligid nila. Tumugma ito sa karanasang
ipinahayag ng maybahay 11 na kung saan mayroong isang tsismosa na naninira hindi lamang sa
kanya ngunit pati na rin sa kanilang mga kapitbahay. Dumating sa punto na wala nang pumapansin
sa tsimosang ito dahil tinaboy na rin siya ng siniraan niyang tao. Ang epekto ng pagiging tsismosa
ay masama sapagkat wala siyang nagiging kaibigan at sa karagdagan, kagalit pa niya lahat ng
kanilang kapitbahay. Ayon naman sa pag-aaral ni Angelis, et.al (2012), ang natatanging paraan
upang tumaas ang pagtingin ng ibang tao sa tsismosa ay ang pangungutya nila sa kapwa ng sa
gayon ay maisalin nila ang negatibong pagtingin ng ibang tao sa kanila, papunta sa ginawan nila
ng hindi kanais-nais na isyu. Isang halimbawa ang isinaad ng maybahay 12 ngunit hindi na niya
pinangalanan ang tsismosa. Naipahayag niya na sinasadyang sirain ng mga tsismosa ang mabuting
relasyon ng mag-asawa dahil sa inggit. Inilahad din ng maybahay 1, 3, 8, 9 at 14, ang mga nasabing
epekto ng tsismis. Ayon sa kanila ang tsismis ay talagang nakasisira ng relasyon ng
magkasintahan, nakawawatak ng pamilya, kapitbahay at nakakalala ng problemang hindi naman
dapat pinapairal. Nauuwi pa ito sa suntukan, pananakit, sabunutan, baranggayan at bangayan ng
magkapitbahay ukol sa maybahay 6, 10 at 11. Idinagdag pa ng maybahay 11 na nabugbog ang
kanyang anak bilang isang epekto ng hindi totoong tsismis na nalikom ng kanyang asawa.
Pinasikat ng tsismis ang baryo ng San Roque dahil sa hindi mabilang na isyu tungkol sa mga
nakatira dito. Ang halimbawa ng sumusunod na isyu ay maselan katulad ng: palitan ng asawa,
paggamit ng shabu at bisyo sa sugal. Ayon sa maybahay 3, isa itong malaking epekto sa mga
nakatira dito sapagkat nabahidan ang baryo ng hindi mabuting katangian. Mayroon din nagbahagi
kung ano ang epekto ng tsismis sa kanilang nararamdaman katulad na lamang inilahad ng may
bahay 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 at 13. Karamihan sa kanila ay nagagalit at umiinit ang ulo particular ang may
bahay 3, 5 at 11 dahil sa hindi matapos-tapos na isyu sa kanila ng mga tsismosa. Mas lalo naman
napipighati ang maybahay 4 dahil sa mga ibinabatong tsismis sa kanya kahit na hindi na siya
lumalabas ng kanyang bahay. Isinaad naman ng maybahay 7 na maging ang mga bata ay nagiging
tsismosa dahil sa nakikita nilang ginagawa ng kanilang nanay. Naway naging sensitibo rin ang
mga nalikom ng mananaliksik sa ibinahagi ng maybahay 13 na kung saan pati ang alagad ng
simbahan ay isa sa mga sumisira ng imahe ng mga tao sa kanilang baryo.

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Pagtugon ng mga kababaihan sa epekto ng tsismis sa kanilang buhay


Labing-apat na kababaihan ang nagbahagi ng kanilang sariling paraan upang magapi ang
epekto ng tsismis sa araw-araw nilang na pamumuhay. Mayroon silang ibat-ibang paraan upang
tugunan ang epekto ng tsismis at ang pangunahing sagot nila ay huwag itong pansinin.
Hindi ko na pinapansin yung ganun kasi pag pinatulan mo pa mas siran ulo ka pa at
hindi talaga mawawala sa buhay yung ganung siraan kumbaga naunahan ko sila, sila
umuusbong pa lang ako asensado na, Ipasa-Diyos mo nalang basta ang Diyos laging
nakatunghay - Maybahay 1
Yung mga kapitbahay na yan, pag pinagaanuhan mo yaang mga yan wala kang
magagawa, ako kasi ano ko sa ano e, sa hanap buhay. Basta pag nag concentrate ako
sa hanap buhay mas maano ang buhay sa tindahan - Maybahay 2
E pagka hindi totoo, hindi ako kumikibo...dahil wala kaming anak e lagi kaming
natsitsismis pero pag ako nagsabi siguradong totoo ayoko ng matsitsismis ako ng hindi
totoo talagang susugurin ko sila pagka hindi pero basta totoo papanindigan ko sabi ko
sayo pag hindi talaga totoo nagagalit ako kagaya nito edi dadaan ka diyan edi
nagbibida bidahan sila tinawag nila ako edi nung tinawag nila ako ayun e ngayon may
nawalan ng cellphone ede e tinanong pa sakin, Abay hindi nga ako yung kumuha e
ayaw pang maniwala may sinabi pang hindi maganda Aba e talagang nagalit ako.
Kahit na nandun yung asawa niya talagang ano... E kasi ako naman nasa lugar yung
pag ttsismis ko, marami nga ditong ganun - Maybahay 3
Nananahi ako, nagsusulat, yan lettering ako gumawa niyan e ang dami kulang nalang
paskilan ko buong pader namin ng lettering basta kahit ano gagawin ko basta wag
lamang akong lalabas - Maybahay 4
Tiwala lamang, wag mong dibdibin yung mga tsismis kasi mas alam mo naman sa
sarili mo kung ano mas tama - Maybahay 5
Depende sa kwento, pag may katuturan edi sugurin mo pero pag wala naman edi wag
mo na pansinin - Housewife 6
Kapag pinatulan mo e nako, hindi ka makapatay e ikaw ang papatayin sa kunsumi
eh. Kung makakapag timpi ka e timpiin mo, bukas ganun na naman e - Maybahay 7
Maging tahimik ka na lamang, wala naman silang mababagbag kapag tahimik ka
lamang e, o kaya maghanap na lang ng trabaho para mawalan ka ng time sa syete na
yan e. Kailangan wag mong ibibida yung buhay ng may buhay, kailangan, ang buhay
mo ang ibida mo - Maybahay 8
Pag may narinig ko e hindi ko na dinadala kung saan-saan, Nakakabagbag kasi baka
mamaya nakwento lamang naman sakin tapos ipinasa ko sa iba e mali pala yung
naipasa ko, nakakatakot kasi baka sa akin pa magsimula yung tsismis Pag walang

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kwentang bagay, e hindi ko pagaaksayahan ng panahon e pero pag ako ang tsinismis
e nako - Maybahay 9
Hindi ko na lamang pinapansin kumbaga labas lamang sa kabilang tenga, hayaan
mo silang hatiran ka ng tsismis e basta wag mo na lang pansinin - Maybahay 10
Kung anu-ano tsinitsimis e wala naman katotohanan, edi ang mangyayari e puro pa
sa Diyos! Pinapasa-Diyos ko na lamang yung buhay ko e kasi napuno na e, ala na e,
napuno na ako. Nandito na nga lamang ako sa bahay tsismis pa... Mainam din yung
susugurin mo kasi tatahimik sila e, kapag hindi mo naman inatake e baka ako atakihin
e kasi high blood ako e wag mong kimkimin Nakita ako ng barangay tanod tapos
nagulat sila kasi ngayon lamang daw ako sumogod ng ganun Si ine eka yun ha? Bakit
kaya eka sumugod? e sabi nung isa e siguro napuno na. O diba alam din nila Edi
hindi ako yung kahiya-hiya kasi ako may punto ako e, alam nilang lahat e tamo, siya
tong kahiya-hiya, siya nagsimula e. sa galit ko lahat ng sikreto niya nailabas ko, edi
tigil siya - Maybahay 11
Kung magttsismis ka man, ibida mo yung sarili mong buhay, wag na yung buhay ng
ibang tao. Kung ako kasi, pag sinasabihan ako ng tsismis wari na papasok sa isang
tenga at lalabas sa kabilang tenga - Maybahay 12
Nasa sanayan lang yan kasi paulit-ulit na e - Maybahay 13
Hindi ko na pinapansin e kasi sanay na ako e - Maybahay 14
Ibat-iba ang naging tugon ng mga maybahay tungkol tsismis katulad na lamang ng
Maybahay 1 at Maybahay 11. Napili ng dalawang maybahay na ipasa-Diyos ang lahat ng
nangyayari sa kanilang pamumuhay patungkol sa tsismis. May mga sadyang palaban na mga nanay
sapagkat sinabi rin ng maybahay 3, 6 at 11 na minsan, hindi lamang pagpapasa Diyos ang
kailangang gawin, mainam din na sugurin ang mga tsismosa upang matauhan sila at tumigil.
Ipinarating din ng ibang maybahay na itinutuon na lamang nila ang kanilang atensyon sa ibang
bagay upang hindi mapansin ang tsismis katulad ng ginagawa ng maybahay 2 na tumututok na
lamang sa kanyang munting sari-sari store, maybahay 4 na gumagawa na lamang ng ibat ibang
lettering at ibang pagkakaabalahan sa bahay, at maybahay 8 at 12 na sinasabing ibida na lamang
ang sariling buhay sa halip na ibida ang buhay ng may buhay. Mayroon ding mga maybahay na
hindi na pinapansin ang mga naririnig na balita sapagkat mahirap nang masangkot sa pagkalat ng
tsismis. Hindi nila ninais na sila ang magpapalaganap ng tsismis at kabilang na dito ang maybahay
9, 10 at 11. Nagbigay naman ng pangaral ang maybahay 5 na mag tiwala lamang dapat sa taong
kinakasama upang hindi maapektuhan ng tsismis. Iba naman ang pagtugon ng maybahay 7, 13 at
14 dahil madalas silang nagiging laman ng tsismis. Pasensya na lamang ang pinapairal ng
maybahay 7 upang maiwasan na ang pakikipag-away sa mga tsismosa at ang maybahay 13 at 14
naman ay sanay kayat hindi na nila ito pinapansin.

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KONKLUSYON AT REKOMENDASYON
Tinalakay ng pag-aaral na ito ang pananaw ng mga kababaihan sa Nueva Ecija ukol sa
konsepto ng tsismis bilang isang pamumuhay. Sa kabuuan, mayroong labing apat na kalahok ang
nakapanayam ng mananaliksik. Ayon sa resulta ng pag-aaral, nahahati sa positibo at negatibo ang
pananaw ng mga kababaihan ukol sa tsismis. Ipinahayag ng bilang na kababaihan na positibo ang
tsismis sa kadahilanan na ito ay nagkapagbibigay aliw at nakakadagdag ng kaibigan. Negatibo
naman ang pananaw ng nakararaming kababaihan sapagkat ang tsismis ay isang masamang
libangan na naglalaman ng buhay ng ibang tao. Malaki ang naging epekto ng tsismis sa baryo ng
San Roque sapagkat ang tsismis ang dahilan kung bakit madungis ang reputasyon nito. Marami na
rin na relasyon ng pamilya, magkasintahan at maging mag kapitbahay ang nasira ng tsismis ayon
sa pahayag ng mga kababaihan. Ibat-ibang pagtugon naman ang ibinahagi ng mga kababaihan
katulad ng pagpapasa-Diyos, pagsugod sa mga tsismosa, pagbida ng sariling buhay at pag
babaliwala sa kanilang narinig na tsismis.
Bagamat sensitibo ang nasabing paksa, nalikom ng mananaliksik ang mga datos na
kinakailangan ngunit hindi maikakaila na may limitasyon ang pag-aaral na ito. Iminungkahi ng
mananaliksik na higit na mapaghusay pa ang kanyang pag-aaral ukol sa tsismis sa kadahilanang
nais pa niyang higit na maunawaan ang mga implikasyon ng tsismis sa buhay ng tao. Upang higit
na mas mapagtibay ang mga datos na nakalap, nais irekomenda ng mananaliksik na higit sa isang
araw ang sesyon ng pakikipagkwentuhan upang makuha ng tuluyan ang tiwala ng mga kalahok at
gawin itong grupo ng sa gayon ay makapagpalitan mas maraming kwento at pananaw ang mga
kalahok. Nais magrekomenda ng mananaliksik sa susunod na pag-aaral na pagtuunan pansin rin
ang pananaw ng mga kalalakihan ukol sa tsismis upang magkaroon ng paghahalintulad. Sa
paksang katulad ng pag-aaral na ito, inirerekomenda ng mananaliksik na gumamit ng
makapilipinong pananaliksik sapagkat ito ang naaayon sa kultura ng mga Pilipino at ng sa gayon
ay malikom ang mga datos na nais makamit. Gayunpaman, dahil sa makabagong panahon ngayon,
nais din magrekomenda ng mananaliksik na pag-aralan kung hanggang kaninong tao nakakarating
ang tsismis at kung gaano ito kabilis kumalat na kung saan ito ay maaaring makamit sa
pamamagitan ng eksperimentong pamamaraan o sa paggamit ng online na pagsisiyasat. Nais
irekomenda ng mananaliksik na ang paggamit ng online networking site katulad na lamang ng
twitter at facebook ay isa sa aspeto kung bakit napapabilis ang pagkalat ng tsismis at kung ano pa
man.

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TALAAN NG SANGGUNIAN

Angelis, M.C, Bonezzi, A., Peluso, A.M., Rucker, D. & Costabile, M. (2012). On Braggarts and
Gossips: A Self-Enhancement Account of Word-of-Mouth Generation and
Transmission. Journal of Marketing Research, 44, 551563.
Berkos, K.M. (2003). The Effects of Message Direction and Sex Differences on the Interpretation
of Workplace Gossip. Information, Communication & Society .11(4), 544564.
Covar, P. (1999). Wika at Kultura. Retrieved from http://www.languagelinks.org /oldsite/ book/
books/ covar/covar_blg1.pdf
Farley, SD. (2011). Is gossip power? The inverse relationships between gossip, power, and
likability. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 574579.
Farley, SD., Timme, D.R, & Hart, J.W. (2010). On Coffee Talk and Break-Room Chatter:
Perception of Women Who Gossip in the Workplace. The Journal of Social Psychology,
150(4), 361368.
Flores. (2012). Business of Tsismis. Retrieved from: http://www.philstar.com/ business-life/
177387/ business-tsismis
Foster, E.K. (2004) Research on gossip: Taxonomy, Methods, and Future Directions. Rev.
General Psychology 8: 7899.
Gouveia, CM., Vuuren, LG., & Crafford, M. (2005). Towards a Typology of Gossip in the
Workplace. A Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(2), 56-68.
Grosser, T. (2010). A Social Network Analysis of Positive and Negative Gossip in Organizational
Life. Group and Organization Management, 20(10), 1-48.
Levin, J., & Arluke, A. (2011).Gossip: The inside scoop. New York: Plenum Press Retrieved from:
http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1988-97155-000
Hartung, F.M., Renner, B., (2013). Social Curiosity and Gossip: Related but Different Drives of
Social Functioning. PLOS ONE. 8(7), 1-9.
McAndrew, F., Bell, M., & Garcia, C. (2007). Who Do We Tell and Whom Do We Tell On?
Gossip as a Strategy for Status Enhancement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.
37(7). 15621577.
Pe-Pua, R. (1982) Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. Filipino Psychology: Theory,
Method and Application. University of Philippine Press.

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Sommerfeld, R., Krambeck, H., Semmann, D., & Milinski, M. (2007) Gossip as an alternative for
direct observation in games of indirect reciprocity. 104(44), 1743517440.
Turcotte, D. "Gossip and the Group: A Self-Categorization Perspective" (2012). CGU Theses &
Dissertations. Paper 30. http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgu_etd/30

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Parental Involvement of Single Mothers in Sibling Conflict


Bernard Ishidore Soriano
Eva Castronuevo
Abstract
The primary objective of the study is to focus on single mothers
parental involvement in sibling conflict. A total of 16 participants were
interviewed, four single mothers and twelve children. The study is qualitative
and descriptive in nature. The researcher used case study to explore on the
experiences of single mothers and the children on parental involvement.
Results showed that the single mothers have negative emotion toward sibling
conflict. The four single mothers have different experiences in terms of
sibling conflict. In terms of managing and resolving conflict, the four single
mothers employed child-centered strategy. The influence of parental
involvement greatly helped to end sibling conflict. The common conflict
between siblings are only considered to be domestic such as teasing, fighting,
household chores, food and gadgets. The children have different perspective
toward the involvement of their mother in sibling conflict and all their
experiences in parental involvement include resolving of conflict. Future
researchers are recommended to change the age range of the siblings in order
to explore on a different type of sibling conflict.

Parental involvement is very important in each aspect of life of the children. But
unfortunately, the number of single parents particularly mothers in the Philippines increases as our
society grows and changes over time. According to the report of Manila Standard Today (June,
2012), government statistics have shown that solo parents constitute about 14 to 15 percent of the
estimated 94 million Filipinos. At least 13.9 million Filipinos are single parents who carry the
burden of raising their family by themselves. As people look into this report, many of the Filipinos
are experiencing separation from their loved ones. Being a single parent takes one to a greater
responsibility not only for your family but also for oneself. But despite of all the burden and
hardship, these solo parents especially the single mothers never give up and continue to fight for
the betterment and well-being of their families especially their children.
Conflict has been a normal issue to siblings. Fighting and arguing are natural and evident
among siblings particularly in the Philippines and it is where people learn to develop new strategies
for another conflict situations. Sibling conflict was directly associated with internalizing and
externalizing behaviors for siblings (Gamble, Yu & Kuehn, 2011). Conflict among siblings differs
from one family to another. The conflict among siblings is greatly influenced in terms of family
context. There is a father and mother who can both discipline their children and both involved in
the conflict among the siblings. According to the study of Deater-Deckard, Dunn & Lussier (2002)
sibling negativity (conflict, aggression) was highest in single-mother families. There is existence
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of a meaningful typology of parental involvement in sibling conflict (Milevsky, Schlechter &


Machlev, 2011).
Nowadays, many of our population are single mothers and it is very interesting to know
their involvement in sibling conflict since raising their children alone is a very hard situation for
them. They act as both father and mother that harden their duties and responsibilities to their
children. The single mothers are very resourceful in terms of finding ways in order to support their
family and also to bring the best out of them even in their own little ways and efforts. Single
mothers were more likely to receive support than mothers with partners, irrespective of whether
their situation followed divorce or widowhood (Stuifbergen, Van Delden & Dykstra, 2008).
The study will focus on single mothers and their children. The aim of the study is to
determine the parental involvement of single mothers in sibling conflict. Particularly, the study
will answer the following questions: What are the single mothers point of view regarding the
conflict between their children? What are the single mothers experiences in terms of the conflict
between their children? How do single mothers manage or handle their childrens conflict and
resolve it? How single mothers involvement influence their childrens conflict? What are the
common conflict between siblings? What are the childrens point of view regarding the
involvement of their mothers in their conflict? What are the childrens experiences in terms of
resolving their sibling conflict through their mothers involvement?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Parental Involvement
The studies of Recchia, Wainryb & Howe (2013), Tucker & Kazura (2013), Updegraff,
Thayer, Whiteman et. al (2005) and Milevsky, Schlechter & Machlev (2011) implicated the
relationship between sibling conflict and parental involvement. Recchia, Wainryb & Howe (2013)
linked through interviews of 61 primary caregivers that nonunilateral fault attributions (blaming
both children or neither child) were related to parents' discussion of the reasons underlying
children's behavior/perspectives and were more frequent when the age gap between children was
larger. Parents selectively referred to their younger child's point of view in conversation and, when
the age gap was larger, selectively provided evidence in favor of their younger child. Tucker &
Kazura (2013) revealed a relationship between sibling conflict and parental responses through a
survey of one parent from eighty-two families of firstborn and second born children. In addition,
Tucker & Kazura (2013) said that parents employed a child-centered strategy most often and
sanctioned sibling aggression least often in response to siblings' conflicts. Closer age spacing
among siblings was related to parents' sanction of physical aggression. Parental response type was
associated with sibling relationship quality and children's psychosocial and physical well-being.
Similarly, Updegraff, et. al (2005) revealed a significant link between relational aggression in
adolescents' sibling relationships and sibling and parent-adolescent relationship quality by home
interviews and a series of nightly phone calls of 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and
fathers. Results showed that sibling relational aggression was related to sibling intimacy and
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negativity. There are connection between relational aggression and qualities of the parent-child
relationship, parents' differential treatment, and parents' strategies for handling sibling conflict. On
the other hand, Milevsky, Schlechter & Machlev (2011) studied about parenting style, involvement
and sibling conflict in relation to adolescent sibling relationship. Through measures of parenting
styles, parental sibling conflict intervention styles, sibling closeness, sibling support, and sibling
warmth and conflict of students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan
area of the Northeastern US results revealed that an authoritative parenting style was associated
with sibling support and closeness. The study identifies the existence of a meaningful typology of
parental involvement in sibling conflict.
Poortman & Voorpostel (2009) revealed a significant link between sibling relationship and
parental divorce through large scale retrospective data of both siblings of the sibling dyad. In
addition, parental divorce has limited effects on sibling contact and relationship quantity in
adulthood but have strong effects on sibling conflicts (Poortman et. al, 2009). Siblings from highconflict families have less contact, lower relationship quality, and more conflict than do siblings
from low-conflict families. For sibling relationship quality, the effect of parental divorce depends
on the amount of parental conflict. Parental divorce has little effect on the quality of the
relationship in low-conflict families, but it improves the relationship in high-conflict families.

Sibling conflict
The studies of Edward (2013), Abuhatoum & Howe (2013), Recchia & Howe (2009),
Gamble, Yu & Kuehn (2011) Bush & Ehrenberg (2003) and Deater-Deckard, Dunn & Lussier
(2002) tackled about sibling conflict. Edward (2013) linked through report data that sibling envy,
jealousy, and rivalry can make to healthy development as well as the way in which sibling discord
may compromise development and in some cases lead to pathology. Abuhatoum & Howe (2013)
revealed a sibling conflict during early and middle childhood through naturalistic observations
with 66 dyads with an older and younger sibling. In addition, the study of Abuhatoum & Howe
(2013) showed that siblings used coercive power in object issues and information power in
procedural issues whereas younger siblings used legitimate power in procedural and object issues
including win/lose and compromise outcomes, older siblings used coercive power in win/lose
resolutions. Siblings did not differ in their effectiveness of power, but they were most effective
when coercive power was employed. Recchia & Howe (2009) linked through an interview of 62
dyads the relationship between high-quality relationships positive conflict processes. Associations
between younger children's social understanding (conflict interpretation and narrative perspective
references) and siblings' dyadic conflict behavior were moderated by relationship quality.
Gamble, Yu & Kuehn (2011) studied about adolescent sibling relationship quality and
adjustment including sibling trustworthiness and modeling through a web based surveys of 438
families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade. Results showed that
sibling conflict was directly associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviors for both
siblings. The older siblings' reports of trustworthiness were directly associated with the outcome
measures. The younger siblings' reports of trustworthiness were less directly associated, but a
possible salutary effect was most evident under the highest levels of sibling conflict or warmth.
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Higher sibling modeling was a risk factor for adjustment problems in relations characterized by
high conflict. Trustworthiness is the key to dimension of sibling relations.
Bush & Ehrenberg (2003) made an exploratory study that examines young persons'
perceptions of sibling relationships in the context of parental divorce experienced during
childhood. The participants of the said study were thirty undergraduate participants (17-24 years)
who were interviewed individually (Adult & Divorce Sibling Relationship Interview) to describe
sibling relationships now, before, during, and after parental separation. Results showed that some
participants reported increased sibling conflict post-separation, but this was typically considered
short-lived and tied to more permanent feelings of siblings closeness following from experiences
their parents' divorces together.
According to the study of Deater-Deckard, Dunn & Lussier (2002) about sibling
relationships; social-emotional adjustment in different family contexts to 192 families with a 5
year old target child and an older sibling through questionnaires and interviews, sibling negativity
(conflict, aggression) was highest in single-mother families and full siblings were more negative
than half and step siblings. There was some evidence that sibling antagonism was associated with
more child behavioral and emotional problems, but these effects were moderated by family type.
SYNTHESIS
Conflict among siblings is very natural at some point. The studies above summarizes the
different perspectives associated with sibling conflict. Sibling conflict was directly associated with
externalizing and internalizing behavior. Parental involvement and style and sibling conflict were
associated with siblings relationship. These existing studies were able to identify the relationship
between sibling conflict and parental involvement but the missing part is that researchers were not
able to identify the degree of involvement among single mother families. In the study of Poortman
& Voorpostel (2009), they revealed a significant link between sibling relationship and parental
divorce but it was limited only on the effects of parental divorce in sibling conflicts. From this, the
researcher think that the study that should be made is about the parental involvement of single
mothers on sibling conflict. Since single parenting is very evident in our country, the researcher
want to focus on the involvement of single mothers on the conflict between their children. How
do they manage and handle their children's conflict taking into consideration that there is no father
figure that mostly discipline the siblings. The children point of views and experiences regarding
the involvement of their mothers in their conflict should also be studied. This study will take a
greater understanding of the life of single mothers and explore on the extent of their involvement
considering that it is hard to have an incomplete family and to raise your children alone. This study
will examine the possible similarities and differences of the single mothers in terms of handling
the conflict between their children and as well as understanding the common conflict between
sibling and how do they address the involvement of their mother.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The researcher used qualitative case study design in this research. In-depth interviews were
conducted in order to gather profound understanding of data. This design helped the researcher
build a rapport with the participants in order to share their thoughts, feelings and experiences.
Participants and Sampling
The participants in this study comprised of four single mothers ages 30 to 50 together with
their respective children ages 10 to 19 living within the middle socioeconomic status. The
participants were selected through purposive sampling since the target subjects are single mothers
who are separated or widowed with at least two or more children. The type of conflict is limited
only to domestic conflict between siblings.
Instruments
The data were collected through the use of an in-depth interview. The researcher used a
self- made guide questions consisting of open-ended questions. Follow-up questions arise during
the course of the interview. Basic information such as name and age were asked during the
interview proper. The researcher used a recorder in accordance with the consent letter that was
given to each participant.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher followed the procedures accordingly in order to gather the required data:
First, the participants received a consent letter asking their approval to be part of the study.
Second, the researcher waited for the approval of the participants if they are willing to participate
on the said study and provide the information that will be needed. Third, upon the approval of the
participants, the researcher had a meet up first with the single mother and later attend to the child
respondents for an initial stage of knowing each other. During this time, the researcher asked each
participant for some basic information and their personal background. The researcher was able to
form a rapport to each participant that help the researcher to get the possible required data for the
study. Lastly, the researcher conducted the interview personally. The interview was conducted
several times until the data needed were obtained. The researcher plans to conduct the in-depth
interview on a non-consecutive way to avoid any discrepancies or bias.
Since it is an in-depth interview the number of meetings per participant were four to five
meetings including the interview with the children. The number of hour per meeting was one hour
so that it would not take too much time of the participants. The venue was held in the house of the
family participants so that they will be in their comfortable place. Participants were informed that
the interview is being recorded.

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Data Analysis
Case study data analysis generally involves an iterative, spiraling, or cyclical process that
proceeds from more general to more specific observations (Creswell, 1998; Palys, 1997;
Silverman, 2000). Gathering the data may start informally in initial interviews and data analysis
may continue during transcription. Multiple case studies is a variant that includes two or more
observation on the same phenomenon but may include different thematic finding such as different
point of views of each person regarding the matter.
The researcher used the qualitative research design in this study particularly in-depth semi
structured interview. The gathered data were analyzed based on the focus of the study. After that,
the responses of the respondents were reviewed in order to determine their connection with the
purpose of the study. Second the data were classified according to alike responses and point of
views of the respondents. Third, the researcher summarized and categorized the data gathered
based on the purpose of the study. After transcribing, the responses were grouped into three:
parental involvement, common conflict between siblings and childrens point of views. The
grouped responses aimed to identify the following: (1) the single mothers point of view (2) the
experiences of single mothers in sibling conflict (3) managing and resolving sibling conflict (4)
influence of parental involvement (5) common conflict between siblings (6) childrens reaction
and point of views regarding parental involvement (7) childrens experiences in parental
involvement. And finally, the researcher discussed the results and gave its conclusion and
recommendation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The present study focuses on the parental involvement of single mothers in sibling conflict.
A total number of 16 participants, 4 single mothers and 12 children were interviewed. This study
aims to find out the following: (1) the single mothers point of view (2) the experiences of single
mothers in sibling conflict (3) managing and resolving sibling conflict (4) influence of parental
involvement (5) common conflict between siblings (6) childrens reaction and point of views
regarding parental involvement (7) childrens experiences in parental involvement. In this section,
the responses of the participants were quoted and stated in groups.
Demographic Profile
A total of number of 16 participants were interviewed in this study. These include 4 single mothers
(2 separated and 2 widowed) and 12 children ages 10-19 years old.
Participant

Age

Number of children Age of children

Mother A
(Separated)

50 years old

Child A1
Child A2

14 years old
12 years old

Mother B

43 years old

Child B1

15 years old

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(Widowed)

Child B2

12 years old

Mother C
(Separated)

37 years old

Child C1
Child C2
Child C3

16 years old
14 years old
10 years old

Mother D
(Widowed)

49 years old

Child D1
Child D2
Child D3
Child D4
Child D5

18 years old
15 years old
14 years old
12 years old
11 years old

The First participant (Mother A) is the youngest out of five siblings. She is separated for almost
10 years because her husband was linked to another woman. Since their separation, she was no
longer receiving support from the father of her children who is now in Visayas region. Both
children of Mother A are males. They do not attend school not because of financial problem but
the two children refused to study.
The Second participant (Mother B) is second to the eldest. She is widowed for 6 years because her
husband died due to sickness that had no findings. The first child of Mother B is a male 4th year
student while the second child is a female grade 8 student.
The Third participant (Mother C) is third out of five siblings. She is separated for almost 5 years
because of third party. Until now her children are receiving support from their father for financial
assistance. The eldest child of Mother C is a female 2nd year college student while the second
child is a male 3rd year student. The youngest child is a female grade 5 student.
The Fourth participant (Mother D) is fourth out of eight siblings. She is widowed for 10 years
because her husband died due to murder (mistaken identity). Mother D has five sons. The eldest
child is a 3rd year college student, the second is a 4th year student, the third is a grade 8 student,
the fourth is a grade 6 student and the youngest child is a grade 5 student.
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT
Single Mothers point of view. Four single mothers were able to share their own perspective about
the conflict between their children. Below are the responses of the single mothers which were
quoted to show their different point of views regarding sibling conflict.
"Nalulungkot ako, una wala silang ama tapos ganun pa sila." - Mother A
"Kasi nga kaya ako gumigitna kasi ayokong masaktan yung bunso, kung baga parehas ko
silang mahal kasi yung kuya mas ano pag nagalit ayokong masaktan ng husto yung anak
kong bunso kasi nga ramdam ko sa anak ko na pag nanggigil iba na kaya ako pumipigil

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hanggang sa masuyo ko siya kahit alam kong mali pinipilit ko paring suyuin yung
panganay para hindi sila totally magkaway ng husto." - Mother A
Syempre edi ano nakakalungkot kasi magkapatid nag-aaway na kaka ano yung kasi hindi
nagkakasundo.. sad - Mother B
Syempre bilang magulang kailangan, umawat ka lang para hindi na humaba yung away
nila. - Mother B
Syempre malungkot tapos naaawa ako kasi gusto ko magkakasundo sila. - Mother C
Minsan kasi pag ano sabi ko dapat kailangan ko silang kausapin ng ayos kausapin ng
seryoso kasi minsan puro biro ako hindi ako nakikipag-usap ng seryoso sa kanila kasi mga
bata sila e. Kaya minsan sabi ko mag ano ako sa edad ko para sumunod sila sa akin. Mother C
Syempre masakit sa akin yun dahil magkakapatid sila e ang gusto ko sabi ko sa kanila
ang gusto ko kayo ay magmamahalan magkakapatid kasi wala naman ibang
magkakampihan kundi kayo e, hindi kayo kakampihan ng ibang tao kaya ang gusto ko
magmahalan silang lima kahit puro sila lalake. - Mother D
Syempre minsan dumarating sa punto yung nakikita mo na nag-aaway sila syempre alam
mo na hirap na hirap na yung sarili mo at katawan mo sa paghahanapbuhay tapos makikita
mo nag-aaway pati ikaw mapapasa sa away nila e mag-iinit din ang ulo mo kasi patongpatung na nga. Alam naman nila na single mother ako nila tapos mag-aaway syempre
madaling mag-iinit ang ulo ko kaya minsan pag nag-aaway sila pati ako kasali sumasali
narin ako nakikipag-away ako sa kanila tapos ayun tatahimik sila pag ako na yung
nagsasalita. - Mother D
The four single mothers have shared their different point of views regarding the conflict
between their children. Majority of the respondents admitted that they feel sad when there is
conflict between their children. But as for the response of Mother D, she becomes emotional and
in pain whenever her children are in conflict with each other considering the fact that she is the
only one who work for their family. Each of them have their own perspective toward sibling
conflict, Mother A, who is more concern with the safety of her younger son because of the
aggressive behavior of her older son but still she loves both of them equally to prevent conflict.
On the other hand Mother B, focused on the role of a parent which is to settle the conflict. While
Mother Cs perspective focused on being more serious in terms of talking and teaching her
children. Mother Ds perspective in sibling conflict focused more on being stress brought about
by her work and the tension between her five sons. The different point of views of the single
mothers support the stand of Tucker & Kazura (2013), that parental response type was associated
with sibling relationship quality and children's psychosocial and physical well-being.

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Single Mothers Experiences in Sibling Conflict. Four single mothers were able to share their own
experiences in terms of the conflict between their children. Stated below are the quoted responses
from the single mothers about their own experiences.
"Gumigitna ako para hindi sila totally magkasakitan kung ano man yung mangyari sa
kanila." - Mother A
"Kasi si Herbert nung maliit siya nung edad niya e 9 or 10 ganun ano siya tuksuhin siya
na pikon pag una siyang manghaharot pagkapatapos pag hinarot siya ng kapatid niyang
bunso siya tong napipikon. Hindi siya titigil hanggang hindi siya nakakaganti" - Mother A
Sa gawaing bahay lang naman madalas mag-away yang dalawang yan e. - Mother B
Nag-aaway sa maliliit na bagay katulad ng pagkain tapos sa panonood ng tv. Dati dahil
sa grocery ni Micah pinakialamanan ni Antigo. Ayun nagdabog lang si Micah umakyat sa
taas dinabog yung pinto yun lang. - Mother C
Pag nag-aaway yang mga yan naaawat naman yan pero pag minsan hindi. Iniiwan ko
sila kesa masaktan kasi ayokong nasasaktan sila pag nasasaktan ako. Nasasaktan din sila
pag naglalabas ako ng emosyon. Ang ginagawa ko umaalis ako, ang kumakausap sa kanila
yung tiyahin nila si tita edna nila at lola nila hindi ko sila inaano. Tapos kakausapin ko
sila pag nakalipas na yung ilang oras, papasok ako sa loob ng bahay tapos kakausapin ko
sila. - Mother D
The mothers have shared their own experience of their childrens conflict. Mother As
experience was more on teasing and exchange of mischievous tricks while Mother Bs experience
was more on the conflict in terms of household chores. On the other hand, Mother Cs experience
focused mainly on food. But the response of Mother D in terms of her experience focused on the
need of a support system. Since her children are all boys and she is very emotional, she preferred
to cool down first before talking to her children.
Managing and Resolving Sibling Conflict. The four single mothers have different ways of handling
and resolving conflict between their children. One of them need a support system from relatives,
the other is leaving their children when in conflict and the other is filling the things that the children
are fighting with. But the most evident is by talking to the children and by giving parental advice.
Below are the responses of the single mothers which were quoted to show how each single mother
manage and resolve sibling conflict.
"Kasi silang dalawa pag nagharutan maya maya din magkasundo na kung baga gumigitna
lang ako na ayokong masaktan yung anak kong bunso kasi nga alam ko ang ugali ni
Herbert pagnangigil iba na kaya ako gumigitna pero maya-maya naman limang minuto,
10 minutes nagbibigayan na ng sorry nagmamahalan ulet." - Mother A
"Si Herson kasi ano e parang ugali ng batang yan ano siya napipigilan ko parin ang galit
niya kung baga aawatin ko yung isa pag naawat ko na yung isa maya-maya susuyuin ko
yung panganay and maya maya tawanan rin lang kami. Parang dumarating lang sa buhay
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ng tao na yung nag-harutan, nag-away tapos maya-maya para kaming baliw, mamaya
magkasundo na kaming tatlo." - Mother A
Nako iniiwanan ko na lang hindi naman matatapos pag sumabay ka pa lalo pang
magagalit. Iniiwan ko na lang. - Mother B
Pagsasabihan mo lang sila para hindi na humaba yung pagtatalo nila wala naman
patutunguhan yun e away magkapatid lang naman yun e. - Mother B
Minsan ako na lang nagpupuno kung ano yung pinag-aawayan nila halimbawa nag-away
sa pagkain bibilihan ko na lang yung isa para maging ok na para hindi na maghanap yung
isa. Kailangan pag mayroon yung isa mayroon din lahat para hindi na magkakainggitan.
- Mother C
Minsan naman ang ginagawa ko hinahayaan ko lang na ano na palipasin lang nila yung
galit nila tapos pag oras na ng pagkain mag-uusap na ganun lang parang ano lang
pinapalipas lang yung sama ng loob tapos pag naghain na ako sabay-sabay na kami
kakain. Ayun ok na. - Mother C
Hindi ko kaya silang lima, inaamin ko hindi ko kaya silang lima. Kaya tintulungan ako
ng nanay ko at tyaka kapatid ko. Dahil mahirap ng sawayin pag ganyan kasi iba na mga
bata ngayon iba na ugali kaya mahirap silang disiplinahin. - Mother D
Ano papanik kami sa taas mag-uusap-usap kaming anim, kakausapin ko sila na hindi
tama yung ginagawa nila ayun. Pero minsan paulit-ulit parin ganun pa rin sabi ko ano pa
kayang disiplina gustong mangyari ng mga batang ito. - Mother D
The ways that the mothers involved themselves in their childrens conflict support the stand
of Tucker & Kazura (2013) that parents employed a child-centered strategy most often and
sanctioned sibling aggression least often in response to siblings' conflicts. For Mother A, what she
was doing is more on currying the favor of her children while Mother B, centered on reprimanding
her children and leaves them. Mother C on the other hand, was managing and solving the conflict
in terms of filling the childrens needs and wants such as food while maintaining fairness to avoid
any feelings of jealousy and letting them pass their emotion. Mother Ds way of managing and
resolving conflict focused on confrontation to settle the conflict and seeking for help from other
family members. The four single mothers engaged to a child-centered strategy in order to resolve
sibling conflict and did not employed punishment on sibling aggression as their are only minimal
aggressive behavior. The single mothers focused their plan of action in resolving conflict to the
specific needs and interests of their children rather than those other things that are involved. They
mostly manage and resolve conflict through verbal response rather than inflicting physical
punishment. They disciplined the children in a fair and consistent manner and expressed physical
and emotional care and nourishment.

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Influence of Parental Involvement. Four single mothers were able to share the effect of their
involvement to their childrens conflict. Below are the responses of the single mothers which were
quoted to show the influence of involvement.
Pag ako ay gumigitna na, natitigil na yung away nila pati yung harutan. - Mother A
Tumatahimik na sila. - Mother B
Syempre ma lelessen yung away nila, matatapos agad, maintindihan nila kung ano yung
mali. - Mother C
Pag kami nag-aaway na, edi nag-aaway na kami mag-iina sasali na ako sa kanila,
nagiging epekto nun pag ka ano nag-iisip din sila kung tama ba yung ginagawa nila. Isipin
niyo kung tama ba yung ginagawa ninyo kung bakit pati ako nakikisali sa away ninyo. Mother D
The mothers have shared the influence of their involvement toward the conflict between
their children. Majority of the responses revealed that the conflict between the siblings stopped
when their mother intervened. Mother C and Mother D was able to include to their responses the
influence in terms of the moral aspects of knowing what is right and what is wrong and be able to
realize the goodness or badness of their behavior when in conflict. As stated in the study of
Milevsky, Schlechter & Machlev (2011), there is an existence of a meaningful typology of parental
involvement in sibling conflict. The four single mothers parental sibling conflict intervention
styles had a big impact in sibling conflict. As they are using intervention styles, they are involving
themselves and mostly used authoritative parenting styles. They are willing to discuss the problems
to their children in order to reach out their purpose about the awareness of the children to the
situation.
COMMON CONFLICT
Domestic conflict between siblings. Since the study is limited only to domestic type of conflict,
below are the responses of both the mothers and the children.
"Tuksuhan, tapos yung isa si Herbert mangugulangot papahid sa isa, magagalit yung isa,
yung isa uutot ipapaamoy sa isa hanggang magkapikunan sila, yun ang simula ng away
nila. - Mother A
Basketball po, minsan nagkakasakitan po. - Child A1
Ganun din po, harutan at asaran po.- Child A2
Laging pinag-aawayan nila kahit mayroon sila parehas nag-aaway parin walang mga
kasiyahan ayun. - Mother B
Cellphone hindi siya nag papahiram ng cellphone e at tyaka paghuhugas ng pinggan
kung sino maghuhugas - Child B1
Mga paghuhugas ng pinggan, kasi minsan tinatamad siya tyaka paglilinis ng bahay. Child B2
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Madalas sa pagkain at panonood ng tv.- Mother C


Pakikialam ng gamit tapos sa pagkain. - Child C1
Sa pagkain at sa gamit. - Child C2
Minsan ayaw pong bumili ni kuya ng yelo tapos ayaw niya po mamigay ng pagkain
tyaka pag gagawa po ng project. - Child C3
Tuksuhan iyon naman yung malimit e tuksuhan tapos yung isa mahilig mang bully sa
kapatid si Jayron hanggang sa magkakasakitan na tapos pag nagkasakitan na kasali na
naman rin ko sa away nila. Ang malimit nilang pag-awayan pa ay yung gadget ng tita nila
yung iphone 4s gawa ng laro tyaka yung tablet. - Mother D
Computer tyaka iphone basta mga laro. - Child D1
TV and gadgets. - Child D2
Computer tyaka tuksuhan po. - Child D3
Yung computer po tyaka iphone po ni tita at tyaka minsan po ung tuksuhan. - Child D4
Yung iphone pag naglalaro. - Child D5
All responses stated above revealed the domestic type of conflict of siblings. For the
children of Mother A, when they're having fun, it leads to teasing and fighting like in playing
basketball. For the children of Mother B, it is mostly on household chores. On the other hand, the
children of Mother C usually have conflict in terms of food while Mother Ds children usually
have conflict in terms of the use of gadgets and sometimes making fun of other siblings in a playful
way. These conflicts support the study of Deater-Deckard, Dunn & Lussier (2002) that sibling
negativity (conflict, aggression) was highest in single-mother families. It reflects on the situation
of Mother A, B and D since there is no father figure in their family that mostly discipline the
sibling conflict. Meanwhile for Mother C it is her who mostly discipline the children even they are
not yet separated, her husband mostly focused in terms of the childrens education. According to
Mother A, B and D, their children are more afraid of their father when the children are in conflict.
These reflect on the following responses of Mother A, B, C and D:
"Hindi naman sila nag aaway nun e, kasi nung mawala lang yung ama kaya sila nag away
ng nag away kasi rebelde, nag rebelde si Herbert kasi akala ako ang nag ano e kasi nakita
niya dinala ko yung damit ng asawa ko sa bahay ng tiyahin niya kay Tita Josie ayun yung
bata nag- rebelde akala ako ang nag kasala pero nang babae na mismo talaga na si Tata
naanuhan ko na na may babae na. Tyaka mas takot talaga sila sa tatay nila kahit mga bata
pa sila nun." - Mother A
Nung mayroon silang tatay hindi naman sila ganun e kasi maliit pa e, hindi sila ganun e
kasi nung mayroon pa silang tatay wala pa ano yung pag-iisip nila. Tatay nila, takot sila
sa tatay nila e. - Mother B
Nung may tatay sila, kasi ang naabutan lang ng mister kong anak namin hanggang kay
John Michael si Joshua hindi e hindi siya nakakita ng ama e. Bale ang disiplina niya sa
anak niya yung panganay ang nadisiplina niya, pinadapa niya kasi may ginawang
kasalanan yung panganay e hindi ko lang matandaan kung ano e pinadipa niya yung anak
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niya hindi niya pinatayo yun maghapon yung ang parusa niya. Kaya yang panganay ko
alam niya kung gaano kahigpit yung tatay niya. Nung buhay mas siya yung dumisiplina.Mother D
Pareho lang kasi naman kahit naman magkasama kami hindi naman tumitigil sa bahay
yung papa nila e laging ako lagi na lang ako, minsan nagsasalita rin siya sa pag-aaral na
ayusin yung pag-aaral. Pero yung araw-araw namin buhay dati ako lang lahat mas ako
yung dumidisiplina. - Mother C
Based on observation and the stories told during interviews with Mother A and C who are
both separated it supported the study of Bush & Ehrenberg (2003) that there are increased sibling
conflict post-separation, but this was typically considered short-lived and tied to more permanent
feelings of siblings closeness following from experiences their parents' divorces together. Despite
of the conflicts, at the end of the day they will learn to adjust, forgive and love one another.
CHILDRENS POINT OF VIEWS
Childrens Reaction And Point of Views Regarding Parental Involvement. Twelve children were
able to share their reaction and point of views regarding the involvement of their mothers to their
conflict. Stated below are the quoted responses from the childrens feelings about the involvement
of their mother when they are in conflict with their siblings.
Nagagalit po kasi hindi po ako nakakaganti. - Child A1
Tumitigil na lang po ako. - Child A2
Wala naman kasi minsan pag nag-away kami nasa trabaho siya Wala tatahimik na
lang - Child B1
Naiinis Minsan nasasagot na, si kuya lang po Natahimik na lang po. - Child B2
Minsan naiinis kasi nakikialam siya. - Child C1
Epal ganun haha. Child C2
Nagagalit po kasi po minsan yung emotion niya yung itsura ninya galit. - Child C3
Iba na yan ibig sabihin yan parang malala na yun pumasok na si mama e seryoso na yun
dapat pag-usapan na pag ganun. - Child D1
Takot, takot na kasi nagagalit na si mama e. - Child D2
Dapat ng pag-usapan kung ano man yung pinag-awayan. - Child D3
Nalulungkot po kasi lagi po siyang naiyak pag nag-aaway na kami. - Child D4
Naiiyak lang. - Child D5
The children have their different reactions and point of views toward the involvement of
their mother in their conflict. For children A1 and A2 they have different responses, the older son
tend to become angry and the younger son tend to stop and listen. For children B1 and B2, they
have similar reaction of being silent but the younger daughter becomes easily annoyed while the
older brother tend to answer his mother. On the other hand, children C1, C2 and C3, tend to become
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annoyed and a little bit angry because of the emotions being expressed by their mother. While
children D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 have their serious reactions and point of views. The oldest son
(D1) tend to become genuine about his feeling toward the involvement of their mother, he believed
that upon involvement of his mother about everything becomes serious and should be settled. The
second to the oldest son (D2), tend to become afraid while the third to the oldest (D3) have the
same perspective toward the oldest son of being serious about the matter of their mothers
involvement through confrontation. Children D4 and D5 on the other hand, tend to become
emotional in the involvement of their mother. They become sad and sometimes cry.
Childrens Experiences in Parental Involvement. Twelve children were able to share in detail their
own experiences in terms of the parental involvement of their mothers to their conflict. Stated
below are the quoted responses from the children about their own experiences.
Pag gumigitna na po siya. - Child A1
Pag sumigaw na po siya o pag pinagsasabihan niya na po kami. - Child A2
Pagagalitan niya kami hangga't hindi kami tumitigil hindi siya titigil sa kakadakdak.
- Child B1
Binibigyan kami ng anumang bagay na hindi namin pag-aawayan. Dumadakdak haha
- Child B2
Pag sa pagkain inaano niya ginagawa niya hinahati niya, siya mismo yung nagbibigay sa
amin. - Child C1
Ganun din minsan pinapagalitan din kami sinasaway saway pag sobra. - Child C2
Minsan po pinagbabati niya po kami tapos ayun bati na po kami. - Child C3
Pinaghaharap harap sabay sesermonan. - Child D1
Pinag-uusap, kinakausap kaming lahat. - Child D2
Pinaghaharap tapos pinagpapaliwanag. - Child D3
Pinagbabati po kami. - Child D4
Pinagbabati niya po kami ayun nagbabati na kami. - Child D5
All the children experiences in parental involvement include resolving of conflict. Even
though that the single mothers have different ways of handling and resolving conflict it all leads
to its resolution. The experiences include shouting, non stop nagging and fair distribution of food.
Confrontation and reconciliation are also being experienced. The shared experiences of the
children are evidence of parental involvement of single mothers in sibling conflict.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The study examined the parental involvement of single mothers in sibling conflict. A total
number of 16 participants, 4 single mothers and 12 children participated in the study. Results
showed that single mothers have negative emotion toward sibling conflict. Emotion includes being
disappointed and being in pain. The four single mothers have different experiences in terms of
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sibling conflict. They experienced siblings' conflict such as exchange of mischievous tricks and
teasing. Conflict in terms of household chores and food also occurred. One different experience
focused on a presence of support system and having a great depth of feeling. In terms of managing
and resolving conflict, the four single mothers employed child-centered strategy such as currying
the favor of the children, reprimanding children, filling in the children's needs and wants, letting
them pass their emotion and confrontation. Seeking for help to other family member is also part
of the conflict resolution. The influence of parental involvement greatly helped to end of sibling
conflict. The moral principle of knowing what is good or bad or what is right or wrong was also a
great sign of influence of parental involvement to sibling conflict. The common conflict between
siblings are considered to be only domestic such as teasing, fighting, household chores, food and
gadgets. The children have different perspective toward the involvement of their mother in sibling
conflict. There are children who tend to become angry and annoyed and sometimes answer his
mother. There are children who tend to become silent and trying to stop and listen. On the other
hand, some children became serious about the involvement of their mother. They became afraid,
emotional and genuine about what they feel. They became aware that when their mother involves
herself to their conflict everything should be settled. All the children experiences in parental
involvement include resolving of conflict. The experiences include shouting, non stop nagging and
fair distribution of food. Confrontation and reconciliation are also being experienced.
As the number of single mothers increases, the extent of their responsibilities to their
children also increases. The study proved the capabilities of the single mothers in terms of handling
the conflict between their children. The study was able to show the different ways and techniques
of the single mothers in terms of the conflict encountered while being able to live a happy life
despite of being separated and widowed. The single mothers also secure the future that awaits their
children in order for them to grow as a good and loving person to other people. Summing up all
the responses above, it showed that parental involvement have an effective relation to sibling
conflict. Even though the single mothers and the children have different experiences and point of
views it all leads to positive outcome and smooth relationship toward one another.
The researcher would like to recommend a different study wherein it will focus on the
parental involvement of single fathers in sibling conflict. It is also possible to have a comparative
study afterwards where in the differences between the parental involvement of single mothers and
single fathers in sibling conflict is the focus of the study. Future researchers may also change the
age range of the children in order to explore on a different type of sibling conflict.

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REFERENCES
Abuhatoum, S. & Howe, N. (2013). Power in Sibling Conflict during Early and Middle
Childhood. Social Development, 22(4), 738-754.
Bush, J. B. & Ehrenberg, M. F. (2003). Young Persons' Perspectives on the Influence of Family
Transitions on Sibling Relationships: A Qualitative Exploration. Journal of Divorce &
Remarriage, 30(3/4), 1-35.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dunn, J. & Lussier, G. (2002). Sibling Relationships and Social
emotional Adjustment in Different Family Contexts. Social Development, 11(4), 571590.
Edward, J. (2013). Sibling Discord: A Force for Growth and Conflict. Clinical Social Work
Journal, 41(1), 77-83.
Gamble, W.C., Yu, J.J. & Kuehn, E.D. (2011). Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality an
Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly
Influencing these Associations. Social Development, 20(3), 605-623.
Milevsky, A., Schlechter M.J. & Machlev, M. (2011). Effects of parenting style and involvement
in sibling conflict on adolescent sibling relationships. Journal of Social & Personal
Relationships, 28(8), 1130-1148.
Poortman, A. & Voorpostel, M. (2009). Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research
Note. Journal of Family Issues, 30(1), 74-91.
Recchia, H.E. & Howe, N. (2009). Associations between social understanding, sibling relationship
quality, and siblings' conflict strategies and outcomes. Child Development, 80(5), 1564-78.
Recchia, H.E. Wainryb, C. & Howe, N. (2013). Two Sides to Every Story? Parents' Attributions
of Culpability and Their Interventions Into Sibling Conflict. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly,
59(1), 1-22.
Stuifbergen, M.C., Van Delden, J. & Dykstra, P. (April 2008), The implications of today's family
structures for support giving to older parents. Ageing & Society, 28(3), 413-434.
Tucker, C. & Kazura, K. (2013). Parental Responses to School-aged Children's Sibling Conflict.
Journal of Child & Family Studies, 22(5), 737-745.
Updegraff, K.A., et. al. (2005). Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links
to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality. Family Relations, 54(3), 373-385.

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Optimism, Role of Social Support and Coping Skills among Breast Cancer
Survivors
Hannah Mica A. Beato
Maria Theresa C. Masilungan

Abstract
The main objective of the study is to focus on the Optimism, Role of Family
Support and Coping Skills in the quality of life of Breast Cancer Survivors
during their cancer journey. A total of five (N = 5) of Breast Cancer Survivors
were gathered through an in-depth interview method. The study is descriptive
and qualitative in nature. Results from the study suggests that optimism
during cancer treatment, different coping strategies and family support helped
in the survival of women from Breast Cancer.

Cancer is a general term for any disease that can affect the whole body. A feature of cancer
is that it rapidly spread the creation of abnormal cells in the whole body on which grow beyond
the boundaries and invade the other organs that can lead to destruction of the system. Cancer occurs
due to physical carcinogens, which includes radiation; chemical carcinogens, such as tobacco
smoke, food and water contaminant; biological carcinogens, such as infections from viruses,
bacteria and parasites. Aging is one factor of emergence of cancer in the body, the cells can
accumulate regeneration and repair, it becomes less effective as the person grows older, which
cause higher rate of prevalence of cancer among geriatric patients.
Cancer has been divided and named according to its classification. It has been one of the
most common and prevalent illness around the world. About six years ago, there is an estimated
12.7 million cases of cancer in both sexes, on which 6.6 million are men and 6.0 million are
women. Internationally, according to World Health Organization (WHO), Cancer is a leading
cause of death accounting for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. About 70%
of all mortality rate due to cancer occur from low- and middle-income countries.
In the study by Ngelangel and Wang (2002), the prevalence of cancer, such as lung, liver
and cervical cancer, in the Philippines has reached 75% of patients age 50 years old and above,
while leukemia dominates 3% of patients age 14 years old and below. Cancer has a low rate of
survival in the Philippines and there are ten (10) leading types of cancer that causes the morbidity
which are: lung, breast, liver, cervical, colorectal, thyroid, leukemia, gastric, ovarian and prostate.
Over the past three decades of studying prevalence and survival from cancer, there is an increase
in the number of people affected with cancer, however there is a 50-65% five-year survival rate
from cancer due to advanced technology and early prevention/detection programs. In such case,
not only that patients are afflicted biologically, but also psychological and emotional struggle
occur.

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The present study aimed to describe the past experiences of breast cancer survivors.
Specifically, the emotional and physical struggles of the respondents, how did they maintain a
positive outlook while under treatment and how did they -- as patients back then -- manage to
uplift their families, friends and caregivers emotions while under treatment. In addition, the
study intends to show the quality of life and outlook towards the future of breast cancer survivors
after being totally treated from cancer. Lastly, this study aims to provide perceived suggestions of
the respondents which can help and enhance the psychological needs of cancer
patients. Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions:

1.) What are the experiences of a female breast cancer patient?


2.) What are the common coping skills of the respondents?
3.) How did the outlook of the respondents help them during their cancer journey?
4.) How did optimism disposition of the respondents help in their survival towards the future?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The following literature shows the different contribution regarding the topic. These
previous studies show the impact of cancer to these patients, to the patients families and friends,
well-being as an interacting human being and the patients disposition in life.

Breast Cancer Patients, their families and friends


For the past ten years, studies have been conducted regarding the psychosocial well-being
of breast cancer patients. According to Schmid-Bchi, S., Halfens, RJG., Dassen, T., et. al. (2008),
breast cancer patients needs are identified involving treatment-related to physical and social
impairment such as fatigue, menopausal symptoms and change in body image. Moreover, these
breast cancer patients also experience emotional distress such as fear, anxiety and
depression. Results shows that the partners of breast cancer patients need clinical information
regarding the different threats towards the patient, the prognosis and perspective of illness in order
to help the patient in their current condition. The familial support, womens and partners health
and emotional distress may affect the interaction between the patients and their partners.
In a quantitative study (Grunfeld, E., Coyle, D., Whelan, T. et. al., 2004) the vital role
of family caregivers are well-recognized regarding caring for terminally-ill patients but also
proved 30% height of increase of depression and perceived burden among caregivers, while
patients functional status declines. This research shows that family caregivers are most likely to
experience firsthand depression during the cancer journey of the patient. In another longitudinal
study (Arora, N.K., Finney Rutten, L.J., Gustafson, D.H., et. al., 2006) majority of the women
receive informational, emotional and decision-making support from family, friends and
caregivers during the first year of diagnosis of illness and significantly drops over time on which
cancer patients desire a consistent amount of during their cancer journey. In the result of this
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research, significant efforts play an important role in facilitating the cancer patients adjustments
to illness and to address their needs throughout the cancer experience of the patient.
In raising awareness towards breast cancer patients, many support groups were formed in
order to help and facilitate cancer patients social and psychological needs, but according to a
quantitative study (Kissane, D.W., Grabsch, B., Clarke, D.M., et. al., 2007) about 485 women
with advanced breast cancer participated in identifying the survival and psychosocial well-being
of patients -- who are members of supportive-expressive group therapy -- on which results show
a ratio of 0.92 chance for univariate hazard for death and 1.06 ratio for multivariate hazard, proved
that SEGT cannot prolong the survival, but only improve the quality of life, including the
treatment of and protection against depression.

Breast Cancer Patients view on their lifestyle before and after cancer
Several studies were examined regarding the lifestyle of breast cancer patients before and
after the cancer journey. In an observational study, (Irwin, M.L., Smith, A.W., McTiernan, A., et.
al. 2007) women who were pre- and post-diagnosed with breast cancer engage in Health, Eating,
Activity and Lifestyle study, on which results show that compared to women who are inactive both
before and after diagnosis, women who increased physical activity after diagnosis had a 45% lower
risk of death, and women who decreased physical activity after diagnosis had a four-fold greater
risk of death. In a prospective observational study, (Holmes, M.D., Chen, W.Y., Feskanich, D., et.
al. 2005) results show that physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis may reduce risk of death
from this disease, moreover, it may improve their survival and has been strongly linked to improve
their quality of life; it is also believed that physical activity (walking 3 to 5 hours per week) might
extend survival in women with breast cancer.
In relation to physical activity of these breast cancer patients, sexuality or sexual function
is commonly linked before and after the illness. In a study regarding the sexual functioning of
breast cancer survivors (Speer, J.J., Hillenberg, B., Sugrue, D.P., et. al. 2005), treatment, personal,
interpersonal and hormonal factors were variables that determine sexual dysfunction. Results show
that there was no association were found between the type of cancer treatment, hormonal levels,
and sexual functioning. The BCSs level of relationship distress was the most significant variable
affecting arousal, orgasm, lubrication, satisfaction, and sexual pain. Relationship concerns,
depression, and age are important influences in the development of BCS sexual dysfunction.
However, a structured interview regarding changes and coping in sexuality after breast cancer
(Taskashi, M. & Kai, I. 2005) was conducted among Asian women survivors, results show that
factors that influenced women's experiences include psychological and physical recovery after
treatment, fear of their partner's negative response, the importance of the sexual relationship for
the couple, and their partner's understanding and support. In another study, (Iwamitsu, Y.,
Shimoda, K., Abe, H., et. al. 2004) researchers examined the influence of anxiety, emotional
suppression and psychological distress before and after breast cancer diagnosis. Study showed that
patients with breast cancer with suppressed emotion and had chronically high levels of anxiety felt
higher levels of emotional distress both before and after the diagnosis. Psychological interventions

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such as encouragement to communicate and express their emotions after the diagnosis can
maintain the adjustment of patients in the face of the disease.

Depression
Depression is commonly associated and experienced by breast cancer patients, over the
years, treatment of cancer patients can cause mood changes with the patient due to physical distress
and hormonal change. In a prospective study (Pinquart, M. and Duberstein, P.R. 2010), results
show that depression diagnosis and higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted elevated
mortality, it causes patients to have the willingness to fight against cancer and moreover, screening
for depression should be routinely conducted in the cancer treatment setting. Referrals to mental
health specialists should be considered. In relation to depression and mortality, another study
(Manning, M. and Bettencourt, B.A. 2010) focused on 213 women undergoing breast cancer
treatment and how depression can affect medical adherence of patients. Evidence suggests that the
more depressed a cancer patient is, the less likely she will adhere to medication or treatment plans.
Results show an evidence that the theory of planned behaviour mediates the relation between
depression and intentions to adhere to treatment plans and between depression and lack of
adherence to medication regime.
In another study (Fann, J.R., Thomas-Rich, A.M., Kayton, WJ., et. al. 2008) reviewed the
evidence of prevalence of depression among breast cancer patients, results suggest that depression
impacts on the quality of life of cancer patients and few studies focus on the treatment and
epidemiology of major depression. Moreover, major depression causes amplification of physical
symptoms, increased functional impairment and poor treatment adherence.

Coping skills of Breast Cancer Patients


Coping against breast cancer is challenging for the physical, emotional and psychological
state of the patient and family (or caregiver). However, further studies have been conducted
regarding the coping strategies of breast cancer patients. In a purposive study (Kershaw, T.,
Northouse, L., Kritpracha, C., et. al. 2003) about 189 patient-family dyads with advance breast
cancer participated to compare the coping strategies by the breast cancer patients and their family
caregivers to examine how strategies are related to patients and families quality of life. Results
according to profile analysis, patients greater use of emotional support, religion, positive
reframing, distraction, venting and humor coping while the family caregivers use alcohol and drug
coping. While in the regression analysis, among both patient and family member, active coping
was associated with higher quality of life while avoidant coping was associated with lower quality
of life.
In a prospective study (Badr, H., Carmack, CL., Kashy, DA., et. al. 2010) conducted an
evaluation regarding Dyadic Coping among patients with Metastatic breast cancer and their
partners, on which, the patient and the partner work together during the cancer journey and
maintaining their relationship. 191 couples participated in the study and results show that
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participants who used positive dyadic coping, patients experience slightly higher levels of distress
while partner experience slight lower levels of distress. Whereas participants who used negative
dyadic coping, both patients and partners significantly experienced greater levels of distress. In
conclusion, the couples that work together can manage the level of stress associated with MBC.
In a longitudinal study (Bussell, VA. and Naus, MJ 2010) there are common coping
strategies during distress in chemotherapy, results show that (1) using religion, positive reframing,
and acceptance accounted for forty-six percent (46%) of the variance in posttraumatic growth; (2)
positive reframing related to more posttraumatic growth; (3) instrumental and emotional support
related to more posttraumatic growth; (4) acceptance related to less perceived stress; (5) self-blame
related to more perceived stress; and (6) posttraumatic growth marginally related to lower
perceived stress. In another study (Balboni, Vanderwerker, Block, et. al. 2007) religiousness and
spirituality has been associated and play a role in coping with cancer, results show that in a
population of 230 participants 88% considered that religion is somewhat least important, while
47% reported that spiritual needs were not supported by religious community and 72% reported
that spiritual needs were not medically supported at all. Many advanced cancer patients spiritual
needs are not supported by religious communities or the medical system, and spiritual support is
associated with better QOL. Religious individuals more frequently want aggressive measures to
extend life.
However, there are coping strategies for breast cancer survivors, in a longitudinal study
(Lauver, DR., Connolly-Nelson, K., Vang, P. 2007) among 51 participants, from age range 34 to
7 years old, results show that participants used acceptance, religion and distraction as primary
coping strategies. These were highly rated as helpful coping whereas, clinicians only provide
anticipatory guidance, assessor and address stressors in this phase.

SYNTHESIS

In the past years, depression has been correlated with cancer patients, it has been proven
that patients diagnosed with cancer encounter behavioral, emotional and psychological depression
that causes them not to engage in the activities they are normally doing before the diagnosis of
their illness. The prevalence of cancer urged not only doctors and caretakers, but also psychologists
and psychiatrists, to other alternative ways that can help the cancer patients survive their
psychological and emotional depression. Researches also found out that support of the family and
friends can help the patient survive and go back to their normal routines and also, attachment style
that these patients develop with their caretakers. Moreover, breast cancer patients are given much
attention on their reproductive system, family function and their psychosocial interaction during
and after cancer, which also gives them a positive outlook to survive cancer.
Optimism has been correlated and researched through various techniques hundreds of
times. According to International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the patients outlook
can help in the health behavior and health status, moreover, in this study it has been proven that
patients with optimistic disposition gain favorable outcomes than those with pessimistic
disposition. In an observational and quantitative study (Allison et al 2003) proved that pessimistic
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patients are less likely to survive 1 year after diagnosis than optimistic patients, that are more
independent of their biological prognostic indicators. However, a nine-year longitudinal research
conducted by University of Pennsylvania, on which 646 patients died with analysis on the patients
longevity and outlook, suggests that optimism help the quality, not the length, of life for cancer
patients.
The highlight from all the variables -- in relation to the experiences of breast cancer patients
and their optimism -- focuses on the physical, emotional and psychological support system that
these breast cancer patients need and receive from their primary caretakers and people they
encounter during this cancer journey. Moreover, these studies suggest the quality of life that these
breast cancer patients/survivors experience during and after their illness. The dominant findings
suggest that in order for a breast cancer patient to maintain optimism, coping skills (such as
physical and emotional monitoring process) and most especially, family support, plays a vital role
in the survival and recovery of patients.

METHOD
Research Design
The study was a Phenomenological research design which was used to utilize the depth of
phenomenon. Qualitative data is effective obtaining descriptive narration about the respondents
life experiences, opinions and optimism disposition. In-depth interviews with the respondents were
used to gather the needed data.

Participants
A sample of five (N = 5) female breast cancer survivors, ranging from 45-55 years old,
were interviewed for this study. The sample that fits the criteria for this study was diagnosed with
cancer, went under treatment, and were 2-3 years fully treated from breast cancer or maintaining
current health status from the illness.

Sampling Method
Participants were chosen by the use of purposive sampling which gives access to a
particular set of people. The researcher requested for participants who fit the criteria. This sampling
technique is based on the population and the purpose of the study

Research Instruments
The data needed for the study was gathered through an interview and a purposive test.
Through interview, the researcher prepared a self-made questionnaire with open-ended questions
that used as a guide throughout the course of the interview. Questions such as, what are the
experiences you had as a breast cancer patient? How would you describe your life after surviving
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the illness? Questions such as these are to be inquired. The researcher used a voice recorder and a
camera, with the consent of the participants, for the documentation of data.

Procedures
In order to conduct the study and gather the necessary data, the researcher went through
the following procedures:
First, the researcher prepared a letter of consent for the participant/family asking
permission from them to allow an interview from the targeted participants. Second, upon the
approval of participants, the researcher introduced herself and gave the participants a personal
background of the researcher. The researcher used some concepts of Filipino Psychology, on
which is the method of pakikipagpalagayang-loob and pakikipagkwentuhan to help the
respondents be confident in answering sensitive questions. Lastly, the researcher interviewed the
participants individually and personally.

Data Analysis
The data gathered from the self-report interview questionnaire was analyzed using
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) (Smith, JA, Flowers, P., Larkin, M. 2009). This
technique is used in qualitative research, in order to aim insights into how a participant makes
sense of a major life phenomenon. Through observer impression, examination of the data was
interpreted by forming impression and report impression in structured and descriptive form.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study dealt with the Optimism of Breast Cancer Survivors. A total of 5 breast cancer
survivors were interviewed. This study aims to find out the following: (1) Experiences and
adjustments of the Breast Cancer Survivor (2) Family and friends support towards the Breast
Cancer Survivor (3) Coping skills of the Breast Cancer Survivor (4) Breast Cancer Survivors
outlook in life during their situation (5) Breast Cancer Survivors outlook in life towards the
present and their future. Based on the gathered data, Breast Cancer Survivors are focused on the
things in the present and optimistic with the quality of their life in the future.
Experiences and adjustments of the Breast Cancer Survivor
The survivors described their feelings and reactions when they discovered they have
cancer, most of them experienced physical pain and question themselves why do they have to
encounter cancer, but their common point of view, they questioned themselves for the prevalence
of illness and accepted the fact that they are battling against cancer.

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Questioning and Accepting the illness


At first, why me? kasi ako breadwinner samin and then, nag-pray ako kay Lord, Siya
na ang bahala. I accepted it and prepared myself for it. -Participant 1
Di ako nagulat, sinabi sakin mag-pray ka lang pero nasa isip ko parin, bakit ako
pa?. Naiiyak ako at nalungkot, pero tinanggap ko. - Participant 2
Physical pain were triggering and these were the symptoms, nung nadiscover ko na, mas
nag-focus ako sa physical pain pero tinanggap ko. - Participant 3
In a multidisciplinary and prospective study (Greer, S., Morris, T., Pettingale, K.W., 1979)
responses were recurrence-free survival was significantly common among patients who had
initially reacted to cancer by denial or who had a fighting spirit than among patients who had
responded with stoic acceptance or feelings helplessness and hopelessness.
Physical Changes
Madaming bawal na food, tapos yung after ng chemotherapy, meron siya after taste sa
tastebuds ko. Lasang kalawang. - Participant 4
Namayat ako, bumagsak katawan ko kakaisip at walang gana. Hindi ako makakilos sa
bahay at palaging tulala. - Participant 5
Two (2) out of five (5) respondents were mastectomized, while five (5) out of five (5) respondents
went under chemotherapy during their illness. In a semi-structured interview (Luoma, ML and
Hakamies-Blomqvist, L 2004) suggest that physical functioning translate into dependency on
others, leading to decreased autonomy. Changes in appearance and decreased condition affected
patients' ability to carry out roles and responsibilities, which led to changes in lifestyle and also
affected patients' social functioning, often resulting in isolation. Moreover, in another article
(Rosman, S. 2004) chemotherapy-induced alopecia is one of the most distressing side effects of
chemotherapy. One strategy that women use involves camouflaging and hiding; women with
breast cancer wear wigs in attempt to hide their hair loss. In addition, in a symptom cluster study
(Wilmoth, MC. et. al. 2007) suggests that fatigue, weight gain and altered sexuality are common
factors affected during the treatment in breast cancer. However, exercise is the intervention
suggested to decrease the severity of treatment side effects in these holistic areas of the patients.
Family and friends support towards the Breast Cancer Survivor
The survivors described their families and friends feelings and reactions upon discovering
that they -- breast cancer patients then -- are battling against cancer, on which most of their families
and friends, were more affected than the patients.
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The survivors also explained how these family members and friends supported them during
this major event of their life, on which most of their families and friends gave them financial
support and most importantly, encouragement and moral support.
Family and Friends reaction
Umiiyak sila nung nalaman nila, pero ilan lang sa immediate family member ko ang
nakakaalam. Tinago ko sa bunsong anak ko na mayroon akong cancer. - Participant 3
Ayaw nila maniwala, kailangan daw may 2nd opinion. Naririnig ko na naaawa sila sa
akin pag nag-uusap sila. - Participant 5
In a general study, Martire, LM. et. al. (2004) stated that there are links between chronic illness
and family relationships. Among patients, threat to mortality is the variable that needs intervention,
whereas among family members, caregiving burden is the main variable of focus. However,
depression, anxiety and relationship satisfaction are the common variable for both patient and
family member. Kotkamp-Mothes. et. al. (2005) stated that distress among family members is
sometimes very similar to the distress experienced by cancer patients.
Family and Friends actions and ways of support
Kumakain ako ng healthy food, sinasabayan ako ng anak ko sa balanced diet ko. Pag
bawal sa akin ang meat or ma-cholesterol, sila din iniiwasan nila kumain ng ganoon. Puro
gulay lang din kinakain nila. - Participant 4
Friends ko, financial support ang binibigay nila, lalo na nung nasa hospital ako and
encouragement naman ang binigay ng family ko, kasi personal nila sinasabi sa akin yun.
- Participant 1

Coping skills of the Breast Cancer Survivors


The survivors described their different coping skills in order for them to endure physical
pain and emotional distress while battling against breast cancer. The coping skills used by the
participants are religious and spiritual coping, physical activities such as physical exercise and
lastly, self-help coping strategy.

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Religiosity and Spiritual Coping


Naging part ako ng Handmaids of the Lord, pray over at church, nawawala iniisip ko
kahit saglit pag nasa labas ako ng bahay, pero pag-uwi, naiisip ko parin. - Participant 2
Tarakeshwar, N., et. al. (2006) stated that religious coping plays an important role and was
associated with better overall quality of life of breast cancer patients. However, according to
Smina-Tov, ES. (2008) spirituality among women with breast cancer consider to use it as a unique
perception, feelings of connectedness and integration of their cancer experience.
Physical Activity
Nung nakita ko nakauwi yung panganay na anak ko dito sa Pilipinas, mas lalong bumalik
yung sigla ko, lalo na nung nakita ko yung apo ko, palagi nga ako nakatawa at naka-ngiti.
Kahit na masakit katawan ko, pinag-patuloy ko parin ang physical activities ko, nag-bike
parin ako. Sinubukan ko tulungan ang sarili ko. - Participant 3
Benzein, EG and Berg, AC (2005) stated that efforts to increase the experience of hope and
decrease hopelessness and fatigue must include not only the patient but also the family members.
However, physical activities substantiate the previous literature on which Irwin, M.L., et. al.
(2007) stated that women who increased physical activity after diagnosis had a 45% lower risk of
death, and women who decreased physical activity after diagnosis had a four-fold greater risk of
death.
Self-help Coping Strategy
Tulog lang and reading self-help books. Kasi nakakakuha ako ng encouragement din sa
sarili ko, through that. - Participant 1
Matthews, EE and Cook, PF (2009) stated that during breast cancer treatment, optimism is more
related with social support however, there is an indirect positive effects of emotional well-being
that are partially mediated by a womans level of self-transcendence.
Breast Cancer Survivors Outlook in life during their situation
The Survivors described their outlook in life while battling against breast cancer. Four (4)
out of five (5) admitted they remain optimistic and realistic while one (1) out of five (5) survivors
admitted she was depressed during this major event in her life.
The common point view of the survivors while battling against cancer, they remained
hopeful for the best out of the situation they are facing.

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Optimism
Palaban parin ako. Nagagawa ko parin makatawa at optimistic ako. Naging realistic ang
outlook ko, may pag-asa parin, I was hoping for the best but not expecting. - Participant
4
Optimistic ako noon. Gusto ko lang maayos lahat ng anak ko, nasa magandang situation
sila and live it all to God. - Participant 1
However, in a descriptive study (Dragest, S. et. al. 2010) most women with breast cancer were
highly aware of the threat of death but at the same time hopeful and optimistic. They want to be
treated as usual; pity and compassion will only increase their feelings of fear and vulnerability.
Depression
Depressed ako noon, palaging mainit ang ulo ko. Kung hanggang dun nalang, edi
tatanggapin, pero umaasa parin ako. - Participant 2
Depression is highly associated with breast cancer patients about 1.5 % to 46 % of the population
(Massie, MJ 2004). Depression has been studied in a challenging manner, on the spectrum of
sadness to major affective disorder, mood change occur often due to when patients are repeatedly
confronted with threat to life, receiving cancer treatments, fatigued or experiencing pain.
Breast Cancer Survivors Outlook towards the present and future
The Survivors described their quality of life from the point they are standing right now,
how optimism helped them in surviving cancer and their aspirations towards the future. 3 out of 5
survivors practiced religiosity after battling against cancer, but the common point of view these
survivors are appreciation in life and being stronger than the problems that they may face in the
future.
Mas positive, na-appreciate ko lahat. Before, lahat marami akong gusto mangyari, pero
ngayon, happy and contented na ako. Nakatulong talaga sakin yung positive thinking,
acceptance and trust in God - Participant 1
Masaya, stronger faith. Kung nalagpasan ko to (cancer), how much more yung iba ko
pa nararamdaman ngayon. - Participant 2
Mas natuto ako na pahalagahan ang bawat oras at pagkakataon sa buhay, yung pamilya
ko at napaka-importante ng buhay. - Participant 3
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Optimistic outlook and family encouragement talaga ang nakatulong sakin to survive
cancer. - Participant 4
Naging religious outlook ko, mas lalo ako lumakas, kahit na minsan nararamdaman ko
ibang sakit. - Participant 5
Allen, JD., Savadatti, S. and Gurmankin LA. (2009) stated that women acknowledge positive life
changes as a result of the cancer experience, emotional and physical stresses are prevalent
following the completion of treatment.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The study in general focuses on the Optimism, Family support and Coping skills in the
quality of life among Breast Cancer Survivors. The sample of five (5) Breast Cancer Survivors,
who were 2-3 years fully treated from the illness, ranging from 45-55 years old. Results from the
interviews suggest that optimism, different coping strategies and family support helped them in
surviving from Breast Cancer. It indicated that their optimism disposition with life focused on
what they have now as a survivor and how their experiences as a breast cancer patient made an
impact on the quality of their life. The negative experiences were used as a comparison to the life
they are standing in now, family and social support play the most important role during their cancer
journey, on which they served as the source of strength and hope of then-patients in surviving
breast cancer.
The researcher recommends to explore further the emotional well-being of the survivors,
as well as family members emotional well-being and quality of life during and after cancer
journey of the survivors.

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A Qualitative Study of the Subjective Well-Being of Senior Citizens and


their Social Connectedness
Verbayne N. Occenola
Eva A. Castronuevo

Abstract
This study focuses on the Subjective Well-Being (SWB) of Senior
Senior Citizens concerning social connectedness. Evidently, social status is
just one of the many factors affecting ones subjective well-being, but in this
study, the researcher used qualitative design, more specifically, an in-depth
interview to know how important social support is with senior citizens
coming from their family, as well as their secondary group. With a total of 6
participants, 3 senior citizens involved in an organization and 3 senior
citizens who are not currently active in any association, the researcher
conducted a qualitative study, and specifically used thematic analysis to
carefully analyse the data gathered. The research problems include social
connectedness as an essential factor in ones subjective well-being, the
importance of having a social group other than their family, and does social
connectedness affect ones thoughts and actions. As a result, although not all
senior citizens are active in an organization or any association among their
peer group for that matter, they still consider that kind of social
connectedness as important, as well as perceiving it as an essential factor in
their subjective well-being.

In general, social connectedness is the level of connection a person feels with friends, family,
coworkers, and society. We all know that people with limited connections may experience feelings
of isolation and could be at increased risk of mental health conditions in addition to having fewer
available resources for social advancement and support, which is one of the most essential reason
behind this study. Low social connectedness can lead to feels of depression, suicidal thoughts, and
other mental health problems. Moreover, older adults, most especially senior citizens, and people
with disabilities are at increased risk of low social connectedness and may report experiences of
isolation when they meet with care providers, social workers, and friends. Basically, social
connectedness provides an indication of physical, mental and emotional strength.
A study made by Cruz in 2013 regarding the percentage of the Filipino elders level of
satisfaction with their present life showed that 34.3% are satisfied, 53.9% are somewhat satisfied
and 11.8% are not truly satisfied. With the figures presented, it is evident that more than half of
the participants are fairly satisfied with their present life, but the statistics also show that the
females are more satisfied with a percentage of 54.1% in the life satisfaction scale. When
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psychologists measure SWB, they are measuring how people think and feel about their lives. The
three components of SWB, life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect, are independent
factors that should be measured and studied separately (Andrews & Withey, 1976, Lucas et al.,
1996). Thus, the presence of positive affect does not mean the absence of negative affect and vice
versa. Before evaluating the correlates and predictors of SWB, it is worth noting the instruments
used in measuring the components of SWB. The self-report measures have raised some concerns
to many positive psychologists, (e.g. Schwartz & Strack, 1991). They showed that SWB scores
can be influenced by a number of factors such as situational factors, the type of scales that are
used, the order in which the items are presented, and the mood of the respondent at the time when
the measurement was taken. Most researchers recommend the use of a multi-method battery to
assess SWB wherever possible since a more accurate assessment of SWB can be achieved and
the amount of response artifices can be minimised. In general, however, self-reported well being
measures have shown convergence with non-self report methods including some physiological
measures (Lucas et al., 1996).
Social support is studied across a wide range of disciplines including psychology,
medicine, sociology, nursing, public health, and social work. Social support has been linked to
many benefits for both physical and mental health, but social support is not always beneficial.
Social support is associated with increased psychological well-being in the workplace and in
response to important life events. In stressful times, social support helps people reduce
psychological distress (e.g., anxiety or depression). Social support can simultaneously function as
a problem-focused (e.g. receiving tangible information that helps resolve an issue) and emotionfocused coping strategy (e.g. used to regulate emotional responses that arise from the stressful
event). Social support has been found to promote psychological adjustment in conditions with
chronic high stress like HIV, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, stroke, and coronary artery disease.
People with low social support report more sub-clinical symptoms of depression and
anxiety than do people with high social support. In addition, people with low social support have
higher rates of major mental disorder than those with high support. These include post traumatic
stress disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and
eating disorders. Among people with schizophrenia, those with low social support have more
symptoms of the disorder. In addition, people with low support have more suicidal ideation, and
more alcohol and drug problems. Similar results have been found among children. Published in
2013 in the Journal of Affective Disorders, Jessica E. Akey, Lance S. Rintamaki, and Tera L. Kane
did a qualitative study of 34 men and women diagnosed with an eating disorder and used the Health
Belief Model (HBM) to explain the reasons for which they forgo seeking social support.
According to Charles Horton Cooley, there are actually two basic social groups that we can
get social support from and they are the primary and secondary groups. A primary group is a small
social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. People joined in primary
relationships spend a great deal of time together, engage in a wide range of activities, and feel that
they know one another well. In short, they show real concern for one another. In every society, the
family is the most important primary group. Groups based on lasting friendships are also primary
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groups. Secondary groups, in contrast to primary groups, are large groups involving formal and
institutional relationships. Secondary relationships involve weak emotional ties and little personal
knowledge of one another. Most secondary groups are short term, beginning and ending without
particular significance. They may last for years or may disband after a short time. The formation
of primary groups happens within secondary groups.
The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective well-being of senior citizens, aged
60 and above, in relation with their social well-being. The intention was to further study how living
conditions, overall participation in physical and/or social activities relate with one another and
affect the perception or outlook of an individual, specifically, being a member of a secondary
group. The research questions are as follows:
1.) What are the respondents perceptions in joining an association and how does it affects ones
way of thinking or action as well as ones subjective well-being?
2.) How important is it for senior citizens to have a social connection outside of their family
members?
3.) How does social connectedness contribute to ones satisfaction in life?

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


Subjective Well-being
There are a number of studies (Diener, Oishi & Lucas, 2002; and Dr. Dzuka & Dalbert, 2006)
that have been learned dealing with subjective well-being among senior citizens. A study by
Diener, Oishi and Lucas in 2002 suggested that subjective well-being, which is people's emotional
and cognitive evaluations of their lives, includes what lay people call happiness, peace, fulfillment,
and life satisfaction. Cultural variables explain differences in mean levels of SWB and appear to
be due to objective factors such as wealth, to norms dictating appropriate feelings and how
important SWB is considered to be, and to the relative approach versus avoidance tendencies of
societies. On the basis of just world theory, Dr. Dzuka and Dalbert argued that seniors who strongly
endorse the belief in a personally just world should reveal a better well-being in old age.
Social Connectedness
According to Maslows hierarchy of needs, love and belonging are also a major part in
ones self-fulfilment, leading to self-actualization in the latter years of each individual. According
to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups,
regardless if these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include
clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, and gangs. Some
examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors,
colleagues, and confidants.
Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available
from other people, and that one is part of a supportive social network. These supportive resources
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can be emotional (e.g., nurturance), tangible (e.g., financial assistance), informational (e.g.,
advice), or companionship (e.g., sense of belonging) and intangible (e.g. personal advice). Social
support can be measured as the perception that one has assistance available, the actual received
assistance, or the degree to which a person is integrated in a social network. Support can come
from many sources, such as family, friends, pets, neighbours, coworkers, organizations, etc.
Government provided social support is often referred to as public aid.
Research shows that healthy relationships can help you live longer. A review of 148 studies
found that people with strong social relationships are 50% less likely to die prematurely. Similarly,
Dan Buettners Blue Zones research calculates that committing to a life partner can add 3 years to
life expectancy (Researchers Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler have found that mens life
expectancy benefits from marriage more than womens do.) It can also help you deal with stress.
The support offered by a caring friend can provide a buffer against the effects of stress. In a study
of over 100 people, researchers found that people who completed a stressful task experienced a
faster recovery when they were reminded of people with whom they had strong relationships.
Those who were reminded of stressful relationships, on the other hand, experienced even more
stress and higher blood pressure.
According to research by psychologist Sheldon Cohen, college students who reported
having strong relationships were half as likely to catch a common cold when exposed to the virus.
In addition, 2012 international Gallup poll found that people who feel they have friends and family
to count on are generally more satisfied with their personal health than people who feel isolated.
And hanging out with healthy people increases your own likelihood of healthin their book
Connected, Christakis and Fowler show that non-obese people are more likely to have non-obese
friends because healthy habits spread through our social networks.
Social Connectedness and Subjective Well-Being
A study by Gallagher and Vella-Brodrick in 2008 with 267 adults as respondents suggested
that social support may not always be necessary for SWB since not all people depend on other
peoples care and support. Similarly, the study by McDonough, Sabiston and Wrosch in 2013
suggests that improvements in SWB were predicted by higher levels of general social support (=
.21). High levels of hope should promote well-being. Gilman, Dooley, and Florell (2006) found
that compared with people of different ages clustered into low- or average-hope groups, the highhope people reported significantly better personal adjustment, and global life satisfaction. Hope is
enhanced by successful life experiences and can be diminished by failure experiences, which are
associated with depression (Snyder, 2005; Snyder, Lopez, Shorey, Rand, & Feldman, 2003) and
decreased life satisfaction (Valle, Huebner, & Suldo, 2004).
A widely publicized study from 2008 in the British Medical Journal reported happiness in
social networks may spread from person to person. Researchers followed nearly 5000 individuals
for 20 years in the long-standing Framingham Heart Study and found clusters of happiness and
unhappiness that spread up to 3 degrees of separation on average. Happiness tended to spread
through close relationships like friends, siblings, spouses, and next-door neighbors; researchers
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reported happiness spread more consistently than unhappiness through the network. Moreover, the
structure of the social network appeared to have an impact on happiness, as people who were very
central (with many friends, and friends of friends) were significantly happier than those on the
network periphery. People closer with others are more likely to be happy themselves. Overall, the
results suggest happiness can spread through a population like a virus. Having a best friend buffers
one's negative life experiences. When one's best friend is present Cortisol levels are decreased and
feelings of self-worth increase.
Research indicates that a loss of social support has a significant influence on the
psychological well-being of international students (Hayes and Lin, 1994; Mallinckrodt and Leong,
1992; Pedersen, 1991; Sandhu, 1995). Upon coming to the US, international students tend to feel
a deep sense of loss when leaving their families and friends behind (Sandhu, 1995). Together,
social support and social connectedness may contribute to international students acculturative
stress. Acculturative stress often accompanies emotional pain, such as, feelings of powerlessness,
marginality, inferiority, loneliness, and perceived alienation and discrimination (Sandhu and
Asrabadi, 1998). Moreover, particularly difficult acculturative stress experiences tend to remain
within the individuals over a long period of time (Sandhu and Asrabadi, 1998). By assessing
international students acculturative stress, their psychological needs may be better served in the
future.

SYNTHESIS
To wrap up the findings encompassing these variables, research suggests that social status
is as significant as the other variable (health and financial) in contributing to the subjective of a
person. One study supporting this idea that life satisfaction in older people with reduced self-care
capacity is determined by several factors, with social, physical, mental and financial aspects
probably interacting with each other are Borg, Hallberg and Blomqvists cross-sectional survey
results with 522 respondents, aged 65 and above, in 2006.
Population based surveys sometimes use qualitative questions to help understand the level
of social connectedness in communities. Well-being is a positive outcome that is meaningful for
people and for many sectors of society because it tells us that people perceive that their lives are
going well. However, many indicators that measure living conditions fail to measure what people
think and feel about their lives, such as their positive and negative emotions, the realization of their
potential, their overall satisfaction with life, and of course, the quality of their relationships with
other people.
METHOD
This includes the research design, participants, research instruments, procedures and data
analysis.

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Research Design
A qualitative design was engaged in this study to explore the depth of this research.
Specifically, case study was used, which is descriptive in nature. In-depth interview was used to
gather the needed data. A systematic approach was used to discern the SWB of senior citizens in
relation to their social connectedness.
Participants
A sample of N=6 senior citizens, ranging from 60 to 85 years old, was selected and
interviewed. The sample was chosen from two different aspect of social living. Three (3) elderly
who are not currently active in any organization or any kind of secondary group, and the other
three (3) who are members of different associations for the senior citizens. Participants were
chosen by the use of purposive sampling which gives access to a certain set of people. The
researcher looked for participants who will be fit in the criteria. This sampling technique is based
on the population and the purpose of the study.
Research Instruments
The data were utilized through an in-depth interview, specifically the general interview guide
approach or commonly called as guided interview. This approach for interviewing includes a basic
checklist that is prepared to make sure that all relevant topics are covered. The interviewer is still
free to explore, probe and ask questions deemed interesting to the researcher. This type of
interview approach is useful for eliciting information about specific topics.
The researcher has prepared a self-made checklist (see Appendix) that will be used as a guide
throughout the course of the interview. The researcher will also use a camera and/or a voice
recorder, with the approval of the participants, for documentation purposes.
Procedure
The researcher scouted for six (6) participants, specifically, senior citizens ranging from
60 to 90 years old. The respondents were all found in Paranaque, but living in different locations
in Metro Manila. When the researcher found three (3) participants who are members of an
association, and another three (3) who are not members of any organization, the researcher
explained to them the purpose of the study and were asked to set a date with the participants for
their interview, with a minimum of at least 30 minutes for each person in order to gather enough
data needed for the study. Confidentiality in their personal information was assured to the
participants so that they will answer truthfully. The researcher used in-depth interview which is a
qualitative research method and accordingly prioritizes validity to further understand the insights
of the interviewees' answers.

Data Analysis
The researcher used thematic method of data analysis in order to study the data gathered.
Thematic analysis is useful because themes are produced by the results of the research and are not
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invented by the researcher, leading to less bias. A common method done is recursive abstraction,
where datasets are summarized; those summaries are further summarized then divided them into
meaningful parts and labeled each one according to similarities and differences. The researcher
interpreted each part of the transcribed data in order to answer the research problem. The end result
would turn out as a more compact summary by then.
Demographic Profile
Individual:
The first participant is a 63-year-old Psychologist. She is a member of an association in her church
in Quezon City.
The second participant is also a member of an association in his church, which is the Mary Queen
of the Apostles Parish in Paranaque City. He is 82 years old already, and still active in being a
member of the parish.
The third participant is also a member of an organization which brings women from different
places together aiming for different goals in the community. She is already 74 years of age.
The fourth participant is already 78 years old and is not a member of any association and/or group.
Although he is very sociable, he is not into joining any organization.
The fifth participant is a 69-year-old widow. She was an active member of her church group before,
but now she is not anymore.
The sixth participant is already 85 years old but he is still very healthy and sociable. He is not a
member of an organization and just loves to read, but he considers himself as an extrovert.

Participants

Gender

Age

Group

Senior 1

Female

63 years old

Senior 2

Male

82 years old

Senior 3

Female

74 years old

Senior 4

Male

78 years old

Senior 5

Female

69 years old

Senior 6

Male

85 years old

Group:

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A - an active member of any association or social group other than their family
B - not a member or an active member of an association/organization
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Secondary group may be defined as those associations, which are characterized, by indirect
and impersonal or secondary relations and specialization of functions. The relations between the
members of secondary groups are touch-and-go type, which means it is indirect, less intimate,
impersonal, and are usually formal. Secondary groups are very large in size, which also explains
why it usually is temporary. Social connectedness is the measure of how people come together and
interact. At an individual level, social connectedness involves the quality and number of
connections one has with other people in a social circle of family, friends, and acquaintances.

Perception on Social Connectedness Affecting their Actions and Subjective Well-Being


The following responses were from question numbers 1, 2 and 4, which are under the first
research question on how social connectedness affect ones actions and SWB.
Senior 1: Siguro, dipende sa emotional needs ng tao yan. Ako kasi dipende sa problema
ko kung sino yung mga sinasabihan ko.. Pero mas magco-confide ako sa group ko sa church o sa
friends kesa sa family ko. Para sakin kasi, I trust my friends more.. Pero syempre sa mga piling
tao lang din sa kanila.
Theres a contributing factor kasi na-enhance na yung talents ko at concerns sa ibang
tao at syempre pagiging mas friendly ko rin kesa ina-isolate ko lang sarili ko sa bahay. Specifically
sa church, your social function is helping others by sharing your skills, talents and experiences
since we continue to enhance them by our activities din.
It affected me in some way because I received more knowledge and lessons as well as
information and experiences I gain from others. In that way, it makes me grow.
Senior 2: Syempre meron naman kahit papaano.. Lalo na kapag may kinalaman sa
financial problem.. Sa mga kasamahan ko sa church, ayun naman sa lahat ng aspeto natutulungan
nila ako. Financially.. Mentally.. Physically and Spiritually.. Basta lahat yun nasusuportahan nila
ako..
Oo naman.. Kasi nag-grow ako as a person being able to communicate with other people..
Naging parang eye opener kasi sya.. Yung mga bagay na hindi ko ma-apperciate dati, naa-

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appreciate ko na ngayon.. Lalo na yung mga tao sa paligid ko.. Kaya nagbago rin yung actions
ko.. Tsaka mas naging careful din ako sa mga iniisip ko about sa kanila..
Senior 3: Yes.. I always feel the emotional support coming from my family.. Di naman
mawawala yun.. Sa ka-member ko naman sa association, mas lalo.. Kasi sa totoo lang, sila yung
mas madalas kong nakakasama ngayon.. Actually, for so many years already.. Actually hindi lang
sa social well-being ko.. Sa lahat ng aspeto ng buhay ko masasabi kong nagco-contribute talaga
sya..
No, it didnt affect me in any way because I stayed the same even after I have joined that
organization.. Yes, I had come to realize things and became more positive, but it didnt affect who
I am, especially my thoughts and actions..
Senior 4: Oo.. Kasi ako mahilig rin kasi talaga ako magkukukwento sa kanila.. May
problema man ako o wala kaya sila na rin mismo nagbibigay ng suporta.. Pati sa pera.. Ayun..
Hmmm.. Ewan.. Oo siguro.. Pero kasi lagi akong nasa telepono o nasa kapit bahay kausap
mga kaibigan ko kaya mas madalas ko silang nakakasama, so parang ganun na rin siguro yun? E
pagdating naman sa kanila kuntento ako kasi marami sila.. Iba-iba pa parang kapag member ako
ng association siguro..
Siguro.. Mas natuto ako sa mga bagay-bagay eh.. Kumbaga, dahil wala akong ginawa
kundi kadaldalan sila, ang dami ko nang nalaman sa buhay dahil sa mga pagkakamali ko at
pagkakamali nila.. At tsaka, mas lalo akong naging sociable at malakas dahil exercise ko na yung
pagkausap sa kanila..
Senior 5: Oo naman.. araw-araw din naman kasi andito yung nagiisa kong anak na si Tess..
Matiyaga syang kamustahin ako kasama mga apo ko rin..
Oo.. Kasi kahit ako talagang hindi ko lang ramdam, alam ko talaga na nakagaganda yun
para samin.. Kahit wala na akong asawa andyan naman anak ko.. Sa ibang tao naman, bibihira
na lang ako kumausap ng ibang tao.. Dati oo syempre.. Pero mas maganda nga sana kung malakas
pa tuhod ko para mas ie-enjoy ko pa yung paghahalubilo sa ibang tao..
Oo.. Kasi sa mga opinyon nila at tulong na nabibigay sayo, napapaisip ka rin eh.. At sa
mga bagay na naiisip mo kung paano mo halimbawa magagawa ang isang bagay, e syempre
maapektuhan na rin yung mga galaw mo sa pagdating ng panahon, maapektuhan na mga pananaw
mo sa buhay at ikaw mismo bilang tao..

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Senior 6: Hindi masyado.. Nasa probinsya kasi sila.. halos lahat.. Tapos yung mga andito
naman sa Manila, malalayo parin sakin kayat bihira ko na lang talaga sila makausap.. Di rin
naman nila ako binibisita dito..
Kapag nakikita ko kasi pamilya ko at sobrang bihira nga lang mangyari yun, syempre
masaya ako.. Pero kapag mag-isa na lang ako sa bahay napapaisip ako syempre.. Na bakit hindi
nila ako dinadalaw man lang kahit once a month.. Syempre masakit sa loob yun.. Sa mga kaibigan
ko naman dito malapit samin, sila na lang yung parang nagdi-distract sa kalungkutan na
nararamdaman ko.. Kayat siguro naman kapag ako naging member ng association, mas maganda
nga naman yun..
Hindi siguro.. Ewan ko. Dipende sa tao? Kasi nasa sayo naman talaga kung magpapaapekto ka o hindi eh.. Paano kung mali pala sinasabi nila sayo, ikaw ba mismo susundin mo yun?
Syempre pipiliin mo rin kung ano yung mga bagay na ia-apply sa sarili mo base sa mga
experience o advice nila sayo, diba? E kung alam mo naman sa sarili mo na maganda ang mga
yon, edi magpa-apekto ka ng magpa-apekto. Hahaha!
Almost all of the participants answered that they do get enough support from them and
almost in all aspects actually, financially, mentally, physically, as well as emotionally, but in the
case of those elderly who is involved in at least one organization, they say that emotionally and
spiritually, they receive a whole lot more from the people in their peer group. In terms of affecting
ones social well-being, they agree that it really does affect a persons social well-being because
the experiences they share and the stories they learn from other people makes them grow as a
person. In terms of their way of thinking and actions being affected by their social relationship, 2
of the respondents dont actually believe that it can change them, which means that this matter also
depends on the person. If you are easily influenced in some way, then theres a bigger chance for
you to be affected in how you think and express yourself with other peoples advice and
experiences.
Importance of Having a Secondary/Peer Group
The following responses refer to question number 5 in the self-made guidelines for the
interview, which is under the second research question that talks about how important it is for
senior citizens to have a social group other than their family.
Senior 1: if you dont get to be involved in an organization, youll feel insecurity and
depression. Having a social group also gives importance as a person, it allows you to share your
talents and experiences, and lastly, you enjoy other peoples company.
Senior 2: Yes.. Kasi katulad ko, ulila na kasi ako sa mga magulang ko simula bata pa lang
ako.. Kaya bukod sa mga anak ko na may mga asawa na ngayon, ramdam ko rin na kailangan ko
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ng mga kasama o kaibigan bukod sa kanila kundi malulungkot ako kasi mag-isa lang ako dito sa
bahay.. Malaking tulong talaga tong mga kaibigan ko sa church sakin..
Senior 3: I believe that its important to be in this kind of association, especially for us
senior citizens because at this age, were not living with our family anymore eh.. Bibihira lang
yung mga sinasama ng mga anak sa bahay nila ang kanilang mga magulang, so it would be nice
to have other people in your life other than your family..
Senior 4: Oo importante yun.. Pero sa totoo lang, ayoko rin sumali sa mga association na
ganyan.. Kasi kahit marami akong kaibigan, mahirap akong makisama.. Madali ako mairita sa
mga tao. Lalo na sa mga maaarte.. E alam ko sa mga ganun, ang daming maaarte tsaka
mayayabang kaya ayoko sumali sa mga organization na yan kasi pili yung mga taong okay
talaga..
Senior 5: Oo naman.. Kung hindi lang siguro masakit ngayon tuhod ko, siguro active parin
ako hanggang ngayon sa simbahan.. yun lang naman yung pumigil sakin eh.. Kasi sobrang
lumabas pagka-friendly ko at mas marami akong na-realize.. Sa ganung paraan din, natutulungan
namin ang isat isa.. Lalo na sa mga lolo o lola na katulad ko, mas okay talaga na member ka ng
mga organization.. Kundi, pinagsisihan ko siguro kung bakit di ko sinubukan man lang sumali sa
mga ganyan
Senior 6: Oo naman.. Ika nga, No man is an island, diba? Syempre ke-kailanganin din
natin nga tao sa buhay bukod sa pamilya natin para sa mga desisyon na gagawin natin sating
buhay tsaka para mas sumaya pa tayo.. E katulad ko naman, kahit di ako masyadong madaldal
at pala-kaibigan, aaminin ko namang mas gumagaan parin pakiramdam ko kapag madalas akong
may nakakausap at nakakasama.. Sa kanila rin kasi minsan ako ay dumidipende..
As observed, even those who are not a member of an association clearly sees that having a
secondary group is an essential factor in ones subjective well-being. Moreover, all of them feel
that since its important for them to have a secondary group, they would really feel that they would
be happier and more satisfied with their lives if until now they can still be involved in an
organization. For all the participants, they are in agreement that having a social group other than
their family really does contribute a lot in their social well-being and it gives a positive mood on
them, which obviously is an important factor that relates itself with life satisfaction.

Sense of Satisfaction and Happiness in Life


The following responses are under the third research question, which pertains to their views
on how social connectedness give them a perceived life satisfaction as well as ones happiness.
The following answered to questions number 3 and 6.
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Senior 1: Oo naman, because I am not stagnant at home, and Im exposed to different


people and enjoying the activities with them, which are both of the things that I want to do in life.
Siguro hindi ako kasing masiyahin ngayon kasi sa totoo lang, gustong gusto ko yung may
nakakasalimuha akong ibat ibang tao kaya ako nage-enjoy, e kung wala naman akong social life
bukod sa close friends at family ko, edi parang kulang rin source of happiness ko.
Senior 2: Yes, of course! Ayy nako kung alam mo lang.. Simula nung naging member ako
ng church, naging masaya ako at kuntento sa buhay ko at sa pamilya ko.. Iba talaga kapag member
ka na ng association na ganito.. May mga na-realize kasi ako ganun..
Ayy siguro patay nako kung di ako member! Totoo yan! Kasi mamatay ako sa
kalungkutan dahil mag-isa lang ako palagi.. Kahit andyan mga anak ko, parang kulang parin
kasi..
Senior 3: Yes, but I am naturally a cheerful person, so I guess with or without the
association, I will be happy and maintain that way in many years to come.. I am really happy, and
being a member is just one of the many reasons why..
Wala.. Siguro magtuturo lang ako paminsan-minsan dito sa preschool.. Sabay bahay na
ulit.. Ganun na lang everyday.. Kasi di katulad nitong may organization ako sa labas, nakakapagbonding ako kasama ibang tao, may mga outing kami ganun tsaka mas nakikilala ko pa sarili
ko..
Senior 4: Overall naman, oo.. Kasi nakita ko mga accomplishments ng mga anak ko kahit
di ko sila araw-araw nakikita.. Marami naman akong kaibigan.. Hindi naman ako naghihirap at
wala akong sakit.. Yun ang importante
Siguro parang ganito parin buhay ko kahit maging parte man ako sa mga ganyan.. Ang
pinagkaiba lang naman sa tingin ko e mas madami akong taong posibleng maging kasama o
kaibigan kapag sumali ako sa mga ganyan, pero yung mga matututunan ko naman dun e parang
yung mga natututunan ko rin ngayon..
Senior 5: Oo maligaya ako ngayon pero mas maligaya ako syempre kapag may iba pa
akong nakakausap ngayon..
Siguro mas maligaya ako ngayon.. Kahit na madalas kong nakikita mga apo ko at anak ko,
feeling ko mas liligaya ako kapag may iba pa akong nakakasama o nakakausap bukod sa kanila..

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Senior 6: Sakto lang.. Basta iniisip ko na lang na mabuti naman at wala akong sakit..
Sa tingin ko, mas masaya siguro.. Kasi bukod sa mga taong makakasalimuha ko, may mga
ibat ibang activities naman siguro yun, diba? Kaya malamang sa malamang nyan magiging
busy ako at mas masigla siguro kesa yung andito ako mag-isa sa bahay at walang ginagawa..
In terms of feeling a sense of happiness and satisfaction with their lives, many have said
that they are happy, but not actually fully satisfied. The reason for this is that, even though they are
happy because they have their family supporting them, those elderly who are not currently involved
in an association think that they could have been more happier if they have their own peer group,
outside of their family members. Theoretically, high levels of hope should promote well-being.
Gilman, Dooley, and Florell (2006) found that compared with people of different ages clustered
into low- or average-hope groups, the high-hope people reported significantly better personal
adjustment, and global life satisfaction. Hope is enhanced by successful life experiences and can
be diminished by failure experiences, which are associated with depression (Snyder, 2005; Snyder,
Lopez, Shorey, Rand, & Feldman, 2003) and decreased life satisfaction (Valle, Huebner, & Suldo,
2004).

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Well-being is an outcome that is meaningful to the public. There are obviously many
factors that affect ones subjective well-being, but in the most common knowledge of people,
health status and social support are the main aspects of having a healthy subjective well-being,
especially among senior citizens. For a certain number of people, on the other hand, they may also
consider themselves happy because they have a healthy mind and body. Going beyond these
individual-level concepts, social connectedness involves relationships with beyond one's social
circles and even to other communities. This connectedness, one of several components of
community cohesion, provides benefits to both individuals and society. As we age, there are some
transitions in life that influence our communication networks. A simple thought about this is that,
the less involved someone is, the more at risk he or she is for being socially isolated or feeling
disconnected from the community. Basically, social isolation can have a negative impact on the
quality of a persons life.
There are multiple ways on how a person can involve himself or herself in the community
and one of which is to join a number of volunteer opportunities or outreach programs available.
When a person is working with people with similar interests and commitments, it is likely that he
or she will make connections. Another way of not feeling social isolation is getting a pet in order
to have another reason to go outside and meet people. In addition, the researcher would also like
to mention that keeping a positive thought and/or attitude is very much essential and is one of the
major contributing factor in ones subjective well-being.
There are obviously still a lot of intensive research to be done to further analyse this subject
matter regarding subjective well-being and social connectedness, but what the researcher would
like to recommend is for the future researchers to add more variables in the study such as relating
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social connectedness and subjective well-being with self-esteem or gender differences. Although
this topic somehow explains for itself, it would be much more effective as well if the next
researchers with the same variables interview more respondents and further emphasize on both of
the variables especially on social connectedness.

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Gallagher, E. & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2008). Social support and emotional intelligence as predictors
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Experiences of Belongingness in Parasocial Relationships: A Descriptive Case


Study of Filipino Band Fanatics
Kathrina R. Fernando
Eva Castronuevo
Abstract
This study focuses on the experiences of belongingness in parasocial
relationships of the Filipino band fanatics. A total of 6 participants have been
interviewed. The study is a qualitative research and used descriptive case
study as its design to scrutinize the data gathered. The Filipino band fanatics
stated accordingly their experiences of belongingness which vary as to whom
it as concerned; within the family, within certain peer groups and from the
society at large. The results pointed out as well, the culture of Filipino band
fanatics which suggest a difference from the other nationalities band
fanatics. The results also showed the different misunderstandings Filipino
band
fanatics
are
experiencing;
for
purchasing
expensive
tickets/merchandises, clothing, behavior and the choice of music. In handling
these misunderstandings, Filipino band fanatics think positively and ignore
them and few fans agreed in targeting those peoples interests and associate
them with being a fan.

Music has an increasingly important part of the lives of many people; it exerts an immense
inuence on many aspects of their behaviour. Music, nowadays, especially because of the changes
brought about by new technologies, became more and more accessible especially to the lives and
growth of the adolescents. A study of Hargreaves, North & ONeill (2000) in which aims to
determine the importance of music to adolescents in England, and investigates why they listen to
and perform music, responses indicated that over 50% of respondents either played an instrument
currently or had played regularly before giving up, and the sample listened to music for an average
of 2.45 hours per day along with this, the study also indicated that music is important to adolescents
and that this is because it allows them to portray an image to the outside world and satisfy their
emotional needs. Same results had been founded as to the study of Beegle, Campbell & Connell
(2007) in which also aimed to determine the significance of music and music education to middle
and high school adolescents, principal themes were identified within the expressed meanings of
music by adolescents, one is identity formation in and through music, another is emotional
benefits, music's life benefits including character-building and life skills are also one of the themes
and another is musics social benefits.
Social and identity benefits are clearly some of what music can provide. An example would
be the implications of different jingles from commercials and even the ones being used by the
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politicians for their campaigns, as they tried to keep on repeating those jingles and the people then
repeatedly listen, the politicians actually pull a lot voters and those people for that very moment,
became united and one as they sing the same jingle. Music also adds flavor to every coffee sold at
the coffee shops and every food sold at certain restaurants, and makes the ambiance of these places
more relaxing and adds appetite to every customer and which then attracts more of them, brought
them together and families closer. Music is everywhere. It was also proven that it actually brings
people together and closer especially if there is the presence of similarity in musical preferences.
A study of Hargreaves & North (1999), which investigated the function of musical preference as
an identifying badge by which adolescents express their own selfconcepts and make judgments
of others, indicated that adolescents favour people who like the same musical style as they do,
without necessarily denigrating those who do not. The study also support the notion that musical
preference acts as a badge of identity during adolescence, which predicts several other aspects
of lifestyle and attitude. These musical preferences similarities then bring people closer in which
paved the way for the emergence and formation of what we call fandoms or particularly the music
fans.
Fandoms, according to Baym (2007), pool and generate collective intelligence and affect.
People create selfconcepts and selfpresentations inside the fan groups. These fan groups also
develop a sense of shared identity that made it possible for personal relationships to be formed
amongst some members of fan groups. But aside from these interpersonal relationships dealt with
by an individual right after becoming a member of a certain fan community is of course the
relationship these individuals built to the artists they are fan of first and foremost, and that
relationship is what we call the parasocial relationship.
Parasocial relationship is defined as a one-sided relationship that individuals build with
media personalities or such famous people, Horton & Wohl (1956). In a much broader sense, it
actually constitutes two parties to which one party knows a great deal about the other while the
other does not. Similar as to the relationship people build with God and a passed away loved one.
A parasocial relationship can also be built with a fictional character, a drummer of a rock band, or
might even to a group of people, like the entire band itself or a favorite basketball team. Moreover
in the setup of parasocial relationship, according to Brooks (1997), the viewer and or the fan is
made to believe that the person on the screen or the artists in the music been listening into is
communicating directly to them, even though the other participants, the artists or players, have no
knowledge or attachment to fans, other than as an aggregation of numbers comprising an audience
and their income.
Ashe & McCutcheon (2011), in the scenarios of parasocial relationship, stated that
television executives have actively promoted parasocial relationships and the celebrities will often
engage in the illusion of one-on-one interaction with the audience, for example by addressing
them directly. Moreover, talk shows, is a one great example of a media programme that heavily
rely on parasocial interaction. Explaining further, the hosts themselves of the said talk shows
establish a sense of togetherness with the viewer. Soap Operas are also one of the media
programme types in which promote parasocial interaction. The story of these soap operas involved
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overly romanticized versions of everyday interpersonal activity. Ergo, the said media programme
paved the way to the realization of the sense of excitement which may be lacking in the
interpersonal relationships the viewer is having. These relationships do not establish authentic
social interaction, but the feelings that people get out of them, can actually be real.
Parasocial interactions have brought with it, benefits and consequences. Benefits, is
because it appeals to adolescents in the struggles of identity formation and autonomy from parents
because these relationships provide idealized figures with whom the adolescent can envision total
acceptance. In the past research about parasocial relationships, individuals that are high in need to
belong, according to Jaryzna (2011), gain beneficial outcomes from parasocial interactions. The
lack of actual contact with these idealized figures can offer positive social interactions without the
fear and risk of rejection or consequent feelings of unworthiness. Cohen (1997) inferred that
parasocial interactions may substitute for diminished interpersonal contact. As to the negative
consequences, early research on parasocial interaction assumed it was a form of dysfunctional
behavior Sood & Rogers (2000); as such it was thought to results from factors such as neuroticism,
isolation, loneliness, fear, a lack of adequate leisure activities, as well as limited opportunities for
social interaction. Another, is a study that surveyed a 7th and 8th grade, indicated that parasocial
relationships with favorite characters, motivates the self to different self-comparisons and found
that making these social comparisons with favorite characters distorted actual, or ideal, body image
and self-perception.
Filipinos are music lovers; music is also their form of escapism. In proof of this, we could
see a lot of Filipino fans supporting and going to different gigs and concerts whether it is a local
scene band or a foreign scene, willing to pay for tickets. Filipino music fans grew larger in number
because of the easier access to the artists and their music and also to the other music fans
themselves; social networking sites/world wide web. Dream concerts and huge festivals (foreign
or local) are now increasingly been given and taken into account unlike the previous years, brought
by media productions; PULP Live World, Ovation Productions, MMI Live etc. In addition,
international bands and artists seemed to like the Philippines because of the evident coming back
and forth in the country. Thus, making Filipino fans strengthen their parasocial relationship with
these artists and or bands.
The current study chose the band fanatics because of their strong portrayal of parasocial
relationship, and also because the researcher herself is one and is engaged to the said parasocial
interaction. The researcher also found out that as years went on in the fandom scene, there was an
emergence of larger number of fans and younger generation getting involved in the said scene in
which believed has their certain reasons as to why they engaged in the interaction.

Objective of the Study


Band fanatics are frequently misunderstood; as to because of their continuous purchased
of expensive concert tickets, bands merchandises and albums - many see it as a waste of money
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and time. To which is why the researcher would want to dig deeper and shed light to the
engagement to parasocial relationships with favorite bands because the researcher experienced
those misunderstandings herself. The main objective of this study is to know the different
experiences of belongingness among Filipino band fanatics in parasocial relationships.
The study aims to seek the answer to the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents?
2. How do Filipino band fanatics experience belongingness in parasocial relationships?
3. What is the culture of Filipino band fanatics in parasocial relationships?
4. How do Filipino band fanatics being misunderstood? and how do they handle these
misunderstandings?

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Parasocial Interaction / Relationship
Parasocial Interaction had become well established and used since it was first appeared in
an article of Horton and Wohl (1956). It was originally describe as the interaction that may occur
between a media personality, performer, actor etc. and their audience. For Skumanich and
Kintsfather (1998), just like the interpersonal interactions, a viewer of that certain television
program or any other media event is meeting with the media personality. Over time, these meetings
may lead a viewer to begin experiencing feelings of intimacy with the performer as if they were a
close friend. As the relationship intensifies, viewing may increase in order to maintain the
friendship Rubin, Perse, and Powell (1985). Added by Horton and Wohl (1956), viewers may try
to affirm their loyalty through sending mail, collecting memorabilia of the performer, and
purchasing products recommended by the performer. Conceptually, parasocial relationship can be
thought of as being similar to an interpersonal social interaction or relationship, although they
typically consist of a much weaker bond.
Parasocial Relationship and Belongingness
Several studies explored more and dug deeper on the occurrence of parasocial relationship;
Jarzyna (2011), linked through a multiple regression analysis of 190 undergraduates the
relationship of parasocial relationship and the need to belong. Similarly, Daniel (2012) revealed a
significant link between ones engagement to parasocial relationship and unmet relational needs
in exploratory quantitative survey research design of 46 college students. Both studies showed that
ones need to belong motivates his/her engagement to parasocial relationship. More with Daniel
(2012), a lot of people nowadays use the media or hook themselves to media as a coping
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mechanism and because of the satisfaction people get out of it, without them knowing, they engage
themselves to what we call the parasocial relationship. DeWall (2013) in similar connection with
the former studies mentioned, also revealed that exposure to parasocial attachment figures
mitigates the negative consequences of exclusion.

Adam, A. (2013), revealed that parasocial relationships are formed for similar reasons as
real-life relationships and Horton & Wohl (2006), parasocial interaction posits that individuals
with various social challenges compensate for insufficiencies in their real relationships with
parasocial ones. Individuals, basically saw the engagement in parasocial relationship as one of the
methods in looking for a place where they would really fit or belong.
The study of Leimeister, Schweizer & Krcmar (2008) also revealed the relationship of the
engagement of parasocial relationship and the unmet social needs in 301 cancer patients through
online survey; which further explains the use of parasocial interaction as a coping mechanism
similar to the study of Daniel (2012), even when it comes to the stigmatized.
Parasocial Relationship and Belongingness: Loneliness
Derrick, Gabriel & Hugenberg (2009), linked through a correlational approach of 701
undergraduates the involvement of ones loneliness. Similarly, Young & Jang (2012) revealed a
significant link between ones engagement to parasocial relationship and being lonely in SNS
(social networking sites) users through representative surveys. Perse & Rubins (2009) metaanalysis, similar to the former studies mentioned, also concluded the influence of ones loneliness
to the engagement in parasocial relationship. More with Derrick et. al (2009), people report to
favored television programs when feeling lonely, and feel less lonely when viewing those
programs which in turn that thinking about valued television programs appears to yield the
experience of belongingness.
Parasocial Relationship and Belongingness: Self Esteem
Derrick, Gabriel & Tippin (2008), linked through experimental design of undergraduates
concluded that parasocial relationships, celebrity worship and television viewing may actually
have a positive influence of some people. Specifically, through parasocial relationships, low selfesteem people can gain some of the benefits of the real relationships without the fear of rejection.
Parasocial Relationships and Body Image
Eyal & Teeni-Harari (2013), conducted a study to examine the relationship between media
exposure and adolescents body image. It applied social comparison theory to the study of favorite
television characters, an original extension of past research on general social comparison
processes. Specifically, the parasocial relationships and motivations for self-comparison with the
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characters were examined. Based on a survey among 391 seventh and eighth graders, the study
found that media exposure negatively predicted body image both directly and through a mediation
process involving parasocial relationships with favorite characters, motivations to self-compare,
and engagement in social comparison with them. Furthermore, the researchers found that making
social comparisons with favorite characters distorted actual, or ideal, body image and selfperception.
Gabriel, Hollar & Young (2013), examined the parasocial relationships between men and
superheroes; the study looked at muscular vs. non-muscular superheroes and men who either did
or did not develop a one-sided psychological bond with a superhero character. The findings of the
study indicated a significant impact on body image, particularly when exposed to muscular
superhero characters. The study found that men who formed a parasocial relationship with a
muscular superhero had poor self-perception and felt negatively about their own bodies after
exposure to the muscular character.

Parasocial Relationships and Aggression


Eyal & Rubin (2003), examined aggressive and violent television characters and the
potential negative impacts they may have on viewers. The study was based on social cognitive
theory and looked at trait aggression in viewers and identification and parasocial interaction with
aggressive characters. The researchers measured trait aggression in each of the participants and
compared that to the level of identification with aggressive characters. The study found that more
aggressive viewers were more likely to identify with aggressive characters and further develop
parasocial relationships with the aggressive characters.
SYNTHESIS
Parasocial Relationship is a relationship we simply build with a media personality or of
other famous people. It can be thought of as being similar to an interpersonal social interaction or
relationship, although they typically consist of a much weaker bond since the other party knows
nothing about the other. Parasocial relationship brought with it both positive and negative
consequences to people, particularly the adolescents. It has been said, in its positive consequences,
that engagement to these relationships can satisfy the need to belong along with to alleviate
loneliness and help in the increase of self-esteem. On the other hand, in its negative consequences,
it is said to have a negative impact to individuals self-perception and it can actually motivate ones
aggressive and violent behavior. All of the results and findings that the researcher obtained is in
the locality and literature of foreign countries because of the lacking local articles and is
understudied. Because of this, the researcher would want to know if there will be similarities with
the findings earned to the Philippine setting / Filipino Culture; differences are also included in the
scope. Together with the psychological impact and underlying belongingness issues with regards
to fans - bands relationship.
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METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY


Research Design
The study is a qualitative research and the design was descriptive case study. This method
is the one that is focused and detailed, in which propositions and questions about a phenomenon
are carefully scrutinized and articulated at the outset, Tobin (2010). The researcher looked at
individuals, a small group of participants, or a group as a whole, in which in this case, were band
fanatics. The primary sources of evidence for this case study research were documentation,
interviews, direct and participant observation.
Participants and Sampling
The study used purposive sampling. A total of 6 participants have been interviewed in
fulfilling the study's objectives. The participants were band fanatics; 2 years - 8 years of being a
fan; alert and active on the bands activities/concerts or in the bands specified social networking
sites, has a collection of memorabilia and purchased products of the band. The age of participants
ranges from 17 to 19 years old.
Instrument
The researcher used a 13-item interview guide questions in fulfillment of the studys
objectives. The interview guide questions are open-ended questions that aimed to get the
participants demographic profiles, experiences of belongingness, culture, experiences of being
misunderstood and how do they handle them. The researcher also had a recorder at hand, for the
interview notes.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher followed the procedures accordingly in order to gather the required data:
Firstly, the participants were briefed about the nature of the study and formally asked them
to be a part of the study. After the briefing, the researcher attended into the participants. During
this time, the researcher collected the participants demographic profiles. The researcher
introduced herself for rapport to flourish which results to authentic answers. After rapport was
established, the researcher took the time to formally start the interview proper. The researcher
conducted the interview on a non-consecutive way to avoid any discrepancies or bias.
There had been a maximum of 2 meetings for each of the 6 participants. A maximum of 2
hours had been allotted in each of the meetings and interviews. The designated venue for each of
the meetings and interviews were of the participants choice for their convenience; both the

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researcher and the participants made sure of the venues comfortableness and quietness. For the
documentation of each of the meetings and interviews, a recorder with the participants' consent,
were used for the interview notes and when not allowed, the researcher used a notebook and
writing materials.
Data Analysis
Case study data analysis generally involves an iterative, spiraling, or cyclical process that
proceeds from more general to more specific observations, Creswell (1998); Palys, (1997);
Silverman, (2000). As for this study, data analysis begun informally during interviews or
observations of the band fanatics and continued during transcription when recurring themes,
patterns and categories became evident. Once written records became available, further analysis
involved the identification of main points. Data may be analyzed and interpreted through a variety
of ideological lenses e.g., positivist, poststructuralist, feminist, or critical, Duff (2002); Merriam
(1998); Yin (1994), although descriptive/interpretive approaches are still the most common. The
researcher provided sufficient evidence for her different claims or interpretations to make them
clear, credible and convincing to others. And also considered alternative explanations and account
for results that run contrary to the themes that emerged or for differences among different sources.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1. Demographic Profile
Participants

Gender

Age

Music Genre

Years of being a
Fan

Fan A

Female

17 years old

Punk Rock

6 years

Fan B

Female

17 years old

Rock

2 years

Fan C

Female

19 years old

Punk, Rock, Irie 8 years


and OPM

Fan D

Female

19 years old

Punk, Rock and 6 years


Metal

Fan E

Male

19 years old

Punk,
Stoner 7 years
Rock and Indie

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Fan F

Male

19 years old

Pop Rock

2 Years

INTERVIEW
Experiences of Belongingness
Six band fanatics were able to share their own experiences of belongingness in their
parasocial relationships. Below are the responses of the band fanatics which were quoted to draw
lines between its similarities and differences.

"Aadmit ko emo talaga ako dati. May phase ako na ganoon, kaya nadamay din
yung genre of music ko. Minsan kasi naa-out of place ako sa family ko. Lalo kapag kulang
sila sa support sakin. Nakakapagtaka lang sa situation mo kung bakit ganoon. Wala kasing
tiwala sa pagdecision-making mo, so parang wala na silang tiwala sayo as a whole person.
Siguro nga naghahanap lang rin ako ng attention and acceptance from them. At 'yun nga,
I felt belong whenever I am with my friends, I always feel belong; listening to the bands we
love most especially if it is live. I can be myself unlike with my family at malaki. Malaki
talaga yung part nila sa buhay ko; yung bands pati silang mga kaibigan ko. - Fan A

"Pag dating sa bands, well, broke fan kasi ako. I illegally download their songs pag
hindi afford albums, but kasi malaki ang tulong nila sa akin eh, sa buhay ko, so tyaga and
ipon pa rin ako." - Fan A

"Noong napakinggan ko kasi yung My Chemical Romance (MCR) at naging


mainstream so naglabasan yung mga iba't iba pang mga bands, doon ko na-explore na
yung band-fan scene. Tapos parang nasabi ko nalang sa sarili ko, uy this is me, I belong
here, this is my jam!" - Fan A
"Noong nalaman ko kasi na, hindi lang pala ako yung nag-iisa na ganito yung gusto
at ginagawa parang nasabi ko ayun finally! I belong. May nakakaintindi na rin sa akin." Fan B

"Personal problem brought me into being a fan.. Nagbreak kasi kami ng boyfriend
ko, mag 3 years na dapat kami. I was hurt and felt a little unwanted not just by him but the
world. And itong band na 'to yung naging escape ko from that event, sakanila ako
nagfocus." - Fan B

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"Sobrang saya ko lang talaga kapag nakakausap ko sila kahit sa facebook or twitter
lang nila. Parang one time nga lang, na-SEEN ng isang band member yung message ko sa
fb, seen lang 'yun ah good vibes na kaagad ako the whole day. Ganoon ang impact nila sa
akin. Dati naman hindi ako ganoon ka-committed sakanila, sa mga ganito, pero kasi kapag
nalalaman ko yung mga nangyayari sakanila na nangyayari rin sakin, parang alam mo
yun pag may good na nangyayari sakanila nagiging good girl rin ako. Kasama na sila sa
routine and prayers ko, haha." - Fan B

Nagstart kasi yun sa Parokya ni Edgar nung mga grade 5 or 6 ako. Ayun, kaya
ko sila nagustuhan before kasi parang nakaka-relate ka rin doon sa iba nilang music
ganoon usually about friends siya or love syempre yung mga puppy love. Like nung other
reasons nung ibang fan rin tapos yung natutulong rin sakin nung iba pang bands, kapag
kunwari nagbbreak - up, parang nasasakto yung songs nila about doon tapos parang
nakakahelp siya talaga parang kapag gusto mo umiyak ganoon. Tapos ano ba to, edi ayun
nga parang nag-evolve na siya mga second year high school nahilig na ko sa international
rock bands ayon, hanggang ngayon. - Fan C

Oo, totoo, mas madaling magshare ng problems. Parang kunwari yung best friend
ko, kasi same genre or same kind of music yung pinapakinggan namin parang kunwari pag
may problem siya na kinukuwento tapos parang sasabihin ko, uy! pakinggan mo yung
kanta na to tapos parang kapag pinakinggan niya.. ay shet, sobrang sakto sakin tapos
iiyak na siya, parang ganoon. Eh kunwari yung mga ibang tao, fan sila ng pop, tapos
parang kunwari broken-hearted sila tapos nagshare ako sakanila ng rock music na
pangbroken-hearted hindi nila maappreciate. Yung parang ganoon, mas maappreciate ng
tao na same kind of scene and music yung gusto. Parang ganoon, kaya magkakabati kayo,
makakarelate ganoon. Madali na. - Fan C

Masasabi ko belong talaga ako sa scene na to. Parang ano, ako kasi ano, diba
usually pumupunta ako sa concerts or live gigs, pagka usual goer ka sa ganoon sobrang
mafefeel mo na belong ka doon. As in parang, habang nagcoconcert or habang naggigig
tapos nandoon ka sa crowd, maiisip mo sa sarili mo na shet! this is where i belong!
ganoon, as in totoo, literal na nasabi ko na yon na ganoon, promise with matching luha
luha pa. Kasi kapag nanonood ka ng concerts sobrang mafefeel mo na siguro parang kahit
na hindi ka nila lapitan nung mga bands basta marinig mo sila nagpplay live parang
mafefeel mo na parang pag ganoon, pag nasa crowd ka ng concert parang mafefeel mo na
niyayakap ka nung music. Yung parang naaabsorb mo lahat, ganoon. Kaya ayon, sobrang
mafefeel mo na belong ka doon. - Fan C
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Nung una I wasn't really a fan ng ganoong kind ng music as in ayoko talaga. i
thought it was too loud. tapos i went to my first concert na pinilit lang akong pumunta ng
sister ko. tapos yun I hated school and got sorta bullied ng group of friends ko dati tapos
when We the Kings started talking about not giving a f*ck about these problems, ayun. Yun
yung main reason kung bakit sobrang nagustuhan ko yung music nila. then i started
listening to more and more bands tapos i got inspired and stuff. And especially when the
bullying got worse and I started to get anxiety attacks, bands have always been there for
me. as in hindi ko alam kung nasaan ako ngayon if my sister never brought me to that
concert. - Fan D

Kaya ko sila pinapakinggan kasi I can relate to them. Bawat song na


pinapakinggan ko connected sa mga nangyayari sa buhay ko. - Fan E

Escape ko talaga sa buhay ko tong scene. Kasi mostly nga parang may kapareho
ako ng problems sa buhay, ganoon. Well, mga problems sa buhay like family. Broken
family din kasi kami tapos ayun, hindi ko sila maintindihan. Lagi galit erpats ko and sh*t
tapos yung mommy ko naman nagtatrabaho sa malayo kaya yun. - Fan E

Yes, we have the same music mga friends ko. Life is radder if I am with them kasi
rock and roll lang lage hahaha! - Fan E

Ako, wala lang gusto ko lang kasi yung music. Wala namang mas malalim na
reason. Kagaya lang rin siguro ng iba, nakakarelate sa ibang songs nila, lalo kapag swakto
sa mood! - Fan F
Wala namang kasi ngang mas lalim pa na dahilan yung akin, aside from kasi nga
ang lupit talaga nila. Siguro parang escape lang from stress, reality.. yun lang. Parang
pahinga lang muna, break lang. Walang malalim na something. - Fan F

Kasi parang may nabasa ako mas makakagaanan mo ng loob yung taong parang
same taste ng music. - Fan F
Majority of the band fanatics have shared their different experiences of belongingness in
parasocial relationships which then agreed with the study of Jarzyna (2011) about the existing
relationship between belongingness and ones engagement to parasocial relationship. But as for
the response of Fan F, he stated that he became a fan plainly because of music and the way his
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favorite bands play and nothing more. The five band fanatics belongingness issues differed to
whom it was addressed or concerned. Fan A and Fan E have issues with their family; specifically,
Fan E has a broken family that which resulted to lack of attention towards him and his brother and
Fan A has problems with overprotective parents that which she feels lack trust on her with regards
to her decision making. On the other hand, Fan B and Fan C have the same belongingness issues
with social/romantic relationships; specifically, Fan B was triggered mainly because of her breakup with her boyfriend and Fan C experienced the same thing, puppy love as she calls it. Fan D is
a different scenario, according to her she has been bullied in school and by her other friends up to
the point that she had anxiety attacks. Generally, when it comes to their relationship or the effect
of their favorite bands to them, all band fanatics have agreed that the bands music and the band
itself had saved them during their darkest times.

Culture of Filipino Band Fanatics

Six band fanatics were able to share in detail their own perspectives and experiences about
the culture of the filipino fans; attitudes, activities, norms etc. Stated below are the quoted
responses from the band fanatics.

"Hindi pa naman ako umabot sa airport pero 24/7 ako sa SNS nila, and I tried
giving gifts and nag-stalk na rin ako sakanila." - Fan A

"Siguro dahil nga sa fans. Doon din nila nalalaman eh kaya sila nagsisipuntahan
dito, yung progress ng fans nila dito sa bansa natin at saka malaki na rin kasi yung concert
scene dito eh na parang madami na rin yung taong nahihilig sa bands. - Fan A

"Innate na kasi siguro sa filipinos yung pagiging hospitable. Kasi parang sabi nga
nung The Maine before noong unang punta ata nila dito, kahit hindi alam yung music nila,
Filipinos still mosh and jam with them instead of booing them. Parang ganoon. Saka 'yun
nga giving gifts tapos stalking and 'yun hindi maiiwasan syempre yung selfie selfie natin
unlike sa ibang bansa na parang normal lang na nandyan yung band member which I think
one of the reasons why they have always liked the filipino crowd." - Fan A

"Kapag yung instances na hindi alam yung band na kasama sa festivals nga for
example, may mga fil kids din na nangta-trashtalk but then mas lamang pa din yung
positive reactions." - Fan A

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"On watch ako lagi sa mga accounts or sites nila at hindi lang ako sa music nila
nagsshow ng appreciation but also sa personal lives na rin nila. Basta inembrace ko pati
pagkatao nila. Kahit minsan mayroong may mga ayaw sakanila ganoon, dinedefend ko na
rin sila in my own little ways." - Fan B

Tayo! Yung sa hotel nagstalk tayo! Ayun na ata yung pinakamatindi kong nagawa
tapos yung paghintay sa airport muntik ko ng gawin kaso hindi ako nakapunta. Ano pa ba,
pag sa concert ayon, I see to it na pag pumunta sila dito iggrab ko yung opportunity na
makita sila live tapos ano pag minsan mga band merch; t-shirt, ballers. Parang alam mo
yon, remembrance na rin. Isa rin kami doon sa mahilig magbigay ng regalo. - Fan C

Parang kunwari nung first bazooka rocks, parang ano ba to, siguro mayroon
doong mga 3 or 4 bands na hindi ko siya, never ko pa siyang napakinggan pero yung time
na nagplay sila parang na-enjoy ko na rin. Yun nga sabi nila parang madaling mag-adapt
mga filipinos, parang ganoon. Naappreciate namin agad kahit na never parang once mo
palang siya napakinggan ganoon. - Fan C

Yung filipino crowd kung tutuusin, mas less yung intensity kumpara sa
international crowd. Kasi kunwari, yung mga concert kasi dito, although sometimes soldout pagka sa concert, usually disciplinado yung tao kasi sa other countries walang-wala
na talaga. Siguro, oo pwede, yun yung reason kung bakit nabalik sila dito kasi nga
discplinado. - Fan C

"We went to the cocoon hotel nung summer lang and we stayed there from 12 noon
to 10 ata ng gabi. We were waiting for Asking Alexandria tapos hindi sila lumabas. Anyway
I also bought 4 albums at itunes, does that count? Wait I remember buying local chocolates
for This century and I was supposed to give The maine kinder joy eggs and toblerone but I
ended up giving them to my friends. - Fan D

As far as I can see it, when it comes to meet and greets, fans from other countries
are way more calm and open. - Fan D

Syempre yung nag-stalk tayo ng Pierce the Veil and Sleeping with Sirens dati.
Tapos muntik ka na matamaan ng vase. Alam mo na yun yung kwento na yun! - Fan E
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Sa tingin ko kaya bumabalik mga bands dito satin kasi mga ph fans super
passionate sila sa music. - Fan E

Ako sa ganyan, parang every week ata nakikisali ako sa twitter convos nila. Tapos
ano kapag kunwari may nafefeel ako parang no, these guys wouldnt do this to us parang
ganoon. Funny diba, para akong g*go. Wala lang inaaliw ko lang minsan sarili ko pag
ganoon. Tinatag tag ko pa sila. - Fan F

Filipino crowd? Mabilis sila mainlove sa artists. Sa music ng artists. Madali


kasing masway yung filipinos talaga. Like siguro mapunta lang sila sa isang concert, ayun
fan na agad. Parang ganoon. Saka kaya bumabalik sila kasi nga, successful talaga lagi
yung concerts being held here eh, di naman babalik mga yun kung di sila nag-enjoy and
successful eh - Fan F

May self-discipline yung mga filipinos na nagcoconcert. Comparing to what I am


seeing sa ibang countries na nagccrash talaga, nangsisira ng mga gamit. Saka isama mo
na rin yung malaki yung bayad ng Pilipnas, yung nag-recruit. - Fan F

The band fanatics have shared the attitudes, activities, norms and up to what extent do their
being a fan were. Majority of the responses were about being 24/7 active to the bands and
bandoms (bands + fandom) social networking sites to keep them updated to upcoming concerts
and to the lives of the band members. Particularly Fan B, and Fan F have been social networking
active that they almost tweet and/or message the band members for like every day and that they
admittedly stated that they love not only the bands music but also the band members personal
lives (e.g. it would seriously hurt whenever the band members got into relationship). Fan A, Fan
C, Fan D and Fan E shared their experiences of stalking the bands right before or after the bands
concerts; they are looking up for the hotels where the bands are going to stay or the restaurants,
malls or any other places the bands are going to visit. They would wait for hours and hours (can
be 12 hours) just to meet the band. Majority of the band fanatics mentioned as well about
purchasing the bands merchandise like albums, ballers and t-shirts. Fan As experience being
agreed as well by Fan C, stated that Filipino fans are hospitable; both Fan A and Fan C had
experienced going to concerts with bands that are not familiar with most people in the crowd but
instead of showing hostility, the filipinos still rocked out during its sets. Another thing that Fan C
had noticed is the filipino fans as being adaptive which then agreed on by Fan F; according to the
both of them filipino fans were easily swayed by the music and the artists, they were easily stunned
and easy to fall in love. Added also by Fan C and Fan F, Filipino fans are disciplined compared to
other nationalities fans that which were very wild that they crashes objects insight etc. Fan E had
also mentioned about Filipinos fans are different to the other nationalities fans because of being
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super passionate towards music. Fan A also shared about Filipino fans who were addicts into
selfies, which she also considered as to what shocks the band members unlike with the other
nationalities who were way calmer. Fan D also noticed that when it comes to meet and greets, fans
from other countries are way more calm and open

Misunderstandings towards a Band Fanatic

The six band fanatics have experienced/currently experiencing different misunderstandings


towards their acts of being a fan. Below are their responses which were quoted to show their very
own experiences and how they manage those misunderstandings.

"Misunderstood, many, many times. Siguro kasi parang hindi normal yung pinakalifestyle natin unlike sa iba na mainstream na. Iba ka talaga parang sobrang odd. Parang
hindi ka kasi talaga nakikisabay sa kahit anong trends parang yung pagsuot ng band shirts
pagdating sa clothes tapos 'yun nga yung pag-iisip mo at taste of music mo iba talaga sa
iba. Stand-out ka talaga, yung pagka-odd mo ganoon, tas madaming naweweirdo-han sayo
parang uy rocker yan! Yeah, we get that alot." - Fan A

"Doon sa mga hindi rin nakakaintindi about sa paggastos natin sa mga concert
tickets or merch.. eh sa dito tayo masaya eh, dito ako masaya. Pinag-ipunan ko yan eh. Eh
'yun talaga yung gusto ko mangyari eh, yung magka-merch. Edi magutom ako! Basta
mapanood ko sila kasi opportunity na 'yun eh once in a lifetime, better grab it." - Fan A

"How do I handle it? Iniisip ko na parang normal na tao lang rin naman tayo eh,
parang kung kayo ano, for example siya mahilig siya magbasketball pupunta siya sa mga
event non. Same thing lang rin naman eh iba lang talaga yung paggawa. Kunwari ikaw
fan ka ng basketball, edi manood ka ng UAAP! Bumili ka rin ng ticket bwiset!" - Fan A

"Sobrang misunderstood, all the time. Parang 'yun nga, do I really understand their
music ba daw ganoon, bakit ko daw ba sila pinapakinggan. Lalo na ngayong kaka-college
lang, new environment, kung tingnan nila ako parang ang weird weird ko ganoon kasi nga
sobrang fan na fan nga talaga ako. May instance rin na bumili ako ng worth 1k na album
nila tapos sabi ng mga kapatid ko, ano ba yan 1k para lang sa album. 'yun mga ganoon."
- Fan B
"Ako, hindi ko nalang pinapansin, parang patuloy pa rin ako. Parang wala akong
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paki. Wala akong paki kung i-judge man nila ako kasi dito ako masaya. Basta alam ko
namang wala akong tinatapakan na tao eh, bakit ko ititigil at alam kong masaya ako kaya
panghahawakan ko." - Fan B

Ako pag sa mga ano, sasabihin lang na ano may concert ka nanamang
pupuntahan magkano nanaman ticket diyan tapos parang sasabihin ko wala libre lang
naman yon libre? sinong manlilibre parang ganoon tapos parang sasabihin ko hindi
joke lang, mga 1,500 lang. Pero yung totoo mga 2k plus hindi ko sinasabi. - Fan C

Minsan sasabihin ng ibang tao or parang nasabi na rin sakin one time pero hindi
naman galit, parang sinabi lang na imbis na magconcert-concert ka, ipang-travel mo
nalang yan parang ganoon. Pero hindi naman galit parang suggestion lang tapos usually
naman yung ibang tao parang yung hindi talaga kayo parehas ng scene parang ano ba
yan parang kunwari yung Issues nung nalaman ko kung paano pupunta doon, tapos diba
sobrang limited lang parang naiyak na talaga ako sa schoo, as in kasi sa school ko nabasa,
as in naiyak na talaga ako, eh kumakain pa kami noon tapos wala akong gana tapos parang
yung classmates ko ano ba yon? tapos parang hindi ko ma-share tapos parang sabi nila
okay lang yan ganoon ganoon tapos ako parang di niyo ko maintindihan! parang
ganoon. - Fan C

Sasabihin ko to them, it is different when it is live kasi parang iba talaga eh.
Parang kunwari sila, kunwari yung naka-misunderstood sakin nagddrugs or bakes ganoon
parang or kunwari naggym nalang para hindi naman masama, oh yan kunwari yung nakamisunderstood sakin naggym, tapos parang wag kana pumunta diyan, ganito ganito.
Tapos kunwari idadagdag pa na mapapakinggan mo pa rin naman sila eh, manuod ka
online live videos nila sa youtube. Parang ako sasabihin ko na yung high na nakukuha
mo pag nagggym ka, thats what I get pag nanonood ako ng concert so its like hindi mo
ko maiintindihan kasi iba yung interest mo but its the same high that youre looking for,
parang ganoon. - Fan C

More on sa school sakin. they always ask me kung bakit panget yung type kong
music if *insert artist here* is way better than the bands I listen to. sobrang pointless lang
daw yung gusto kong bands kasi all they do is scream. Im just trying my best to ignore
them. - Fan D

Iniisip nila weird music ko kasi masyadong psychedelic or mabigat. - Fan E

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Mga tao ngayon pang-bobo yung soundtrip, walang sense yung music.
Pinapakinggan lang nila kasi sikat yung artist. - Fan E

Yung sakin, diba pumunta yung The Script dito, grabe sobrang sold-out na.
Nagsecond open nalang sila ng upperbox b tapos ano, parang nagalit yung magulang ko
sa akin parang madami naman daw pwedeng paglaanan nung 1,600 kaysa sa concert
tickets. Pero hindi nila maintindihan yung parang, yung happiness na makikita mo sila.
- Fan F
Wala naman akong paki sakanila, bakit sila ba magbabayad ng ticket ko? F*ck
them. F*ck what they think, basta sundin ko yung gusto ko. Hindi naman sayo
manggagaling yung concert money ko. - Fan F

The band fanatics had experienced being misunderstood including by their parents, siblings
and/or friends. Majority have been misunderstood due to expensive concert tickets, albums or other
merchandise and that the money they are spending would be better off spent to food, clothings, for
travels etc. Fan A had noticed about rockers at large being misunderstood by the way they dress
and behave; according to her, being dressed in all black or loud band shirts seemed to look odd for
the society to which they are being judged as an odd and weird person and by that they are being
avoided and feared of. Both Fan B and Fan E have been judged by the way their music genre
sounded like; specifically Fan B was told if she really understands the lyrics of the songs while
Fan E was told that his music was too psychedelic and heavy. Fan D shared that her choice of
music is one of the reasons why she has been bullied in school. When it comes to handling these
misunderstanding, majority of the band fanatics stated that they could not care less as long as they
know they are happy with what they are doing and that they are not stepping into people. Fan A
and Fan C had stated about the fact that if they are given the chance to actually defend themselves
to these judgemental people, they are going to point out that persons interest, take for example
basketball, and be able to associate that interest to their interest to bands and by that they believe
they will be understood.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The overriding purpose of this study is to know the experiences of belongingness in
parasocial relationships of Filipino band fanatics. Most of the issues were within the family, a few
were within peer groups and few were for the whole societys created stigma towards them, band
fanatics. One fan have also stated a contradiction towards the relationship of engagement into
parasocial relationship and ones belongingness; he stated that he is a fan plainly because of music.
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The Filipino crowd is found to be adaptive; they easily fall in love with the artists and the music.
Also said to be innately hospitable, energetic yet disciplined, absorbed and very passionate with
music. The band fanatics claimed to experienced misunderstandings; for purchasing expensive
concert tickets and merchandises, clothing, behavior and the choice of music. When it comes to
handling these misunderstandings, they just think positively and ignore them and targeting those
peoples interests and associate them with being a fan also found to be effective.
The study can be further improved if a quantitative research scoping a large number of
participants will be made using the variables concerned (ones engagement to parasocial
relationship and belongingness). The study can also be further improved if there are interviewed
foreign participants making a clear distinction between Filipino band fanatics and other
nationalities band fanatics. Future studies can make use of this current study for it provides a lot
of new and necessary information in social issues. First and foremost, it provides a background
and facts about a current phenomenon in the country which is about bandoms. This may also add
to the evidences about parasocial relationship can alleviate loneliness and can help with selfesteem issues. Another, is for enriching the Filipino culture; provided an uplifting and strong
Filipino heart and attitude. The study can be used as one of the bases for diagnosing parasocial
relationship as a dysfunctional behavior or not. Ergo, the study is an eye-opener to an issue that
the world usually skips a glance on.

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Publishing

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Experiences of Loss Aversion among Filipino Lawyers


Anthony Miguel G. Capili
Juli-ann Alonso-Balmonte
Abstract
This study focuses on loss aversion. The respondents in this study
were Filipino lawyers that differ from one another in terms of age, education
and experience. Loss aversion is operationally defined as the tendency for
people to weigh potential losses more heavily than equivalent amounts of
potential gains. The researcher intends to analyze the experiences of loss
aversion among Filipino lawyers by focusing on how they differ from one
another as a result of the perception that lawyers have regarding the kind of
cases that they handle and the probability of winning or losing these cases.

The uncertainty of events can be described in terms of probability. A person usually makes
some sort of calculation before deciding to engage or not to engage in an activity. In order to
understand the concept of loss aversion, the researcher intends to study prospect theory, a model
for decision making under uncertainty, and its application to Filipino lawyers.
Prospect theory suggests that people are loss averse when making decisions under
uncertainty.(Kahneman, Tversky, 1979) Thus, its application has proven to be very useful in
helping people understand the complex nature of industries such as insurance and gambling. One
of the biggest concerns of people in the insurance industry is the problem of asymmetric
information. Many people that purchase insurance have the incentive to avoid accurate disclosure
of information because this allows them to obtain lower premiums. By applying prospect theorys
insight, people are able to understand the different measures that insurers must take in order to
avoid the consequences of asymmetric information.
Without any model for decision making under uncertainty, it will be more difficult for
people in the insurance industry to encourage accurate disclosure of information from insureds.
Laws that were meant to protect both insurers and insureds are more likely to be misinterpreted
and the market could fail. This leads to an under-allocation of societys scarce resources as the
insurance industry fails to achieve allocative efficiency.
Today, more and more research economists are beginning to study the different
psychological factors that help to explain market behavior and why prices fluctuate the way that
they do. (Shiller, 2014) The success of this new approach to understanding how psychology drives
the economy and what it means for global capitalism is evident in the field of behavioral
economics.
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The findings of this study will not only be adding more evidence to support the literature
on the field of behavioral economics. It will also help other psychology majors and psychologists
in other fields that are not yet familiar with behavioral economics by providing them with findings
related to psychologys application to fields in economics without having to use terms or concepts
that are too technical such as those used in stock market investing and real estate.
The researcher intends to explore on the following research questions: (1) What is the
demographic profile of respondents in terms of age, education and experience? (2) What are the
experiences of loss aversion among the respondents?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Correlates of Loss Aversion
Contrary to the assumption that only final states matter in choice( the assumption that all
people want to end up with more rather than less), an increasing body of evidence indicates that
the carriers of utility are generally not states but rather changes relative to a reference point.
Furthermore, there is strong evidence of loss aversion- that is, changes for the worse (losses) loom
larger than equivalent changes for the better. (Novemsky, Kahneman,2005).
Following Markowitz (1952), outcomes are expressed in prospect theory as positive or
negative deviations (gains or losses) from a neutral reference outcome, which is assigned a value
of zero. Unlike Markowitz, however, Kahneman and Tversky (1979) proposed that the value
function is commonly S-shaped, concave above the reference point and convex below it. Thus, the
difference in subjective value between a gain of 1,100 dollars and a gain of 1,200 dollars. The
same relation between value differences holds for the corresponding losses.

Kahneman-Tversky Value Function


The value function differs from the utility function in expected utility theory in a very
critical respect: the function (of wealth or payout) has a kink in it at a point, the reference point,
the location of which is determined by the subjective impressions of the individual. The reference
point is the individuals point of comparison, the status quo against which alternative scenarios
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are contrasted. Perhaps the most significant thing to notice about the Kahneman-Tversky value
function is just the discontinuity of the slope in reference value. Prospect theory does not nail down
accurately what determines the location of the reference point, just as it does not nail down
accurately, for the weighting function, what is the difference between very high probabilities and
extremely high probabilities.
However, the reference point is thought to be determined by some point of comparison that
the subject finds convenient, something readily visible or suggested by the wording of a question
(Schiller, 1999).
The concept of loss aversion helps explain a number of puzzling phenomena in observed
human behavior toward risk.(Schiller, 1999) For a familiar example, such a modification could
explain the apparent public enthusiasm for high prize lotteries, even though the probability of
winning is so low that expected payout of the lottery is not high. It could also explain such a
phenomenon as the observed tendency for overpaying for airline flight insurance (life insurance
policies that one purchases before an airline flight, that has coverage only during that flight), Eisner
and Strotz (1961).
Although loss aversion was originally studied with respect to choices between twooutcome monetary gambles, researchers soon identified loss aversion in many contexts, including
areas that are important to marketing managers and consumers. (Novemsky, 2005, Kahneman,
2005)
The properties of the value function have been supported in many studies of risky choice
involving monetary outcomes (Fishburn and Kochenberger, 1979; Kahneman and Tversky 1979;
Hershey and Schoemaker, 1980; Payne, Laughhunn and Crum 1980) and human lives. (Tversky,
1977; Eraker and Sox 1981)
Loss aversion may also contribute to the observed discrepancies between the amount of
money people are willing to pay for a good and the compensation they demand to give it up (Bishop
and Heberlein, 1979; Knetsch and Sinden 1984). It has also been used to explain other
macroeconomic phenomena, savings behavior [Bowman, Minchart and Rabin (1993)] and job
search behavior [Bryant (1990)].
In the last ten years, several studies (Johnson, 2006, Ernst, 2013, Boyce, 2013, Polman,
2012, Santon, 2011, Gachter, 2010) have been explored dealing with factors that lead to individual
differences in loss aversion. Johnson linked through a survey of 360 people the relationship of age
and attribute importance to loss aversion. Similarly, Gachter, through an Endowment Effect
experiment conducted on 360 randomly selected customers of a car manufacturer, concluded that
loss aversion increases with age, income and wealth and decreases with education. Both studies
show not only how loss aversion affects the way that people make decisions but explains why
some people are more loss averse than others.
In contrast to Johnson and Gachter, the studies of Polman and Santon in 2012 suggest that
loss aversion is either moderated or increased when factors other than age, income and wealth are
taken into consideration. These factors include individuals testosterone levels, regulatory focus
and omission bias. The findings of Santon also reinforce prospect theory by focusing on
differences in peoples risk aversion and how it relates to loss aversion. Prospect theory suggests
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that people are more likely to be risk averse when faced with a potential gain but are likely to
engage in risk seeking behavior when faced with a potential loss. Unlike gamblers, people that are
more risk averse than others prefer certainty over uncertainty when weighing possible outcomes.
Risk Aversion
Several studies (Yechiam, 2011, Bordalo, 2012, Erikson, 2013, Morisson, 2012) have been
explored focusing on how loss aversion helps to explain why some people are more risk averse
than others. A study that was done by Yechiam in 2011 involving behavioral observation revealed
that losses increase the consistency of risk taking behavior. Bordalos study in 2012 focused on
the Endowment Effect.
The Endowment Effect implies that people will assign more value to things that they own
compared to identical things that they do not own. Bordalo concluded that what makes ownership
special is the focus on the most attractive attributes of the good that one owns. This intuition
highlights a connection between the endowment effect and attitudes toward risk. The findings of
Erikson suggest that the things people become attached to become a reference point and losses
relative to the reference point are painful. Through a questionnaire administered to 34 students,
W. Morrison found that a decision to save is a decision to incur a loss to current consumption.
Therefore, loss aversion implies that individuals will require greater compensation when making
savings decisions from current income.
Prospect theory suggests that because people weigh losses more heavily than gains, they
will be more willing to take risks in order to avoid incurring losses. Risk Aversion helps explain
why the insurance industry is successful. The reason why people want to be insured is because
they are risk averse.
The reason why developing applications of prospect theory in economics is taking a long
time is because it is not always obvious how to apply it. Some researchers have been scared off by
the lack of a clear answer to questions about determining the reference point. Other researchers,
however, have grasped the challenge of trying to understand how people conceptualize gains and
losses in different contexts. The best way to tackle this question is to derive the predictions of
prospect theory under a variety of plausible definitions of gains and losses, and to then test these
predictions, in the laboratory or in the field. (Barberis, 2010)
Insurance is another area of economics where attitudes to risk play a central role. As such,
it, too, is a promising place to look for applications of prospect theory. The most important
consumer insurance markets are those for property and casualty insurance and mortality insurancethe main products here are life insurance and annuities- and health insurance. Thus far, prospect
theory has been used to shed light on the first two of these three markets. (Barberis, 2010)

Legal Education
Some of the efforts undertaken by legal scholars to use prospect theory in their analysis of
legal behavior were summarized (Guthrie, 2012). Prospect theory includes several empirical
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observations about decision making, but Guthrie focused on its central insight that people view
gains and losses differently when making choices. Guthrie concluded that in order to understand
how people behave in an uncertain world, legal scholars must employ a model or theory of decision
making.
Only with an understanding of how people are likely to respond to legal rules can legal
scholars, judges, legislators and regulators craft rules that encourage desirable behavior and
discourage undesirable behavior. Guthries (2012) paper acknowledges limitations such as
external validity and differences in individual and group decision making but it concludes that
prospect theory is a valuable tool for legal scholars and policy makers.
Given that prospect theory describes individual decision making, is it appropriate for legal
analyses purporting to describe and predict group decision making to rely on the theory?(Guthrie,
2012)
Until psychologists generate sufficient evidence about group decision making, legal
scholars should be wary of assuming that prospect theory captures the way groups behave in legal
settings.
SYNTHESIS
On Risk Aversion
It is important for the researcher to emphasize that risk aversion is not the same as loss
aversion. Risk Aversion is the behavioral tendency to prefer certainty over uncertainty when
choosing between outcomes involving uncertainty. Differences in peoples risk aversion can be
explained by prospect theory, which suggests that people weigh losses more heavily than gains.
According to psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, the inventors of
prospect theory, people have a tendency to be risk averse when faced with a potential gain and risk
acceptant when faced with a potential losses. Risk aversion is the tendency to choose certainty
over uncertainty when making decisions.
While there are gaps in the studies that have been done on prospect theory, many people
conclude that it is still very useful in understanding how people deal with uncertainty. We live in
a world of uncertainty and the most effective way to deal with risk is to have a model of decision
making. The studies that have been done on prospect theory help people understand its application
in the real world. They help give people a better understanding of basic concepts in fields like
social psychology, economics and law. These studies also shed light on peoples buying and
spending habits, the effects of advertising and the reason why people pay high premiums for
insurance.
On Legal Education and Prospect Theory Applied to the Legal System
Lawyers, economists and psychologists have studied the various legal doctrines punishing

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insureds for their strategic behavior. Doctrinal solutions for the adverse selection problem in
insurance include the warranty doctrine, representation and concealment. The strategic behavior
that violates the policy include false statements made by the insured that may have an impact on
the estimation of risk. It also includes failure to disclose information that the insured knows and
ought to disclose. These doctrines help to illustrate that problems in the insurance industry can be
understood only by considering the various psychological factors behind the abstract nature of
insurance. Whether or not the insurer and the insured will contract efficiently depends on the
characteristics and behavior of both parties.
Prospect theory is a valuable tool that can give people a better understanding of our legal
system. Prospect theorys applications to legal analysis include civil procedure, contracts, criminal
law, tax law, corporate law, securities law and antitrust.
Gaps in the studies that have been done on prospect theory and the law include the lack of
empirical evidence regarding the way that loss aversion and risk preference affect group decision
making. Legal scholars are aware that insights of prospect theory usually apply to individual
decision making.
Based on the gaps in the studies that have been done on prospect theory, risk preference
and its application in the legal system, the researcher believes that the study should be a
comparative analysis of lawyers. By comparing private practitioners and public servants, the
researcher will be focusing both on the gap in the studies that have been done on risk aversion and
prospect theory and also on the gap in the studies on prospect theorys insight being applied to the
legal system.
The problem that many researchers have regarding external validity will be addressed in this
study because the lawyers that the researcher will be talking to have more experience with cases
wherein people are denied coverage. This means that it will be easier to generalize findings with
people that may not be involved in any legal dispute regarding health insurance but feel that they
may need health insurance in the future.
Prospect theorys application to health insurance is worth studying because of the
industrys social functions. A high proportion of health care spending in the United States is
provided through private health insurance paid for by employers.(McConnell, 2012) In our society,
people believe it is immoral for a person to be denied treatment for a serious medical illness even
if he cannot afford it.
METHOD
Research Design
The researcher used a qualitative design. Interviews were conducted and conclusions were
made based on the answers to the questionnaire that was used by Gachter, Johnson and Hermann
(2010) for measuring loss aversion in both risky and riskless choices. This questionnaire was used
for endowment effect experiments, which helps to explain loss aversion, the variable that the
researcher intends to measure.
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Participants/Sampling
Originally, the researcher intended to group respondents by separating those that specialize
in insurance cases and those that do not. But after interviewing the respondents, the researcher
discovered that the concept of loss aversion can be illustrated in a simpler manner by grouping
them according to the kind of law practice that they have. In this study, respondents were grouped
as either private practitioners or public servants.
The researcher used two groups of lawyers that differ in the kind of practice that they chose
to get into. Purposive sampling was used in this study because the researcher believes that in
measuring loss aversion, the lawyers of The Office of the Government Corporate Counsel that
handle the cases of Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (Philhealth) are representative of the
population of lawyers in the Philippine health insurance industry. Pursuant to its legal mandate,
Philhealth provides mandatory health insurance coverage for all Filipino employees. .
Demographic profile of respondents is from the age group, 30 to 45 years old. Educational
Background, undergraduate, Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) / Bachelor of Science (B.S.), postgraduate,
Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B). The basis for the inclusion of the lawyers that handle Philhealths cases
is that they specialize in health insurance and the basis for inclusion of lawyers from other offices
is that they do not specialize in health insurance. By comparing these two groups, the researcher
was able to tell whether lawyers loss aversion in health insurance is higher or lower compared to
that of lawyers in other industries.
Instruments
The researcher conducted interviews in order to apply prospect theorys insight on loss
aversion in order to make decision making under uncertainty in the legal profession more
understandable. Through interviews with lawyers from the OGCC as well as private law firms, the
researcher addressed concerns about what loss aversion is and whether or not it increases with age,
education and experience.

Procedure
A letter of request was sent to a group of lawyers from the Office of the Government
Corporate Counsel informing them that they were going to participate in a study on decision
making under uncertainty and attitudes toward risk. Participants in the study will not be informed
that loss aversion is the focus of the study so that findings will not be biased. Before the interviews
were conducted, they were already asked about the number of years they spent working for the
OGCC or any other law firm. This was done in order to filter out potential respondents that have
been working in the law office for over 15 years.
The researcher wanted to avoid respondents that have been practicing law in the same
office long enough for them to retire. Empirical evidence on inter-group relations and groupthink
suggest that if these respondents were included in the study, findings would have been more likely
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to be biased because the respondents would be more likely to be focused on the impression that
they might be able to give about the law office that they work for. They also would have been
more likely to spend more time talking about what they have achieved for themselves and the
office they have been working for and the researcher would have had a more difficult time applying
the findings of other researchers that have studied prospect theory and the concept of loss aversion.

Data Analysis
Results were interpreted and analyzed and from which conclusions were made and
recommendations formed. The data gathering for this study did not require any statistical
procedures. The qualitative design has proven to be useful for the topic of the researcher in helping
to explain the concept of loss aversion without having to rely on the value function that other
researchers used in other studies on loss aversion. The researcher only had to rely on the interviews
with the respondents and the application of the findings of other researchers such as Kahneman,
Tversky and Thaler in order to give readers a clear and simple interpretation of the experiences of
loss aversion among Filipino lawyers.

RESULTS
Demographic Profile of Respondents
For the purpose of finding out whether lawyers are more or less loss averse depending on
age, education and experience, the variables studied by other researchers interested in the study of
loss aversion, the researcher gathered information about the respondents demographic profile in
terms of age, education and the lawyers years of experience handling insurance cases and cases
for other related fields. Although the researcher did not use any of the statistical procedures that
other researchers relied on for previous studies on prospect theory, the information that the
researcher gathered by conducting interviews and by having On the Job Training at a law office
has proven to be useful for this study on the loss aversion of lawyers.
Three respondents were younger than those that worked in government law offices. The
first, third and fourth respondent were private practitioners. The first respondent is 35 years old
and has been practicing law for 4 years. The third respondent is 33 years old and has been
practicing law for 2 years. The fourth respondent is 36 years old and has been practicing law for 4
years. Only the fourth respondent had an M.A. All of the other respondents did not have any other
degree apart from their college degree and law degree.
The other respondents that worked in government offices such as the OGCC or Landbank
were older than the three respondents that were private practitioners. The second respondent was
43 years old and has been practicing law for 15 years. The fifth, sixth and seventh respondent were

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also in their forties and have all been practicing law for at least 13 years at the Office of the
Government Corporate Counsel.
The researcher is aware of the need to show why these results are relevant to the study of
decision making under uncertainty. Clearly, these results are highly relevant because it shows that
in the legal profession, experiences of loss aversion usually have very little to do with age,
education or experience in a particular field and in most cases, depend on the manner in which
facts are presented in court and whether or not evidence is admissible. The older respondents were
more loss averse than the younger respondents. Even if they had been practicing law for a longer
period of time, they showed that they were not as willing to take risks when deciding what kind of
practice they were going to get into.

EXPERIENCES OF LOSS AVERSION


Experiences among Private Practitioners
Empirical evidence suggests that loss aversion is manifested in a persons attitudes toward
risk. The respondents showed significant differences in their attitudes toward risk, not only in the
kind of cases that they handle but in the kind of practice that they wanted to have as lawyers. The
three respondents that were private practitioners experienced less loss aversion in deciding what
kind of law practice they wanted compared to the respondents from government law offices. These
respondents in private practice were younger and less experienced than the respondents working
in government law offices. The respondents working in government law offices were more loss
averse in deciding what kind of office they wanted to work for.
What all of the respondents working for government law offices had in common was their
belief in the way that facts related to the case and the manner in which evidence is presented are
what matter most in determining how a lawyer will weigh outcomes in cases not just involving
insurance but also in other fields.
Both public servants and private practitioners that were interviewed talked about cases that
illustrated loss aversion and its impact on the way that lawyers make decisions. These cases
involved foreclosure and insurance.
According to the first respondent that was interviewed for this study, a person that has a
difficult time making decisions under uncertainty due to high levels of loss aversion should not
become a lawyer. Time management is very important in the practice of law but it also involves
risk management. All lawyers hate losing cases and do everything that they can do to mitigate the
severity of potential losses. This assumption supports prospect theorys insight about the way that
people make decisions when faced with potential losses. They are more likely to behave in a risk
acceptant or risk seeking manner.
The first respondent that was interviewed provided the researcher with very specific
examples that help to explain the rationality of both risk seeking and risk averse behavior among
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lawyers. The examples provided by the lawyer that was interviewed included the jurisdiction of
the different courts depending on the amount of money involved in a case, problems related to
clients being able to conduct a thorough background check on the people that they hire in order to
protect themselves from the potential losses that they may incur if they are sued for being unable
to do so and other devices that help people manage risk such as affidavits and contracts.
The example that can easily be applied to the topic of this study is a case involving third
party liability insurance and the right of subrogation, a kind of legal substitution wherein the rights
of the insured against the wrongdoer go to the insurer in case there is an event covered by the
policy wherein the insured suffers pecuniary loss or damage.
It is clear that prospect theorys insight is applicable to all of the examples given by the
lawyer that was interviewed. The fact that there are laws that protect the insurer from potential
losses reinforces the belief held by Kahneman and Tversky(1979) that even decisions made by
superbly competent people such as lawyers and other professionals trained and licensed to sell
insurance are fallible.
The first respondent being interviewed talked about the risk involved in being a private
practitioner and compared it to the stability that makes other lawyers get into public service. He
said, There is more risk involved in being a private practitioner. Unlike private practitioners,
government lawyers have a fixed amount of income every month and because they represent the
government, they do not run out of cases. Private practitioners can charge clients by the hour and
as a result, they are busier than government lawyers but the downside in working for a private law
firm is that they do not always have clients.
Thus prospect theorys application to the law does not only apply to the kind of cases that
they handle and the amount of money involved. Loss aversion and the way lawyers weigh potential
gains and losses also help to explain how they choose what kind of law office they would like to
work for. Working for an office wherein lawyers do not charge clients by the hour has advantages
and disadvantages which people can understand through a model of decision making under
uncertainty such as prospect theory.
It is also important for the researcher to point out that the first respondent, who decided to
enter into private practice because of the opportunity for him to charge clients by the hour instead
of relying solely on his salary at the end of the month if he had decided to become a public servant,
was much younger than some of the other respondents that had been practicing law for a much
longer period of time. This means that he was less loss averse compared to the older respondents,
at least, when it comes to the manner in which he made decisions regarding what kind of lawyer
he wanted to be.
The respondent was also very helpful in pointing out some important facts that allowed the
researcher to address the concerns mentioned in the introduction of this study regarding insurance
law.

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When the respondent was asked about insurance law, he said, I do not teach the subject
but I know the subject. There is no special requirement for lawyers to be able to handle
insurance cases. But it is different from other law subjects in many ways because it is very
technical. That explains why it is interesting not just to lawyers but also to researchers in other
fields.
The researcher also asked the respondent about the concerns of many researchers today
that are interested in the study of the imperfect rationality of insurance markets. The respondent
said that it is irrational for people to be so willing to pay high premiums when the probability of
an unforeseen event is very small.
The respondent said, It is strange because at the time that I had to study insurance law,
gambling was being compared to insurance and the similarity between them is that people pay
a sum of money in advance because they are expecting something to happen in the future even
if there is a possibility that it will not happen.
The lawyer that the researcher interviewed in Landbank was once a private practitioner
with his own law firm. After five years of practicing law, he decided to work for Landbank because
he felt like he was better off having a job where there was less risk involved. Unlike the kind of
risks involved in being a private practitioner, working for the legal department of a government
owned and controlled corporation provided him with the stability that he did not have when he still
had his private law firm.

The second respondent being interviewed is now in his forties and has been working for
Landbank for the past 10 years. The problems that come with private practice were discussed in
this interview and they were very similar to what the researcher discussed with the first lawyer that
was interviewed.
What makes this interview so significant in this study is that the second respondent
mentioned many things that support the findings of researchers that have studied and applied
prospect theorys insight to many situations involving potential losses that result from imperfect
rationality in decision making under uncertainty. When the respondent was asked about the
perception that younger lawyers have when dealing with more senior lawyers, he said, I
sometimes feel that the perception that the more senior ones always know more does lead to less
rational decisions. It is frustrating but it is something that people cannot really avoid
sometimes.
Although the researcher cannot use this lawyers experiences to make generalizations about
other lawyers that specialize in highly volatile industries such as insurance, generalizations can
still be made about how professionals make decisions under uncertainty. Prospect theory suggests
that people weigh potential losses more heavily than equivalent amounts of potential gains and
that losses and gains are weighed relative to their current situation.

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What was most important to this lawyer was stability. He valued stability more than the
opportunity to make so much money in a shorter period of time. How much value he assigned to
having a stable job influenced him to shift from private practice to public service, even if the
chances he would have in order to become wealthy would decrease.
Clearly, the second respondent was more loss averse compared to the first respondent. This
can easily be observed in his reasoning regarding his decision to switch from private practice to
public service. The researcher would like to emphasize the age of the second respondent and, more
importantly, the number of years that he spent practicing law. Even though he was older and more
experienced than the first respondent, he was more loss averse than the first respondent.
This observation is something that researchers may want to explore further because the
behavior of the respondent contradicts the assumption made by Gachter, Johnson and Polman
(2006, 2010) that loss aversion decreases with experience.
The researcher interviewed a lawyer at the office where the researcher is currently having
On The Job Training. The third respondent is 33 years old and has been practicing law for 2 years.
She is a graduate of the San Beda College of Law. The interview was about a public auction for a
property that was foreclosed by Unionbank.The lawyer invited the researcher to accompany her to
the auction, which was held at the city hall of Muntinlupa. The lawyer and the researcher were
accompanied by a representative of Unionbank.
Even if the case was not related to health insurance, this interview was important for the
researcher because it illustrated the importance of prospect theory and its application to real life
situations. The fact that prospect theorys insight on how gains and losses are weighed can be
applied so easily to this situation involving laws that protect a bank from losing money says a lot
about the research that has already been done on loss aversion and how it affects the decisions that
people make. People need laws because their decisions are subject to cognitive biases that they are
usually unaware of. (Kahneman, 2011) According to one of the other private practitioners that was
interviewed for this study, the law becomes a guide for people when they have problems that they
cannot solve on their own.
In this case involving notarial foreclosure, the representative of the bank was averse to the
risk of loss because of the possibility of the property not being sold. This insight is based on the
findings of Kahneman and Tversky (1979) that people become more risk acceptant or risk seeking
when the situation they find themselves in is evaluated as a potential loss. The respondent said,
The bank needs to sell the property that was foreclosed. When a property is foreclosed, it is
because the person that owed the bank money was not able to pay the bank the full amount.
This is a loss for the bank because it lent money to the person that bought the property. The
bank must now sell the property in order to compensate for the loss.
The reason why the representative of the bank needed the lawyer to help him sell the
property that was foreclosed is because the decision to keep the property would lead to a potential
loss for the bank. Thus the representative of Unionbank behaves in a risk seeking manner by
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deciding to hire a lawyer. Clearly, this social situation is of great importance to the study of loss
aversion because the behavior of the lawyer and the representative of the bank was consistent with
the findings of Kahneman and Tversky (1979) at the time they made the assumption that people
weigh potential losses more heavily than an equivalent amount of potential gains. Not only was
their behavior consistent with the findings on the concept of loss aversion in Kahneman and
Tverskys 1979 paper in the journal Econometrica, it also helps shed light on the relationship that
can be found in loss aversion and role ambiguity and inter-group relations. The researcher would
like to emphasize the value of these two other concepts because they not only support Schillers
(1991) claim that principles in social psychology may well be the driving force in highly volatile
industries, but they help to explain the concept of loss aversion in non experimental settings more
clearly.
The case involving foreclosure also supports the findings of Thaler (1991) in his
Endowment Effect Experiment, which helps people understand the concept of loss aversion. The
value that the representative of the bank and the lawyer assign to the property foreclosed is
obviously higher than what many potential buyers are willing to pay for it. The discrepancy
between the value that the representative of the bank assigned to the property and the value
assigned to it by potential buyers can be explained by the banks loss aversion for the property.
The fourth respondent was a lawyer in his mid-thirties. The respondent works at a private
law firm and has been practicing law for 4 years. The researcher and the lawyer being interviewed
talked about a case involving what lawyers refer to as a contract to sell. The case did not involve
health insurance but it still gave the researcher another opportunity to apply prospect theorys
insight to a real life situation in the legal profession. In this case, a buyer of a condominium that
was worth six million was suing the seller for losing the checks that she paid to him. The buyer
had already made a downpayment of over nine hundred thousand pesos but because of the sellers
carelessness in handling the checks, she had changed her mind and decided that the condominium
was no longer a good investment.
When the researcher asked the fourth respondent to explain what this particular contract
to sell was all about, the fourth respondent said, My client wanted to buy a condo worth 6 million
and she made a downpayment of over 900 thousand. The seller of the condo was careless in
handling the checks that my client paid and now my client is no longer interested in paying the
full amount.
The respondent was also asked about the risk involved in being a private practitioner. He
said, There is more risk involved because even though I get to charge the client by the hour,
the client can lose interest and go to another law firm. If I were a public servant, the client would
have no choice but to give their cases to me even if I lose.
This situation provided the researcher with information that reinforces prospect theorys
insight that people will behave in a risk seeking manner in order to protect themselves whenever
they are faced with a potential loss. At the time that the buyer decide to make a downpayment for

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the condominium, she considered it a potential gain. Prospect theory suggests that people are risk
averse when they are faced with a potential gain (Kahneman, Tversky, 1979).
The researcher pointed out the importance of understanding the reference point or status
quo in the Kahneman-Tversky value function because this is the characteristic of prospect theory
that gives researchers the opportunity to study these social situations involving lawyers and other
competent professionals and to have a better understanding of why they make decisions the way
that they do. The definition that cognitive psychologists use for the term perception is also very
significant in this situation because it refers to the subjective interpretation of the individual. In
this experience involving the loss aversion of the lawyers client as well as the lawyer himself,
their decision regarding whether or not the condominium was a good investment was clearly the
result of their subjective interpretation of the condominiums value.
This explains why the buyer would make a downpayment for the condominium. She was
averse to the risk of losing the condominium to other buyers. When the seller became careless in
handling the checks that she gave to him, she considered the condominium a potential loss and
was no longer willing to pay the full amount for it.
When she decided to sue the seller, she was behaving in a risk seeking manner. She wanted
to protect herself from the potential losses she would have incurred if she decided to pay the seller
the full amount. These conclusions that the researcher made regarding the social situation that the
client and the lawyer found themselves in is the result of data analysis of other studies that have
been done on loss aversion. The researcher may be criticized for making generalizations without
conducting any experiment and obtaining the results only through interviews but if one were to
read the conclusions made by other researchers that have had more time to conduct experiments
and access to respondents that were not as busy as the ones interviewed in this study, it is clear
that the researcher made these conclusions because there is evidence regarding the concept of loss
aversion to support the conclusions that were made.
Experiences of lawyers in public service
The researcher interviewed the fifth respondent, government corporate attorney from the
Office of the Government Corporate Counsel. The fifth respondent is in his mid 40s and has been
practicing law for 15 years. He has been working for the OGCC since he passed the Bar exam.
According to the fifth respondent, the way that lawyers weigh outcomes involving health insurance
cases is not so much affected by age but is affected by experience and education.
When the researcher asked the fifth respondent about experience and education being
factors to consider when trying to understand how lawyers weigh outcomes, Education and
experience are factors to consider in the winning and losing of cases. It is not so much about
the age of the lawyer. But the most common factor would be the way that the evidence is
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presented in court. Even if experience and education are factors to consider, there are times
when lawyers can already tell whether or not it is going to be a losing case.
The fifth respondent believes that in all cases involving insurance, lawyers will always
weigh outcomes based on the facts of the case. When it comes to the probability of winning or
losing, outcomes depend on many other factors other than age, education and experience. A lawyer
may have many years of experience and present his case well but will still be loss averse just as
much as a younger and less experienced lawyer might be.
The researcher interviewed another lawyer from the OGCC, the sixth respondent in this
study. He has been practicing law for 14 years and also handles health insurance cases. He has also
had experience working for the Commission on Audit. According to the sixth respondent, the only
difference between lawyers that handle insurance cases and lawyers that do not handle insurance
cases is the way that outcomes are affected by the appraiser and the incident report. The sixth
respondent does not believe that age is a big factor in determining whether or not lawyers are more
or less loss averse in insurance cases but he believes that education and experience may have an
impact on the intensity of potential losses. Another factor to consider is the amount of time the
lawyer spent preparing for the case and whether or not he has enough evidence to present to the
court.
In order to show that loss aversion is the same for lawyers specializing in high-risk
industries such as insurance compared to that of lawyers specializing in other fields, the researcher
asked the respondent about the differences that can be found in lawyers that handle insurance
cases.
The sixth respondent said, Lawyers that handle insurance cases are different in the
sense that they rely more on the appraiser or the incident report. But outcomes in trial will really
depend on the facts of the case and how prepared the lawyer is for trial. These things are usually
the result of education and experience. But it does not change the fact that nobody wants to lose,
especially in big cases. This does not only apply to lawyers that handle health insurance cases
but also in other fields.
The last respondent that was interviewed was also lawyer from the OGCC that specializes
in banking and insurance. The last respondent has been practicing law for 13 years and also handles
health insurance cases. The last respondent informed the researcher that there is no special
requirement for lawyers to handle health insurance cases but she also believes that education and
experience are factors in the way that a lawyer weighs potential losses. Lawyers that are more
experienced are less likely to be affected by a potential loss the same way that a younger or less
experienced lawyer would be because their experience in the field puts them in a better position to
mitigate its severity but it does not change the fact that they are still averse to the risk of loss. This
does not only apply to health insurance cases but also to cases in other fields. The respondent also

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emphasized the importance of education and its role in helping lawyers mitigate the severity of
potential losses.
The seventh respondent said, I believe that education and experience have an impact on
the way that a lawyer views a potential loss but it is not only about these two factors. There are
many factors to consider depending on the case. A lawyer can have so many years of experience
and still be aware that the evidence presented in trial is not enough to win. Age cannot really be
considered a factor because even older lawyers can be similar to younger lawyers in their
attitudes towards risk taking. The older ones are different only because they have more
experience dealing with a potential loss and will probably know better when it comes to avoiding
it.
The seventh respondents statement as well as those made by the other respondents of the
researchers study regarding the manner in which outcomes are weighed by lawyers that handle
high risk cases such as those involving insurance contradict Gachters conclusion (2010) that loss
aversion increases with age and income but decreases with education.
Interestingly, the respondents of Gachters study as well as those in Johnson and Polmans
(2006) were customers of a car manufacturer. Gachter was not very specific in his choice of
respondents. Even though Gachter used a survey that had already been validated by Thaler(1991)
in measuring loss aversion, it is clear that the researcher was more specific in his choice of
respondents in terms of age, education and experience.
What is even more significant with the interviews conducted with the lawyers that
happened to be public servants is the way that findings support the insights of prospect theory and
how it compares to expected utility theory, which suggested that the carriers of utility were final
states of wealth, when in fact, utility is derived from changes relative to the reference point or the
so called status quo, as mentioned in the review of literature. The insight being referred to here
is the fact that even though there are people who are perceived to be superbly competent
professionals that make well informed decisions, these decisions that they make are still subject to
error because of the cognitive biases and attitudes that they hold. In the discussion related to the
reference point of the Kahneman-Tversky value function, the way that people view potential gains
and losses is a result of the subjective interpretation of the individual. Thus the topic being
discussed is one that will definitely be of great importance to researchers that want to contribute
to the psychology literature in the future because the reference point or the changes in the status
quo are psychological in nature. (Schiller, Thaler, 1991).

DISCUSSION
The interviews that the researcher conducted were very helpful in gaining a better
understanding of how lawyers weigh outcomes. By having On the Job Training at a law office, the
researcher was able to gather information about the legal profession and how instruments such as
contracts and affidavits are used in a way that reinforces prospect theorys insight that people
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dislike losing more than they like winning. All of the lawyers that were interviewed said that a big
part of their job is about helping others avoid the risk of loss but there are too many factors to
consider apart from age, education and experience when trying to determine the way that lawyers
weigh potential losses.
When studying loss aversion among lawyers, the researcher must also take into
consideration the kind of practice that the lawyer has. Clearly, there is a big difference in the loss
aversion of a lawyer that is a private practitioner and a lawyer that is in public service.
While describing the participants and sampling procedures to be used for this study, the
researcher believed that the best way to show how loss aversion differs from one respondent to
another was to separate the results obtained from private practitioners to those obtained from
public servants.
Although the researcher did not use any statistical method in determining the level of the
respondents loss aversion, the findings of this study are supported by facts and generalizations
that have been made by researchers that have studied prospect theory. One might assume, then,
that the question of whether or not loss aversion for lawyers specializing in fields like insurance
and other high risk industries is different from other professionals in other fields involving less
risky transactions has already been answered. But the results of studies that have been conducted
in the past were obtained from respondents that were very different from the respondents in this
study. They differ not just in terms of age, education and experience but in the respondents
profession as well as the field in which the respondents specialize in.
Insurance is the field in which 3 out of 7 respondents specialize in. The results obtained
from these respondents were substantial. But it is also important for the researcher to point out that
there were other parts of the interviews conducted for this study that helped make loss aversion
among lawyers more understandable even though the focus of these parts were not specifically on
health insurance cases. These parts included discussions related to the manner in which people
assign value to property, which is also related to insurance and would therefore be worth studying
if one wishes to contribute to the existing literature on loss aversion.
As mentioned in the researchers synthesis, prospect theory is a valuable tool that can give
people a better understanding of our legal system. Using the results of this study as well as other
similar studies that will be conducted in the future, lawyers as well as psychologists and other
professionals that thrive on their understanding of human behavior will then be able to predict, to
some extent, how people are likely to respond to amendments or other new policies that are often
the result of decisions involving complicated and highly sensitive matters that affect not only our
well-being today but also that of the younger generation and their future.
Although prospect theorys application to group decision making was not the focus of this
study, it is clear that the findings in this study will also be useful to those that would like to conduct
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more studies on social perception and inter-group relations, which as evidence suggests, are highly
relevant to the study of loss aversion.
Due to the lack of sufficient evidence for prospect theorys application to group decision
making, Guthrie (2012) concluded that until psychologists conduct more studies on group decision
making, it would be a mistake for legal scholars to assume that prospect theory captures the way
groups behave in legal settings. The interviews with the lawyers of the Office of The Government
Corporate Counsel as well as the lawyer from Landbanks legal department helped address
Guthries (2012) concerns about prospect theorys application to individual decision making and
whether or not it can be used to understand loss aversion in group decision making.
In this study, the respondents talked about perception and how it affects the extent to which
younger lawyers turn to older and more experienced lawyers for guidance in helping them make
better decisions. Cognitive psychologists define perception as the subjective interpretation that
people have of a thing. The way that cognitive psychologists define perception is highly relevant
to this study because it implies that the decisions made by these people as a result of their
perception is subject to error. This assumption is what makes the concept of loss aversion so useful
for people that would like to conduct more studies on decision making. Given that the literature
on the way that groups behave in legal settings is insufficient and that it is a source of frustration
for many legal scholars, the findings of this study on loss aversion among Filipino lawyers will
definitely be useful to those that would like to address this problem.
The researcher considered the possibility of being criticized for not using the same
statistical methods that were used in other studies that were conducted on loss aversion. While it
may seem as if the researcher relied solely on the interviews and his own interpretation of the
topics discussed with the lawyers and their relevance to the proposed thesis topic for the purpose
of finishing this study on time, the researcher is convinced that the conclusions and the
recommendations that were made in said study were not just the result of the interviews conducted
with the respondents but also the result of careful analysis of the data drawn by other researchers
that have had more time and easy access to resources that allowed them to be more precise in their
interpretation of the evidence regarding loss aversion. This analysis is evident in the researchers
decision to include a brief description of the data drawn from the value function used by Kahneman
and Tversky in illustrating the concept of loss aversion (1979).
It should also be noted that even though other researchers, whose findings allowed the
researcher in this study to be as precise as possible in examining loss aversion among the
respondents, were also criticized for making conclusions on loss aversion and prospect theorys
application to different settings even if their findings lacked external validity. As Barberis (2012)
mentioned, one of the biggest concerns about prospect theorys application is that it is not always
clear how to apply it and that the best way for researchers to make the concept of loss aversion

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more understandable is to derive its predictions under a variety of plausible definitions and to test
the predictions, either in the laboratory and in the field.
The findings of this study allowed the researcher to address some of the concerns regarding
external validity because he was given the opportunity to have On-The-Job training at a reputable
law firm, wherein exposure to the basic principles of law subjects like Obligations and Contracts
and Negotiable Instruments provided the researcher with sufficient evidence for the strong need to
study the concept of loss aversion and its implications for the legal profession as well as the field
of psychology.
The researcher mentioned in the review of literature that loss aversion may also contribute
to the discrepancies between the amount of money people are willing to pay for a good and the
compensation they demand to give it up (Bishop and Heberlein, 1979; Knetsch and Sinden 1984).
The application of Bishops and Heberleins (1979) findings to this study can be found in the
interview with the respondent that discussed the concept of notarial foreclosure.
Based on the findings of other researchers that have studied loss aversion in the legal
profession, a legal dispute involving foreclosure is an excellent way to demonstrate peoples
tendency to take more risks when faced with a potential loss in order to protect themselves. It has
also proven to be useful in this study because any dispute involving property will raise matters
related to insurance when studied by other researchers.
By studying the basic principles in the Insurance Code of the Philippines such as the
definition of insurance and an insurance contract, its elements and characteristics, the researcher
learned that in order for people to understand its complex nature, it must first be thought of as a
contract of adhesion, meaning that one partys participation in the agreement is reduced to take it
or leave it and that the contract is put together by the insurer. Another principle to consider when
trying to understand how the concept of loss aversion can be applicable to the findings of the
researcher is that of indemnity, which means that the purpose of insurance is to indemnify a person
against potential losses. These principles only provide more evidence for the need to understand
the concept of loss aversion.
One of the respondents talked about the difference between lawyers that handle health
insurance cases and those that do not. He talked about the extent to which people rely on the
incident report and the appraiser. The fact that the lawyers handling these cases rely on more
people in order to to predict, to some extent, the final outcome of the case, implies that there is
more risk involved in these types of cases.
In order to demonstrate why it is necessary even for people that do not intend to specialize
in fields such as insurance law, the researcher pointed out the importance of Schillers findings on
how theories and models of human behavior can be used to explain the different anomalies in
markets such as insurance. Schiller (1999) mentioned that these anomalies suggest that there is a
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need to understand models of human behavior such as prospect theory if people are to understand
why the underlying principles of rational behavior in the market system are not entirely correct. In
other words, there is so much evidence today that suggests that people are not always rational
when making decisions under uncertainty.
Before discussing the implications of this study for the field of psychology as compared to
that of other fields, it should be noted that all theories of human behavior often have underlying
motivation that is different from that of economic theories. Evidence suggests that theories of
human behavior are often intended to be robust to application in a variety of everyday, unstructured
experiences, while the economic theories are often intended to be robust in the different sense that,
even if the problems become very clearly defined, their behavior will not change after they learn
to solve the problems (Schiller, 1999). Many of the underlying behavioral principles from
psychology and other social sciences are unstable and that the behavioral phenomena may
disappear when the situation becomes better structured and people have had the opportunity to
learn about it.
Schiller (1991) pointed out that indeed, there are papers in the psychology literature
claiming that many of the cognitive biases in human judgment under uncertainty uncovered by
experimental psychologists will disappear when the experiment is changed so that the probabilities
and issues that the experiment raises are explained clearly enough to subjects [see, for example,
Gigerenzer (1991)].
Apparently professionals that do not specialize in the field of psychology at large have not
fully appreciated the extent to which patterns can be found in this unstable human
behavior.(Schiller, 1991) The lack of appreciation for these enduring patterns is clearly seen even
in the Insurance Code of the Philippines. As mentioned in another section of this study, insurance
law is a field wherein attitudes toward risk play a central role and thus it is a promising place to
search for evidence of loss aversion among lawyers. Yet when De Leon (1988), the lawyer that
wrote the Insurance Code of this country, discussed risk averse behavior among insureds, there
was no mention of the term Loss Aversion, nor was there any mention of prospect theory, even
though evidence suggests that risk averse behavior can only be understood clearly using the
concept of loss aversion and prospect theorys insights.
The researcher also mentioned in the review of literature that while it is agreed that prospect
theory offers an accurate description of risk attitudes in experimental settings, some have
questioned whether its predictions will retain their accuracy outside the laboratory, where the
stakes are often higher and professionals may have significant experience making the decision at
hand. Although there were no statistical methods used due to the amount of time it would take in
order to carry out the procedures and interpret the data, the researchers study has proven to be
useful in addressing these questions.

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While it may seem as though all the experiences of loss aversion being discussed here are
very different from one another and that there was a need to separate the respondents in terms of
the kind of legal practice that they have, it is clear that if one were to consider the implications of
these scenarios from a social psychological perspective and take into consideration the extent to
which the respondents in this study have internalized the social norms regarding their profession,
it is not that difficult for researchers to have a much clearer picture of what is really happening in
the situations being discussed in this study. The point that the researcher is making is that the
decisions that people make all boil down to their perception. People make decisions the way that
they do because the way that they assign value to the things that they own or would like to own in
the future is subjective, and therefore, psychological in nature.

CONCLUSION
People make decisions every day. Many of these decisions do not only involve our own
welfare but the welfare of others. Therefore, it does not make sense for people to assume that we
can survive in a world wherein high risk industries such as insurance and fields as complex as law
and psychology exist without a better understanding of loss aversion and a model for decision
making under uncertainty such as prospect theory.
The study of loss aversion and how it differs with the kind of social situations that people
find themselves in has proven to be useful in helping people identify the different cognitive biases
that they, themselves, have and to some extent, predicting how others are likely to respond to the
way in which instruments in the legal profession are used.
The findings of this study on the experiences of loss aversion among Filipino lawyers
suggest that there are many factors to consider apart from age, education and experience when
studying loss aversion in the legal profession. But it is clear that loss aversion for lawyers does not
decrease even with age, education and experience because even though they may be able to think
of better ways of dealing with loss than younger and less experienced lawyers are able to, they are
still averse to the risk of loss.
Generally, the best way for lawyers to make decisions is to weigh outcomes based on the
evidence that they have. It is not so much about age, education or the years of experience that a
lawyer has in a particular field but about the facts of the case that will help researchers determine
whether loss aversion for a lawyer is high or low.
The researcher recommends that more studies be conducted on the level of loss aversion
among lawyers. The respondents in this study mentioned that there are many factors to consider
apart from age, education and experience in the study of decision making in their profession. These

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other factors must be studied in order for researchers to have a better understanding of loss aversion
among lawyers.
Understanding loss aversion can help people determine which set of analytic tools can
inform decision making under uncertainty- and which cannot. At a broader level, it offers people
a discipline for thinking systematically about risk and its implications for strategy.

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REFERENCES

Kahneman D., Lovallo D., Sibony, O. (2011). Before You Make That Big Decision Harvard
Business Review, 89(6),50.
Novemsky, N., & Kahneman, D. (2005). The Boundaries of Loss Aversion. Journal of
Marketing Research, 42, 119-128.
Novemsky N., & Kahneman D. (2005). How Do Intentions affect Loss Aversion? Journal of
Marketing Research, 42, 139-140.
Johnson, Eric J.; Gchter, Simon; Herrmann, Andreas (2006) : Exploring the nature of loss
aversion, IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2015
E. Polman (2012). Self- Other Decision Making and Loss Aversion, Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Process, volume 119, issue 2, November 2012, Pages 141-150
M.Ernst,R.Plate, C.Carlisi, E.Gorodetsky, D. Goldman, D. Pine (2013). Loss Aversion and
.5HTT Gene Variants in Adolescent Anxiety, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
C. Boyce, A. Wood, J. Banks, A. Clark, Gordon D. Brown (2013). Money, Well Being and Loss
Aversion: Does an Income Loss Have a Greater Effect on Well Being than an Equivalent
Income Gain?
S. Santon, O. Mullette Gillman, R. Mclaurin, C.Khun, K. Labar, M. L. Platt, S. A. Huettel (2011)
Low and High Testosterone Individuals Exhibit Decreased Aversion to Economic Risk,
A Journal for The Association For Psychological Science
S. Gachter A. Hermann( 2010) Individual Level Loss Aversion in Risky and Riskless Choices,
CeDEx discussion paper series 2010- 20
E. Yechiam, G. Hochman (2011) Loss Aversion in The Eye and in The Heart: The Autonomic
Nervous Systems Response to Losses, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 140- 156, April 2011
P. Bordalo & N. Gennaioli & A.i Shleifer, 2012. "Salience in Experimental Tests of the
Endowment Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol.
102(3), pages 47-52, May.
K. Erikson, A. Fuster: The Endowment Effect, NBER Working Paper No. 19384 Issued in
August 2013

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Parenting Strategies of Single Fathers to Discipline and Monitor


Childs Academic Performances
Anne Nicole I. Lammatao
Maria Theresa Masilungan
Abstract
The study aims to identify the parenting strategies of single fathers to
discipline and monitor childs academic performances. The researcher would
like to classify the effects of these parenting strategies to children, and the
techniques used to make them focus in school. There are 5 single fathers, 3
children, and 2 teens that contributed in data gathering. They were selected
through purposive sampling. The study used qualitative research design in
which in depth interview was conducted to gather sufficient data from the
participants. Based on the gathered data, there are four parenting strategies
used by single-fathers to monitor childrens academic performances: 1)
checking of notebooks and textbooks, 2) asking about the assignment of the
children, 3) asking the teacher regarding the performance of their child once
a week, and 4) bringing and fetching children in school. Single-fathers
strategy for making their children focus in school is through the use of
reinforcement and giving motivation verbally and nonverbally. The
researcher concluded that these parenting strategies are effective when it
comes to involvement of parents regarding with academic performance of the
children. The behavior of the children are changed upon giving reinforcement
and punishment.

Children are not always easy to understand and please, that is why parents are alarmed and
obliged to do something in order for them to monitor their children. Sometimes parents do not
have any choice but do things, even if it is not in their nature to do so, just to make their children
be under their control. Parents ways of approaching their children are called parenting styles.
These are strategies or techniques in building a good parent-child relationship. Based on historical
trends in conceptualizing parenting, acceptancerejection (Rohner, 2002), or on orthogonal
dimensions such as warmthhostility and detachmentinvolvement (Schaefer, 1965) are strategies
used to describe parental characteristics that has been placed along single dimensions of parenting.
A contextual model of parenting is used as an overarching framework to examine the relationship
among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school outcomes. Parenting practices
are dened as specic behaviors that parents use to socialize with their children (Darling and
Steinberg, 1993). They also claimed that parenting style as the emotional climate in which parents
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raise their children. But for Baumrind, parenting styles have been characterized by dimensions of
parental responsiveness and demandingness.
Childrens academic performances are based on how their parents give support to them.
Support from parents gives children the motivation to excel in school. In America, supportive
behaviors of mothers toward their adolescent child lead to a higher self-esteem and academic
achievement. Psychological control was significantly related to adolescent self-esteem in both the
models of paternal and maternal parenting. In addition, among European American adolescents,
behavioral control was a significant predictor of academic achievement and self-esteem (Bean,
Rush, McKenry, & Wilson, 2003). Lack of involvement of parents towards their children leads to
low academic performances. Interpersonal deprivation, or the lack of interpersonal parental
resources will also lead to poor academic performances. One research (Manrada, 2006) support
that African American parents used authoritative parenting style wherein they teach children about
their cultural heritage and personal power to achieve in spite of barriers. They are actively involved
by monitoring homework and limiting counterproductive time. The chances of African American
boys succeeding in school are greatly increased.
Baumrinds dimensions of parenting style continue to be powerful constructs in the
socialization literature and are used frequently as descriptions of individual differences in
parenting within child development research (Winsler, Madigan, & Aquilino, 2005). Authoritative
parenting which is characterized by emotional supportiveness, limit setting, and firm yet
responsive disciplinary strategies, is consistently associated with positive educational, social,
emotional, and cognitive developmental outcomes in children. On the other hand, authoritarian
parenting is characterized by strong control and limited emotional support and responsiveness, and
permissive parenting is characterized by high levels of emotional support/responsiveness and little
discipline/control are typically linked with poorer child outcomes. Although currently little
information exists about fathers parenting styles and possible gender differences in parenting
style, there is some indication that mothers tend to demonstrate parenting practices more consistent
with an authoritative style, while fathers exhibit practices more consistent with an authoritarian
style, particularly with regard to disciplinary strategies. It is important to know the parenting
strategies

The study focused on single-fathers who are raising their child alone. It aims to determine
the parenting strategies of single fathers in terms of child-discipline and why they choose it as a
strategy in raising their child. Single-fathers implementation of rules were also discussed. It also
intends to know the effects of parenting strategies to childrens behavior particularly to their
academic performances. This study also discussed how children react to the parenting strategies.
Specifically, the study would answer the following questions: What strategies did single fathers
use in order to monitor their childrens academic performances? What parenting strategies did

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single fathers use in order for their children to focus in school? What are the effects of these
parenting strategies to children?

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Parenting Strategies
Jarretts study showed that if parenting strategies are used properly, children tends to be
more likely to complete high school, forego premature childbearing, and participate in prosocial
activities (1997). According to Ceballo (2004), strong parental commitment to the importance of
education, parental facilitation of their child's autonomy, an array of nonverbal, parental
expressions of support for educational goals and tasks, and the presence of supportive faculty
mentors and role models in the students' lives are some of the parenting strategies used in Latino
families that lead children to academic achievement.
Mothers are reported to have significantly higher levels of logistic support than fathers,
whereas fathers are reported to have higher levels of explicit modeling than mothers. Although
mothers and fathers tended to report different methods of support, both methods were associated
with higher physical activity among girls (Davison, Cutting, and Brich 2003).
Broken family
Quensel, McArdle, Brinkley, Wiegersma (2002) stressed the influence of broken home
whether by death, divorce, or because the mother is unmarried as one of the main causes of
later criminality. The broken home delinquency relationship could be seen as resulting from
disturbed early socialization or from the manner of social control.
Some other authors extended this argument by citing more factors to understand the reason
why intact family ended as broken ones. The studies found by other authors increased the
possibility of this topic to be more understandable.
According to the study of Elmaci (2006), La Vigne, Davies, and Brazell (2008) social
support and family constitution have a big impact on childrens level of depression and stress. This
study talks about the adjustment levels that a child can reach upon experiencing anxiety and
depression. It was stated in their study that family constitution affects adolescents personal
adjustment levels and found that adolescents from unbroken families have much higher personal
adjustment scores than those who were from broken families. In Perrys (2006) research, he
described the theoretical underpinnings in the literature on stress and coping in individuals and on

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family stress. Childrens emotional securities about interparental conflict reconcile the relation
between marital conflict and childrens security about parenting.
Religion was also considered to be one of the factors affecting the structure of a family. It
was found out that family who have faith and are participating in religious communities found to
keep their family stronger than other families who dont do the same (Poston and Turnbull, 2004).
Spirituality and religion are some of the important factors of family. The researchers were trying
to specify the presence of spirituality as a domain seemed to indicate that they were advocating for
a specifically spiritual component to family quality of life. In addition, Duncan and Magnuson
(2005) say that family incomes may be one of the interventions in reducing racial and ethnic
readiness gaps. Sometimes the most common problem faced by the family is financial that leads
to separation of the parents.
Single Parenthood
It is well known that families with children headed by a single mother are more likely to
be poor than two-parent families. Single-parent families often struggle economically, because only
one adult is able to work, and usually little help is received from the absent parent. According to
Duffy and Hallmark (2002) single parents are also far more likely than others to live in food
insecure households. An important reason for concern about the food status of low-income
households is that there is mounting evidence that food insecurity is related to a variety of health
and behavioral problems in children.

Academic Performances
Children who came from broken family tend to be less active in academic performances
compared to the children with intact family (Yara, 2010). School counsellors are expected to be
employed in all schools where they should provide necessary assistance to students especially
those that are from single-parent families or broken homes to enable them overcome their
emotional concerns. As well as with the study of Bemuth and Brown (2004), children from singleparents are more delinquent than those with two biological, married parents. Taylor and other
researchers highlighted home as the place where intelligence starts. The knowledge of the children
will first come from the teachings of the parents. It was also found that children from low
socioeconomic status families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive
function tests than children from similarly low socioeconomic status who were living with two
parents.
Rebellon (2002) stated that divorce/separation early in the life course may be more strongly
related to delinquency than prior research implies and that remarriage during adolescence may be

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strongly associated with status offending. The absence of one parent may lead to youth
incarceration, that most of the time happens among males who are with their stepparents. Parental
involvement and monitoring are vigorous predictors of adolescent achievement. Authoritative
parenting styles are often associated with high levels of students achievement (Spera, 2005).
Parents who used high levels of monitoring, with a supportive and involvement of mother-child
relationship make it easier for a child to adjust and form his self-regulation (Brody, Dorsey,
Forehand, and Armistead, 2002).
SYNTHESIS
Parents should realize that their children need their support for effectiveness because the
affection they receive from their parents revolves round their cognitive, affective and psychomotor
domains, thus, reflecting in their academic performances, attitudes, behaviours, skill acquisitions,
and interests. Parents should show openly their support for their children at all times. According
to Fuller (1999) there are several things that can be done by parents, educators, and others
concerned in an effort to be supportive of children from broken homes. Adolescents are most likely
to feel uncomfortable with the term broken home, as it suggests their life is defected, out of
order, or not structured. That is why it is better to use the term single-parent household because
it can describe the structure without making a negative value judgement.
Single-parents have to work and leave their children at home in order for them to earn
money. Because of this they were not able to keep an eye on childrens performance in school. A
study shows that parents dont have to worry if they left their children at home and no one will
teach them their lesson. The surfaces at home are places where the intelligence of people in the
home is assembled, displayed, controlled and worked upon. (Taylor, Harper, Swan, Izadi, Sellen
and Perry 2007). If parenting strategies are used properly, children tends to be more likely to
complete high school, forego premature childbearing, and participate in prosocial activities
(Jarrett, 1997).

METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The researcher used qualitative design for this study. In depth interview was used to the
participants to gather data. This design help the researcher understand more of the topic since the
participants shared their experiences and thoughts in words rather than in numbers. Participants
were asked to share their experiences regarding on how they raised their children. Qualitative
design is the best research design to use in the gathering data because it is used to gain insight;
explore the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in the phenomenon. In depth interview would
help the participants to express themselves by simply sharing their experiences and insights.

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Participants
The target participants of the researcher is five (5) single fathers who are separated from
their wives. They are the single fathers who raised and lived with their teen/children alone. They
were interviewed base on their understanding and skills about raising their child. The participants
were selected through Purposive sampling method wherein the participants are selected because
of some characteristic.
Instruments
The data that are needed in the study were gathered through interview. The researcher made
twenty-six (26) open-ended and closed-ended self-made questions that were asked to single fathers
and six (6) open-ended and closed-ended self-made questions that were also asked to the children
of single fathers. The researcher used video/voice recorder during the interview to keep data. Some
of the interview questions would be: How do you describe your relationship with your child? How
do you discipline your child?
Procedure
In order to conduct the study and gather the necessary data, the researcher went through
the following procedures:
First, the researcher wrote a consent letter asking the permission of the target participants
to be part of the study. The researcher gave some of the letter to the target participants personally,
some were sent through email. Second, the researcher waited for the approval of the participants
if they are willing to provide information needed by the researcher in accordance to the study.
Third, upon the approval of the participants, the researcher together with her uncle started going
to the house of the participants to conduct the interview. Fourth, the researcher started the data
gathering by building rapport with the participants to be able to document a good quality of data.
The researcher had an initial "kwentuhan" with the participant so that the researcher can introduce
herself and give some personal background to the researcher. The interview ended like a
kwentuhan because the participants are very comfortable in sharing their experiences with their
children.

Data Analysis
Purposive sampling method wherein the participants are selected because of some
characteristic. In-depth interview was used by the researcher to gather data so that the participants
can express more their answers in words. The gathered data were analyzed based on the focus of
the study. The researcher reviewed the responses of the participants in order to determine their
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connection with the purpose of the study. After that, the data were classified according to alike
responses and strategies of the respondents. Then, the researcher summarized and categorized the
data gathered based on the purpose of the study. After that, the researcher discussed the results and
gave its conclusion and recommendation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The researcher conducted an interview using the 26 self-made guide questions to five (5)
single fathers and six (6) self-made guide questions to the children of the five (5) single-fathers.
The single-fathers are 27-44 years old that are separated from their wives, while their children are
6-17 years old. The single-father participants are labelled as AF, BF, CF, DF, and EF, while their
children are labelled as AC, BC, CC, DC, and EC. The purpose of the researcher in conducting
this study is to: (1) know the parenting strategies of single fathers in monitoring their childs
academic performances, (2) parenting strategies of single fathers to make their child focus in
school, and (3) the effect of these parenting strategies to childs behavior.

Participant

Age

Number of children

Age of children

Father A (AF): Separated

39 years old

1 (AC)

12 years old

Father B (BF): Separated

32 years old

1 (BC)

8 years old

Father C (CF): Separated

40 years old

1 (CC)

16 years old

Father D (DF): Separated

27 years old

1 (DC)

6 years old

Father E (EF): Separated

44 years old

1 (EC)

17 years old

Parenting Strategies of Single Fathers in Monitoring Academic Performance


Parents have their different ways of monitoring the academic performances of their
children but they have the same goal, which is to be aware of what their children are doing and
experiencing in school. They also want to know if their children are having some difficulties in
studying so that they can do something to help them. Based form the gathered data these are the
(4) four parenting strategies used by single-fathers to monitor childrens academic performances:
1) checking of notebooks and textbooks, 2) asking about the assignment of the children, 3) asking
the teacher regarding the performance of their child, and 4) bringing and fetching children in school
.
According to the data gathered, five out of five participants responses about their strategies
in monitoring their childrens academic performance were almost the same. They shared different
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experiences but almost same strategies are done. Participants involved themselves with their
children when it comes to their studies. As what participant AF said: ..dahil kami nalang dalawa
ang magkasama, kailangan i-monitor ko na rin ang pagaaral niya para maging maganda ang
kinabukasan niya.
Checking Of Notebooks and Textbooks. Two out of five participants way of monitoring
their childrens academic performance was by checking the childs notebooks and textbooks every
night before they go to sleep. Participants get to know if their child is doing good in school literally
because they see the scores from the activities and quizzes of the child. BF said that ..tuwing gabi
tinitingnan ko yung mga notebook at libro nya para makita ko kung may bagsak ba siya o wala.
Asking About the Assignment of the Children. Three out of five participants asked their
child if he / she has any assignment. In this way, participants were able to tell their child to finish
their school works first before doing anything else. Participant BF ..Tinatanong ko rin siya kung
may mga assignment siya, para yun muna ang unahin niya bago ang paglalaro.
Asking The Teacher Regarding The Performance Of Their Child Once A Week. While one
out of five participants mentioned that asking directly from the teacher about the performance of
the child is his way of monitoring his childs academic performances. AF said that ..kinakausap
ko yung teacher niya kung nakakasunod ba siya sa mga ginagawa nila sa school tulad ng projects
at assignments. By doing this, the participant was able to know the strong and weak sides of the
child because the teacher knows how to determine if the student is having a difficulty in studying
or not.
Parenting Strategies of Single Fathers to Make Their Child Focus in School
It is very challenging for a single father to motivate his child to attend his / her school
especially the time when children wants to play more than to read books. There would be a lot of
distractions when children try to focus his / her attention in school. Environment can be an example
of distractions to children particularly the television and other noise present.
Giving Conditions to Children. According to the gathered data, five out of five participants
used operant conditioning in making their child focus in school. It means they roughly changed
the behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. As what CF
said "..bawal lumabas ng bahay hangga't di tapos magreview. Pinapatay ko ang internet namin
kapag exam week nila". Not allowing the child to go outside and meet his / her friends for the
reason that they should be studying first gave an impact to them that they should put their studies
on top of everything. This strategy eliminate the negative behavior of the child when it comes to
studying because of the desire of meeting his / her friends. Children tend to finish all their school
works first so that they can be able to do whatever they want but still with the permission of their
parents. Hanging out and playing computer served as the reinforcement of the participants to their
children because it drives them to study first. According to Skinner (1938), with use of operant
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conditioning, behavior can be changed after reinforcement is given when the desired response is
present. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is
not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened). Single-fathers provide the needs
and wants of the children with the condition of having a good grades. Reinforcement is one of the
good ways in motivating children to focus in school. It is used to urge children to study hard and
be an achiever. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.
One of these is the neutral operants that pertain to the responses from the environment that neither
increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.
Motivation to Help Children Focus in School. Another strategy used by single fathers that
made their children focus in school was by giving motivation to them. Two out of five participants
tend to motivate their children verbally. They are more capable of giving supportive statements to
their children instead of offering material things to them. Giving motivation by means of words
seemed to be accurate and easy to do because children are capable of listening to their father
whenever they start speaking in a serious manner. Children understand what their father is trying
to say when proper words are used. BF said: ..lagi kong sinasabi sa kanya na masarap magaral
kaya dapat enjoyin niya. May oras para sa laro at may oras din sa pagaaral.
On the other hand, one out of five participants used simple gestures as a sign of support
and motivation to his son. EF said that "..minsan simpleng tapik sa likod lang ang ginagawa ko
kasi pag sinabayan ko ng salita, baka lalo siyang mastress." Sometimes it takes just one tap on
the back to make a child feel the support of their father. Participant P never failed to communicate
with his son verbally but there were times that in just one touch or service, he can communicate
and express what he feels with his son.
Effects of Parenting Strategies to Children
The parenting strategies of single fathers affect the behavior of children. Positive effect
happens when children understand the value of the parenting strategies. The output of the behavior
of the children is in accordance with the goals of the fathers wanting to make them appreciate and
value education.
Positive Effect of Parenting Strategies to Children. The researcher asked the participants
regarding the effects parenting strategies to children. Five out of five participants said that their
children acquire the positive effect of using their parenting strategies. As what AF said: Naging
mas maganda naman ang grades niya kaysa noon. Mas ganado siyang makakuha ng taas na
marka kapag alam niyang may prize siya sakin. This indicate that the behavior of the child has
changed and the strategies / approach used turned out to be successful because the remarks of the
child are higher than before. Children became more motivated to study and get high scores when
the condition given are favorable to them.

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Participants explained clearly to their children why they have to turn off the internet and
television while they were studying that resulted to a very understanding children. Three out of
five (children) participants said that they fully understand why their father are doing such thing.
They know that it is for their own sake and their future to be good. AC said: ..naiintindihan ko
po yung mga ginagawa ni Papa na pagbabawal sakin. Alam ko naman po na para rin sakin yun
eh.
Four out of five children follow the rules implemented by their father without having
second thoughts. As EC said: Minsan natutuwa ako kasi alam ko para sa ikabubuti ko rin yung
ginagawa niya sakin eh. Lagi siyang nandyan para sabihin sakin kung anong dapat gawin, tapos
tinutulungan niya rin ako sa school minsan. Kapag may hindi ako maintindihan na lesson siya ang
tinatanong ko tapos ieexplain naman niya sakin ng mas maayos. Even though they treat each
other as friends, they still know their limitations and boundaries between father-child relationship
and friendly relationship. The child sees his father as someone whom he can run to when he doesnt
know what to do.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The researcher concluded that the parenting strategies used by single-fathers to monitor
childrens academic performances are: 1) checking of notebooks and textbooks 2) asking about
the assignment of the children 3) asking the teacher regarding the performance of their child and 4)
bringing and fetching children in school. Single-fathers strategy for making their children focus
in school is through the use of reinforcement and giving motivation verbally. The researcher
concluded that these parenting strategies are effective when it comes to involvement of parents
regarding with academic performance of the children. The behavior of the children are changed
upon giving reinforcement and punishment.
The researcher recommends a more in depth interview for future researchers who wish to
delve on the same topic. Future researchers may focus their study on the negative effects of
parenting strategies to children and how it affects the behavior of children at home. The future
researcher may also study about the difference between children from single-father families and
single-mother families.

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The Source of Motivation of Students with Hearing Impairment from their


Experiences in School Environment
Bianca Camille Francia
Fatima Bullecer
Abstract
This study aims to determine the drive or motivation of a student with
hearing impairment. The study bases the research in the range of the hearing
disability to perceive their point of view from their experiences being applied
in school and their drive to pursue their academics. Four hearing impaired
students were selected to conclude the study. The researcher used qualitative
case study to undergo the process of interview and qualitative work to try to
specify the tool or medium being used by the students. Results show a
remarkable outcome through the perception of the students with hearing
impairment because of their implication as a student and as a person. They
saw themselves as their own motivational medium by seeing themselves as a
unique individual. The students involved in the study sought support from
other people like their parents, but they saw know their potential and theyve
seen their dreams. They concluded that they know themselves enough that
they use their potential self as their motivation.

One of the most recent surveys done on hearing impairment/loss among Filipinos is the
Philippine Disability Survey which is a collaborative study which aims to determine the prevalence
of disability in the country, distribution according to age, sex, and type of disability; also, the status
of rehabilitation and rehabilitation needs.
The study categorized disabilities into moving, speaking, hearing, mental and seeing.
Percent distributions of the types of disability are as follows: moving disability (39%), speaking
(10%), hearing (33%), mental (10%) and seeing (8%). Prevalence of different types of disability
by age groups showed that disability was most prevalent among the following age groups: 70 and
above (16.18%), 60-69 (3.66%) and 50-59 (1.45%).
Hearing disability was found to be the 2nd highest form of disability next to moving
disability. In 1997 according to the DOH National Registry, hearing impairment was said to be
17% or 97,957 per 577,345. A similar survey in 1995 by the Philippine Consensus of population
showed that prevalence rate of hearing diseases were estimated to be 12.55% or 115,357 per
919,292 individuals. At that time, based on the criteria set by the Employees Compensation
Commission of the Department of Labor and Employment, cases of hearing loss were categorized
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into partially deaf-7.57%, totally deaf-2.50%, poor hearing ability-2.48%


Based on the 10 leading ailments among grade 2 in Mandaluyong City released by NCPSHA, impacted cerumen ranked #4 among the 10 leading ailments having a prevalence rate of
28.48% while hearing impairment ranked #5 with a prevalence rate of 24.44%.
There are approximately 80 government based deaf schools and 51 private schools.
Majority of those schools are just centers, mainstream and inclusive setting. It estimates to about
40% of the 80 government based deaf schools. To be more specific, these schools are from
elementary and high school. Only two in particular is maybe the only college for the deaf is the
College for the Deaf in Saint Benilde and CAP College. Most of the public schools, pay
approximately 2,500Php per month. In private schools, about 15,000Php per term. Lastly, for the
colleges, their tuition fee is approximately 40,000 per term in De La Salle University of Saint
Benilde.
The most common difficulty for students in mainstream and inclusive setting in their schools,
is their comprehension of the study. Most of the students who are in mainstream are required to
read lips and carefully examine the teacher in order to fully understand the lesson. The coping is
quite difficult. Majority of the students who are hearing impaired are too shy to ask for help.
The title or term motivational medium was generated to be a tool for students to specify
their drive or inspiration to create their stigma as a student. With the research focusing on the
motivational medium, it is to create an easier way to label the study.
College students with hearing impairment have learned how to cope with their studies but
struggle with their community. They had to learn how to be on their own in order to be
independent. The difficulty in commuting, socializing, and being active in their school.
This research would indicate the day to day lives of those who are born deaf. It would
specifically include the life as a student, how the system is affecting them and what are their
reactions about it. The story within their school environment should be dealt and understood to
evaluate their experiential growth as students and as a person with hearing impairment.
The research would tackle how they cope to the day to day struggle as a student with
hearing impairment and who they hang on to in situations where they need guidance and support.
They would explain and describe their drive as a student deriving from the love and support that
they receive.

The following problems are to be studied by the researcher:


1. Who or what are their motivational mediums or the specific thing, person, or tool they use
as an inspiration to their academic excellence?
2. What are the difficulties of a student with hearing impairment in our generation now?
3. What do they do with that motivational medium and where do they use their drive in their
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studies?
4. How do they derive that motivational medium to their studies?
5. What are the coping mechanisms they use to motivate themselves toward their studies?
These questions signifies and generalizes the point of the research which is determining a
factor that motivates the students with hearing impairment. The questions are guides in
understanding the flow of their consciousness about their motivations as a student.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


The studies included in the review required ten-year-old studies prior to the start of this
research. The articles included in the research has only tackled foreign researches that was specific
about the attention and notion for students with disabilities. The review would only include the
studies and articles starting in the year 2008. It is to avoid longer and older studies involved in the
research and that new research or recent research would help a lot better comprehension of the
topic.

Strategic Plans for Special Needs Students


In other studies, strategies in the classroom or in situations that involve SWD were also
researched. Studies showed that researched based academic and behavioural strategies in
introducing to teachers web-based resources in teaching diverse SWD (Hart, 2009). Multiple
studies also show the word inclusion which in this case the combining of SWDs with regular
students in the regular classroom. In one research study, the inclusion effect the delinquency rate
of those SWDs because of the factor of their environment, (Kivivouri & Salmi, 2009). Other
studies include the recommendation of the studies towards the educational program to remove
inadequacies in the teaching strategy that would not disclude the SWDs in the classroom, (Obiakor,
Beachum, & Harris, 2010). A particular research shows that not all cyber related strategies to teach
might be for those the population as a whole with SWDs, (Carnahan & Fulton, 2013). Lastly,
according to the literature I have researched in the strategies for SWDs, the involvement of parents
towards the education of their sons and daughters would be a good strategy for their children to be
motivated. SWDs would have rehabilitations that needs the support of their parents so that the
results of their development would be a good outcome to their personal lives, (Thurston, Paul,
Loney, Ye, Wong,& Browne, 2011).

Social Perception of Society towards Special Needs People


According to the studies that the researcher has researched, the main goal is about the

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progress of the people surrounding SWDs and the SWDs themselves. One article showed that
comparing the social perception of SWDs towards the society based research has no difference.
They all had the different kinds of disabilities but their ideas and concerns about the society did
not differ from one another, (Koster, Pijla, Nakken & Van Houten, 2010). Correlational studies
that involved the gender of those SWDs were completely accurate. In any disability, there is a
specific trait that makes them stick to what they know and the study showed that the gender factor
gives more comfort for them to make friends and give support for one another, (Frostada,
Mjaavanta &Jan Pijla, 2011). A study also underwent the research of the strengths and weaknesses
of inclusion for SWDs, (Casale-Giannola, Ed.D. 2012). The other study also stated that the
educational system or program fail to classify students who have visual impairment. Even SWDs
do not have the ability to admit but symptoms already shows that some or maybe a few students
are suffering visual impairment and might need some attention from their teachers, (Welinder &
Baggesen, 2011). Of course, the unavoidable factor of prediction. a study shows that we have
endless prediction of disapproval of SWDs in or out of the classroom and a limited, if not,
unnoticeable approval of them, (Sazak-Pinar & Guner-Yildiz, 2011). The classification of
intelligence was also done in one study. It stated that their might be two domain in the
standardization of assessment towards SWDs, (Taylor & Moniz-Tadeo, 2012). And the last article
in my review tackles the deficiencies of SWDs towards topics that are only related to school or
academics. The study showed that some SWDs have harder time coping with topics related to their
schools than related to things that they are more interested in, (Lappalainen & Risto, 2012).

Motivation within Classroom Environment with Special Needs Students


In the journal article by Bradley S. Witzel and Cecil D. Mercer IN 2003, describes the
process of reinforcement and reward in the classroom. inclusive teaching was a must in their
process of motivating their students. An act is made, and a reward is given. If the expectation is
not met, then there would be either good or bad reinforcement to keep the student intact with his
learning. The article suggest that motivating students with disabilities have an effective result when
they give intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in the classroom.
With the journal article by Meyer and Turner (2006), they re-conceptualize emotion while
being in the classroom setting in order to have better performance of their students. They have
studied that the improvement of their students with that strategy grow about 35%. It is to alert the
classroom of the agenda and improve their communicational skills. The effectively, well-thought
out strategy gave students motivation to improve their studies.
Urgen Ozturk (Turkey, 2013), assessed a group of students regarding their writing skills.
The negativity of writing to the students grew. Saying that writing was not that important. He
created a way to let students understand that writing is a way to express. Though with not paint
and/or color, their words must be descriptive. The result of his study became remarkable. He found
out that the negativity only arises when the student is shy. And those students with disability took
it as a challenge for teachers and students alike would see them differently. To give their point of
view of things. It became their freedom of speech, though they cannot be functional most of the
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times. It became a motivation for them to keep writing and the activities more enjoyable.

SYNTHESIS
The review stated a lot about how the regular classroom reacts towards the SWDs in any
given situation. Parents and teachers involve themselves in the progress or development of SWDs
so that they could be raised or grow up like normal regular students. And like any other student,
they too have their own perception of the society and they too have the right to react and be lazy
once in a while.
A perfect example and the target respondents are deaf or hearing impaired students. They
see what people do, can sense what others think of them, and they too keep their reactions to
themselves. They too have difficulty coping to lessons and they too feel out of place.
These articles are supposed to describe what kind of factors that are involved in daily
activities in the school environment. The programs specialized for them and teachers who support
them made a vision of how well involved they should be for their sake. Creating a motivation from
the support that they receive from those people who involve themselves in their general welfare.
The research intends to discover source of inspiration towards their studies. The researcher
aims to determine the reasons for their strife for academic excellence and figure out how they fuel
their inner purpose as students. Also, to figure out how the children process their negative
experiences from the classroom and revert their path to a positive medium that they use as support.
The problem would be, what or who motivates them towards their studies and how do they think
the support of others make them feel about their own situation as a student with impairment; how
they evolve the support from their families and friends to motivation; and lastly, what do they do
when they receive the support.

METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The research design that was used is a qualitative descriptive design which would need
interviews and personal observations that concluded any hypothesis that the researcher formulated.
The design helped the process of sharing inputs about the daily lives of the deaf students and their
specific descriptions of their support systems from their friends, teachers, and family.
The research design required four respondents that are in different age groups starting at
the age of 10 to 18. This indicated and specified the difference in their motivation as they grow
older in their school environment. It also determined their loyalty with their support system and

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the amount of motivation that they have used or use in their growth as students.
Participants
The target population are the deaf community in any school, private or public, four
respondents with different age ranges. The latter years in age, teenager and college years, the
researcher turned to the De La Salle College for the Deaf for further research. Participants were
aware of the study and willing to undergo the process of interview. They underwent a series of
questions wherein it is mainly about how they are coping to their mainstreaming settings and what
supports and motivates them to be foregoing in their studies.

Sampling Procedure
The researcher searched for schools that has students with hearing impairment in
mainstream classes. The respondents were chosen because of their capability to cope with their
studies with their disability. The researcher acquired four students from different age levels in
different areas. They were oriented about the study and approved the process of the study to
determine the results.
Instruments
The main instrument that will be used is an in-depth interview. Consent forms to distribute
to the respondents indicating the research is for completion of requirement. Brief the deaf students
involved in the study about the study being conducted and for them to be aware of the questions
being given are pertaining to their motivational medium.
A series of open-ended questions in a self-made guided questionnaire given to the
respondents, without any offensive remarks and implications. In depth interview must be
conducted describing the experiences and mediums the student with disability uses as motivation.
The researcher should ask about the system and process of support that they receive, how they use
the support, and what becomes their drive in their studies.
The theories like the Incentive Motivation, Drive Theory of Motivation, Arousal Theory
of Motivation, and Humanistic Theory of Motivation shall be used in describing and narrowing
down the kind of motivation students with hearing impairment use.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher found a school in Pasig City named, Bagong Ilog Elementary School
wherein their mainstream program involved a fair few of students with hearing disabilities. The
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respondents chosen was a 10-year-old boy who is progressing exceedingly well in his academics.
The two other respondents were chosen in Manila High School, in Tondo, Manila. They
too have a mainstream program which teaches students with hearing impairment. The chosen
respondents were a 14 year-old girl and a 16 year-old boy.
The last respondent was met in the College for the Deaf La Salle Saint Benilde, Taft. An
18 year-old boy with an ambition. The researcher found that respondents were easily found through
online based research and contacted acquaintances to visit the schools.
After the search of the respondents, the researcher introduced to them the study by
explaining the concept of the paper. The researcher created a form of relationship that helped them
to be more open so that they are able to respond to the research questions with all honesty.
The researcher differentiated their behavior with the different ranges of age, if their
motivational medium changed and if their ambition is possibly the same. Then, conclude the
particular factor as their motivation. The qualitative data gathered helped create particular
motivational medium.

Data Analysis
With the list of questions asked to the deaf students involved in this study, interpreting their
answers needed a process of compiling and comparing. There was instances that they would have
same motivational medium and others would have difficulty in describing their inner medium.
Comparing their self-growth from each age range, the data was analyzed by deep comprehension
with their emotions and drives that pertain to their studies, sociability, and self-understanding. It
finally narrowed down the specific motivational medium for each student involved and finalized
the most common motivational medium that concluded the study.
Each student with a different age gave distinguishable answers which determined their
maturity. The youngest student obviously answered immaturely that defined the difference in
perception. In analyzing younger students answers, difficulty arose in knowing the honesty. But,
the respondents answers shed light on what they really think at their specific ages. Older students
gave more expression and significance to their answers giving an easier way of analyzing the data.
The process of which underwent a load of in depth understanding and comprehension in
order to narrow down and in conclusion to the most common or the different kinds of mediums
that students with hearing impairment possesses from the year they started to understand what
school is for to the day school is very significant to them as people. The analysis of their answers
would go through a series of deep thinking in order to feel the essence of the results. This would
make the data more authentic.
The procedure showed prior to gathering the data were followed. The researcher had the
opportunity to contact schools and inquire about the students they have. The researcher requested
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or confirmed with a deaf teacher in Bagong Ilog Elementary School in Pasig City to have an
interview with one of his youngest students; also with a teacher in Manila High School in Tondo,
Manila to permit the researchers contact to ask for two of their students for their Facebook account
to do an online interview, a 14 year-old and a 16 year-old; and lastly, the researcher inquired
another contact if one of them could befriend a deaf student studying in the College for the Deaf
in La Salle St. Benilde, Taft Avenue.

RESULTS
Respondents
The respondents preferred to not have their names mentioned. Because of the gravity of
their emotional attachment in the answers that they have given, they requested for the discretion
of their address and their names. The researcher requested instead a code name of their liking and
allow the research to mention at least their age.
The researcher interviewed the first respondent over the phone speaking with the
respondents mother and through Skype, videochatting. The second and third respondent was
interviewed by the researcher over chat, email, and text messaging. The last and fourth respondent
was interviewed in person and emailing as well.

Respondent no.1: Spiderman


School: Bagong Ilog Elementary School, Pasig City
Age: 10 years-old
Academic Status: Top 3 in class
Description: a young aspiring Valedictorian; Average height, brown hair, brown eyes, has one
dimple on left cheek, and believes in the power of his heroes; Bilib po ako kay Spiderman. Very
close to his mother and tries his best in mainstream setting.
Respondent no.2: Pink
School: Manila High School, Tondo
Age: 14 years-old
Academic Status: Average student
Description: a music lover; hence, the artist code-name Pink; loves the color as well; has a unique
hobby of feeling vibrations of music through speakers; has long hair and tan skin, aspires to be in
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show business but too shy to be a part of things that would require her to perform; very close with
grandparents and claims to be very adjusted in her regular mainstream classroom.
Respondent no.3: Blake Griffin
School: Manila High School, Tondo
Age: 16 years-old
Academic Status: Above-average student
Description: NBA fan; an aspiring doctor: Sana lang umabot, pero gusto ko talaga magdoctor.
a little insecure but has a sense of family; close with siblings not so close with his mother;
understood that his disability may give him disadvantages as a growing teenager; believes the
saying, if theres a will theres a way.
Respondent no.4: Alex Pettyfer
School: College for the Deaf La Salle St. Benilde, Taft
Age: 18 years-old
Academic Status: Above-average student
Description: Gwaping; his description; has a sense of style; wishes to be like Ana Kristina Arce;
very active social life; but knows how to balance responsibilities; close with cousins because he is
an only child; understands his predicament but believes that everything can be overcame; righteous
student.
The researcher got to know the students first before conducting the interview. The
researcher bonded with them in order to have an intimate and emotional connection to receive the
result of honesty. Results turned out very detailed. Researcher received numerous shocking
answers from the respondents.
Respondent no.1, Spiderman, was described by the researcher to be a cute boy. He has a
sense of light as a child. Since the researcher only met the child and mother once and does not
have the time to go back and forth from Pasig City, they had the means of using the internet to
continue their interview. By using the telephone, cellphone, and Skype, the researcher had the
opportunity to get to know both Spiderman and his mother.
The background of the respondent was that the mother gave birth to Spiderman with
hearing. When they had the chance to already bring him home, she started to notice a little
something different as months went by. Spiderman would look at things ringing and making sound.
But started to be slow in following afterwards. The mother claims that when Spiderman was

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already 6 months old, he cried as loud as he could and would not stop. The mother took Spiderman
to the doctor, and the doctor said that he was a late bloomer. His hearing was lost, but the mother
insisted for the doctor to elaborate. Sabi kasi ng doctor, may ganong kaso talaga. As of now daw,
nung 6 months pa siya, baka daw a beam of sound lang naririnig. So I asked more doctors. Others
said, my son was already born deaf pero I knew he wasnt.
The mother then asked more doctors and said that she should have had a newborn screening
to check his child and couldve been prepared for the situation. Anong magagawa ko? Wala
naman kaming history na may bingi. I did not expect to have a child like Spiderman. Pero no
matter what, he is still my son, and Im proud to have him in my life.
She then inquired from her delivery doctor and recalled that she was asked if she had
sickness while pregnant, I had a slight fever in, I think, before my third trimester. Mga naglast
siya ng 3 days. Pero di naman lumala, kala ko nga parang trangkaso nung unang araw. The
delivery doctor said that it might be the reason for the impairment of the child.
But no matter. It was already my past, and Spiderman is already 10. We are doing fine
and now I thought of doing Cochlear implants on him. Pero naisip ko siya na dapat magdecide
non. Baka kasi sa pagdesisyonan ko siya, yun pala lalala pa problema.
The researcher believed in her decision because the transition of deaf to hearing was a
difficult process for a child. Though, it would be a happy moment to hear again, the getting used
to it might give the child curiosity about everything and might rebel in their own way.
Curious? Ewan ko lang. alam ko lang anak ko kasi masunurin sakin. Sabi niya di niya ko
iiwan. Di katulad nung iba.
The researcher had to ask if it was okay to find out the past of the respondent and she said
that just as long as most of the important details are there and not the near-crying answers. So, the
researcher went on with the interview.
Respondent No. 2, Pink, described by the researcher as a shy girl. In her teens and quite
unexpressive, but very passionate. The researcher never met the girl, but based physical description
through a photo sent by the respondent. She lives exactly near a slum village in Tondo, Manila
with her loving grandparents.
Pink loves music. She would describe a song by flow patterns of vibrations. She was a
fan of the radio. When she was 6, she saw her grandfathers FM Radio by the living room and
looked at it. Asked her grandfather what it was and her grandfather turned the volume up and took
her hand to hold on the speakers.
When music were all the hype for expression, she listened to various kinds of music. She
would ask her classmates to describe what kind of music are more expression. She would listen to
jazz, bossanova, rock, metal, and pop. Her sense of touch was very sensitive, giving her a feel of
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every genre. She would describe jazz as if she heard it herself. Diba parang ala gitara? The kind
na smooth pero may kilig? She means to imply something mellow yet fascinating.
As the respondent discussed, every genre has their own tone and vibration. The vibration
becomes the way for her to understand how the music works or what they imply through her touch.
She especially loves Pink because of the way her music was produced.
Palaging may hint of sadness. Yung recent favorite ko kasi yung Just Give Me a Reason
niya? The way her voice passes in the vibrations parang may iiyak na pero matigasin padin siya.
Researcher was astounded as to how sympathetic the respondent was and how creative and
resourceful she is in know her type of music.
I would look at videos on Youtube and watch how she moves her lips and how her raspy
yet powerful voice comes to be in the vibrations. I would put my hand on the speakers I have to
feel how she sings. Cool lang na nararamdaman ko. Sensitive lang po talaga ako sa kamay ko. Sa
senses po talaga. Researcher noticed a devotion to the music. Her affection towards music clearly
motivates her in her everyday life. Though, she has not described what music does for her benefit.
I was abandoned by my parents when I was a kid. I would remember them getting mad at
me when I was 4 I think or 6, basta. Sermon sila ng sermon kasi nagbibingihan daw ako. Tas we
went to a doctor and confirmed I was deaf. From that day, they left me at my grandparents place
and never to be heard from again. The researcher was curious as to how she coped with that kind
of experience.
My grandparents just became my rock. Di nila pinaramdam na pabigat ako kahit medyo
pasaway. Alam nila may sarili akong buhay at nakaya nila akong ipagaral sa tanda nila. The
respondent seemed self-righteous as to her passion but when it comes to her past, she didnt hold
back details. The researcher really felt for her, sympathized. Pink implied that music was one of
the reasons she moved on from that experience and that her grandparents supported her in her
interests. They did not spoil her nor created a stigma that she was deaf. She was treated as a child
of their own, as the respondent described.
Respondent No. 3, Blake Griffin, is a high-average student in Manila High School in
Tondo. He and Pink know each other since they study in the same school and have a few special
classes together. He has a loving and accepting family. But high hopes in his capabilities to create
a difference in the world.
Pangarap lang naman poi to. Pero, sana po kapag nagging doctor ako, maggagamot po
ako ng katulad ko o kahit sino mang taong may kapansanan. Or something that can change the
world? Haha! The research believed that Blake was a closet sweetheart. In a sense that he really
cares for people though he has been teased and bullied all throughout his life.
Supportive po family ko. Especially sa pagbabasketball ko. Liga lang naman. Di ko po

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kaya sa iskuwela eh. Masyadong mahirap ang training. The research actually encouraged him to
try out for school. But then he responded, Tinry ko po. Mahirap po kapag yung play na gagawin.
Di po sanay yung iba sa akin. Ako pa po mismo magaadjust.
He believes that perseverance rewards great things and pursuing his studies and hobbies
gives him an advantage in the real world. His family believes so too. The researcher came to find
out that Blake also has another sibling with the same impairment. He also asks his brother to
know what he wants to be when he wants to grow up and supports him in his interests.
Hes the oldest of five children. Though, he is 16-years-old and the oldest, he strives for
himself and sees himself just being independent and trying to make a difference in the world. The
respondent knows that the family will still be a part of him but believes that his independency will
let him grow more as a person.
His sense of family is still present but does not put his family in his future. Opo, kasama
dapat sila sa plano ko. Pero ayoko lang talaga maging pabigat sa kanila. Mahal ko sila, bibigyan
ko parin sila ng tulong kahit anong mangyari. Trip ko lang, alam ko lang na lalo ako gagaling sa
aking pagaaral kapag hindi ako nagiging sagabal. Basta po, understand that I choose to be alone
because I have more focus on what I need to know and that I am giving myself the freedom to be
an individual. Yun lang.
His way of speech seems as if he is already living alone. Nagtatrabaho po ako, para
makatulong at magipon para sa susunod na taon. Ayoko na kasing umasa sa pamilya ko kasi
madami pa silang ipagaaral na iba kong kapatid.
His family knows that he is free in his speech and knows that his independency is his
reward in the future. The researcher seems in awe about his way of thinking especially when he
mentioned that his dream was to make a difference in the world.
This may conclude that his motivational medium is himself and not his family. It may be
based on them, or it started from them at first, but he concluded that hes doing it for himself and
his family will only benefit on his forth-comings.
Respondent No.4, Alex Petttyfer, by description of the researcher, a little bit of a snob. He
is a privileged student. Has a rich family and an only child. The respondent seems to believe that
his family does not care about him. Even though the various events that has happened, the
respondent knows their hardships as he was growing up.
He was born deaf. First deaf child in the family. His parents got him cochlear implants
when he was 8. And after a year of use, it sort of broke. Di ko alam kung paano, but the cochlear
implant just stopped working. I did the surgery for nothing. My parents ended up suing the doctor
for malpractice. I didnt have any input about it because I was young.
He is close with his cousins. For a deaf born, hes more on the socialite side. He likes to
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party and drink the night away with his cousins or friends. Still chose to dream about making a
difference but in a chill and mellow way. He believes that he can be the next Ana Kristine Arce.
The researcher seemed hesitant in believing him with the track record he has laid out.
Before, I would go out and stay out with my cousins. I still do, apparently. But I dont neglect my
studies. Im just not so sure what Ill end up doing, I guess.
Alex is remarkably intelligent. He is still able to balance both his social life and his
academics. Matalino ako, pero di ako mayabang. Im only boastful if theres girls around. He
claims to be attached to his social life but dont mix business with leisure.
I know the difference. I have to separate it. If I mix it up, itll be difficult for me to cope
even more. I dont like to be tied down. Spoken like a true player, the researcher asks the motivation
he gets from his experiences.
When my parents sued that doctor, it made me feel incapable of anything. My parents didnt
talk to me much. So, I had to be strong basing influences from the characters Ive read and the
movies Ive seen. Plus, my cousins.
The researcher found that he has high regard from himself and from his relatives. He mostly
mentioned his cousins more and what he thought of himself than his parents. He feels that being
an only child made him who he is. No one to look up to and feeling a little too special. I was always
treated like a handicapped person. As if I cant chew my own food. Im deaf not retarded.
The respondents background seems to suggest that he finds his motivation through the
experiences that he has went through alone. Though he was supported by family, he still has this
self-righteous attitude as to who he is and what he is capable of.
The interview questions were asked:
Are you capable of coping to the lessons you learn from your mainstream classroom
environment? How?
Spidermans Mother:
Hindi naman sa hindi niya kaya. Kaya naman niya, pero minsan masyadong mabilis lang ang
pagturo nung teacher nila. Minsan din kapag taglish pa yung lesson, nahihirapan siya.
Spiderman:
(Nods his head) If di po kaya, tanong ako kay Ms. Teresa. Nagrereview po naman.
Pink:
Oo naman po. Sinisiguro po ng teacher ko na sa harap ako tapos kapag di ko po naiintindihan,
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tatanong po ako sa mga kaibigan ko o sa teacher ko.


Blake Griffin:
Of course po, may special treatment sa class kaya nakakaadjust po ako. Pero yung technique ko
po, tatanong ko muna yung mga lessons sa teacher before idiscuss para prepared ako kapag
recitation.
Alex Pettyfer:
I base my studies on our syllabus. I make sure I ask my teacher about the syllabus. Actually, since
I started college here in Benilde, I have small conferences with my teachers about their lesson plan.
While in class naman, I tend to be prepared to answer except for days where Im really sleepy.
Back in highschool, Id do the same. But I ask for special hour from them, to make amends from
my recitation in class.
All four respondents are capable of coping. This indicate that they have a high regard to their
abilities and having the confidence to have the ability to cope even with their disability. They also
have an individual input. An independent view, they know how to cope on their own terms and
people surrounding them and support them with their endeavors.
How do you cope if you do have a problems in your lessons?
Spiderman:
I ask my teacher for help or nanay. (He types in english through Skype chat, giggles after
typing.)
Pink:
Kapag nagsasalita ng malakas ang teacher ko, tataas ako kamay para ipaulit. Minsan di ko na
pinapaulit kasi minsan naaasar yung classmates ko sakin. Tsaka di ako masyado nagbabasa ng labi
minsan.

Blake Griffin:
Minsan, lip-reading is not enough. Kasi minsan mabilis magsalita o may slur yung teacher, kaya
yung past readings ko o yung mga napagaral ko na yung ibabase ko sa exam o sa quiz. Ok naman.
Minsan ako pa mas mataas sa iba.

Alex Pettyfer:
I sometimes just go with my gut. If I fail, it only means Im not thinking clearly. I just make up
for it in the next quiz by being more articulate.
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They still do have struggles giving the point of having their disability. Yet, they have no
thoughts of giving up even with it. They still have the motivation to move and improve their
abilities in their academics.
What do you do if you are at your lowest when it comes to your studies?
Spidermans Mother:
Isang beses kasi. Dahil baguhan siya sa iskwela, nagkataon na nagalit ako kasi bumagsak siya.
Tapos, iyak siya ng iyak. Mula non, di na siya nagkaroon na hindi kanais na grado. Tapos,
malaman-laman ko nalang na nagtop 3 siya nung huling school year. Proud na proud talaga ako
non! Haha!

Pink:
Sinasabi ko lang sa sarili ko na kaya ko parin. Pero kapag mababa na talaga yung mukhang wala
ng magagawa, kinukulong ko lang sarili ko at nakikiramdam sa mga kantang rock or metal. Yung
malakas at parang nagsisigawan ang ramdam? Nagmumukha kasing wala na kong magagawa eh.
Ayokong lumapit sa lolot lola ko, di naman nila ako papagalitan. Parati lang kasi sila nagsasabi,
pagbutihin mo nalang sa susunod. Tas yun na.

Blake Griffin:
It depends on what kind of defeat po. Kapag seryoso, yung tipong babagsak na talaga ako, hmm.
Hindi ko alam. Pero, yung tipong bumababa kahit konti ang grades ko, napipikon ako sa sarili ko
kaya naglalaro nalang ako magisa hanggang gumabi na. isang buong araw ako maglalaro. Tapos
babawi ako ng grabe.

Alex Pettyfer:
I drink. Haha. To be honest, I do. Im in the right age anyway. My life has been a roller coaster
from the start. The numbness at the end makes me realize I need to do something. Which ends up
to be the reason to be motivated. So pretend I fail at this subject, English Lit, because I have not
expressed myself enough even though I gave it my all, Id drink. After drinking and getting drunk,
Ill be numb and have a clear mind. After the hangover, Ill be finding the right ways to make up
for the subject. Well, before I dont drink. I just tend to have a literal week in a depressing state.
Same process, Ill just sleep it off and have a clear mind in the morning.

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All four does not have the same ages. So they do have different ways of expressing their
emotions. Their ways of trying to express their anger or any emotion come with a stimulant. But,
the motivation to express are within themselves.
Do your parents encourage you to go further from your capabilities?
Spiderman:
Nanay always tells me to do my best and give my all in my studies. Mahirap lang po minsan
magbigay ng best kapag di ako makasagot ng maayos. Binibigyan niya po ako ng lakas lalong lalo
na kapag naglalaro. Cheerleader ko siya! (Gives a giggle and a smile.)
Spidermans Mother:
Kaya niya yan. Siya pa, yun nga lang may times talagang mahirap sumagot kasi sa math madali
lang isulat ang sagot, but when it comes to sentences, kailangan masulat niya muna sagot niya. He
still has difficulty in writing, di niya alam kung cursive or print ang ipagsusulat niya. Naiinsecure
din, paminsan minsan. Pero kapag di niya kaya, I tend to just tell him, whatever the outcome, if
you gave your all or not or even tried new things, just as long as nanay loves you, its ok.
Pink:
Yung lolot lola ko, encouraging naman. Pero parati nalang nila sinasabi na kapag di ko kaya,
wag ko ng pwersahan. Minsan naiinsecure ako kasi medyo di ko kaya yung ibang subjects. Pero,
ang lolo ko at lola ko, para sakanila tong pagaaral ko. So kahit sa pasado ok na sakanila, edi itutuloy
ko nalang basta pumasa.
Blake Griffin:
Oo. Di pwedeng hindi nila ako i-encourage. Dahil madami ako gusto mangyari, kahit hindi para
sakanila yon, araw araw nila ko sinasabihan ng kaya ko to, kung ngang mabuhay ka ng nakangiti
nakaya mo eh.

Alex Pettyfer:
Well, to be honest, they just tell me do your best. Not in an hey Im your parent and Im obligated
to motivate you, its more like, Im your parent so Ill tell you to do your best, I dont care if youre
motivated kind of feel. Its like if I have an award, Id be asking them to come, but I dont really
expect them to come. They know already that Im good in academics, so they dont need to be
reminded.

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With Alex, having the most heart breaking answer, its different. The researcher would see him
as neglected. His motivation to become better is coming from within himself and theres no
association to anyone whatsoever. With everybody else, the respondents seem to have a
relationship, it may not be close, but its suffice for them to be motivated somehow by someone
else.
Do you have friends who help you in your classroom?
Spiderman:
Meron po. Isa lang, (starts to laugh), pangalan niya po ay Isa, Isabel. (Tries to cover his mouth as
he laughs out loud.) Matalik ko pong kaibigan. She is very nice.

Spidermans Mother:
Meron naman, si Isabel. Medyo loner type of kid. Quiet kasi siya kapag sa klase pero matalino.
Kapag birthday nga ni Spiderman palaging namimigay ng regalo.
Pink:
May mga katropa ako na tinutulungan ako. Pero minsan iniiwan nila ako sa klase. Ayoko din
magdepend sakanila, di naman ako bata. Pinupwersa ko kasi minsan na ako, na parang di burden
sa iba.
Blake Griffin:
Meron. Yung buong class ko gusto at tinutulungan ako. Asa honor class kasi ako, so kapag
nahihirapan ako, either teacher o mga katabi ko ang tumutulong. Not necessarily friends, kasi di
naman ako ganung kafriendly. Yung iba lang kaclose ko.

Alex Pettyfer:
To be honest, theres just three people in the class back in high school I trust. They are my closest
friends and their all girls. Back in the day, they would give me their notes for class if they saw me
not writing the lessons down. They are the reason why I wanted to push myself further in
academics. They just helped me out a lot.

Theres no neglecting factors for them to disregard the society. They all seen the goodness in
people and could have associated or used their friends as medium for motivation.

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Are they good influences for your studies?


Spidermans Mother:
Si Spiderman yung good influence. Tinuturuan niya si Isabel sa studies niya. Pag may doctors
appointment naman si Spiderman, nagnonotes si Isabel para sa kanya. Sweet nga nila
magkaibigan eh.

Spiderman:
Yes, shes very nice. She helps me with writing my recitation. Ganda ng sulat niya.

Pink:
Opo. Pero paminsan naiimpluwensa nila ako umalis sa klase kapag ayaw nila makinig. Dalawang
beses lang naman nangyari na sumama ako.hahaa
Blake Griffin:
Oo. Puro aral kami. Di naman sa nagbibigay ako ng good answer na parang nagsisinungaling,
pero yun lang talaga kami. Aral at laro ng basketball.
Alex Pettyfer:
Yeah. I guess. The only bad influence I have I think are my cousins. Hahaha

All four has capabilities to adapt to their surroundings. They have the ability to still have friends
without the judgment that they would usually receive. They were able to be open to people and
befriend them.

What do you think regulates your study habit? Your motivational medium?
Spidermans Mother:
Siyempre ako. Kung walang magbabantay sa kanya kapag naalis ako, sinasabi ko lang alalahanin
niya yung reading assignments niya. Pinagbabawalan ko lang magaral kapag Sunday, dapat may
pahinga naman siya. Matalino anak ko.

Spiderman:

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Si nanay po. Minsan ginagawa ko studies ko for her. Love ko po siya eh.

Pink:
Ako lang ata. Yung music ko kasi natutulungan ako makapagfocus. Yung iba malamang
nahihirapan sa pagfocus kapag nagaaral na may music. Pero yung rhythm kasi nakakaengganyo
para sakin. Parang kakaiba lang yung feeling. Parang imbis yung tibok ng puso ko ang
nararamdaman ko, yung tibok ng musika sa tenga. Tas mula doon, naeengganyo ako gumawa ng
kailangan kong gawin.

Blake Griffin:
I think, ako lang. Mga magulang ko kasi medyo busy sa kanikanilang trabaho. Yung mga kapatid
ko naman sakin pumupunta kapag may problema sa homework. May disiplina kasi.

Alex Pettyfer:
Alcohol. Hahaha. Kidding! Well, I guess its me. I mean, nobody ever thought I ever study. Even
my friends back in high school. Kala nila chamba sa paghula. Pero, I study really hard when Im
not out partying.

This defined the study. With their perception of themselves and their strength to see that they
motivate their studies seems so remarkable. Yes, they do still notice the people who encourage and
love them, but they end up involving them in the latter. They see themselves first before anyone
else.
Who is your inspiration? Your specific motivational medium?
Spiderman:
Si nanay po talaga. (Spidermans Mother smiles and hugs her son.)

Pink:
Ako nalang. Haha. Inspirasyon ko ang lolot lola ko, pero hindi sa pagaaral. Sakin, sa paningin
ko, yung abilidad kong magpush ng sarili sapat na para gumaling pa lalo.

Blake Griffin:
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Sa pagaaral? Mga kapatid ko. Parang kasi kapag may natutunan o may subject na magaling ako,
natuturuan ko sila. So parang sila yung rason ko kung bakit gumagaling ako sa pagaaral. Pero
kasama nadin yung sarili ko? Kasi natutuwa ako kapag gumagaling ako sa mga bagay bagay.
Hehe.

Alex Pettyfer:
Of course, myself. Like I said in the previous question, no one ever thought of me excelling.
Nobody knows how I do it. I mean, I got a lot of friends, and I chose to go with them at times, but
I still have the strength to say no and do what I need to. Id like to be the next Ana Arce, but no
ones going to be like me. Im different. Im proud of that.

There is a difference with age in this point and in family references. Two respondents were
confident enough to give their answer as themselves and the other two had hindrances with their
answers considering the fact of average and high encouragement from their families.

What do they do to motivate you?


Spiderman:
She tells me to be good, do great, and be the best. Before every school day, she will sign to me
that no matter how hard it is to be deaf, she loves me. Because of her love, I am motivated to do
great for her.

Pink:
Encouragement lang sa mga lolot lola ko. Pero sakin, palagay ko namomotivate ko yung sarili
ko dahil sa disability ko. Sa dami dami ng tao sa mundo na nabiyayaan ng Diyos ng pandinig, di
parin sila nakikinig. Ako nakikinig.

Blake Griffin:
I motivate myself in becoming a better person and a better student dahil kailangan ko umunlad
para sa sarili ko. Di naman mawawala ang pamilya so, sakanila na din.

Alex Pettyfer:
I become someone I really am when Im motivating myself. Its all about discipline and time
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management. Sure I have days where I seem like I dont care about the world at all, but its not all
the time. I remind myself that Im lucky to have the best of both world; social life and my school
life, even with the fact that I am deaf.

All four respondents seem to use their disability as a reminder to themselves. Its not unusual
for someone with a disability to use their disability as a blessing. Seeing it in their eyes, make it
seem that their lives are easier but at the same time difficult. They see that their disability reminds
them that they need to be better than those who are surrounding them. It is because not everyone
has the disability. The mind set of proving them wrong.

How do you use that motivation?


Spiderman:
She is my inspiration to strive. I need to study because I want her to rest.
Pink:
Yung musika ko kasi iba apekto sa buhay ko. Eto lang talaga ang naiisip kong pakiramdaman.
Dahil sa musika ko, kaya kong sabihin nagiging mabuting tao ako. Kasi parang lumalakas
pasensya ko, nakikiramdam ako. Ganon. Music is my life, therefore I am my own music. Hahaha.
Blake Griffin:
Pinapaalala ko naman sa sarili ko na studyanteng may kapansanan ako. Parang dahil alam ko
yung abilidad ko. From my struggles, I know I can strive to be better. So, I remind myself na
kakaiba akong tao.

Alex Pettyfer:
Im too awesome. I remind myself that I am and Ive been through enough and still stood strong.
Why would I feel weak? From the things Ive experienced? I use what Ive been through to remind
myself that I am able and disabled.
Their answers add up to reminding themselves they do have disabilities that no one has and
they have struggles that arent common. They understood their situations and uses that to their
advantage. They all consider their disability and their experiences as unique, as they should.

From your experience, what do you think that would amount to your excellence with the
help of your motivational medium?
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Spiderman:
I will strive to go to college. When I graduate, magkakatrabaho ako at bibigyan ko bahay si
nanay.

Pink:
Psychologist din po sana. Hahaha. Yung may therapy therapy. Feeling ko magaling kasi ako
makiramdam at makinig sa tao.

Blake Griffin:
Doctor po talaga. Talagang ipupursigi kong matuto at gumaling.

Alex Pettyfer:
Well, Im not so sure. I mean, people think Im blowing smoke up somewhere when I say I want
to change the world somehow. But nobody ever took that seriously.

They all have different views on what to do. But it seems that they have one thing in common,
they dont see that their disability would be a problem in their futures. Theyre just like normal
students with dreams and goals in life but without considering what differs them from the others.

DISCUSSION
The results were quite unexpected. Considering their disability and being able to still be in
school, you would expect that their motivation to strive for a better future would be their family
and their encouragement. Of course, as the youngest, the first respondent would still see his mother
as his motivation.
The researcher didnt expect to meet respondents with high regard with their passions and
with different perspectives about their selves. The researcher guessed that they would have gone
through similarities and would use the same motivation. But as a person, you cannot have the exact
same thing as the other.
Referring to the review of related literature, all four respondents has gone through the
inclusion program in their schools. Kivivoun and Salmi referred to the mainstream and inclusion
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programs as a strategic way for SWDs to improve in their classroom. Now, all four respondents
seem to adjust very well in their classroom setting. Their stories and their answers form themselves
their own unique strategies in order to keep up with their lessons. They adapt in their own way and
cope in their own pace without being held back.
The researcher also expected to have their families fully involved in their studies. Turns
out, not all families are the same. The article by Thurston, Paul, Loney, Ye, Wong and Brown
suggests that studies of SWDs would progress better with the involvement with their families. But
the respondents seem to show that they dont need to be encouraged to excel in their studies. It
would be a plus or an ego boost for them if they were recognized by their families about their
achievements but it wouldnt matter as long as they seem themselves developing their skills on
their own. They see that their motivations as a SWD would suffice to know that they would stand
alone in some point in their lives without their families.
They find their motivation in the classroom as to how the teacher teaches. They are used
to adapting to the mainstream clause of reading lips fast or slow, but they still take the initiative to
ask before or after class. The article by Meyer and Turner reminded me about how a teacher would
portray an emotion. Their article suggested teachers to re-conceptualize their emotions in order to
teach their students. And I guess, thats what their mainstream teachers were doing when theyre
in their classes.
Lastly, the social perception about is as expected. At least this part adds up. The researcher
noticed that they dont really have difficulty in adapting to their surroundings. There would only
be a few scenarios wherein they would have to work harder and still be seen as disabled. But then
at the end, amounting to all their stories, their situations as a disabled person were just normal.
With not much to tell, they gave the researcher the conclusion that they are capable of acting
normal. An article by Koster, Pijla, Nakken, and Van Houten will back this up.

CONCLUSION
The study defined the difficulty as a student with disability. The researcher has concluded
that they do not see it as a disability. But a reminder to who they are as a person. They only saw
themselves as disabled if people showed them that they are different. Seeing the differences they
have with normal abled people, they never figured they wouldnt be able to do things they did.
The research defined their perception of themselves and how strong individuals are in their
lives. They described their self-thought by letting the researcher understand how it is in their daily
living as a student. They see the world in their own eyes, they see it even though they are unnoticed.
Yet, they strive to become better, to become somebody and not just another student with disability.
They understood their abilities and they took it to account that they have an upper hand on some
factors in life.
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Perception and Experiences of Filipino Males being in the Friend Zone


Pancho Hernandez
Eva Castronuevo
Abstract
The present study explored on the perceptions and experiences of
Filipino males being in the Friendzone. The researcher used qualitative
descriptive design in order to describe and explore on the perceptions and
experiences of the Filipino males, ten males participated in the study through
semi-structured interview. Different responses were gathered. The researcher
found out that Friendzone will start from being friends and in the long run
one of them will develop romantic feelings towards the other, but the other
person only sees the relationship as just being best friends or friends.
Participants also stated that it is still possible for them to return the friendship
after being in the friendzoned.

Defining Friendzone is comparatively straightforward. Friend zone spelled as two words


appears to be the older form of the term, where latest spellings of the term are usually friendzone.
As an article titled Escape the Friend Zone: From Friend to Girlfriend or Boyfriend from
Psychology Today puts it, the friend zone refers to a situation where one individual in a
friendship develops more intense feelings and wants to become more than friends with the other
person (Escape the Friend Zone, 2011). This is a simple, gender-neutral definition.
Nevertheless, it is also a generalization of a term that has grown to be loaded with a number of
suggestions and alternate definitions. A user on the website Urban Dictionary, a site dedicated
to collecting and defining slang, defined the term eight years ago as, What you attain after you
fail to impress a woman you're attracted to. Usually initiated by the woman saying, You're such a
good friend. Usually associated with long days of suffering and watching your love interest hop
from one bad relationship to another (Urban Dictionary, 2003). Any strong romantic
relationship is a form of friendship and one has to build the friendship up early on if one expects
to have the kind of committed relationship that is the goal of dating opposite sex (Clark, 2011).
Friend Zone refers to the context where someone wants a relationship with another, but that other
doesnt return the affection. Since the interest isnt mutual, the party interested in the relationship
settles for a friendship with the target of their affections, often with the hope that someday things
will change. Guerricabeitia (2003) defined that Friend Zone refers to a situation where one
individual in a friendship develops more intense feelings and wants to become more than friends
with the other person Meanwhile the other opposite sex is unaware of the friends desires. This is
a trend issue today in young adolescent stage. The result is stuck in the word called Friend zone.
The researcher came up with this study for the reason there are currently no proper
definitions of the word Friendzone. Also the researchers goal is to discover the perceptions and
experiences of an individual who put into the friendzone. Guerricabeitia (2003) stated that most
teenagers today are experiencing being in the Friend zone it is in the nature of men to express first
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their interest to women. And because of men are the ones who make the first move; most likely,
they have the higher chance to experience being put to friend zone or rejection from women.The
topic of interest in this research is to know the personal concepts of Friend Zone of the Filipino
males and their different experiences being in the friend zone by female. And how these Friend
Zone Experiences affect their relationship with female friends, to know if it still possible to keep
the Friendship after you have been Friendzone, lastly to know how they cope and get over with
these experiences.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The researcher has gathered different related literature connected to case of Friend Zone
through journal articles, books, and previous researches. Related literature will help the researcher
understand the topic better and it will support the researchers findings with the answer of other
similar studies.
Friendship
Darius K. S. Chan (2012) gathered data that focus on the area of Friendship and
Attachment based on the gathered data it is shown that published studies were focused on the
friendship and attachment of young adolescent. Friendship involved more mutually dependent,
understanding and commitment. Young adult in Hong Kong (N = 162) internet user through face
to face interactions and then describing the qualities of their offline and online friendships. Result
is qualities of both online and offline improved as the extent of the relationship increased. it also
stated that the qualities of cross-sex online friendships were higher than the same sex online
friendship. The results suggest that the influence of the structural and normative constraints found
in face to face interaction may be different in the online setting.
Amy L. Busboom, Dawn M. Collins (2002) stated that Young Adolescent who receives
more resources is reported higher levels of friendship quality with their former partner. Satisfaction
in moderated the relationship between receiving resources and friendship quality. Due to Lack of
family or friends support involvement in a new romantic relationship, and the use of neglect as
disengagement strategy found to be a barrier to Friendship qualities.
According to W. Lafayette (2006) a high-quality friendship is characterized by high levels
of prosaically behavior, intimacy, and other positive features, and low levels of conflicts, and other
negative features recent research suggests, however, that friendship quality effects in young
adolescent success in the social world of peers. Friendship quality could also have indirect effects,
having high-quality friendships may lessen adolescence tendencies to imitate the behavior of shy
and withdrawn friends. And Friendship is the foundation to develop an intimacy with the opposite
sex.
In addition Morton J. Mendelson (2005) found out that there was limited evidence in
independent of other predictors positive feelings in friendship co varied inversely with bias.
Positive feelings mainly reflect the degree to which friendship functions are fulfilled. In the data
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supported a functional view of friendship. However, if the Imbalance in a friendship is at all


important, it appears to be imbalance measured in terms of inequity.
Laura E. Vander (2005) stated that Romantic relationships are, at their core, friendships.
And it may be the case that valuing that feature of the relationship fortifies the romantic
relationship against negative outcomes and serves as a buffer against closure. the researchers
explored about the role of valuing friendship within romantic relationships in two two-wave
studies examining whether investing in the friendship aspect of the relationship (Study 1; N = 190)
and placing importance on affiliative need fulfillment (Study 2; N = 184) Researchers associated
with positive synchronized outcomes and positive outcomes over time. Results revealed that
valuing the friendship aspect of a romance is a strong positive predictor of concurrent romantic
relationship qualities (i.e., love, sexual gratification, and romantic commitment), is associated with
increases in these qualities over time and is negatively associated with romantic dissolution.
Furthermore, study shows evidence suggests that these benefits come from valuing friendship
specifically, rather than any other aspect of the relationship.

Love
Dick P. H. Barelds (2010) gathered data that focused on Relationship quality and Love.
Based on the gathered data it is shown that published studies were focused on the couples who fell
in love first became romantically involved more quickly.The Researchers Interviewed 137 married
or cohabiting couples. Researchers stated that partners who fell in love at first sight most of them
are male. Person personality trait seems has a similarity to relationship quality. It is also a function
of both relationship onset and specific personality traits.
Grote, Frieze (2005) conducted a study about Friendship-based Love (FBL) in intimate
relationships. It is a comfortable, affectionate, trusting love for a likable partner, based on a deep
sense of friendship and involving companionship and the enjoyment of common activities, mutual
interests, and shared laughter. Theoretical derivation of the FBL concept is described; researchers
came along with two versions of a new scale for their measurement. Two studies of the
characteristics of Friendship-based Love with middle-aged married adults (N = 622) and dating
young adults (N = 201) the Researchers indicated that this type of love characterized the intimate
relationships of both samples and was significantly and positively related to relationship
satisfaction and to a variety of relationship characteristics. Researcher used selective comparisons
of the FBL scale (both versions) to measure of erotic love, measure of lucid or game-playing love
with a variety of partners, and with Passionate Love also was conducted. As a Result Both versions
of the Friendship-based Love scale showed substantial convergent and discriminant validity on the
basis of connection evidence (Studies 1 and 2), validity criteria (Study l), and via the method of
contrasted groups (Studies 1 and 2).
Harper (2006) examined the link between rejection sensitivity, self-silencing behaviors,
and among adolescent dating couples. Self-silencing was hypothesized to be the process mediating
the association between rejection sensitivity. The sample included 211 couples between 14 and 21
who were dating at least 4 weeks. Results indicated that dating adolescents who were sensitive to
rejection reported most are male teenagers is getting rejected and higher levels of self-silencing
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behaviors within their romantic relationship compared to dating adolescents who were not so
sensitive to rejection.
Love promotes commitment, the researchers predicted that love would motivate approach,
have a distinct signal, and correlate with commitment-enhancing processes when relationships are
threatened. The researchers studied romantic partners and adolescent opposite-sex friends during
interactions that elicited love and threatened the bond. As expected, the experience of love
correlated with approach-related states (desire, sympathy). Providing evidence for a nonverbal
display of love, four affiliation cues (head nods, Duchenne smiles, gesticulation, forward leans)
correlated with self-reports and partner estimates of love. Finally, the experience and display of
love correlated with commitment-enhancing processes (e.g., constructive conflict resolution,
perceived trust) when the relationship was threatened. The research focused on love, positive
emotion, and relationships (Gonzaga, Gian C.; Keltner, Dacher; Londahl, Esme A.; Smith, Michael
D., 2001).
Barry, D. Madsen, J. Nelson, S. Carroll, Badger (2009) studied and examined how
emerging adults identity development and achievement of adulthood criteria were related to
qualities of their friendships and romantic relationships. Participants included 710 emerging adults
(ages 1826). Results indicated that identity achievement was related positively to four romantic
relationship qualities, but not to any friendship qualities. Several achieved adulthood criteria were
related positively to romantic relationship qualities; however, achieved adulthood criteria were
related negatively to friendship qualities. It appears that progress on salient developmental tasks
of adulthood carries important implications for emerging adults social relationships, but in ways
that are more differentiated than commonly assumed.

SYNTHESIS
Based on the gathered data, Friendship quality could also have indirect effects, having
high-quality friendships may lessen adolescence tendencies to imitate the behavior of shy and
withdrawn friends. And Friendship is the foundation to develop an intimacy with the opposite sex
(W. Lafayette, 2006). Most of the studies shows that valuing the friendship aspect of a romance is
a strong positive predictor of concurrent romantic relationship qualities (i.e., love, sexual
gratification, and romantic commitment), is associated with increases in these qualities over time
and is negatively associated with romantic dissolution. And it shows in the studies of Grote, Frieze
(2005) Friendship-based Love (FBL) in intimate relationships. It is a comfortable, affectionate,
trusting love for a likable partner, based on a deep sense of friendship and involving
companionship and the enjoyment of common activities, mutual interests, and shared laughter.
In line with gathered data, there are no studies about experiences about Friendzone. For
this reason the researcher aims to explore new knowledge on what is the perceptions of Filipino
males who experience being in the friendzone.

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METHODS
Research Design
The researcher used qualitative descriptive design to gather data and to describe and explore
information about the personal experiences of the Filipino males who experienced being in the
Friendzone.
The researcher used interview method. The interview questions are semi-structured; all the
questions are guided by the objectives of the study. The researcher also asked follow-up questions
based on the responses of the participants to gather more data. The researcher used this method to
elaborate on the experiences of the Filipino males.

Participants
The researcher intended to focus on the 10 Filipino males from the volunteer participants who
meet the criteria of getting Friend Zone with ages ranging from 18 to 25 years old who have been
put to friend zone by their female friend. The criteria of the participant should have the idea what
Friend Zone is, and they should have experienced being in the Friend Zone. The researcher
gathered the sufficient amount of data. The researcher used a purposive sampling method, wherein
it starts with a purpose in mind and the sample is thus selected to include people of interest and
exclude those who do not suit the purpose.
Instruments
The researcher used a voice recorder and camera for the documentation of data from the
interview with the consent of the participants. The preliminary questions for the interview were
produced by the researcher. What is your idea or perception about Friendzone? What are your
experiences in Friendzone? These two of the items are included in the interview.

Procedures
The researcher used Purposive sampling. The researcher searched for the participants who
meet the criteria being in the friendzone and suited for the study and willing to share their
experiences. The researcher went to the participants home and conducted the interview, and other
participants were interviewed at school. Each participating male signed a consent form and was
assured of their confidentiality. The interview consists of five questions about friendzone and
experiences questions that can be answered based on their personal experiences. The researcher
asked follow-up questions to clarify and gather more information. The interview lasted for about
30 minutes up to 1 hour.
Data Analysis
In order to interpret data, first, the researcher identified the focus of the study. The
researcher reviewed the results of data and the purpose of gathering information based on
experiences from the participants.
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Second, after the researcher determined the main focus of the data, the researcher seeked
the differences and similarities of the responses from the participants.
Third, if the participants responses are similar in a certain question, the researcher
summarized all the findings as well as the differences of the responses in a certain item from the
interview.
Fourth, if there are outlying responses and other information from the participants, the
researcher also include these in presenting the data that can be beneficial to the study. Lastly, the
researcher made a conclusion based on the differences and similarities responses and the outlying
responses of the participants. Furthermore, the researcher made an outline of all the results
gathered.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The researcher has given three objectives on his study, first is to find out on what are the
personal concepts of Friendzone of the Filipino males who experienced being in the Friendzone,
second to know how if the Friendzone experiences affect their relationship with female friends
lastly, is to know how the Filipino males cope and get over with their Friendzone experiences. Based
on the responses of 10 males who were participating in the study, the researcher got data that answers
the objectives of the study.
Idea/perception about Friendzone
Based on the responses, the researcher found out that the Filipino males have different
perceptions on Friendzone.
Male 1: Hmm.. ang Friendzone eto yung bagong paraan na pag rereject sa isang manliligaw. Pero
magkaibigan parin kayo kasi meron na kayong pinagsamahan.
Male 2: For me it is a way of saying that you are not an option to be with a relationship with the
person you like. Talagang close friends lang kayo na akala mo gusto ka din niya.
Male 3: Friendzone kasi isang maling akala to eh. Akala mo gusto ka din nung babae kasi
pinapakita niya din sayo na may care siya sayo mga bagay na makaka idea ka na uy gusto din niya
ko. Pero ang totoo bestfriend lang tingin niya sayo kaya siya komportable saiyo.
Male 4: Ang friendzone para sakin isang mahirap na sitwasyon to kasi akala mo gusto ka nung
babae na nililigawan mo. Pero ang totoo comfortable lang siya sa iyo. Masaya lang siya pag kasama
ka, in short bestfriend lang tingin sayo. Kaso ikaw more than bestfriend na tingin mo.
Male 5: Friendzone para sa akin ay isang new way of rejecting. Sa panahon ngayon wala nang na
bubusted, kundi Friendzone na.

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Male 6: For me Friendzone is when a guy likes a girl but she only sees him as a 'friend' and is not
attracted in him for dating.
Male 7: Para sa akin ang friendzone ay nangyayari ito kapag ang isang lalaki ay inlove sa babae,
pero yung babae kaibigan lamang ang tingin. Ang friendzone at busted kasi magkaiba kapag
friendzone ka ibig sabihin may chansa pa kayo maging kaibigan at pwede ka niya magustuhan,
kapag busted wala na talagang pag-asa. Kaya para sa akin mas okay ma friendzone nalang.
Male 8: Friendzone is when you fail someone to impress a woman that you're attracted to. Hmm
Usually initiated by the woman saying, "you are my best friend so lets not ruin it" so ayun.
Male 9: Kapag mahal mo ang isang babae tapos mahal ka din niya pero as a friend lang Yun ang
friendzone.
Male 10: Hmm para sa akin kapag Friends lamang ang tingin sayo nung babae at ikaw may intimate
feelings ka na for her. Yun ang Friendzone!
The researcher grouped the respondents perceptions according to its theme. Male 1,5,6
stated that their perceptions about friendzone is that it is the new way of getting rejected but after
the rejection the friendship between the two person will still remain. Male 5 stated that Friendzone
para sa akin ay isang new way of rejecting. Sa panahon ngayon wala nang na bubusted, kundi
Friendzone na.. The researcher also discovered that their perception about friendzone is related
to their experiences.
Male 2, 3, 4 and 8 has a similar perception about Friendzone they stated that when a person
develops romantic feelings for someone, but the other person only sees the relationship as just
being best friends or friends. Since the two are around each other a lot, the one in love will develop
his feelings towards the other. Male 4 stated that Ang friendzone para sa akin ay isang mahirap
na sitwasyon to kasi akala mo gusto ka nung babae na nililigawan mo. Pero ang totoo comfortable
lang siya sa iyo. Masaya lang siya pag kasama ka, in short bestfriend lang tingin sayo. Kaso ikaw
more than bestfriend na tingin mo. The researcher discovered that most of the participants
experienced being in the friendzone with their best friend.
Male 9, 10 has a similar answer that friendzone is a situation in which a friendship exists
between two people, one of whom has an unreturned romantic or sexual interest in the other. Male
9 stated that Kapag mahal mo ang isang babae tapos mahal ka din niya pero as a friend lang.
yun ang friendzone.
Lastly, only Male 7 has a different perception about Friendzone. Friendzone is a good
experience somehow because in friendzone there is a chance to return the the romantic interest while
getting rejected has no chance at all. Male 7 stated that Para sa akin ang friendzone ay nangyayari
ito kapag ang isang lalaki ay inlove sa babae, pero yung babae kaibigan lamang ang tingin. Ang
friendzone at busted kasi magkaiba kapag friendzone ka ibig sabihin may chansa pa kayo maging
kaibigan at pwede ka niya magustuhan, kapag busted wala na talagang pag-asa. Kaya para sa akin
mas okay ma friendzone nalang. All in all most of the male participants perception about
friendzone is that it will start from being friends and in the long run one of them will develop
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romantic feelings towards the other, but the other person only sees the relationship as just being best
friends or friends.
Experiences in Friendzone
Based on the responses, the researcher discovered that the Filipino males have different
Experiences on Friendzone. These are the recorded answers about their experiences in Friendzone.
Male 1: Nung highschool ako nung nangyari to. Meron akong bestfriend na girl and we were so
close talaga of course na inlove ako sa kanya lagi kami magkasama, tumatambay with
friends, watching movies together at iba iba pang bonding. Umamin ako sa kanya kasi nafeel kong gusto niya ko kasi ang dami na naming pinagsamahan sobrang close talaga namin
so na isip ko siguro naman gusto nadin ako ng bestfriend ko. So Nung umamin ako sa kanya
ang sabi niya sorry ganyan naramdaman mo pero talagang bestfriend tingin ko sa iyo wag
sana natin sirain friendship natin.
Male 2: My experience was way back when I was in 1st year college, I broke up with my girlfriend
to avoid cheating then I tried pursuing to this girl whom I very like. We are close to each
other we go to the malls and date, watch movies and other stuff. And one day I confessed my
feelings for her then she said to me that she does not see me as her significant other and you
are my only boy best friend.
Male 3: Na friendzone ako last year. Nainlove ako sa kanya dahil siya lang close kong babae at
open kami sa isa't- isa kapag meron siya problema nandoon ako para makinig ganun din
siya sa akin kaya naisip ko na pwedeng gusto din niya ako. Pero na reject ako nung sinabi
ko sa kanya na gusto ko siya dahil meron na siyang iba palang gusto.
Male 4: Last month lang nangyari to classmate ko siya sa tatlong subject kasi magka course kami.
Lagi kaming sabay pumasok sa school pag late siya malamang late din ako parehas kami ng
mga hilig, nag-skate board, pareho music na gusto namin. Basta halos lahat magka pareho
kami ng hilig tapos nung napansin kong gusto ko na siya dahan dahan na ko nagpakita ng
signs na gusto ko siya. Nung umamin na ko sa kanya ang sabi niya sa akin mahal kita bilang
best friend. Ayun friendzone!
Male 5: My experiences being in the friendzone was that I thought I have a chance in her because
she always accepts me when I ask her to hang out with me, we go see movies because we
love to watch and everything was perfect. Until I confess to her my feelings and she rejected
me by saying that i'm her very close friend.
Male 6: Until now I'm still experiencing this friendzone hahaha! So best friend ko siya, mag best
friend kami since highschool and until now kasi same college school kami. Dami nanamin
experiences with each other so yun talaga ang dahilan kung bakit ko siya nagustuhan. Hindi
ko masabi sa kanya kasi meron siyang gusto na iba. Best friend tingin niya sa akin and I
don't want to lose her so di ko nalang inaamin sa kanya.

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Male 7: Yung best friend ko ang nang friendzone sa akin sobrang close kasi kami since start ng
college pero hindi ko ma amin sa kanya na gusto ko siya dahil kung may boyfriend man
siya, meron siyang dini-date na iba. Lagi siya sa akin nagkkwento kapag may problema siya
lumalabas at parang date na ginagawa namin minsan. Last month umamin ako, sinabi niya
na talagang best friend lang ako para sa kanya at biglang sinabi niya na meron na siyang
boyfriend.
Male 8: There were many but not too many, my most unforgettable friendzone experience was when
that girl that I liked told me that she really wanted me as a bestfriend because we have a lot
in common, likes and hobbies. She also said to me that she is waiting for a certain age to be
committed but then I found out lately that they recently said yes to a suitor.
Male 9: Classmate ko siya sa isang subject simula nung nakilala ko siya kinakausap ko na siya lagi
sabay na kami nag-lulunch, umuuwi at magkausap tuwing gabi. Sobrang akala ko na gusto
na din niya ako kasi nag-dadate na din kami. Pero bigla niyang na kwento sa akin na meron
sa kanyang nanliligaw at gusto niya ito. Simula non dumistansya na ko sa kanya tapos
narinig ko nalang na naging sila na nung nanligaw sa kanya.
Male 10: Meron akong nagustuhan na babae since grade 6 crush ko na sya same school din kami
nung nagcollege kaya nagkausap na kami nung nagkita kami sa school. Naging sobrang mag
close kami ginagawa namin together yung mga assignments, project and other school
activities. Nung tumagal nung mag cconfess na ko sa kanya bigla niyang nasabi sa akin na
tutal naman na bestfriend kita meron akong ioopen sa iyo. At sinabi niya sa akin na meron
siyang nagugustuhan at nagkakasama sila. At simula nun di ko na siya masyadong nakaka
usap.
The researcher grouped the respondents experiences according to its theme. All have had
their different experiences in being friendzoned. Most of them, particularly male respondents 1,
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10 had started their feelings with their best friends. It shows in their experiences
that both male and female has mutual interest, and common activities like male 4 stated that Lagi
kaming sabay pumasok sa school pag late siya malamang late din ako parehas kami ng mga hilig,
nag-skate board, pareho music na gusto namin. Basta halos lahat magka pareho kami ng hilig.
Also the researcher discovered that most of the male participants who confessed their feelings got
rejected by saying you are my best friend lets not ruin it, Like male 1 stated that Nung umamin
ako sa kanya ang sabi niya sorry ganyan naramdaman mo pero talagang bestfriend tingin ko sa iyo
wag sana natin sirain friendship natin. All in all it shows that Friendzone is developed romantic
feelings towards the other, but the other person only sees the relationship as just being best friends
or friends.
Similar to study of Grote and Frieze (2005), in intimate relationships it is a comfortable,
affectionate, trusting love for a likable partner, based on a deep sense of friendship and involving
companionship and the enjoyment of common activities, mutual interests, and shared laughter.

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While only male 5 and 9 had the same friendzone experience, they stated that they thought
they had the chance because they always spend their time to the female and they had a lot in
common to each other. And they confessed their feelings and got rejected by saying you are my
close friend. It shows that most of the male start from being friends and in the long run the male
develop romantic feelings towards the female. This would sum up that one could quickly develop
his or her feelings when tied up with deep friendship to another for a long period of time.
Guerricabeitia (2003) define Best Friend a deep friendship and it is a person closest to someone,
or a person where you can always rely on. The most of the respondents experienced this from their
school acquaintances, which would explain that the school environment is more likely to have
people develop their feelings.
Their feelings after the rejection
Based on the responses, the researcher discovered the feelings of the male correspondents
after they experienced being in the Friendzone. These are the recorded answers of the male
respondents.
Male 1: Nalungkot ako ng sobra gawa ng umasa ako eh. Akala ko gusto din ako yun pala friends
lang talaga.
Male 2: After the rejection I felt so dumb because I left my girlfriend for nothing.
Male 3: Nasaktan ako kasi akala ko gusto na din niya ako akala ko yun na eh. Pero nagkamali ako
meron na pala siyang na gustuhan na iba at yun ang mas masakit!
Male 4: Nagulat ako at nanghina ako nung sinabi niya sakin na mahal kita pero bilang bestfriend
lang. Masakit lang na na-build up yung feelings ko kaya inakala ko na gusto din niya ako
yun yung masakit na part
.
Male 5: Actually I didnt feel much pain, I just accepted the fact that she will not like me. But I did
felt that all those efforts I did was for nothing. I think being rejected instantly is better than
being friendzoned, because being rejected instantly doesnt build up your emotions so you
wouldnt expect much. As for being friendzoned you will have an expectation that you have
a chance but truthfully and painfully no you dont have a chance.
Male 6: Mahirap ma-friendzone kasi umaasa ka na sana gusto ka din niya sana tapos makita niya
yung mga effort na ginagawa mo for her. Pangalawa meron siyang gustong iba kaya hindi
ko maamin yung feelings ko for her. Ayaw ko din na mawala siya so tinitiis ko nalang muna
yung ganitong situation. Wish ko nalang na balang araw sana ma-feel niya na gusto nya
ako.
Male 7: Masakit kasi nagkaroon siya bigla ng boyfriend tapos hindi na rin kami naging mag
bestfriend gawa ng umamin nga ako sa kanya ng feelings ko.

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Male 8: Depressed and emotional. I was very sad and down. But eventually, I got over it. But it took
a really long time and I relied on my friends heavily. I was always with them during the
recovery stage.
Male 9: Ang hirap kumilos pagkatapos mo malaman na friends lang tingin sayo, sobrang down
ako sa nangyare non lagi kong kasama mga tropa ko para makalimot. Hindi na rin kami nag
uusap gawa ng ayoko na din umasa pa kaya mahirap mag adjust kasi nasanay na akong lagi
siyang kasama.
Male 10: Masakit sa feeling. Mahirap mag move on pag nalaman mong meron na siyang gustong
iba hirap mag adjust kasi ang alam niya bestfriend ka niya pero ang totoo more than
bestfriend na ang feelings mo.
The researcher grouped the respondents feelings after rejection according to its theme. All
male respondents have the same experience after being friendzone they felt pain and difficulty in
going through the friendzone experiences. Male 6 stated that Mahirap ma-friendzone kasi
umaasa ka na sana gusto ka din niya sana tapos makita niya yung mga effort na ginagawa mo for
her. Pangalawa meron siyang gustong iba kaya hindi ko maamin yung feelings ko for her. Ayaw
ko din na mawala siya so tinitiis ko nalang muna yung ganitong situation. Wish ko nalang na
balang araw sana ma-feel niya na gusto nya ako. It shows that male 6 hoped for nothing which
resulted to hardship. Also he stated that accepting the fact and the reality is the only way to get
over and moved on.
As for male 5, rejection quiet easy to handle when one accepts it. It may have shortened
his being in the friendzone stage. Male 5 stated that at first it was hard for me but after awhile I
just think that there are other women out there and it is not the end of the world, I wouldnt let
myself down just because one girl rejected me, I just think that there other options and
opportunities.
While male 8 stated that he was depressed and emotional, and he rely with his friends
during the recovery stage. Generally, based on the answers of the male respondents, it would also
state that expectation is a big part in being in the friendzone stage. Each one of them expected a
good feedback from when they said their true feelings. It also shows that the 10 male participants
had the hard time to get over after they experienced being in the friendzone.
How they cope and get over with these Friendzone Experiences
Based on the responses, the researcher found out that most of the male correspondents
experienced a hard time to cope and get over after the rejection. These are the recorded answers of
the male respondents.
Male 1: Nahirapan ako mag move on, lagi akong tumatambay hindi pumapasok sa school, tapos
parang one day na-realize ko nalang na kailangan ko mag move on kundi masisira studies ko dahil
lang sa nangyare so binuhos ko oras ko sa pag aaral.

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Male 2: I just focus on my hobbies such as surfing the net, playing games, eating and sleeping.
Sometimes I read book.
Male 3: Nag focus ako sa sports dinaan ko sa basketball, every weekend naglalaro ako ng basketball
pag weekdays naman aral school lang so laking tulong nung basketball para maka move on ako.
Male 4: Friends ko tumulong sa akin para maka move on. lagi nila ako sinasamahan, lagi kami
magkakasama after class sabay sabay kami umuuwi pa laguna. Sobrang thankful ako sa friends ko.
Pag di ko kasama mga friends ko nasa bahay lang ako lalaro ng video games saka surfing the net.
Ayun!
Male 5: At first it was hard for me but after awhile I just think that there are other women out there
and it is not the end of the world, I wouldnt let myself down just because one girl rejected me, I just
think that there other options and opportunities.
Male 6: Tinanggap ko nalang na mag best friends kami, mahirap sa una kasi gusto ko siya eh and
nag iisip nalang ako ng positive na one day baka pwede na ko manligaw sa kanya. Contended naman
ako na mag bestfriend kami.
Male 7: Nag focus ako sa studies, video games, lagi na kong sumasama sa mga friends ko dati kasi
oras ko na sa kanya lang saka Iniiwasan ko din na maitext siya and nakatulong yun para maka move
on ako.
Male 8: I usually try and forget it. I avoid the person and anything that triggers memories. I lessen
over thinking and I keep myself busy with my daily life like studying, doing homeworks etc.
Male 9: Iniiwasan ko na makita siya, hindi ko siya tinetext na at first ang hirap para sa akin pero
yun lang ang way para maka move on ako. Tapos in the end na realize ko nalang na siguro okay na
din maging mag friends kami at least walang nawalan sa amin.
Male 10: Sumasama ako sa mga highschool friends ko, kinuwento ko yung nangyari sa akin para
at least mabawasan yung lungkot ko. Mahirap kasi pag tinago ko lang yung nararamdaman ko eh,
so lagi lang ako nag eenjoy pag weekend kasama friends.
The researcher grouped the respondents how they cope and get over according to its
theme. Male 2 stated that I just focus on my hobbies such as surfing the net, playing games, eating
and sleeping sometimes I read book. Male 2 and male 7 have similar answer of coping and get
over with the experiences. They spent their time on video games, surfing the net and bonding with
friends. Male 7 also stated that he avoid talking to the female to help him to cope with the
friendzone experiences. Male 9 also stated Iniiwasan ko na Makita siya, hindi ko siya
tinetext. Male 9 avoid any other forms of communication to help him to cope with the
experiences.
Male 4 Stated that Friends ko tumulong sa akin para maka move on. Lagi nila ako
sinasamahan, lagi kami magkakasama after class. Male 4 and 10 have similar answers that they
spend their time bonding with their friends and help them a lot to cope with these experiences.
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Male 1 stated that na-realize ko nalang na kailangan ko mag move on kundi masisira
studies ko dahil lang sa nangyare so binuhos ko oras ko sa pag aaral. Male 1 and 5 have similar
answers by accepting the reality and they focused on school activities, the same with Male 8 also
stated that he focused on studying, finishing school works to help him allot to forget the friendzone
experiences. Male 3 stated that Nag focus ako sa sports dinaan ko sa basketball, every weekend
naglalaro ako ng basketball pag weekdays naman aral school lang so laking tulong nung
basketball para maka move on ako. Male 3 focused on sports he play basketball often and it help
him allot to get over with the experiences. Lastly Male 6 stated that Tinanggap ko nalang na
mag best friends kami. Male 6 just accepted the truth that the feelings are not mutual and by
accepting the reality it help him to get over in these experience.
All in all most of the participants have a hard time to cope with these experiences but The
researcher discovered the good side of experiencing the friendzone it shows in the answers of
respondents that after they experienced being in the friendzone most male answer that they focused
on school activities, focused on playing sports and by accepting the reality is essential to get over
with the friendzone experiences.

Is it possible to keep the Friendship after have been to Friendzone


Based on the responses, the researcher would like to know if the male respondents can keep
the friendship after experiencing being in the Friendzone. These are the recorded answers of the
male respondents.
Male 1: Oo para sa akin kaya naman maging friends pero hindi na as bestfriends, Baka kasi umasa
pa ako lalo mas lalong di makaka move on.
Male 2: I think its possible to keep the friendship especially if you really are good friends because
you may just say that those things were just tests for your friendship.
Male 3: Para sa akin hindi na kasi mahihirapan lang ako maka move on mahirap para sa akin pag
nagkikita pa kami.
Male 4: Oo kaya naman maging mag-kaibigan pa pero siyempre di na tulad ng dati. Saka meron
din kasi kayong pinagsamahan kaya hindi basta basta masasabing tapos na diba?
Male 5: I think its possible for certain instances like if the girl is a really nice person and if both
of us really is just ok with it that she friendzoned me and that if Im ok with it. I have a friend in
college that friendzoned me but we still stay as friends actually theres no awkwardness between us
were really just comfortable being friends.
Male 6: Oo naman pwede i-keep yung friendship and for me advantage ang friendzone at least alam
mo yung mga things na ayaw at gusto niya and close parin kayo sa isat isa.
Male 7: Para sa akin hindi na kasi mahirap umasa ulit, baka isang araw maging close na naman
kami ma-friendzone na naman ako. Marami pa naman iba jan so move on na.

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Male 8: Yes I think its still possible because there was never that label and you settled on being
friends. Besides, the one who friendzoned still probably need something from the friendzoned.
Male 9: Oo possible naman na maging friends pa para sa akin, at least meron ka din experience
e sa friendzone next time alam mo na mga dapat gawin saka maganda din ang experience na mafriendzone kasi na value mo din yung friendship niyo eh.
Male 10: Ok lang para sa akin possible maging friends parin kayo kasi meron kayong
pinagsamahan na eh. Saka at least walang nawala nandun parin friendship niyo diba so para sa
akin ok lang kung maging friends nalang.
The researcher grouped the respondents their thoughts if it still possible to keep the
friendship after the friendzone experience according to its theme. Male 1 stated that Oo para sa
akin kaya naman maging friends pero hindi na as bestfriends. Male 1 and 2 has similar answers
that it is possible to return the friendship but not best friends because it might end up being in
friendzone again.Male 2 stated that experiencing the friendzone may help to strengthen the
friendship between the two.
Male 9 stated that it is possible to return the friendship; for him experiencing friendzone
will help the friendship value more. Male 10 stated that it is possible to keep the friendship, for
him it is important to keep the friendship after experiencing being in the friendzone. Male 5
answered that it is possible to keep the friendship. Male 5 stated that I have a friend in college
that friendzoned me but we still stay as friends actually theres no awkwardness between us were
really just comfortable being friends. The researcher discovered that even after the male
experienced being in the friendzone it shows that they
Similar to study of Amy L. Busboom, Dawn M. Collins (2002) stated that Young
Adolescent who receives more resources is reported higher levels of friendship quality with their
former partner. Satisfaction in moderated the relationship between receiving resources and
friendship quality.
Male respondents 3 stated that Para sa akin hindi na kasi mahihirapan lang ako maka
move on mahirap para sakin pag nagkikita pa kami Also Male 7 stated Para sa akin hindi na
kasi mahirap umasa ulit, baka isang araw maging close nanaman kami ma-ffriendzone nanaman
ako. Marami pa naman iba jan so move on na. For male 3 and 7 they answered that it will be
hard for them to get over if the friendship stays and returning the friendship might end up being in
friendzone again. The answers of respondents show that the relationship will greatly affect both
parties.
Most of the male respondents stated that it is possible to return the friendship after
experiencing friendzone, since the male respondent started with certain with the individual whom
they each pertained to, it would be easier for them to bring back the ties they have had with the
certain individual. It shows that deep friendship has a huge factor for keeping the friendship after
the experiencing being in the friendzone.

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CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


The term friendzone has always been considered a romantic term, most of the male
respondents said that friendzone starts from being friends and in the long run the male develop
romantic feelings towards the female. This would sum up that one could quickly develop his or her
feelings when tied up with deep friendship to another for a long period of time. From the gathered
responses, the respondents experiences suggested that it was simply a negotiation between platonic
and romantic relationships started their feelings with their best friends. In experiencing friendzone,
most of the respondents stated that it starts from being friends and in the long run the male develop
romantic feelings towards the female. It shows that Friendzone develop through a deep friendship
and then the person develops romantic feelings for someone, but the other person only sees the
relationship as just being best friends or friends. Regardless of all the collected data in the interview,
it shows undeniable that these emerging uses of the term friendzone are a new way of trying to start
(or end) relationships, one that allows for a more even exchange in the romantic scene, despite the
push-back that is present from some people. The researcher discovered the good side of experiencing
the friendzone is that after they experienced being in the friendzone most of the respondents
answer revealed that they focused on school activities, focused on playing sports and by accepting
the reality it is essential to get over with the friendzone experiences. Moreover, the researcher also
found out that it is possible for the male to return the friendship after the friendzone experience,
since most of the male respondents shared that it is be easier for them to bring back the ties they
have had with the certain individual.
Having completed this study, the researcher came up with the following recommendations
for future studies regarding the same subject matter. Further studies should include females
awareness on the new way of rejection called Friendzone. And also to know the female perspective
about friendzone, and their experiences on it. Lastly, the researcher also suggests that a future
research bed conducted among Filipino female young adults.

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REFERENCES
Diamond M. & Dube M. (2002). Friendship and Attachment among Heterosexual and SexualMinority Youths: Does the Gender of Your Friend Matter?
Miller (2004) Attachment contexts of adolescent friendship and romance
Kristie Miller, & Marlene Clark (2011) Dating - Philosophy for Everyone: Flirting With Big Ideas
L. G. Putzer (2009). The Chronicles of Bobby Isaacs: Stuck in the Friend Zone
Busboom L. & Collins M. (2002). Can we still be friends? Resources and barriers to friendship
quality after romantic relationship dissolution
Miss Press (2012). Friend Zone
Laura E. Vander (2009) Benefit or burden? Attraction in cross-sex friendship
McNamara, Madsen D., Nelson J. , Carroll S., & Badger (2009) Friendship and Romantic
Relationship Qualities in Emerging Adulthood: Differential Associations with Identity
Development and Achieved Adulthood Criteria. 209-222
Gonzaga C., Keltner, Dacher, Londahl, Esme A. & Smith, Michael D. (2001) Love and the
commitment problem in romantic relations and friendship. Vol 81(2), 247-262.
Luanna Wallis, Luanna Wallis (2012). Break Out of the Friend Zone: And Get the Girl
P.H Barelds (2010) Humor in intimate relationships: Ties among sense of humor, similarity in
humor and relationship quality. Volume 24, Issue 4 447465
Retrieve from: http://brutereason.net (2012). the-friend-zone-is-a-myth/
RetrievedFrom:urbandictionary.com.http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=friendzone

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Stereotypes on Female Basketball players by College Students


Irene Romina L. Jardiniano
Fatima Bullecer
Abstract
Basketball is now becoming a sport not only for men but also for women. However,
even if female players are now playing in official leagues and are making a name for
themselves, people still think that they arent supposed to be playing the game and if they
are, they are given a stigma. So, the primary objective of this study is to focus on college
students stereotypes on female basketball players. The researcher wanted to know the
demographic profile of the respondents, the stereotyping behavior of the college students
on female basketball players in terms of: physical features and traits, expected behavior,
attitude, and beliefs, and the experiences of the college students in interacting with female
basketball players. A total of 15 participants were interviewed, eight female college
students and seven male college students. The researcher used qualitative research design.
This design was chosen to let the researcher explore on the experiences of the college
students with female basketball players. The results of this study showed that female
basketball players are thought to be boyish persons. They usually look and act like boys.
They are also said to be very good in interacting with people. They are competitive,
committed and passionate just like any athlete would be but not the same as non-athletes.

Female athletes are who are in masculine sports or sports that are known for men, they tend
to be like protesting to certain societal norms. Norms of being feminine. Society are very strict
when they talk about gender roles. They are saying that men should be the strong ones and women
are those who usually stay at home. Clearly, norms for gender roles have changed a lot over the
past years but there is still a plausible stigma on them.They challenge the masculine domain of
athletics, asserting qualities like power, competitiveness, and ego that weren't favored in women
just a half-century ago (Martinez, J., & Block, J. (2013, July 12). Women were not known for the
aspects said above. Being competitive and egoistic werent strengths of women. Those were
strengths of men. Lately, female athletes are now becoming a thing. Women playing basketball,
Football, and other masculine sports are proving to the world that women can also play the sports
that are known for men. Female athletes are receiving awards and are becoming well-known
athletes. Despite these great strides, female athletes continue to battle the misconceptions that exist
in today's society. Stereotypes such as being "too masculine," "too aggressive," and "too muscular"
have unjustly been used to label female athletes (Johnson, A. (2002, January 24). The sexual
orientation of women are now a huge discussion. Johnson said that female athletes who are not
showing much feminine traits like other girls who doesnt play masculine sports are being seen as
lesbians or are counted as men.

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Feminine masculinity is a trait that a number of women possess, wherein women are able, or
better yet, are capable of doing or joining "manly" activities. For instance there are women who
are dominant and at times they rule the competitive world. The way they move - walk, talk, eat or
having a few traits that men possess, such as their hairstyle and the way they dress, give the
impression that they are masculine. These result in stigma and they are being stereotyped as
lesbians.
In terms of participation and equality, women have made tremendous strides in the past few
decades. Today it is commonplace to see females participating in all levels of the workforce, the
political arena, and in athletics. However, while it is generally accepted in many cultures that
women can partake in facets of life that were once considered male oriented, there are still much
stigma that surround females who choose to do so. This is quite obvious in the area of sports.
In the Womens National Collegiate Athletics Association (WNCAA 2014), there are
colleges that participate in the seniors basketball division. Each team comprises 12 to 15 players.
Adding all of that, there are around 96 to 120 female athletes in just one division. Another league
that have female basketball participants is the University Athletic Association of the Philippines
(UAAP 2014). This year it also has 8 participating teams. Each team has 15 to 20 players. All of
that will sum up to about 120 to 160. Besides the WNCAA and the UAAP, there are other current
leagues that also handle female basketball players.
Societal and economic considerations have increasingly moved women into areas that were
historically dominated by men and vice versa. It has become more acceptable for men to be second
to women in the workforce, or even to be responsible for child care and act as a stay at home dad.
Due to these changes traditional gender roles have become more androgynous over the years;
however, they are still very prevalent in many aspects of todays society. Accordingly, athletes are
often exposed to and evaluated based on traditional gender roles. Although it has become more
acceptable for females to participate in masculine sports there is still potentially a negative
connotation attached to those athletes who participate in opposite sex sports.
A report done by CNN reporter, (Wrenn, J. (2013, February 7). Women's athletics a battle
for respect.) Indicated that WNBA female athletes, Lisa Leslie and Tina Charles, experienced
difficulty when it came to marketing WNBA for sponsors in spite of a popular clamor of
fans. Also, it said that they found it tough in terms of exposure competing in a world of sports
dominated by men. Women who are into sports which are men-dominated have difficulty in
gaining fans.
Discrimination may be a part of this because of how it can affect athletes. Female basketball
players are discriminated through unfair treatment and lack of support. Gender discrimination in
the athletics industry has long been a controversial topic - even the founder of modern Olympics
had noticed (Collins, S. (2013, October 13). Gender Discrimination in Sports. This article said that
statistics show that female sports do not carry the same weight as male sports. According to the
Womens Sports Foundation, male athletes get $179 million more in athletic scholarships each
year than females do. Additionally, collegiate institutions spend on their female athletes a measly
24 percent of their athletic operating, 16 percent of recruiting, and 33 percent of scholarship
budgets.

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This study is actually important because this shows how much the effect of the society is to
one individual. The society can actually change people, more so, they could possibly give a certain
burden or maybe a certain benefit to an individual just by what they think about them. Perception,
such as how society views an individual or groups of persons of like characteristics can shape the
feeling acceptance or rejection of said person or groups. Stereotyping a person and putting a
stigma on them may cause psychological and emotional damage.
Take for example, a common occurrence when women who possess feminine masculinity
are forced to act and be what society expects them to be. This will have a negative effect on ones
natural development. It may be possible that women who are masculine wouldnt want to become
or to be seen having masculine traits just to avoid the stigma that is given to them, but they suppress
being open and natural about being their genuine selves. This could also lead to a confused
personality.
Being aware of what stereotyping is, good or bad, it is possible to simply ignore the fact that
people love to label other people. In this study the researcher wants to know the perception of
college students on female basketball players. Given that media has in the recent past been
recognizing more female participation in sports, and has been allotting more air time and news
space to report on women athletes and their achievements, the researcher would like to know the
current perception of college students when it comes to female basketball players. Since female
basketball players are labeled as lesbians, the researcher would want to see if there has now been
a difference since women have been making a name for themselves in almost any field, whether
in certain communities - workplace, athletic world or even in academe.

Statement of the Problem


This study focuses on the stereotypes of college students on female basketball players.
Particularly, the study answers the following questions: What is the demographic profile of the
respondents in terms of age and gender? What is the stereotyping behavior of the respondents on
female basketball players in terms of: physical features and traits, expected behavior, attitude, and
beliefs? What are the experiences of the respondents in interacting with female basketball players?

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Stereotyping
The word stereotype itself comes from the conjunction of two Greek words: stereos, meaning
solid, and typos, meaning the mark of a blow, or more generally, a model (Schneider, D.
2005).
Stereotyping is the action of categorising people into certain groups. It is based on prevailing
prejudices of the groups race or religion. Stereotypes are characteristics ascribed to groups of

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people involving gender, race, national origin and other factors. Stereotyping is a form of prejudice
that can form damaging images of people because of a particular characteristic without having any
knowledge of the person. These characteristics tend to be oversimplifications of the groups
involved, however (Nittle, N. (n.d.). What Is a Stereotype? Our interest in stereotypes obviously
is fueled by the negative features that seem to support prejudice and can do real damage to
members of the stereotyped group (Schneider, D. 2005).
Another reason commonly given for why stereotypes are bad is that they result from faulty
reasoning processes. Certainly we are entitled to a strong suspicion that the generalizations about
Hispanics formed by an overt racist differ from those formed by a community organizer not only
in how positive they are, but in how they came to be (Schneider, D. 2005).
A study found out that evidence for stereotyping would be present if self-ingroup similarity
was stronger on stereotype-relevant than irrelevant traits (Latrofa, Vaes and Cadinu 2012).
Obtaining same results showed a significant correlation between implicit and explicit selfstereotyping for the low-status group of homosexual participants, but not for the high-status group
of heterosexual participants (Cadinu and Galdi, 2012).
Another study revealed that the primary stereotypes of them were that they were lesbian and
masculine. Initially, the athletes responded with anger to being typecast and they used social
mobility strategies (e.g., distancing from an athletic identity, performing femininity) to avoid
negative perceptions (Kauer, K., Krane, V., & Williams, L., 2006, 42-55.).

Feminine Masculinity
Feminine-to-masculine transgenderism has been analyzed as the nexus of two phenomena:
transgenderism and cultural representation of masculinity. This conceptualization highlights two
frames of reference for the rise of female masculinity. First, several developments in the
transgender communities improved the conditions of feminine to masculine transpeoples
participation and activity and transgender organization. Second, the upsurge of female body
masculinities and Female-to-masculinity transgenderism coincided with a proliferation of
eroticized images of male bodies in the mainstream mass media (Wickman, 2003). Similar
discussions resulted in two things: First, we are unlikely to be able to move away from having two
main genders, male or female, or, something different or in between. Second, knowing that
someone is male or female bodies, allows us to vary how we understand ourselves as masculine
and feminine according to time, place and circumstances (Paechter, 2006).
Discrimination
The word discrimination springs from the Latin discrimino, meaning to divide or separate.
And whatever else discrimination involves, it is based on division of people into categories
(Schneider, D. 2005).
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A study on the respect for athletes was done. Collegiate athletes are respected and are seen
as feminine by men and women, athletes and non-athletes alike. Not surprisingly, athletes accorded
more respect to female athletes that did non-athletes, but even the non-athletes respect were, on
average, positive. Media coverage of women's sports may play a role in shaping these attitudes.
Based on interviews of female college athletes, Duff, Hong and Royce (2001) concluded that
media coverage of their sports increases the status of female student athletes among their peers.
As one woman was quoted has said, "The local paper devoted a whole section to our high school's
sports. When the rest of the non-athlete student body see that the athletes are receiving praise and
attention from the community they may perceive them as more important" (W. Stephen, R., Gebelt,
J., & Duff, R. (2003). Female Athletes: Being both Athletic and Feminine. Athletic Insight, 5(1),
47-61.).
Another study was about womens equality in sports. Participants said that girls and women
had a right to be assimilated into sport; as one female high school student said, Im very into
womens equality in sports. In addition to that a male college student explained: They [female
athletes] have just as much right. They might not draw as many crowds and everything, but I mean,
girls are athletes. They deserve enough chance as guys to make it to the next level and do what
they love to do. None of the participants denied girls and women the right to play. Participants
said equality is definitely a good thing, that the law (Title IX) sounds fair and that women
deserve as much of a chance as men to play. One female college student summed up that idea
when she said, Theyve worked hard enough to get there in college, then why not let them play?
They shouldnt be penalized because they are women. (Hardin, M., & Whiteside, E. (2009).

SYNTHESIS
In the past years, feminine masculinity, athletic women and lesbianism were correlated with
each other. The feminine masculinity and women athletes were found to be stereotyped by society
as lesbians. Feminine masculinity may have tendencies of turning into a lesbian because they are
being stereotyped as such. Because of the effect of stereotyping among the individuals being
stereotyped, individuals are possibly being pushed to becoming someone they are not.
Female body masculinity has been compared with the male bodies and has spread through
mass media. Even though, female masculinity has been accepted, gender roles still remain and
may be interchangeable in some instances. Being masculine and feminine may depend on a
situation.
Female athletes are now respected and they are recognized. Not in the same level that men
are recognized for sports, but in a positive level of recognition. People have seen the capabilities
of female athletes through the years that they have been proving themselves to others. Equality is
starting to be recognized among female athletes. Female athletes are now considered as high
respected athletes through their hard work and devotion to the sport that they love.
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METHODOLOGY
Research Design
This study used the qualitative research design. This research design is systematic in the way
that obtaining information has a process, and it is subjective because it refers to inner psychological
experiences. This approach is used to describe life experiences, elicit reactions and emotions, and
attach meaning to them. This design will help to gain insight, explore depth, richness and the
complexity inherent in the phenomenon (Neill, J. 2006). This design will help the researcher reach
the studys purpose. Depth is important to this study and also, to be able to find and get more
insights of the respondents.

Instruments
The instrument is a self-made test. This test is made in order to answer the research problem
statements. It is composed of following 8 questions: Do you know what stereotyping is? For you,
what is stereotyping? Have you encountered female basketball players? What has transpired in
your encounter with the athletes? Do you find it favorable when you encounter them? Can you
distinguish similarities/differences between athletes who play feminine sports and masculine ones?
Do you honestly say that you stereotype people? How do you stereotype people in terms of:
physical traits and features, attitude, values, and beliefs

Sampling Procedure
Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. The researcher went around the campus
of San Beda College Alabang and asked students if they would be willing to participate in a short
interview about their perception of female basketball players. The participants chosen were those
who have encountered a female basketball player.
Participants Description
There are fifteen (15) college students: seven (7) male and eight (8) female participants. Five
(5) are Psychology students, four (4) Marketing students, three (3) from Human Resource, two (2)
from International Studies, and one (1) from Information Technology. Their ages are all in the
range of 17 - 23.
Data Gathering Procedure
The data gathering procedure of this study was done by giving interviews to students from
San Beda College Alabang. The individual interviews were conducted in a place where the
respondents find to be most convenient for them. After creating the questions that are to be
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answered by chosen respondents, the researcher approached students from San Beda College
Alabang and explained to them what the study is all about. The researcher gave the respondents
the chance to accept or decline to be part of the study. The researcher used a recorder in order to
save the interview and the researcher then extracted information given by the interviewee. After
conducting all the interviews, all the recorded and noted interviews were reviewed and each
information was analyzed and dissected from the whole and the relevant answers were the data
used. The researcher got the common theme from the participants answers.

Data Analysis
The researcher used the qualitative research design for this study. A self made test composed
of eight (EIGHT?) questions, was used for the interview. The responses of the participants were
gathered and analyzed based on the central core of this study. The gathered data was classified
according to similar responses of the participants. After classifying and organizing the data, the
researcher focused on the answers for five questions which are: (1) Do you know what stereotyping
is? For you what is stereotyping? (2) What has transpired in your encounter with the athletes? (3)
Do you find it favorable when you encounter them? Why or why not? (4) Can you distinguish
similarities/differences between athletes who play feminine sports and masculine ones? (5) Do you
honestly say that you stereotype people? How do you stereotype people? And finally, the
researcher started discussing those similar answers and finished with a conclusion.

RESULTS
Problem #1. Demographic Profile
Student Gender Age

Course

17

Marketing

23

Psychology

20

International Studies

21

Psychology

19

Marketing

20

Information Technology

20

International Studies

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19

Human Resource

20

Psychology

10

19

Marketing

11

17

Psychology

12

21

Marketing

13

20

Human Resource

14

19

Psychology

15

23

Human Resource

The participants for this study are all college students from San Beda College Alabang.
There are 15 participants all in all. Seven are male and eight are female. The average age is 20
years old. These students came from different courses. Five (5) are Psychology students, four (4)
Marketing students, three (3) from Human Resource, two (2) from International Studies, and one
(1) from Information Technology. All of them are currently enrolled.
Problem #2. What is the stereotyping behavior of the respondents in terms of:
Physical Features and traits
Student

Stereotype

They often are larger in size but its probably because of all the training. I noticed that
they have a much manlier walk.

Players are generally smaller, in most aspects, compared to male basketball players, more
stamina compared to other females, players usually have shorter hair compared to other
females, hand eye coordination could be lacking in some, less physically daunting
compared to male basketball players.

Most of the female basketball players I know are boyish in appearance. They are often
quite bulkier than most females although some are slender in appearance. They also have
well-toned bodies due to the physical training.

Women are basically weaker when it comes to physical strength but when it comes to
their characteristics i think they are more cool compared to men who are hot-headed
especially during games.

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Boyish yung galawan; the way they walk, speak and dress. And makikita mo rin na fit
sila bcos of trainings.

Tomboyish, boyish, short hair, simple (ayaw ng make-up, allergic sa dress, ayaw
magheels, shirt and pants lang

Siguro mejo boyish, usually maikli buhok nila. Maangas din sila tignan.

Very manly movement and the way she is with other people, parang mejo bossy. They
dress up simply, sometimes they dress up like a boy. I usually see those wearing shorts
and shirt.

Phsically fit sila, halatang athletes dahil sa dating nila. Maangas yung dating, tas mejo
malakas sila. Not like yung ibang girls na sobrang girly.

10

Halos mukha silang lalake. Lalo na yung nakikita kong short hair sila. Tas the way they
talk, normal voice, malalim yung boses. Unlike with other normal girls na ang tataas ng
boses. Yung suot nila lagi halos tshirt lang with shorts or pants. And their shoes, hindi
pang girl. Laging boyish yung shoes.

11

Fit, muscular and good body posture. Their hair is alway up. I barely see them fix up
with make-up, mejo gusgusin sila paminsan.

12

Okay naman sila tignan. Magaganda, malinis tignan. Lagi silang maayos tignan. Hindi
bongga yung clothes nila. Very simple silang mga babae, wala masyadong arte sa
katawan.

13

I think of them as very boyish. They're very carefree and physical. They dress up like
boys. They act like boys, their movements, their way of doing things.

14

They still look like girls, but the way they move are like boys. So, eventually they look
like boys especially those who have short hair.

15

Female basketball players are very boyish. Maybe because of the game that they play.
They also dress very boyish. They have this vibe na para silang lalake. Not totally, pero
mejo. Because of basketball, they are fit and a little buffy. Mejo may height din, they're
not that small.

In terms of physical traits and features, 9 students said that female basketball players are
boyish in appearance. Student 2 said that Players are generally smaller, in most aspects, compared
to male basketball players, more stamina compared to other females, players usually have shorter
hair compared to other females, hand eye coordination could be lacking in some, less physically
daunting compared to male basketball players. Similar to what student 3 said that most of the
female basketball players she knows are boyish in appearance. 5 of the 15 said that they move like
boys. Student 8 said that they have very manly movement. Same as student 13, said that they act
like boys, their movements, their way of doing things. However student 14 said that female

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basketball players still look like girls but the way they move is like boys. 5 of the 15 also said that
these female basketball players are very fit and more buff than regular girls.

Expected Behavior
Student

Stereotype

I expect them to act no different from a woman.

Players are less likely to get physical with the other players (e.g. rare occurrences of
siko, bumping into the defender, and what have you). Less rowdy when compared to
male players, and will most likely curse less compared to male players; generally more
friendly compared to most type of male players. Other than what is stated, behavior will
probably be the same since they are also bound by the rules of basketball hence what
their behavior in the court will likely be dictated by these said rules.

Other players seem rowdy in groups, other players act normal.

Women are expected to be more excused from the violations they could possibly make
during matches especially here in the phils.

Yung parang game sa asaran na tipong may mock na suntukan pa haha yung parang sa
guys. Hindi katulad ng sa girly girls na oa ang pagka prim and proper.

Maangas, matapang, Sporty, cool na friend because para silang boys, tropang tropa

Sobrang active nila. Halos laging fully energized. They get along with others easily.
Makulet sila.

They behave like boys. Sobrang hyper nila. Maharot, and hindi tulad nung normal girls
na sobrang hinay.

Masyado silang bibo, nakakatuwa nga eh. Kasi hindi sila boring kasama.

10

Expected behavior ko for female basketball players are that they are very physically
active. Magaling sila mag interact with others. They behave normally naman, maayos
sila.

11

They are talkative, they usually interact with other people easily. They get along well
with their peers. Disciplined naman sila. Alam nila kung kailan dapat proper and kung
kailan pwede mag biruan.

12

Siga sila. Very boyish yung behavior nila. Maybe that's why they get along with boys.
Di sila maarte with other people. Mabilis sila mag adjust sa iba't ibang environment.

13

They have boyish behavior. They act like boys also. However, there are times naman
when they are girly. They have this maangas behavior. Parang you can't mess with them.

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14

Expected behavior ko para sa mga babaeng basketball player is yung maayos sila sa
katawan at face pero hindi sila maarte tulad ng ibang girls hindi sila mahilig mag make
up.

15

Matapang sila. Hindi sila nagpapadarag sa mga lalake. More on sila ung matapang pa sa
lalake.

Six of the 15 respondents said that female basketball players are like boys in terms of
behaviour. As Student 8 said, They behave like boys. Same as Student 13 who said that they
have boyish behavior, they are acting like boys and 4 more students said the same about the
behavior of the female basketball players. However 3 students said that these female basketball
players behaviour are no different from any other women. They behave normally and in a proper
manner depending on the situation that they are in. Student 1 said that he expects them to act no
different from any other woman. 3 students said that female basketball players are very active and
hyper. As to what Student 7 said, Sobrang active nila, halos laging fully energized. Also, 6 of the
15 said that female basketball players get along with other people well. They interact with people
and they tend to adjust fast to the environment that they are in. Student 11 said that female
basketball players are talkative and that they usually get along with others easily. 3 of the 15 also
said that these players are very tough. They look and act tough. Student 13 said they have this
maangas behavior, parang you cant mess with them.

Attitudes
Student

Stereotype

They are a less sensitive than the usual girl. They display boyish characteristics
sometimes.

They will generally be less aggressive and confrontational compared to male basketball
players; one could say more calm, collected, and mature when it comes to dealing with
fouls and conflict that occur in the court. Less likely to get angry at teammates for errors
that are committed

They can handle the usual conversation of guys, topics like the games, shoes etc. they
are sometimes called one of the boys.

They play less physical and sportsmanship could be seen with them more.

Flexible siguro. They can get along well with either boys or girls. Saka ano, strong both
physically and emotionally. They easily get along with others.

Maangas pero mabait, matapang, strong person.

Hindi sila basta basta lumalaban sa kapwa nila babae. Mas may control sila sasarili.
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kaya nila makisama both girl and boy

Matapang kasi parang wala silang kinakatakutan. kaya nilang hamunin ung mga lalaki
pag dating sa parehas sports

10

Hindi sila basta basta nagpapakita ng emotions nila. Tulad ng pagiyak. Ayaw nilang
nakikitang nasasaktan sila ng ibang tao.

11

Pagdating sa mga kaibigan nilla. Hindi nila basta basta itong iniiwanan.

12

Minsan mahilig sila mangtrashtalk. Siguro dahil nasanay sila sa mga laro nila na minsan
nagkakasagutan.

13

Open minded sila sa lahat ng bagay.

14

Wala silang pinipiling tao mapababae, lalake, tomboy, bakla ok lang sakanila. hindi sila
namimili ng kaibigan

15

Hindi nila mapigilan ung mga lumalabas sa bibig nila minsan. May be because dahil sa
mga games nila na minsan napipikon sila. Kaya siguro nadadala na din nila sa labas.

In terms of attitude, respondents see female basketball players as people who have strong
personalities. They are tough and they are firm about it. Student 1 said that they are less sensitive
than the usual girls. Also Student 5 said that they are strong both physically and emotionally. Same
as Student 6, 9, and 10. And to agree with what Student 5 said, Student 10 said hindi sila basta
basta nagpapakita ng emotions nila, tulad ng pag iyak, ayaw nilang nakikitang nasasaktan sila ng
ibang tao. They are also good in handling people, they have more control of themselves.
According to Student 2 they are more calm, collected, and mature when it comes to dealing with
fouls and conflict that occur in the court. Agreeing to that, Student 7 said that female basketball
players have more control of themselves. 3 of the 15 also said that female basketball players arent
choosy with friends because they can get along with almost anyone,
Beliefs and Values
Student

Stereotype

Their beliefs and values are no different from girls who dont play basketball

They will probably have the same belief when it comes to male basketball players since
they are playing the same sport. Winning will be essential / important for them as it
would any other male player out there. Learning and growing from mistakes is still
something that they will do. Less likely to place blame on a specific teammate/s with
what happened in the game.

Same as any other person.

Passion in every basketball player are equal.

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Pagiging neutral. Balance. Alam nila kung ano ikikilos kapag girls ang kasama nila and
kung boys man.

They believe that they should excel in everything tapos cnoconsider nla lahat as
competition so they tend to be competitive in all aspect

God-fearing sila. They tend to be very committed with their sport. Very passionate. Also
competitive sila.

Just like other people, they have their own beliefs and values. It depends with their
orientation. Becacuse of being a varsity player, I think that is why they are very active
in their own organizations. They are active and they are firm with their passion.

Same lang naman with other people. Beliefs and values are personal and have personal
issues. Same as any varsity player, they are passionate and committed to what they do.

10

They are disciplined and are well mannered. Even if they are jokers, they know when to
be polite.

11

Paminsan carefree sila na parang "bahala na". Sometimes, with their competitiveness,
they forget who they are up against.

12

Sobrang effort sila when it comes to their training and games. And everytime that I ask
them why they keep doing this, they say na, and its what they have to do to win.

13

They're very committed to what they do. They sometimes forget the other things that
they do because of their trainings and games. However, it still shows how they can be so
committed to what they do.

14

When it comes to having them do certain things, hindi sila nag gigive up agad. They
fight really hard for the things that they like. Until makuha nila.

15

Para sakin, female basketball players are persistent. Sobrang hard working nila. Because,
to play and study at the same time? Mahirap din yun i-balance eh. But they find and
manage their time to be able to these things.

In terms of beliefs and values, 3 of the 15 said that female basketball players are committed
to what they do. Student 7 said they tend to be very committed with their sport same as Student
9 and 13. Also, results showed that 4 out of the 15 said that these female athletes are very passionate
with what they do. Student 9 said that they are the same as any varsity player, passionate and
committed. Same with what Student 4 said, Passion in every basketball player is equal. Another
is that these female basketball players are very hard working and 3 of the 15 students agreed to
this. Just like what student 14 said, They fight really hard for the things that they really like.
However 5 of the 15 said that these female basketball players have the same belief and values with
other people. Student 1 said that female basketball players beliefs and values are no different from
girls who dont play basketball. Same as Student 2, who said that these female basketball players
would probably have the same belief when it comes to male basketball players since they are
playing the same sport. Also, students 3, she said that female basketball players have the same
beliefs and values as any other person. Students 8 and 9 thinks the same also.
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Experiences
Student

Stereotype

Theyre much more accommodating and easier to get along with given the common
hobby between us.

Well generally speaking my experiences with female basketball players are minimal at
best but when I am with them it is basically the same feeling as compared to other male
basketball players though one difference is that I am more "cautious" when playing with
them ; try be less physical but besides that they seem to be the same as with any female
person I have hanged out with; does silly banter, jokes, etc.

They are very relatable in terms of hanging out or doing activities,

Experienced male basketball player is much better than female basketball player.

Active sila eh dala ng pagiging member ng isang team, sanay sila sa groups. so yung
mga passive na tao hindi na mahihirapan na makisama sakanila.

Of course okay naman sila kasama, fun, parang adventurous sila, spontaneous, dahil nga
di sila maarte, G sila with anything so mas masaya

Masaya silang kasama dahil makulit at madaldal sila. at lahat gagawin nila maging
masaya lang ung mga trip ng barkada

Sila ung minsan nagdadala ng saya sa tropa. Sila ung mabibo lagi silang nagbabasketball
kht na walang bola. habit lang siguro nila

Maligalig sila.kasama. walang kaarte arte

10

agaw buhay sila kasama lahat ng fun adventures gagawin nila mapasaa lang ang trip ng
barkada

11

Challenging sila kasama. kasi competative sila nakakaenganyo sila kasama

12

Hindi sila basta basta sumusuko. Kung ano ung naumpinsahan nila tatapusin nila.

13

Simple lang silang kasama. Ok sila sa lahat ng aya. Mapa adventure man o hindi.

14

pag nakakasama ko naman sila masaya kasi hindi sila ung tulad ng ibang babae na sobra
kung makaarte e. sila go with the flow lang.

15

More on lagi sila nakafocus sa training nila sa games nila. Kaya minsan ang hirap nilang
ayain lumabas kasi ang lagi nilang dahilan ma training at ma game sila.

In terms of the experiences of the respondents from being with female basketball players,
5 of the 15 students said that female basketball players are fun to be with. Every time that they
hangout with each other, these female athletes are the ones who make jokes and make everyone
laugh. 5 students also said that these female athletes are good in groups. They tend to be
comfortable in groups. Being able to jive in with a group isnt easy and it seems that these students
see that the female basketball players are good at it. Just like what Student 5 said, active sila eh
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dala ng pagiging member ng isang team, sanay sila sa groups. Same with what Student 8 said,
sila ung minsan nagdadala ng saya sa tropa. Lastly, 4 of the 15 students said that these female
basketball players are very active and energized almost all the time. Student 9 said maligalig sila
kasama, which means that they are hyped. 3 students said that they are competitive and
challenging to be with. One of the 3, Student 15, said that these athletes are more focused on their
trainings and games that its hard to find time to be with them.

DISCUSSION
The participants for this study are all college students from San Beda College Alabang. There
are 15 participants all in all. Seven are male and eight are female. The average age is 20 years old.
These students came from different courses. Five (5) are Psychology students, four (4) Marketing
students, three (3) from Human Resource, two (2) from International Studies, and one (1) from
Information Technology. All of them are currently enrolled.
From the results taken for the physical traits and features, female basketball players are seen
as boyish girls, those who are simple in terms of clothing choice, and they are usually fit and buff.
They are healthier, stronger than other women probably because of all the training that theyve
been been regimented to. Female basketball players are good with interacting with people. Even
if they act like boys, they still tend to get the attention of people, because they are active in group
activities. People who are good in interacting and who are easy to get along with are those who
work well in groups. Basketball is a team sport and this can be an asset to female basketball players
because teamwork and team effort are necessary in establishing good working relationships. In
terms of attitude, female basketball players are tough and strong, physically and emotionally. They
are not the type of persons who would easily give up and also easily show their emotions. They
have personal and team discipline, have more control over themselves and they know how to
handle defeats calmly. Plus, they are not picky when it comes to choosing their friends because
they are able to get along with others easily. They are more accepting of people and their
idiosyncrasies. In other words, they are open-minded.
Respondents see female basketball players as female athletes who are committed and
passionate and probably the same as any other athlete. Also, they said that female basketball
players are fun to be with and that they are good in working/being with groups. They are also
almost always energized. An addition to the results, there were no comments about female
basketball players as being lesbians. They are thought to be female athletes who possess male traits
but it was not mentioned that these college students see them as lesbians.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


This study focused on the stereotype of college students on female basketball players. A total
number of fifteen students were used as respondents. Out of fifteen students, eight were female
and 7 were male. Results showed that in terms of physical traits and features, most female
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basketball players are boyish in appearance. The way they dress up and the way they fix their hair.
They don't fix themselves like regular girls who apply makeup and dress in girly clothes.
In the manner they talk, walk, and move, they act and impersonate men. With their body
built, they are more fit and more buff than regular girls. Clearly, it's because of their rigorous and
regular training. Somehow, a few of the respondents said that these female basketball players are
still female in terms of appearance and movement. In terms of expected behavior, the respondents
see that female basketball players behave like boys in certain situations.They are active and almost
always full of energy. These athletes look and act tough. These athletes are good in interacting
with people and at the same time they are easy to be with, and eventually, they are effective in
group activities.
When it comes to their attitude, they see these female athletes as tough and strong
personalities. They are less sensitive compared to other women, they don't show too much emotion
especially when they are hurt. They are also good in controlling themselves. They can stay calm
and collected once they are in focus. Also, their attitude towards other people is positive. They get
along with people and clearly, there is not much negative reaction to that. With their values and
beliefs, they are committed, passionate, and hard working people.
The respondents observed that female athletes really give time and effort to their sport during
trainings and games. They said that these female basketball players are really committed to the
game. Also, they are passionate, same as any other athlete would be.
And lastly, with their personal dealings and experience, they said that female basketball
players are fun to be with. From the observation of the respondents, these athletes are good in
interacting with groups. They tend to make other people laugh and have a good time. Their being
good with people is their asset. They bring such positive vibes and energy to the group which make
them really fun to be with. Female athletes are efficient in time-management. They find time to
be with friends, allot regular training hours in their commitment as athletes, and spend time to
be students at the same time.
From the results shown, the stereotype of these college students on female basketball players
are not negative. They enjoy being with them and the hard work done by these female athletes is
very much appreciated. They contribute and influence others on becoming competitive as well and
they have shown other people that clearly, they are easy to get along with and that they can adjust
accordingly to their environment without much trouble.
The researcher would like to recommend another study to be done wherein the reaction of
the female athletes are to be studied, based on the stereotypes that are attached to them. Also, a
study about comparing female athletes to non-female athletes, its pros and cons, could be a good
study.

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The Perception on the MOMOL Phenomenon: A Descriptive Analysis


Joffrey A. Javier
Eva Castronuevo
Abstract
The primary objective of the study is to explore the make out phenomenon
within the Filipino context by how the phenomenon is perceived. The study
is a qualitative and descriptive research. The researcher interviewed 5 male
undergraduate students ages 18 to 21 years old. Results showed that the
make out phenomenon is perceived as an act of letting loose, where young
adults are driven by sexual desire and urges as well as alcohol intoxication.
Making out may often occur in places involving alcohol consumption but
does not generalize that the engagement in making out only occurs in
places with access to alcohol use. Higher sexual activities may occur through
engaging into the make out activity through consensual agreement among
partners making out. Future research including the perception of women
on the make out phenomenon is also encouraged.

The Filipino youths culture is best defined by the social trends. The popular culture has
become a tale of trends and fads that easily come and go. Of the many trends that have gained its
popularity recently, one that stood out as the most prominent that not only has become a
widespread social phenomenon among the youth but also gave rise to several things that people
talk about or do every day. Arguably the infamous social trend of recent times among the youth is
called MOMOL or Make out Make out Lang. It is known as the act of casually, as well as
shamelessly, making out or kissing with someone. The origin of the term is unknown, although
most people agree that the MOMOL term took flight due to the constant use of known DJs in a
local radio station program. With their wide audience, consisting of young people and even college
students, MOMOL became a slang phrase and reached popularity even in its short existence.
The incorporation of trends from other countries is not something new in our country. From
being a country with a conservative mentality into being a highly liberated one, the youth have
absorbed such culture and it seeps through them. Thus, being said that there is no generalized or
formal study on this concept, it is very difficult for researchers to begin an analysis for this
phenomenon and how it affects the people engaging into it as well as the effects of MOMOL in
an individual.
There are no studies yet conducted on this phenomenon especially in the Philippine
context, but it can be observed that the concept of MOMOL is very much similar to the Western
concept of hooking up. Hooking up has been the Western label of the nonrelational sexual
behavior. Bogle (2008) stated that her study defined a hook up as when a girl and a guy get
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together for a physical encounter and dont necessarily expect anything further. On the other
hand, MOMOL is also nonrelational, but it is not defined yet whether it may or may not be
sexual. In its urban definition, it is simply making out due to the word lang which means it
should only be limited to just making out.
Engagement in MOMOL or simply making out casually with partners, may be harmful
in creating committed relationships. This is due to the reason that making out would be seen as
a casual act that can be done even with people who are not committed in an intimate relationship.
Things that used to be held sacred by older generations are now being done casually, openly and
easily by the younger generations. Making out casually is one of the things that many people
especially the youth begin to accept as a norm. The researcher found it to be crucial to make a
study on the phenomenon in order to create a solid basis on the existence of the phenomenon in
the Philippine setting through formal research.
Having no generalized definition on the phenomenon due to having no scholarly evidence
in the Filipino context, despite the phenomenon taking place even before the popularity of the
coined term, this then proves that there are no means of identifying the behavior and the effects of
MOMOL in an individual. In order to accomplish this study, the researcher would have to gain
actual accounts from people who engage in this MOMOL phenomenon. By identifying the
different perceptions from the accounts provided by the participants on MOMOL would pave
way for future research on the higher kinds of sexual behaviors that the youth may engage upon
based initially from simply making out.
The researcher aims to explore the experiences of those who have engaged in the MOMOL
phenomena and what did they gain from their own experience with it. The researcher aims to
answer the questions regarding the MOMOL phenomenon such as 1) What is the perception on
the concept of MOMOL (2) What are the underlying factors behind the engagement of the
MOMOL phenomenon;(3) What are the respondents experiences with this phenomenon;(4) What
does the person think and feel towards engaging, the engagement and after engaging in the
MOMOL phenomenon.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the past years, studies have shown that the concept of hooking up has been a causal
factor in Friends with Benefits, Mental health and Alcohol consumption.

Hooking up and Friends with benefits


Several studies conducted by Furman and Shaffer (2011) shows that there is a value of
differentiating among different types of non-romantic partners and different levels of sexual
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behavior. To men, their definitions of hooking up and friends with benefits reflected both standard
and alternate scripts (Epstein et al., 2009) which states that these two concepts are cohesive to each
other according to earlier studies conducted, although alternate scripts contradicts the said
statement. Positive aspects of Friends with benefits relationships included appropriateness for their
life situation, safety, comfort and trust, gaining confidence and experience, closeness and
companionship, freedom and having control, and easy access to sex. Negative aspects of FWBRs
included getting hurt, ruining the friendship, and the relationship becoming complicated or
awkward (Weaver et al., 2011). Gusarova, Fraser and Alderson (2012) states that gender
differences in FWBRs are nuanced, and both confirm and depart from the traditional gender
norms. FWBRs represent a diverse set of relationship formulations where both the benefits (i.e.,
repeated sexual contact) and the friends (i.e., relationship between partners) vary widely
(Mongeau, et al., 2013).

Hooking up and Mental Health


Fielder and Carey (2009) states that pre-college hookup patterns, peak intoxication level,
and situational triggers for hookups were consistent predictors of oral and vaginal sex hookup
behavior, and penetrative sexual hook ups increased psychological distress for females, but none
for males. Both men and women reported positive reactions than negative about the experience,
but compared to men, women reported more positive reactions regarding the experience (Owen
and Fincham, 2010). For emerging-adult college students, engaging in casual sex may elevate risk
for negative psychological outcomes (Bersamin et al., 2014).

Hooking up and Alcohol


Studies have shown that many distinct variables affect the hooking up behavior, such as
alcohol consumption, positive or negative outlooks on these scripts, and higher parental income
associates to the higher likelihood of engaging to hook up (Owen et al., 2008) which may be the
cause of the engagement in this behavior by young college students that is strengthened by the
frequency of attendance at Greek parties, residence-hall parties, off-campus parties, which in turn
has a great possibility of an occurrence of alcohol-related sex with a stranger (Bersamin et al.,
2012). The study provides that the greater number of drinks consumed was associated with more
advanced sexual activity (LaBrie et al., 2014) which, due to being under the influence of drugs and
alcohol, would then engage to high risk sexual behaviors. (Calsyn et al., 2010)

SYNTHESIS
The hooking up culture is known by many in different ways regarding the acts that the
college students would engage upon. It is known in varied contexts among different people, which
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in turn, does not provide a generalized concept for this term. Also, even though there were positive
reports regarding the engagement of the act, negative effects are also present such as distress or
other negative psychological outcomes. The development of these kinds of relationships depends
on the benefits and to whom they engage it with. Also, there are damaging effects in the
engagement on these acts, despite this, positive reactions were still provided by the respondents.
It has been provided that alcohol consumption is an adding factor to the engagement of these acts.
Parties tend to be the grounds for the engagement of hooking up and greater amounts of consuming
alcohol tend to be the reason for more advanced sexual behavior that tend to provide higher sexual
risks.
The literature has been provided for the study, although it is based only on the Western
context, meaning, there are no conducted studies developed on this matter in our country. Though
the context of the literature is mainly Western-based, the concept, although not fully, is applicable
to be used as basis for the Philippine counterpart of the hooking up phenomenon which is the
MOMOL concept. The researcher intends to develop a study that would identify whether the
concept is applicable to the Filipino context, and how it affects them and their well-being.

METHODOLOGY
Research Design
The research design applied for this study on the phenomenon of MOMOL is a
qualitative design through descriptive analysis, since a qualitative design is very effective in
obtaining the experiences of the participants that engaged into the phenomenon. The strength of
qualitative research is its ability to provide a complex description of how people have experienced
a certain phenomenon and its commitment to an idiographic, case study level of analysis, where it
focuses more on the particular than the universal. This research design was chosen in order to seek
out and understand more than what an individual simply know about the phenomenon of
MOMOL.

Participants Description
For the purpose of this study, a total of 5 participants consisted of 5 males, who are
undergraduate college students with ages ranging from 18 to 22 shall be interviewed. The specific
age range was chosen in order to assure that the college students have spent more than a year in
college and to assume that the participants are of legal age, since minors have restrictions as
compared those who are not. The participants must have had at least little actual experience of this
phenomenon to be able to participate in the interview process. Participants were informed that the
interview is being recorded for documentation purposes.
The sampling technique applied for the study on selecting the participants was the
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purposive sampling technique, where the participants are selected based upon a variety of criteria
which highly require the vast knowledge and experience on the research issue. The participants
were gathered through the referrals of people on whom they know have experiences on the
MOMOL phenomenon.

Instruments
The researcher applied interview method for gathering information about the phenomenon.
The researcher used semi-structured interviews because the research seeks to find subjective
answers from the participants to know about their in-depth thoughts, ideas and feelings towards
the phenomenon focused on the study. The participants would be asked similar, open-ended
questions that shall be answered according to how the participant, according to his experiences,
would have felt about the question given. The researcher used interview method in order to gather
sufficient information about the experiences of the participants on the phenomenon.

In the study, the researcher used a voice recorder for the documentation of the data gathered
from the interview, with the consent of the participants. The voice recorder was used in the present
study so that there would be no interruptions with the flow of the conversation and to assure that
the exact information was gathered from the individuals.

Data Gathering Procedures


The researcher gathered the participants first by contacting prospects whom may know of
the kind of people the researcher sought. Then, the researcher contacted the prospect participants
and requested their permission to be interviewed due to their experience on the subject. Most of
the participants were known by the researcher, while some were referred by the participants
interviewed as well. A preliminary interview was conducted in order to confirm whether the
participants are eligible to participate in the interview process. The researcher explained to the
participants that what they would say shall be recorded and only be transcribed by the researcher.
To maintain the confidentiality of the participants, the researcher created pseudonyms to identify
the participants used for the transcript. The interviews with the participants were conducted at
their most convenient time and the interviews were set by appointments. The interviews took about
less than an hour to conclude per participant.
Data Analysis
The researcher used a qualitative research design in the study. After the transcription of the
participants scripts, the researcher grouped the information according to (1) the perception of
MOMOL phenomenon (2) factors affecting the engagement on the MOMOL phenomenon (3) the
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experiences of the respondents (4) the thoughts and feelings of those whom participated in the
phenomenon (5) what the respondents gained. The interview transcriptions were analyzed with
objectivity and accordingly to their content.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study focused on determining what are the thoughts and feelings of those who engage
in the MOMOL phenomenon. It also provided information to identifying the concept itself. The
study aims to find out the following: (1) the perception of the MOMOL phenomenon (2) factors
affecting the engagement on the MOMOL phenomenon (3) the experiences of the respondents (4)
the thoughts and feelings of those whom participated in the phenomenon (5) what the respondents
gained from their experiences.

A total of 5 participants were interviewed by the researcher for this study. The participants
consisted of five male undergraduate students ages 18 to 22 years old. The responses of the
participants are quoted and categorized into groups within this section.

PERCEPTION ON THE MOMOL PHENOMENON

Within this section are the statements produced by the participants on what their concept
on MOMOL is and how the participants perceive the phenomenon.
This is something to satisfy the urges as of the moment - Person A
MOMOL is make out make out lang. Strictly, MOMOL. Hindi lang naman siguro
siya with people you meet sa bar or sa clubs. - Person B
Its a widely accepted thing nowadays, kasi dati yung mga lalaki lang yung
independent,yung choices nila, yung gusto nilang gawin, yun yung ginagawa nila. Dati yung
mga babae, regarded as lowly, if they engage in such activities. Pero nowadays, hindi na.
May mga independent women na din na gusto nila ipakita na kaya nilang gawin yung kayang
gawin ng boys. They do..on another perspective, yung mga tao na nagmamake out lang, as
in parang friends lang sila but they want to make out, its like having an excuse on having a
relationship that they cant afford to have, like they want to have a boyfriend, but theyre
thinking that they should avoid the drama, and all that shit so friends with benefits na lang,
it doesnt really work that way. - Person C

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Its just a simple activity that people, usually couples that really love to do..two
people of the opposite sex find each other attractive, and then they decide to make out, after
that, wala na. its like, uh, the lowest or the cheapest form of friends with benefits. - Person
D
..para sa akin, yung make out parang, tamang fling lang. Kunyari, akbay, siyempre
kiss, yun. Ganun. - Person E

The participants have shared their own perceptions on the concept of making out. Even
though each of the participants perceive the concept differently, the responses provided by the
participants seemed to support each other, where responses such as the phenomenon being a way
to satisfy ones urges. Person B says that the MOMOL phenomenon is limited to only making out.
Person C stated that making out is a common thing nowadays among the young adults and not
only men are active in it, but as well the women. Person C also shares that it may be just an excuse
of the people who engage into making out to be in a relationship that they cannot afford to have,
due to avoiding dramas. Both Persons D and E supports Person Bs answer as where Person E
explains that it is similar to just having flings, where people may simply just kiss and hug each
other. Person D adds that it is a simpler form of friends with benefits.

FACTORS AFFECTING ENGAGEMENT

Within this section are the factors that the participants provided that have driven them to
engage into making out as well as what motivated them to do it.

..like I said, mayroong urge nung time na yun. Merong urge na di masatisfied on a
regular basis, di masatisfy ng friends ko kasi lahat ng friends ko guys eh. So ayun. Basically,
yung urge lang talaga. Wala naman akong intention na to make it a long term. I dont have
intention to have sex with this person. Ayun lang. Theres just an urge, and also to, ano,
siguro to earn a reputation na parang ay ang galing ni Person A, so parang ano din, peer
acceptance kumbaga. Peer acceptance , peer recognition. - Person A
..kasi ano, the reason nun is, I wanted to know what it would be like, kasi gusto ko
talaga yung girl, trip ko siya. I was physically attracted to her, sexually attracted to her and
ganun. I took a chance, kung ano pwedeng mangyari. - Person B
Driving factor, well, Im a dude, and you know, I used to regard making out with
more girls, not just making out, having sex with a lot of girls was a very good thing for a
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guy. - Person C
Actually, nothing ever pushed me, it just happened. Probably, we were all
intoxicated with alcohol, and, tutuusin, di ako yung nag-start. Although everybody
remembers the night na birthday ko yun. Um. So, since lahat ng tao ganun [making out],
tapos ako, sabi ko sige lang. I was actually drunk at that time. - Person D
Ang nagdrive sa akin, before naman kasi, di naman ako nasa relationship nun eh.
Parang, kumbaga, friends, siyempre. Parang sa isang tao, gusto mong may makilalang iba.
Pero when it comes to bar, or siyempre parang di mo naman seseryosohin yun eh. So kung
make out make out lang parang fling lang, tamang kaibigan, then siyempre, after nun
makakausap mo, lalabas labas, then yun nga. - Person E

Participants responded differently when it came to what drove them to engage in making
out. Most of them had feelings of urges that they wanted to satisfy, where the perception of being
able to have sex or to make out with a girl is a strong factor that drove the participants to engage
into making out. Sexual attraction also affected the drive of the participants to make out; while
others share that alcohol consumption is also a factor that affected their desire to engage into
making out. Some of the participants also shared that peer pressure also was a contributing factor
to try to engage into making out, where peer acceptance and recognition is a motivating factor for
them.

PARTICIPANTS EXPERIENCES
The statements below consist of the experiences that the participants had with the make
out phenomenon. Within this section are factors such how they got involved, the place where the
phenomenon occurs, who are the people who often engage into this activity and the transcript on
the experiences of the participants.

Involvement in making out:


..nacucurious ka kunwari nanonood ka ng 21 Jump Street, siyempre parang
nakakahype e. Parang you want to put yourself in that position, na ayos lang ang lahat, you
can do this you can make out, ayun. So, in a bar sometimes, you would see mga type mo, the
girls that fit your criteria, yung maganda kasi maputi, singkit. Tapos, you would just
approach them, you get to know them, and basically youre trying to just flirt with them.
Tapos yun eventually, as the night goes by, ayun, youll get to the point that youre kissing,
minsan holding hands, pero at the end of the night, its done. - Person A

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I just reacted upon my own physical urges, and walang namilit or something.
Ayun, we were just talking. Tapos nagkaroon ng aminan. Uy, alam mo nung first
year tayo, trip kita tapos yung sabi niya ikaw rin I find you quite nice. Tapos, slowly,
nagkalapitan ng mukha then yun na. - Person B

Well, my neighbors, we used to play this game when we wanted to drink. You know,
to spice things up like Okay, the bottle is gonna point at you, you make out with the next
person the bottle spins to. Make out make out lang din yun. Tapos, uh, how do I say this.
Merong someone na, hindi pa nakakakiss before and she wanted to learn and she trusted me
enough to teach her. So, ganun din. - Person C

Parang kusa ko na lang nalaman is because of watching things that I watch, and
ayun nga familiar ako sa concept of making out because, actually the first time I saw the
word was playing The Sims. And then siguro when I was listening to BNO Boys Night Out
sa Magic 89.9, tsaka ko lang na-gets kung ano ibig sabihin ng MOMOL, when they said it
Make Out Make Out Lang. And naencounter ko uli siya around first year ata. So dun ko
nalaman. Tsaka lang ako nagka-clear idea kung ano siya. Person D

Nainvolve is, dun din sa pag-momodeling din. Kasi before, dun ko yun nasimulan
eh. Parang dun ako naintroduce sa mga bar-bar din. Sa pagmomodeling kasi siyempre yung
mga kasama ko, medyo alam mo na nga, yung mahilig magbar. So ayun, nayayaya ako. Then
everytime na hang out, yun pupunta kami sa bar, siyempre may kasamang babae, tapos mga
make out make out nga. - Person E

The participants got involved into making out in different ways, but they share a common
ground to where they got involved in. The presence of alcohol and attendance in bars and clubs
were the common things that the participants have with each other. Participants claim that media
influenced them to act upon what they have seen on the popular media. Others claim that they
were mainly influenced by their peers to make out with other group of peers. Some also say that
they only reacted upon their own physical urges to simply engage into making out. All the
participants stated that they were not in a relationship when they engaged into making out.

Where it occurs:
Most of the time sa bar. I mean, you cant make out on a regular basis. You can't
make out on a coffee shop. - Person A
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..even if I said na hindi siya involved hindi siya lagi sa bars, for me I guess, as long
as there is alcohol involved, alcohol or drugs involved, siyempre. It would get people loose,
do things na di pa nila nagagawa, anywhere na may alcohol. - Person B

Most often it occurs in drinking. Anywhere, basta drinking. - Person C

..usually nangyayari siya, um, during parties, especially when alcohol is involved - Person
D

Based on my experience nalang siguro ha. Kasi sa akin, sa bar lang eh. Pero
siyempre, depende pa din yun eh. Kahit everywhere, pwede eh. Kunyari siyempre, mamimeet
mo yung isang tao. Then after that, siyempre kung saan na lang mapupunta. - Person E

Bersamin et al. (2014) stated that the frequency of attendance at Greek parties, residencehall parties, off-campus parties, which in turn has a great possibility of an occurrence of alcoholrelated sex with a stranger. This was supported by the responses made by the participants as to
where the MOMOL phenomenon often occurs. The making out phenomenon can occur anywhere
as long as alcohol, and sometimes, even drugs are involved.

People involved:
Its a different group of friends. Mostly, ano, group of friends from CEU, from
Assumption. Common friends? No, for me, it's awkward na parang, you've invested time to
get to know this person, tapos, kumbaga it's not my intention to do that to a friend. - Person
A

Nangyayari din siya between friends. Hindi lang from random people, kasi yun yung
perception na nakukuha ko sa iba. uy, dude, MOMOL kayo nung chick na yun. Usap kayo
tapos MOMOL kayo. Pero hindi lang pala ganun, there are times na for example kayo ng
friends, nakainom or maybe gusto lang talaga MOMOL lang, ayun. Strictly MOMOL lang
talaga, walang involved...yeah, there are people basically mahilig pumarty. Yung mahilig
lumabas, go out to places to drink, hang out with friends, clubbing, party life, mga young
adults. - Person B
Uh, sa States meron dun yung mga kids ten year old kids, twelve year old kids. They do
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that with the five minutes in heaven thing. Im sure you have heard of that. So dito, sa
Philippines, medyo mas matatanda ng konti, they do the same things, pero mas matatanda
lang. tapos sila may alcohol na. So you know, it happens. - Person C

Wild ones, lets call them the wild ones lang. theyre the ones typically sa mga nakikita
ng tao, they usually like to party, to go out, or laging may kasamang ibang tao of the opposite
sex, Pero sometimes, hindi laging ganun. Minsan tago yon eh. Like on first impression basis,
for example, the party people . Oo, mahilig sila magparty, they show parts of their bodies a
lot. Pero hindi sila, mas madalas nagMOMOL kumpara to other people, that dont party a
lot. - Person D

Usually, sa generation ngayon is, para sa akin ha, on my opinion is ang dami na ding
class A. Parang everytime na kunyari, lalabas lang, then yun. Lalo na sa the fort, madami
diyan. Usually mga pumupunta diyan mga class A, mga may kaya. Parang tapos yun may
mamimeet sila may mga kaya rin, ginagawa na nilang kasayahan. - Person E

The people often involved into making out, as stated by the participants are often times,
other group of friends that the participants had. The participants share that often, these are just
friends of friends, or at times, just acquaintances. Person C stated that most often, the people that
engage into making out are the young adults, and have access to liquor. Person E supports Person
Cs answer where he explains that most often; people he referred as Class A, where those who
are financially capable are those who highly participate into this kind of activities. This seems to
support the study of Owen et al. (2008) where it provided that higher parental income associates
to the higher likelihood of engaging to hook up. Although Person D agrees to the statement, he
shared that there may be people who gets to engage into making out even though they do not party
a lot, as compared to those who party frequently.

Experiences of Participants:
So, before I transferred here in Beda, parati kami ng friends nagba-barhopping, as
in everyday nagba-barhopping. So nung time na yun,since first year pa lang kami, parang
we were trying.. to experience it all. Experience yung mga, kumbaga parang yung
manlihood. Kung tawagin, maexperience namin yung mga napapanood sa TV, nagpaparty.
- Person A
May time before, nung debut nung friend ko, tapos debut niya sa Pansol, may isang
girl dun na blockmate ko, parang, malandi siya. Hindi parang, malandi talaga siya. And, at
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that time, I was single pa, and I was looking for some fun. Ayun siyempre, kapag debut, tapos
sa Pansol pa, expected na madaming inom-inom, eh through out the night, naging parang
touchy, as in yung pala-akbay, hug ng hug, sinasamahan niya ako, sinasamahan ko din siya,
and then theres this one time na medyo sabog na kami, and dun kami sa isang pool, kasi
dun sa venue madaming pool eh. May isang pool dun, kiddie pool pa nga ata eh, and then
ayun nag-usap kami, swimming, tapos pumatong siya sa akin and ayun, MOMOL. Okay
naman siya - Person B
The first time that I ever had sex was with a distant cousin..tapos nasa resort kami
sa Laguna. Uh. Everyone was asleep except the two of us. We were listening to music, then
we watched the stars, and stuff like that. And then she looked at me. I looked at her, she
kissed me. She was a relative, but then it happened. Well, were not that close of relatives so
then the still the attraction occurred. She was four years older than me, so she taught me.
And yeah, it happened..well, I can say that what I had with my distant cousin wasnt normal.
Pero the ones I had with my friends, my neighbors, I think, it started when we were fifteen.
Around that until eighteen. Its like a rite of passage. Uh, its either from that, youll go to
having sex with him or you dont. it entirely depends on you or it entirely depends on the girl
you want to do it with. Um, mostly, barkadas, my barkada had friends. From this barkada,
they go to our turf, we do those things. - Person C

Um, first time when I experienced it was on my seventeenth birthday. I was at my


friends house. Friends house, was a girls, fortunately. So yeah, as I have mentioned before,
we were drinking, and they played truth or dare, and then, there was no truth, just dare. Like
the bottle points at you, you have to make out with somebody, do it for like five seconds for
non-couples, and since, among the group, there was a couple, so we watch them make out
for ten second or sometimes more, and it was just for the heck of it. - Person D

Yung experience ko is, siyempre minsan yung mga tropa ko, mga nagmomodel din
kasi, siyempre after kunyari, may ginawa kaming project, didiretso kami sa bar, or club or
something. Siyempre, pag ganun kunyari may kasama kaming tropa, kaming magtotropang
lalaki, siyempre may nakikita kami sa mga VTR na, kunyari, familiar sa amin. Then, after
nun, syempre. Mga fling-fling nga, make out. Yun - Person E

With regards to the participants experiences, all of them share the same experience as to
where they were able to engage into making out. They all had access to alcohol. Some of the
participants were able to engage into making out, as they were dared by their peers to do so. Some
stated that it was their rite of passage as to prove themselves, even at an early age of fifteen. Most
of the participants were intoxicated by alcohol as they engage into making out with their partners.
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Although, some differ in how it began. Where persons A, C, D and E, seemed to have had a certain
agreement as to how the making out would happen. Person B, showed that his experience with
making out started in a spontaneous way.

THOUGHTS AND FEELINGS ON THE EXPERIENCE

Within this section are the transcripts on the thoughts and experiences of the participants
before, during and after engagement on the making out activity. The participants experiences that
went beyond simply making out are included in this section as well.

Thoughts before engagement:


Actually, wala. Honestly, wala. Parang at that point in time, clear lang talaga yung
isip mo. Kasi you're not thinking about a certain person, I mean, di mo naman pino-project
na ito si ano ganyan. Ano na, parang you're living the moment, di mo na dinidistract sarili
mo sa mga memories na, sa mga ex mo, kumbaga, if you have any. At that point in time,
siguro kung may iniisip ka man is yung time na iyon. Kung ano yung nakikita mo, that itself,
yung image na iyon, yun ang pumapasok sa iyo.. Yung image na you're in front of a girl,
yung image na, you're about to do it. Siguro yun lang yung maiisip mo. - Person A

I cant believe that this is happening. Parang I cant believe that this is about to
happen. I like where this is going. Parang excitement. Kasi ako eh how I see women before,
parang, I admit parang I saw them as, ano lang, yeah sure Im just gonna say it, parang
objects, before nung di pa ako matinong tao. I saw them as that na parang if I make out with
this girl, Uy pare, alam mo ba, nung debut ni ano, nag-ano kami Yeah so mga ganun.
Person B

Pumapasok sa isip ko why the fuck am I shaking? Oo, tapos, oo, really nervous,
its nerve racking. You dont know this person much, but youre gonna make out with her.
What the fuck? Where would this go? How far would it take youna, what else. What does
this mean to her? Pero alam mo yun, after nun, madidisappoint ka. Kasi either you have
sex with her, after all the wanting is gone, wala na.. - Person C

Actually wala, kasi we all know this was just a one time thing. Its never gonna
happen again. Yeah sure most of us remembered it. Yeah we were dared, we have to make
out for a while, tapos okay gawin na lang. - Person D
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Usually pag ganyan kasi, ang kasama naming siyempre medyo magaganda. So yung
thoughts is siyempre yung maclose yung tao, tapos siyempre, gusto mo din na, kumbaga
magkaroon ng chance ng fling, hug, kiss, yun. Pero yung sosobra sa ganun, hindi. May
limitasyon naman ako eh. - Person E

The participants were able to share their thoughts and feelings before engaging into making
out. Most participants shared that often, they dont have anything running in their minds, and the
only image that they have inside their mind is the image of whats happening as of the moment.
Some share that they become overwhelmed with whats happening in the situation and become
nervous. Person B shared that he cant believe that he is about to make out with someone. Person
E shared that he further wants to create a closer relationship with whom he is about to make out
with, so that he can then get a chance to make out with that particular person.

Feelings before engagement:


..parang naeexcite. Siguro until the end of the night, until umalis na. - Person A

Yung feeling ko at that moment, na sana hindi siya maging attached, kasi siyempre,
if after we do make out, tapos or something else you might do, after that, sana hindi siya magrown attached or ikakasira ng relationship and stuff. I mean, yun nga, after all, may
boyfriend pa din siya, and yung nangyari, again, MOMOL. So, hanggang dun lang kami.
Nothing else after, we just satisfied our curiousities, our urges. Moment lang..honestly, that
time naisip ko, parang, shet may boyfriend nga pala ito, which makes it more exciting for
me. Kasi parang Oh, dangerous shit. Making out with someone who has a boyfriend. So
na-turn on ako, and evidently, na-turn on din siya - Person B

Nakakaexcite kasi, alam mo yun? Yung mga lalaki, may natural desire sila para to
fulfil their urges with women, and there is a girl right in front of you who wants to do
something to fulfil your urge. Apparently, they also have the urge. So you just do it. And even
though its nerve racking, its just like bungee-jumping. You know that nothings going to
happen to you. But you still get to do something to and youre excited, you feel good and the
lips are soft and a little wet. And its fun! I mean, you get to dream about to masturbate with
images thats so clear, better than porn and thats awesome. - Person C

..kabado ng konti, at the same time excited a little. Siyempre, maganda naman yung

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hinahalikan ko, hindi naman ano, so yun. Basically nervous and excited at the same time.
- Person D

Kumbaga, para sa akin, parang go with the flow. Hindi naman mismong talagang
pinoproject ko na after that, in just a snap, may mangyayari na or what. Parang kumbaga
go with the flow, then enjoy the moment. Para sa akin kasi gusto ko kahit papano may
bonding. Di lang makikilala mo then alam mo na ganun agad. Hindi kailangan siyempre
dapat kumbaga may foundation kahit onti para kumbaga saan mapunta, at least kilala niyo
ang isat isa. - Person E

The participants felt that before the engagement, they felt nervous and excited at the
same time. Although Person B shared that he becomes wary that he hopes no attachments
occur after the experience, since he shared that he once engaged into making out with
someone who was in a relationship. Person B did not want to ruin the relationship of the
boyfriend and the girl he made out with. Even so, this made the experience for Person B a
lot more exciting due to the fact that the girl he is to engage it with is in a relationship. Person
E felt that he was going to just follow where this experience would lead them, whether just
making out or even more.

Thoughts during engagement:

Siguro yung, you think about the possibility na this might be the girl na liligawan mo, this
is a girl na you're gonna take seriously or after tonight ba, you're gonna see this girl again,
so yun. Lalo na kapag maganda siyempre. You would hope na this girl would take you
seriously as well. - Person A

Uh, sex? Will this lead to sex? Yeah, yun nasa isip ko. Yeah, so were making out, will
this eventually lead to sex? Yun yung sa sarili ko lang. Its just in my thoughts. Parang, this
is getting hot and heavy. Will we end up in the bed room ba or something. - Person B

Im gonna make her feel so good that shes gonna want to have more. - Person C

..bakit ako nagsuka, bakit ako nalasing. I could have done more. - Person D

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For fun. Hindi kasi, hindi naman ako makikipag-make out kung ako lang yung may gusto.
Siyempre, kumbaga, two opposite sides, parehas niyong gusto. Kumbaga youre just
enjoying the moment, youre just having fun, yun lang. parang gusto niyo lang ng past time.
Yun lang. kung ayaw niyong pumasok sa serious relationship, yun lang. make out. Yun. Person E

During the engagement, the participants had different thoughts during making out. Person
A had thought of possibilities that intimate relationships can be made between him and the girl he
made out with. Person B shared that he began to ask himself whether such engagement would lead
to sexual intercourse. Both persons B and C shared the same thoughts during the engagement.
Person E felt that it was all for fun. He shared that the experience he had was agreed upon by him
and his partner. Person D was too drunk that he shared that he could have done more.

Feelings during engagement:


..like a need for affiliation. - Person A
Just horny, yeah I was horny. Ganun talaga. - Person B
Feelings? Wala. Yeah, but you know, when you do those things, youre not taking things
seriously. You just have the desire and if you want someone and youre gonna do it with
someone that you want to have a relationship with, youre gonna start hoping, and youre
gonna be disappointed. Its not fulfilling. - Person C

Ayun syempre it was a somewhat pleasurable experience - Person D

Syempre meron. Satisfying, syempre babae yun eh. As a guy di ba? Parang normal naman
yun eh. Sa lahat ng lalaki, napakanormal yun. Pero syempre, may limitasyon nga. Pero yung
nararamdaman ko, yun nga. Yung sinabi ko nga is nasasatisfy ka rin kahit na papano. Sa
sarili mo, as a guy, yun nga. Parang syempre, parang may hinahanap-hanap ka. Syempre
ako, at that time, wala naman akong, di naman ako in a relationship, single naman ako, wala
naman akong girlfriend. So parang ayun nga, for fun. And for satisfaction nga din siguro Person E

The participants feelings were different to each other during the engagement. Feelings

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such as a need for further affiliation were shared by Person A. Person B and C shared the same
feelings of being overrun by their desires and urges. All participants claim that they are satisfied
with the experience.

Thoughts after engagement:


Dito na pumapasok yung parang you think about what other people think. What my
friends think, what her group of friends think. So ayun exactly. - Person A

I want more. Yeah I want more. Yung mga kinuwento ko kanina, game naman siya eh. We
just stopped kasi ang dami ng nakatingin, and nahuli kami, nahuli kami. Fortunately, walang
lumabas. - Person B

You know whats super annoying with that, when you start making out with
someone, you acquire some of their thoughts. No, not entirely their thoughts, but you know,
how they interact with you and its also disappointing most of the time. As you can see really
pretty girls, really attractive girls and you start making out with them, theyre really bad
kissers, they have bad breath, and you dont like how this particular smell is in her especially
when you are drinking, pulutan and cigarettes, it doesnt just cut it, you know? Thats why
its disappointing. Sometimes, you dont have a choice but to kiss a slightly uglier girl than
what you choose to, and you find out that shes okay with kissing, well thats a plus but still
disappointing. - Person C

Secretly hoping for round two. - Person D

Jackpot. Yun siyempre, siyempre yun nga pinipili ko nga. Siyempre parang
kumbaga nagawa ko yun. Kumbaga nasatisfy ako. So parang fulfillment. Ayun, fulfillment.
- Person E

At the end of making out, the participants shared the thoughts that they had. Person A
began to think of what the other people around his environment thought of what they did. Person
B still wanted to make out more during that time. Person D felt that he wanted more as well. Person
E shared that he was fulfilled with what he have done, due to obtaining his goal of getting to make
out. Person D shared a different perspective on the experience. He thought that it was a
disappointing experience when what he expects is not achieved with regards to whom he made out
with.
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Feelings after engagement:

Cautious ganun. Pero not na, di naman yung parang natatakot ka, you're just
keeping an open mind na this is a stranger. Um, boto ba yung mga friends mo, are your
friends proud of you ns nagawa mo yun tapos on the other hand, makikita mo naman sa
facial expressions ng other group of friends if they like what they see, ganun. Kung gusto ks
ba nila for their friend, kung parang ayaw nila, gusto na nila umuwi ayun. - Person A

..we wanted more kaya tinuloy namin sa room. Pero unfortunately for me, di naman
umabot sa sex, but it was fun, okay na rin. - Person B

If I dont get disappointed with something, or if I was already too excited with the
MOMOL session, Im gonna want to push it to a higher level, you know? - Person C

Nahinayang, or parang ay sayang, minsan ito, birthday ko pa.. So nahinayang.. Person D

Ang nararamdaman ko, siyempre parang sa sarili mo, may konting, medyo mapapapull back ka, dahil siyempre parang in just a snap na yun, parang, ngayon mo lang nakilala,
then may nangyayari agad na mga ganun. May konting pagsisisi. Pero parehas niyo naman
nagustuhan, parehas niyo namang ginusto, so parang yun. Satisfying nga at siyempre,
masaya - Person E

The participants had different feelings after engaging into making out. The feeling of
wanting to push it to a higher level, as shared by Person C, where he wants to bring it to more than
just making out. Person A felt cautious during the experience whether the people around them
liked what they just did, and what they think of person A as well. Person B felt the need to make
out some more, so he and his partner did it somewhere else, even if it did not end up to sex. Person
E stated that although he enjoyed the experience, he felt conscious due to the fact that he just made
out with someone whom he barely knows. He also added that there was a feeling of regret as well.

Beyond making out:


Oral sex? No. - Person A

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Yeah, there was this one time, I was in UST pa, old school. Tapos ayun I think it was isang
bar sa Espana, she was actually a friend of a friend, tapos pinakilala kami ng friend ko
sakanya, yung tables naming dalawa nun, yung tables ng tropa ko and tropa niya pinagsama
na lang. So nagkakilala kami. So I got close with her, and then nalaman ko nagdo-dorm lang
pala siya around Espana as well. And then we went to her place..tapos nagkausap
kami..tapos parang we were in the balcony, I just kissed her. MOMOL, ayun. Tapos tuloy
tuloy na. - Person B

I cant say that its a lot, but there are times that it lead to sex. I just desired for it to happen.
But still, it happened. But all I got is disappointment. - Person C

..could have go beyond, pero di nangyayari eh. Di nangyari well kasi I got drunk. - Person
D

Parang hindi eh. Parang hanggang tamang bonding lang. Tamang text lang, pero sa
nagiging serious relationship or nagiging karelasyon, wala pa naman. - Person E

Among the participants, only Person B and Cs engagement lead to a higher level of
sexual act. Although the other participants shared that they did not engage into a higher level
of sexual engagement, and simply just making out, they are aware that sexual acts possibly
occur after engaging into making out. Feelings of disappointment are highly emphasized by
Person C.

WHAT THE RESPONDENTS GAINED FROM THE EXPERIENCE

This section consist of what the participants gained from their experience of making out.
This section is subdivided into whether relationships were fostered, the insights of the participants,
and the participants plans on further engaging into making out.

Fostering relationships:
..yes, there was a time na nagkita ulit kami nung girl, there was a time na I courted someone
I just met. - Person A
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..yung pure legit na friendship after making out na MOMOL, parang hindi eh. If its
friendship, casual friendship na yun. Friends with benefits, so mga ganun yun..ako, never pa
ako nagkaroon ng ganun actually, na literally naging Fuck Buddy ko, hindi pa. Parang its
like a one night, mga na-ano ko lang mga one night stand lang talaga. Madalas, I dont
speak to them as much. Ganun..We were like acquaintances. - Person B

The girl might be engaged with emotions, but then, I never had any to begin with. So, wala,
sa kanila meron, pero alam mo yun? Hassle din eh. Kasi after nun, gusto mo lang sila maging
friends, sila parang gusto ka nila tapos nagkaroon ng complications. - Person C

"Made no difference.. It was good from the get go" - Person D

Friendship, of course. Definitely kasi siyempre dun nagsimula yun eh. Pero siyempre, may
konting, pag nakikita mo yung isang tao, may ilang eh. Siyempre may nangyari. Hindi naman
yung nangyari na, para sa akin sex. Hindi, kasi alam ko yung limitasyon ko eh. Siyempre
may ilang factor na, pag nakikita mo to parang may nangyari sa amin na nakiss ko ito, nahug ko to, ganun na nga. Meron pa, dahil hindi naman basta basta nangyari yun eh. Nag
usap naman kami kahit papaano. So, nagkakausapan pero may ilang eh. Kumbaga deep
inside, may nangyari sa atin. - Person E

Most of the participants agree to point out that fostering relationships with whom they
made out with is possible. Person A and E shares that they were able to make friends with making
out. Person A shares that he was once able to court someone whom he made out with before, as
for Person E, he was able be friends with those whom he made out with. Although, Persons B and
C shares that creating genuine relationships such as being in an intimate relationship, is quite
difficult. Person C shares that most often guys only look forward the act, not the relationship, and
it is difficult to deal with the women who are often engaged in emotions after making out. Person
B explained that even though he was able to be just friends with those whom he made out with,
their relationship seemed like they are only acquaintances even after the engagement.

Respondents insights:

Probably, eto yung nagpataas ng self esteem ko kasi before in high school, di naman ako
ganun ka-confident. I used to doubt myself na, can I talk to this person, parang theres always
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this fear of rejection, so in a way, parang handa na ako, kasi nga confident ka na parang
you dont think about ay baka ma-ano ako eh, so instead of thinking that baka lumayo yan
baka di ako pansinin, Instead of thinking that, iisipin mo na lang yung pros nbg situation na
pag lumapit ako, I have the chance to know this person, I have the chance to make out with
this person.
- Person A

Parang na-ano ako. Actually nasurprise ako eh, na I cant believe na there are people who
are in a relationship na, willing makipag-make out, would cheat on their boyfriends, kasi
ako, before, nung, I still had some principles before, if I was going to make out with someone,
as much as possible, pareho kaming single, pero that time, kaya siya naging memorable
actually kasi ayun, may boyfriend siya, kasi first time na I did it with someone na may
boyfriend..nabadtrip lang ako there are some girls na ano, kaya ako, kinakabahan ako,
sobrang naiinsecure ako if my girlfriend would drink, natatakot na ako sa mga ganun, and
personally, ayoko na ng MOMOL. Kasi, ayoko ng sa MOMOL magkakaroon ng relationship.
Ang sagwa naman if yung anak mo sa future Hey dad, paano kayo nag-meet ni mom? Oh
kami ng mom mo, nagMOMOL kami sa bar. Eh ang sagwa lang, I still want that old school
na ligawan, not just, pure MOMOL. - Person B

Well, experience brought me wisdom. I can say that I can kiss better than most people,
because of experience. I know that I can somehow decipher what girls are feeling. I cant
read their minds, because its really complicated, but you know,when they start moving this
way, it entirely would go this way. Like, how do I say this, when she starts biting her lips and
she starts squinting her eyes a little bit, it means that shes also excited, and she also wants
it. Unless, she just wants to tease you. Meron ding wisdom sa akin na, parang ayoko ng itry
ulit yon. Kasi sobrang nakakasama na, tsaka masisira lang yung buhay mo, sobrang useless.
I dont want to continue. - Person C

Fun, fun, yeah. At the same time siguro, probably, if I get older sabihin natin may, hinabol
akong tao. Um, and you know naman that, some people or some may say if youre a good
kisser, they will probably keep you. - Person D

Ang nadala sa akin, kasi ginagawa ko yun, medyo ano pa ako eh. Wala nga ako sa, hindi
ako in a relationship nun, so parang happy happy yan. So ngayon, parang sa buhay ko, lalo
nat graduating ako, lets put some seriousness in my life. So parang sa akin, wala na yung
make out make out na yan. Oo, para sa akin, naging part ng buhay ko [making out]. Part
siya eh, parang part of growing up. Parang part of growing up na, parang yung mga bar
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bar na iyan, tapos makikipagkilala ka sa ibang tao, make out ganun, sweet sweet kunyari.
Pero ngayon siyempre iba na. sa ngayon medyo may pagkaseryoso sa buhay. - Person E
There are some positive and negative statements provided by the participants regarding
what they gained from the experience. Person A stated that he gained confidence and a boost in
self-esteem from what he did. He shared that he was not that confident when he was younger and
had the fear of being rejected. Person D shared a positive response regarding the experience, where
he found it as a fun thing to do. Person B, on the other hand, expresses shock as to knowing that
there are people who would go as far as cheating on their partners just to engage into making out.
He shared that he wouldnt want to meet a future partner through making out. He also shared that
he wants to maintain the traditional way of courting a certain a person. Person C shared that the
experiences brought him wisdom to not do it again and found that the phenomenon is destructive
and he wont benefit from the experience. Person E shared that it was a just a part of his life where
he is trying to be merry often. He also shared that it was part of growing up, and he wouldnt want
to do it again for he emphasizes that its time to grow up.

Plan on further engagement


Right now, di na puwede of course. Kasi Im in a relationship. Kumbaga Im done with that
phase of my life where Im trying to explore, Im trying to get recognition from my peers,
kasi dati it really means a lot kapag binubully ka ng peers mo na, ang galing eh. So my
reason for not continuing is basically yung relationship ko right now. - Person A

..sa girlfriend na lang talaga.. personally, ayoko na ng MOMOL. Kasi, ayoko ng sa


MOMOL magkakaroon ng relationship..I still want that old school na ligawan, not just, pure
MOMOL..sure, people are gonna say na its fine, oh, this guy is hot, that girl is sexy I
wanna make out with her tapos ang babaw na lang. Medyo ang babaw na rin para sa akin.
So you made out with that person. So what? Blah blah blah. And what if, why not make
something formal na lang, something na much more genuine and relevant, kaysa yung mga
casual things lang. I think its better na kapag committed talaga sa relationship eh. Kasi mga
ganung arrangements eh, again, casual, hindi maganda. - Person B

..when I got into the seminary, I couldnt do these things anymore. And when I thought to
myself what have I got to lose, what am I losing right now. I just thought about it. Well, those
are the same people, if not, theyre a little different but theyre the same people. So, making
out with them or having sex with them. So, what do I get? Kasi, once you do it, youre looking
at the girl without all her beauty, and her majesty. You just see her as someone used, and
she wanted to be that way, and you cant blame yourself. Even though sometimes I did. Tsaka,
when I started kissing someone I love, I felt like, it was even better than having sex with
someone that you dont know or you dont want or you just wanna have sex with. Its
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different. Its like, I rather do this all day than to have thirty different girls to fuck, in one
day. And its fine. Tapos yun, dahil sa experience kong yun, masaya si girlfriend. Pero di ko
na uulitin yun. - Person C

If it happens, why not? Di naman sa naghahabol pero if Im at a place and nangyari siya,
okay. So Ill take it. - Person D

Making out, hindi na kasi, ayoko na eh. Parang ngayon kasi eh, nakikita ko is mga kakilala
ko mga babae pati lalaki nag mamake out, parang , napagdaanan ko nay an parang wala
masyadong dinulot na maganda sa akin na parang waste of money. Parang mali eh. Mali.
Kasi siyempre parang respeto na din eh. Dun ko yun narealize na, kahit na gusto niya,
siyempre babae yun, nirerespeto. Yung mga ganung moment is, it deserves more time, para
mangyari yung mga ganun. Hindi yung in just a snap, mangyayari agad yun. - Person E

With regards to whether the participants would engage into making out if they have a
chance, among five participants, four of them quickly said that they would not engage into it. Their
main reason, is that they are already in an intimate relationship, as well as realizing that it was a
just a phase in their lives when they were young and curious. Some of the participants had to go
through a lot just to change his views, such as Person C, where he had to go to a seminary so that
he can be reformed. The others just found on their own that there is no more point to still engage
into making out. Among the five participants, only Person D stated that he would still engage into
making out if he has the opportunity to do so.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


MOMOL, or the Make Out Make Out Lang phenomenon, is perceived as an act of letting
loose, where those who engage into it are highly affected by their feelings of sexual desire and
urges. Alcohol intoxication also played an important factor that motivated people to engage into
making out. Not being commited into an intimate relationship may have contributed as well. The
common ground where people engage into this phenomenon can be anywhere as long as alcohol
is involved, like bars, and clubs or even parties. People who often engage into it are those who are
not in a relationship, and also those who don't want to be committed into one. The phenomenon
may occur between close friends and even with as simple as acquaintances.

People who experienced the phenomenon share different thoughts and feelings throughout
the experience. Some start to be overwhelmed by what they were about to engage into, that they
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start to not think of anything but the situation they are in. Thoughts such as getting to engage into
making out and with whom also occurs. Along with these thoughts are feelings of nervousness and
excitement, as well as fear of getting too attached with the person whom the participant made out
with. During the engagement, the participants thought of possibilities such as being in an intimate
relationship with whom they made out with and as well as whether sex may occur between them
and their partners. Feelings of arousal, pleasure and even a sense of wanting to fulfill a need for
affiliation are evident during the moment. Thoughts such as wanting to engage into more advanced
sexual behavior are present, as well as thinking of what other peers thought of the participants'
engagement. Being able to have engaged into make out was also thought as an achievement.
Feelings such as desire for more and disappointment were felt after the experience. Feeling
cautious was also felt by participants.

Make out is capable of fostering relationships among those who participate in it. Although,
it is possible that the relationship may be awkward between peers whom made out with one
another. There are chances where people engage into higher levels of sexual behavior through
making out, such as engaging to sexual intercourse. Participants considered their experience as a
phase of growing up, where their self-esteem is affected. Feelings of disappointment were
expressed by the participants from their own experiences. Most participants stated that they are no
longer willing to engage into the making out activity due to how it affected them as they perceived
it as non-beneficial to them as well as their reasons of being in an intimate relationship.

Due to the limitations set by the study, it is recommended that a similar study including the
females perspective on the phenomenon be made to explore the variations on how the make out
phenomenon is perceived in our Philippine context. It is also possible to create a correlational
analysis on the phenomenon regarding the perceptions of both men and women. Further research
regarding the phenomenon and its effect in an individual can be done as well. Researchers
interested in tackling this subject may change the age ranges as well as the number of participants
to be able to explore on a bigger context regarding the phenomenon. Also, researchers may use
this as basis on studying the possibilities of escalated sexual behaviors or higher forms of sexual
engagement on those who engage into making out.

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Parenting Styles and Disciplinary Practices of Working Mothers on


Adolescents with Alcohol Dependency
Joshua Simon
Eva Castronuevo
Abstract
The main objective of the study is to identify the different disciplinary
practices of working mothers using the 3 parenting styles in the study. A total
of 30 (N = 30) of working mothers with 30 (N =30) children having alcoholic
tendencies were gathered through an in-depth interview method. Each
mothers were categorized according to parenting style, which was conducted
with Parenting Style Questionnaire and each child took the Short Alcohol
Dependence Data Questionnaire in order to validate their qualification in the
study. The study is descriptive and qualitative in nature.Results from the
study suggests that each parenting style play a significant role with the
alcohol dependence of their children, whereas, disciplinary practices such as
spanking, curfew, etc., has no significance with the alcohol dependence of
the child.

When we talk about Parenting Styles, discipline will always come to mind According to
(Carey, 1994, as cited in Sanapo 2006) Discipline is an act done primarily to teach children positive
values while punishment is often described as a strategy a person may choose to use when
disciplining an individual.
One growing concern in the culture and in the social life of our country is alcoholism. In
2008, 21% of the population of the Philippines out of the estimated 90 million is composed of
adolescents (World Health Organization, 2010). This could trigger crime and violence that no one
would want to happen. It can also be associated with greater consumption and a greater number of
problems within a certain family.
In a study conducted by Turner, Chandler & Weffer (2009), there are different kinds of
parenting according to Baumrind: Authoritative, Permissive and Authoritarian. Authoritative is
defined by having a high level of nurturance, involvement, sensitivity, reasoning and
encouragement of autonomy. This is a parenting style where the parents direct the activities and
decisions for their children through reasoning and discipline. On the opposite side, permissive
parenting is characterized by having few demands, exhibiting non controlling behaviors, and using
minimal punishment. This parenting style is when parents do not establish rules and guidelines for
their childs behavior. Lastly, authoritarian parenting is highly directing behaviors, high levels of
restriction and power asserting behaviors.
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This study aims to know and understand the impacts of authoritative, authoritarian and
permissive parenting to children. Specifically, the researcher aims to answer the following
statements: What are the concepts of discipline for each parenting style? What parenting and
discipline strategies do parents use and up to what point do they use punishment as a method?
Which parenting style has a higher tendency to produce adolescents with alcohol dependency?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Parenting Styles
According to Alizadeh & et. al. (2011), the family is a socio-cultural-economic
arrangement that exerts significant influence on childrens behavior and damaging effects on
childrens growth and misbehavior problems may be the result in the ignorance on the part of
parents. Parenting is the activity that is the sum of many particular behaviors working together or
individually, to finally have an effect on the childs behavior. Some parenting behaviors, like
physical punishments, may affect childrens development and consequently cause behavioral
disorders among the child. Parenting is categorized parents based on two dimensions:
responsiveness and demanding.
The Parenting Strategies that will be use in the study is Authoritative, Authoritarian and
Permissive. According to Lang & Boellner (2010), Authoritative parents are often controlling
and demanding but is also warm, attentive and sensitive to their childs needs. Authoritarian
parents are also controlling and demanding but more detached, colder and more disciplinarian than
authoritative parents. Permissive parents are warm and caring but has the tendency to treat their
children as friends rather than their children letting them make their own decisions regardless of
the childs ability to accurately process either the choice or the potential outcome of the choice for
themselves.
Most of the parents use a variety of styles depending on their culture and social demand.
Because of this, it is stated that majority of the health problems that arise in adolescence are
related to parenting strategies (Joseph & John, 2008).
Disciplinary Practices
According to the National Childrens Strategy Research Series (2009), there are two types
of discipline methods, the power-assertive this type of punishment includes: physical punishment,
threats and withdrawals of privileges. The other one is the love-withdrawal method this includes:
withholding attention, affection or approval or expressing disappointment or disapproval.
Discipline is the process of teaching adolescents the value and normative behaviors of a particular
society. There are two functions of discipline. The first function of discipline is to ensure that
children have a consistent, safe, and secure environment in which they can learn reasonable rules,
limits, and consequences as well as develop an understanding of why having discipline is
important. The second function of discipline is to nurture self-discipline or self-control it is equally
important but not as readily emphasized.
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Parents discipline towards their children should lean more over to the application of
disciplinary practices that promote self-discipline, responsibility, and resilience rather than anger
and resentment in children (Brooks & Goldstein, 2011).
According to Brooks & Goldstein, (2011), parents discipline towards their children should
lean more over to the application of disciplinary practices that promote self-discipline,
responsibility, and resilience rather than using punishments that will make the children develop
anger and resentment towards the parents. When self-discipline is effectively learned during
childhood, there is a greater likelihood of successful coping and accomplishment in adulthood.
Whether or not an adolescent is manifesting symptoms of possible alcohol tendencies selfdiscipline must be taught in order to eliminate the threats of a child becoming alcohol dependent
in the future. Many research has demonstrated that adolescents who are capable of resisting
temptation (a simple example of self-discipline at all ages) are suggestively better than more
thoughtless peers as they shift into their adolescent years. Parents must keep in mind that discipline
is derived from the word disciple and is best understood as a teaching process. As a form of
education, children should not associate discipline with intimidation, humiliation or
embarrassment.
Adolescent Alcoholism
Adolescence is the period in which most people start to drink alcohol. A recent study has
shown that young people who drink at an early age are more likely to develop alcohol dependence
than late starters (Visser & et. al., 2012).
Mundt, Mercken & Zakletskala (2012) stated on their study that without clear guidance on
the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be
incomplete. The findings on their study suggests that peer selection plays an important role in
alcohol use behavior among adolescent friends.
Humensky (2010) stated that adolescents with low socioeconomic status are more likely to
engage in substance use, as compared to adults with high socioeconomic status. However, there is
a growing evidence that adolescents with high socioeconomic status are also at high risk for
substance abuse. This study shows that whether an individual belongs to a high or low
socioeconomic status, it does not hinders him in doing alcohol abuse as long as his parents takes
charge on their parenting style.

Parenting Styles and Adolescent Alcohol Use


According to Visser & et. al. (2012), the major source for learning values, norms, and
manners during childhood and adolescence comes from the family. though autonomy increases
during the transition to adolescence, parents remain highly important for adolescents
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development. Socialization process in which parents shape their childrens behavior is referred to
as parenting
Koning, Regina & et. al. (2012) stated that a strict-rule setting of parents in combination
with a high quality of communication among their children can be associated with a low possibility
of amount in drinking. While this study also mentioned that the parents who scored low with the
given behaviors that they should acquire is related to high amount of drinking possibility among
their children. This indicates that alcohol-specific parenting behaviors should also be taken into
consideration as an alcohol-specific parenting context, rather than just giving single parenting
practices.
In support to the study mentioned above, according to Ryan, Jorm & et. al. (2011), there
were given strategies in their study that parents should take into account in setting rules among
their children. An example of some strategies that was mentioned is on modeling responsible
drinking and the attitudes towards alcohol use of their children. With these strategies can be
promoted to the parents of the adolescents in order to help them implement national
recommendations for use of alcohol by young people.

SYNTHESIS
In the past years, several studies were conducted regarding the parenting styles, discipline
with children and childs behavior towards alcoholism. It focuses on the encounter of parents and
childrens emotional, behavioral and physical distress that causes difficulties in their parent-child
relationship. Researchers found that responsiveness and demanding has been the childs or
teenagers perception towards their parents. However, culture and social demand are the reason of
influence for the parents parenting style. In the previous studies discussed, disciplining the child
such as punishment by spanking are ways of a parent in protecting their children from social
conforming.
Parenting style play a large role with their childs drinking habits. A study done by
Kusmierski,. et, al. (2001) has discovered that children who said that they have parents who use
authoritative parenting style, drank during high school four times lower than children whose
parents use permissive parenting style. Also the same study also found out that children with
authoritative parents drank half as much as their friends who has parents has a permissive parenting
style.
The highlight from all the variables, regarding the parents' discipline with their children
and their children's behavior, focuses on the emotional and behavioral aspect of both parents and
child that they encounter during the transition of child's social interaction from adolescence to
early adulthood which includes the peer pressure, alcohol use and socioeconomic status that are
prone to use of alcoholic substance. Moreover, these studies discusses the relationship between the
parent and child, and how their experiences/struggles during and after their child's alcohol
use/dependency.

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METHOD
Research Design
In dealing with the given task, the researcher did a Descriptive Research Design. This
Design was used to gather information about pre-existing issues and explain the accurate findings
of the study made. The main goal of this research design is to describe the data and characteristics
about what is being studied.
Participants
To gather accurate data, the researcher used purposive sampling method, wherein the
population is 60 (N = 60) participants, 30 working mothers and 30 children, from Metro Manila.
Purposive sampling method was used by choosing subjects based on particular characteristics. The
researcher gathered the participants based on the results of the SADD - Short Alcohol Dependence
Data Questionnaire of having a child with alcohol dependency. The participants of this study will be
30 parents to represent each parenting style and their child who has alcoholic tendencies.
Instrument
To determine the participants of the study, the researcher provided SADD - Short Alcohol
Dependence Data Questionnaire (Raistrick, D., Dunbar, G., & Davidson, R., 1983) to qualify the
adolescents with alcohol dependency. The basis of this data collection determined who the
adolescents that manifested alcoholic dependency were. The researcher prepared a self-made
interview questionnaire which was asked to the mothers of the adolescents. The questionnaires
was used to answer the research problems of this study. This will capture which parenting style
convey a role in adolescent alcoholism. It will also determine which parenting style is more related
to having alcoholic adolescents. A Parenting Style Questionnaire (Robinson, C., Mandleco, B.,
Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H., 1995) was also given to the parents of the adolescents to identify what
parenting style the mothers are using. Voice recorder was used in order to record the interview
process. The interview questionnaires were validated through the pilot study done by the
researcher.
The Interview Questions used to gather Qualitative Data from the participants were:
1. What is your Concept of Discipline?
2. What are the Misbehaviors or wrong/deeds of your child that needs to be disciplined?
3. What are your Ways or Manner of disciplining your child? And to provide an examples.
Procedure
The researcher gathered participants and informed them about the study regarding how
parenting style affects the alcoholic tendencies of adolescents.The researcher of this study used a
pilot study to determine some possible circumstances that will need improvement before
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conducting the actual interview. The researcher gathered a total of 30 participants through
purposive sampling method. The researcher asked for a particular schedule in which the method
can be done. The survey and interview was conducted based on the place and time given by the
participant. After the participants of the study were identified the researcher used some basic
concepts that is related with Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology). The researcher used
pakikipagpalagayang-loob (to develop mutual trust) and pakikipagkwentuhan (social interaction)
to help the participants of the study to be confident in answering the questions. The researcher
explained to the participants that everything will be confidential so that they would answer in full
honesty. The researcher told the participants that there will be another chance to have this kind of
interaction. The researcher avoided the conversation to be too formal. This will be achieved by
asking resourceful questions that lead them to be comfortable in sharing their personal experiences.
As the conversation went on, the researcher simply includes the interview questions. During the
interaction, the researcher analyzed the answers and asked follow-up questions that clarified
information that is not explained thoroughly.
Each of the participants were asked 3 open ended questions. The researcher used a device
for recording the data produced by the participants. After the whole interaction, the researcher
interpreted the data gathered.

Data Analysis
The researcher used simple frequency count and percentages in order to identify the
parenting style that was used on each participant. Graphs were also used to clearly illustrate the
data that is presented based on the results of the survey. The researcher also used coding as a tool
for analyzing gathered qualitative information. Coding is defined as an interpretative technique for
organizing data. It is used as a mean for interpreting the responses of the participants. The
researcher read the data and demarcate segments within it. Each segments is labeled with a code
which is usually a word or a short phrase that suggest how the associated data segments inform
the research objectives. After the coding, the researcher prepared report by summarizing the
prevalence codes, discussing the similarities and differences in related codes or comparing the
relationship between one or more codes. The researcher particularly used analytical coding.
Analytical coding is use for making categories for the new ideas or concepts that was found in the
data transcript. For each new category, the researcher wrote a description and a memo.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The results were gathered through an in-depth interview, on which, each mothers answers are
categorized according to the research problems presented in this study.
The concepts of discipline for each parenting style

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Authoritative Parenting Style:


Participant A1: Discipline for me is not spoiling my child, i need to tell her if she did something
wrong. So next time she would know how to act.
Participant A2: For me, it is a way of training your child for them to be better until they become
adults. If a child is disciplined well they would do well in studies and achieve their goals in life.
Participant A3: My concept of discipline is to teach my child or give instructions to obey rules
and to reprimand her to correct disobedience.
Participant A4: uhm..for me my concept of discipline is teaching my child good values, and
showing them what is right from what is wrong so that there are limitations to their actions.
Participant A5: Discipline and love can never be separated. Discipline your child with love.
Physical discipline for me is accepted as long as it doesn't hurt to the point where the pain will be
remembered rather than the reason. Every rule should be done together with the child so that the
parent can easily explain why they should be disciplined.
Participant A6: Discipline for me is just simply for a child to know what is right and what is
wrong.
Participant A7: Discipline equates being educated. Educated of respect, patience and obedience.
Through discipline, we mold individuals to prevent them from being bad examples and be a
righteous individuals.
Participant A8: My concept of discipline is making sure everything what my child is doing is
right. You can say or tell that a child is very well disciplined when he/she shows a well mannered
personality or attitude. A disciplined person knows how to show respect for every individual he/she
encounters and show proper conduct.
Participant A9: My concept of discipline is for the child to know how to act properly in every
situation he should know what is right form what is not.
Participant A10: my concept of discipline is Letting my child know that I still love her and I have
the control over her while she is still in my care and at the same time, letting her decide on her
own whether her actions are wrong or not.

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6 of the 10 authoritative mothers answered that their concept of discipline is when their
child is aware of what is right and what is wrong while other authoritative mothers expressed that
their concept of discipline is an act of training so that their child would grow up as responsible
adults. Another concept of discipline expressed by one of the participants was that is was just that
discipline is used to teach their children good values. Others believe that discipline serves as an
act of love.
Authoritarian Parenting Style:
Participant B1: For me it is way for Frankie to learn from his mistakes. He knows that i expect
a lot from him
Participant B2: It depends on the the wrong deeds, but if my child did something really bad, I
consider as my form of discipline. I often use emotional punishment such as scolding or shouting.
Participant B3: My concept of discipline is that it must be a way for me to control my children in
order for them to follow accordingly to my rules.
Participant B4 For me discipline should be the act of how parents control their child once he did
something wrong, its like a corrective action in the side of the parents and should always be done
from the start to avoid occurrence of bad habits.
Participant B5 My concept about discipline, I think that discipline is a must, especially for my
children, because with discipline, you can instil good values to your children, they can act good
with or without your supervision if you have disciplined them in an early age.
Participant B6: My concept of discipline is to watch over my childrens attitudes. i should know
that what they are doing are all correct.
Participant B7: To be disciplined is to learn to control unlikely urges especially when it is not
needed.
Participant B8: I think that a child has to be disciplined from the start. So when they grow up
they wont forget it.
Participant B9: My concept of discipline is that I want my child to know that I have the authority
over her, there are house rules that she needs to follow so that she will not do such behaviours
that can harm her outside and inside of the house.

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Participant B10: Discipline for me is not tolerating the misbehaviours that my child is doing.
Out of the 10 mothers interviewed, 3 of them said that their concept of discipline is to
control their childs misbehaviours, the others expressed that their concept of discipline is for their
child to know their expectations, some said its about not tolerating the misbehaviours and ensuring
their child knows what's right from wrong while a few says discipline should be taught from the
start, while their children are still young.

Permissive Parenting Style:


Participant C1: Discipline wow! big word discipline for me is to build a foundation of a childs
attitude and personality. Its is a concept of setting the rules and regulations to a child.
Participant C2: My concept of discipline is teaching a child a lesson without inflicting physical
pain. Though I understand that my child has limited knowledge of what's right and wrong.
Participant C3: Discipline is when the child knows how to act properly and appropriately in
different settings. It's when he/she allows himself/herself to be easily corrected depending on
his/her actions.
Participant C4: Discipline is an organized way of relaying instructions so that a person will
follow. To be disciplined is to go in accordance with what should be done.
Participant C5: Discipline for me is my child knowing the difference from what is wrong to what
is right.
Participant C6: Discipline for me is communicating and letting my child have what she wants,
by then she is motivated to do the right things.
Participant C7: For me discipline is knowing what is right but if the child is at an adolescent age.
There is no more need to punish them because they tend to rebel. Communication is what should
be done.
Participant C8: Discipline is making my child responsible for his/her actions and knows how to
manage time it is not something thats always referred as respect to others but for me it is a respect
for thyself.
Participant C9: I think that my role as a parent is just to guide my child, but in the end it's their
decision, its their life. I can teach them right from wrong but the choice is theirs. Their experience
is the best teacher, but I also make sure that Im always there for my child when he makes mistakes
or dont know where to go.

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Participant C10: Its the practice of training your children to obey rules or a code of behaviour,
using punishment to correct disobedience.
As for the Permissive mothers, 2 of them shared the same concept of discipline for them
which was that communication is needed in order to fully discipline a child, 3 of them expressed
that discipline is laying down a set of rules or instructions to be followed, while the other mothers
concept of discipline revolved on the child knowing the difference between what is right and what
is wrong.
Parenting and discipline strategies that parents use and their limit of punishment as a method
Authoritative Parenting Style:
Participant A1: I discipline her by talking to her in a good and right way and not by physical or
verbal punishment.
Participant A2: I usually give warnings or tell him what will happen if he persists in doing the
things that I dont like, for example going home late, too much time for dancing and lesser time in
studying.
Participant A3: If he did it only for the first time I would only warn him. If he would do it again
he will be grounded.
Participant A4: First I give warnings. Then if the behaviour are always being repeated then I
take action, but not physical of course.
Participant A5: I talk calmly with my child. I affirm the good deeds and explain why the bad deeds
shouldn't be done and i give chances, tough love if needed.
Participant A6: I talk to her calmly first then if she gives me an attitude then I reprimand her for
doing it. I try to give a balance of strictness and love.
Participant A7: I usually give them a sermon. When I do, I do it sternly. I talk about how they
should fear God for their wrongdoings.
Participant A8: My way of disciplining my child is, talking to her about it first and telling her the
do's and donts that she should remember because I'm also disciplining her for her own good.
Being in front of the computer for too long is not good for the eyes and for the health as well,
because you're just always sitting down instead of exercising.

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Participant A9: If given warning and still pursuing to do the wrong deeds i require him to sit
down and discuss the problem. If still show aggressiveness- my last resort is to leave him alone
and calm let him calm down.
Participant A10: I give her a curfew. I have to know where she is, so I text her. If she goes beyond
the curfew time I reprimand her.
5 out of the 10 Authoritative mothers expressed that immediately talking to their child or
reprimanding them is their way of disciplining their child, 4 mothers said that verbal warnings are
given to their child and one participant said that she only gives curfews to her child. No mothers
in the authoritative parenting style expressed that they used physical punishment to their child and
2 mothers said that they do not really use physical punishment regarding disciplining their child.
Authoritarian Parenting Style:
Participant B1: There was a time where making friends was all on his mind. He ended up always
going home late. I reprimanded him and took his phone that weekend.
Participant B2: I often use scolding and shouting as to make my child realize that I am unhappy
for his wrong actions. If scolding is not enough and if he talks back that would be the time where
I would have to hurt him physically.
Participant B3: I tend to give them curfews when they go out with their friends even though they
ask for an extended time. I also control how they use computers and TV at home especially during
weekdays.
Participant B4: Well, I started disciplining him when I noticed that its becoming a habit when
his grades started to get low. First, I learned to say no to him when he is asking permissions and
say that I would rather let him stay home and study. I also started to give him limited time to play
online and of course, I gave him a curfew when he's going out with his friends. If he doesnt follow
the curfew i gave he knows the consequence.
Participant B5: My first way is to tell them to stop the bad behaviour, if they repeat their
misbehaviour, I will get their gadget or I will ground them, example, if the kids misbehaved at
school, I will tell them that they are not allowed to go outside or watch TV, I will take something
they want. When it comes to teenagers, I will not give enough allowance to them.
Participant B6: I communicate with him once in a while so that Im aware whats going on in his
life. I try to correct the little mistakes as I first see them, I dont want him to have a bad future. So
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I reprimand him for doing something that isnt appropriate like having low grades and going out
too much on weekends and Friday nights.
Participant B7: Most of the time thru yelling at them. They have to know that I did not like what
they did. I just want whats best for them; I dont want them to make the same mistakes I did
before.
Participant B8: Well, the usual things that parents do. By grounding them. (With a live wire joke)
I take away their phone/gadgets sometimes. If the mistake they made is heavier I withhold their
allowance.
Participant B9: My ways of disciplining my child is giving her curfew of what time she needs to
be home, if she didnt follow my rule, verbal punishment is at hand. Sometimes when she gets home
past 12 midnight, i would lock the gate and front door and let her stay outside and no one will
open up the door for her. Sometimes i get too physical on punishing her. Another type of
punishment I do is that I deduct a big amount from her allowance, from 250 pesos, I make it 200
pesos and sometimes I make it 150 pesos in for her not to go out with her friends and spend a lot
of money.
Participant B10: Like when my son has low grades. I take away his phone until he does his all
his requirements in school. And also during exam week he is not allowed to use his phone for him
to focus more on his subjects.
For participants with Authoritative Parenting Style, the answers of the mothers were mostly
using 2 different disciplinary practices like one may reprimand and also withhold the allowance,
so by categorizing these were the results: 5 of the mothers used withholding privileges as a method
while 3 of them used withholding or reducing their childs allowance as their disciplinary method
and 4 of them used shouting and reprimanding as a way to discipline their child.

Permissive Parenting Style


Participant C1: I discipline my child by listening and talking to him when he wants to do
something. I tell him the good and bad side of it, I give him advice. There are times when i shout
at him or get mad when he does something that I do not like or disagree. I show him my emotions
and make him realize my mistakes.
Participant C2: Being a parent, I don't try to hurt my kid at all. All I do is remove some privilege
for a week or so. If the degree of the behaviour is heavy then sometimes i withhold attention from
her so she would know not to do it again.

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Participant C3: I will talk to her one on one and tell her why I am trying to make her do the right
thing like listening to me or not running around the house because first of all, it's not ours and she
might break things. Then after I explain to her why it's bad, Ill ask her if it's okay with her to listen
to me by then.
Participant C4: My ways of disciplining my child are talking to her in a good way and give
examples of results that may happen if she continue to do it, and sometimes if she reach the peak
of my patience I use the old way of disciplining a child but not too much.
Participant C5: I usually just talk to him since we are naturally close at home, so if I give him the
cold shoulder then hell know that I am disappointed about something.
Participant C6: I tend to allot time for us to talk to each other and listen most of the time to his
opinion. I also just give everything he needs so there will be no more further discussions.
Participant C7: It doesnt happen a lot but when I reprimand her it doesnt take that long for me
to get angry at her. I would just tell her late ka nanaman umuwe kagabe anak she already
knows that its wrong so I wont have to yell at her, No punishments. Its not good if there is tension
inside the house or between you and your child.
Participant C8: My ways are: counselling my children. Give them price if what they did is right.
Always compliment them in their actions. and Ill be an example for them.
Participant C9: Basically I sit down with them and talk. I think communication is very important.
And also I ask them what they think should be the consequence of their actions. They would have
to think of a punishment themselves so they'll stick more to it. But i also make sure that its fair
and its not in line with their advantages.
Participant C10: Talking about the issue with her and clearing things up. Being specific with
everything that she should know and keep in mind. Set deals like when you come home late
tonight, you have to clean the house for the week as punishment. There will be a deal between
me and my child regarding the rules.
For participants with Permissive Parenting Style, 9 out of the 10 mothers expressed that
their disciplinary method is through talking with their children, giving them advice in what to do
with the situation and their behavior. However, one permissive mother said that her method of
discipline is through removal of benefits like cellphones and withdrawal of attention.

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Parenting style that produce higher tendency to adolescents with alcohol dependency.

Figure 1. Shows the Adolescents with their level of Alcohol Dependency under Authoritative
Parenting, Authoritarian Parenting and Permissive Parenting.

Based on the gathered Data using The Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire the
researcher found that authoritative parents have a high tendency to produce adolescents with
medium alcohol dependency. Authoritarian parents also have a high tendency to produce
adolescents with medium alcohol dependency. The possible reason for this result could probably
be because of the strict implementation of discipline for the adolescents they are more like to rebel
against their parents. And Permissive Parents have a high tendency to produce adolescents with
low alcohol dependency. The possible reason behind this result would be because since parents
are giving trust to their children, the children would value the trust given to them thus resulting to
them controlling the way they consume alcohol.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


This study in general focuses on the different disciplinary practices of working mothers who
has adolescent children who have alcoholic tendencies. Results from the interviews suggest that
Authoritative parents view discipline as training or preparation for becoming adults. Authoritative
parents also agreed that it serves as a set of rules, resulting in the obedience of their children. Following
Authoritarian parents agreed that discipline involves their supervision in order to establish their child's
good values. In addition to this, they view discipline as a learning process. Lastly, permissive parents'
concept of discipline is in line with open communication and does not need any punishment. Very little

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significant difference shows. To summarize the responses of the mothers, discipline is perceived as a
set of rules which should be already given awareness to and understood by their children. Majority of
the participants agreed that knowing what is right and what is wrong. The participants children ranged
from 13 to 18 years of age which shows that this is the stage where the children develop understanding.
Ages that range from 13 to 18 is the time where they can establish a more active relationship with their
parents. By this time of age the adolescents are already becoming aware and understand discipline
instead of being at an age where the child is merely starting to discover what values and discipline is
about. Moreover according to Joseph & John, (2008) Most of the parents use a variety of styles
depending on their culture and social demand. Because of this, it is stated that majority of the health
problems that arise in adolescence are related to parenting styles.
The researcher of this study recommends to those who want to replicate this study to try to
focus on participants living in the lower class of living since participants in the study are all upper
middle class people. The researcher believes social class may be a significant factor in parental
discipline. Furthermore, the researcher recommends to conduct a comparative research which may also
be used in researching how socioeconomic status can lead a child towards alcoholism. In addition, the
researcher recommends to explore the feelings and opinions of the siblings or other family members
of the child, to study what are the other emotional distress or factors that affects the child's behavior
that leads them towards alcoholism.

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Robinson, C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (1995). Authoritative,
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About the Editors


Savipra Alexandrio De Jesus Gorospe
A resolute, perceptive, and conscientious BA Psychology alumnus.
Can build insight on information from psychological assessments
and project into training opportunities; crusader of learning and
development, with excellent analytical, interpersonal, and
presentation skills; seeking further training and experience in
training & development and optimizing peoples performance in the
workplace while furthering his career towards being a Licensed
Psychometrician and as a future I/O Psychologist.

Chennie Alyssa B. Regala


Is a diligent, highly motivated and has a keen sense of responsibility
alumna of BA Psychology in San Beda College Alabang. Has been
a consistent deans lister during her academic term; always willing
to learn with iniative and fully devote herself to designated schemes;
has the ability to resolve interpersonal conflicts and creates positive
learning environment. She is in her quest of enhancing her formal
education and gain more application learning about Psychology to
become a Professional and Licensed Psychometrician.

Renzen Pauline Martinez


A responsible person who engage in different activities and an
alumna of BA Psychology in San Beda College Alabang. She was an
active member of the Peer Facilitators Guild, an organization created
as an extension of the Guidance Office, and became its president in
her third year then became its fourth year level representative in her
senior year. Always ready to help other people for their own personal
growth and create fun new experiences that can help others. She is
searching for other experiences and training to broaden her
knowledge about Psychology while working her way to her desired
career as a Licensed Psychometrician and an HR in a company

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San Beda College Alabang


Alabang Hills Village, Muntinlupa City
Tel. Nos.: (02) 772-2357 (02) 842-3508 loc. 211

College of Arts & Sciences


Edited by:
Prof. Paul V. Hilario, Ph.D.
College of Arts and Sciences Dean
Savipra Alexandrio DJ. Gorospe
Volume 1 Editor-In-Chief
Chennie Alyssa Regala
Volume 2 Editor-In-Chief
Renzen Pauline Martinez
Volume 3 Editor-In-Chief

Cover Page Art Designed by:


Kryshnan Vergara
Jan Paula Minas

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