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# CHAPTER

15

15.1
(a)

## Zin = (R1 + jx1) + Zf

where

Zf =

( R2 + j x2 ) jxm
R2 / s + j ( x2 + xm

## (0.95 / 0.04 + j 0.95) ( j 81.4)

(0.95 / 0.04) + j (1.63 + 81.4)

(1933.25 j -77.33)
= 21.27 + j 7.02
( 23.75 + j 83.03)

## = 21.42 + j8.65 = 23.10 22.

I1 =

Stator current
Input power

VIph
Zin

2300 / 3
= 57.49 A.
23.10

Pi = 3 Viph . I1 . cosQ
= 3

2300
3

57.49

= 229023.88 W
Pi = 229 kW.
(b)

haft power

2

## Air gap power, pg = 3 I 1 Rf = 3 57.49 21.27

= 210898.43 W.
Pgross = Pg(1 S) = 210898.43(1 0.04)
= 202462.49 W
Pstray =

1
3521.7 = 35.22 W
100

from (i),
P = 202462.48 (8300 + 35.22)

P0 = 194.12 kW
Now,
Also,

Wr = Ws (1 S)
S =

Ws - W
Ws

(i)

Solution Manual 79

0.04 =

\
Also,

Torque,
(c) Efficiency =

(a)

Ws - 1100
Ws

T =
210898.43
229.02 103

Stator current

I1 =

Pg
Ws

210898.43
= 1757 NM.
120

= 92%.
V1ph
Zin

## Zin = (R1 + jx1) + Zf

where,

Zf =

where
At starting

( R2 / s ) ( - j s2 ) j xm
R2 / s + j ( x2 + xm )

s =1
Zf =

## (0.95 + j 1.63) ( j 81.4) 77.33 j - 132.682

=
0.95 + j (1.63 + 81.4)
0.95 + j 83.03
153.57 149.77
= 1.85 60.43
83.04 89.34

I1 =
(b)

Input power =

2300 / 3
= 389.6 A.
3.41

3 V1 I1 cos q1
=

= 484 kW.
(c)

## Starting developed torque (Td)

At starting,
Ws = W = 1100 rpm.

## using equations (15.33),

2

Tstart =

3 ( 2300 / 3 ) 0.95
1100
2 p (0.15 + 0.95)2 + (1.63 + 1.63)2
60

= 3684.79 Nm
15.3 From Eq.(15.29),
Smax. T =

R2
R12 + ( x1 + x2 )2

80

Power Electronics

0.95

=
(0.15

)2

+ (1.63 + 1.63)2

= 0.291

Tmax =

3 ( 2300 / 3 )

## 2 120 0.15 + (0.15)2 + (1.63 + 1.63)2

= 6457.28 N-m.
15.4 In a constant power zone, at a constant rotor frequency, T a
F2 2

or,

F12

T1
T
, or F2 = F1 1
T2
T2
2000
= 57.74 Hz.
1500

F2 = 50

12
= 0.2
60
From equation (15.52), the ratio of breakdown torques for k = 0.2 and k = 1.

(1)

( 1 F )2 .

k = f/frated =

=
Tmax ( k = 1)
0.024
0.024 2 (

+ 0.24)2
0.2
0.2

( )

(2)

For motoring,

Tmax ( k = 0.2)
= 0.68
Tmax ( k = 1)

For breaking,

Tmax ( k = 0.2)
= 1.46.
Tmax ( k = 1)

## Substituting S = 1 in Eq. (15.51), gives

Starting torque. Thus,

V 2 rated R2 / k
3

2
ws R1 + R2
2
+ ( x1 + x )

k
From equation (i), the ratio of starting torques for k = 0.2 and k = 1 is
T =

(i)

Ts ( k = 0.2)
0.024 / 0.2
=
Ts ( k = 1)
(0.048 / 0.2)2 + (0.24)2
0.024
(0.048)2 + (0.24)2
= 2.6.
The starting motor current is given by
Ims =

Vrated

R1 + R2
k

(ii)

) +(

x1 + x2 )

Solution Manual 81

## The ratio of starting current for k = 0.2 and 1 is

I ms ( k = 0.2)
=
I ms ( k = 1)

(0.048)2 + (0.24)2

0.048 2 (
) + 0.24)2
0.2

= 0.72.
The preceding ratios of starting torques and starting rotor currents show that the constant (v/F)
control provides a high starting torque with a reduced motor current.
k = 30/60 = 0.5
From Eq. (15.49), for rated torque and f = 60,
Trated =

0.04
3V 2 rated
(1.34)
ws

(a)

## and for 30 Hz from equation (15.51),

0.024

V 2 rated

0.5 S
3
Trated =

2
ws 0.024 0.024
2
(
)
0.5 + 0.5 S + 0.24
Equating equations (a) and (b), we get
0.024
0.5 S
2
0.024 + 0.024 (0.24)2
0.5

0.5 S

or
or

= 1.34

26.04 s2 0.98 S + 1 = 0
S =

14.62

## (14 . 62)2 - 4 26.04

2 26.04

= 0.089 or 0.43.

The slip on the stable part of the speed torque curve will be 0.089.
Now synchronous speed for 30 Hz = 900 rpm.
Motor speed = 900 (1 0.089)
= 820 rpm.

## 15.7 From the rated conditions of operations,

Ns =

120 f 120 50
= 1000 rpm.
=
p
6

Ws =

1000 2p
1000

(b)

82

Power Electronics

Slip,
Rotor impedance

S =

1000 - 960
= 0.04
1000

Zr =

R2
+ jx2 = 5 + j1.5
s

= 5.22 16.7 W
Stator impedance

## Zs = 0.4 + j1.5 = 1.55 75 W

Machine impedance

ZQ = Zs +

Z2 . Zm
Z2 + Zm

I1 =

400 / 3
= 38.5 A.
6

I2 =

Zm
30
38.5
Is =
Zm + Z2
31.89

= 36.22 A
E = I2|Z2| = 36.22 5.22 = 189 V.
Rated torque

3 I 2 2 . R2
3 (
0.2
.
36.22)2
=
Ws
S
104 . 7
0.04

= 188 Nm.
(a)

25
= 0.5
50
Substitute values in equation (15.41), we get
At 25 HZ,

k =

## (189)2 0.2 / 0.55

188
3
=
.
2
104 . 7 (0.2)2 / (0.5 S )2 + 1.52

S = 0.0374.

\
From Eq. (15.39)

wr = kWs( 1 S)

or

= 481.3 rpm.

At 25 Hz1

## E = 0.5 189 = 94.5 V.

R2
0.2
+ j k. x2 =
+ j 0.75
S
0.0374

Z2 =

= 5.4 8 W.
Taking E as a reference vector,
I2 =

E
94.5
= 17.5 8.
=
Z 2 5.4 - 8

Im =

E
94.5
=
= 6.30 - 90 A
J k . xm j 0.5 30

I1 = I2 + Im = 17.5 8 + 6.30 90

Solution Manual 83

I1 = 19.85 A.

\
(b)

## Slip speed in rpm at the rated torque and frequency

Nss = S . Ns = 0.04 1000 = 40 rpm.
Since the speed torque curve is a straight line, slip speed at half the rated torque,
25
1000
Nss = 0.5 40 = 20 rpm. At 25 Hz, Ns =
50
= 500 rpm.
Since the slip speed remains constant for a given torque,
Motor speed
N = Ns Nss
= 500 20 = 480 rpm.
For a constant flux the E/F ratio must be constant.
Hence, at 25 Hz,
E = 0.5 189 = 94.5 V
N s 2 20
= 0.04
=
N s 500

S =

R2
jk .x2 = 5 + j0.75
S

Z2 =

= 5.06 8.5 W
Taking E as a reference vector,
I2 =

E
94.5
=
= 18.7 - 8.5 A .
Z 2 5.06 8.5
E
94.5
=
= 6.30 - 90 A .
jkxm
j 15

Im =

## I1 = I 2 + I m = 18.7 - 8.5 + 6.30 - 90

Hence
(c)

I1 = 20.6 A.

At the rated breaking torque, the slip speed will be the negative of the slip speed at rated
motoring torque.
Hence,
slip speed = Ns3 = 40 rpm.
Synchronous speed = N + Ns3 = 800 40
= 760 rpm.
Frequency = (760/1000) 50 = 38 Hz.
k = 38/50 = 0.76.
At 38 Hz,

E =

38
189 = 143.64 V.
50

S = 40/760 = 0.0526
Z2 =

R2
jk x2 = - 38.8 + j 1.14
s

= 3.97 163.3 1 W
Taking E as a reference vector,

84

Power Electronics

I2 =

E
143.64
=
= 36.2 - 163.3 A
Z 2 3.97 - 163.3

## I m remains the same as the foregoing

I1 = 36.2 163.3 + 6.30 90
= 34.62 j16.88 = 38.52 154.

## = E + Z5 I1 = 143.64 + (0.4 + j0.76 1.5) (38.52 154)

= 156 17.3 V

Since phase angle between V and I is more than 90, hence power flows from motor to the
source.
15.8 From example 15.7, for 50 Hz operations
Ns = 1000 rpm, Ws = 104.7 rad/s
Rated torque
= 188 N-m.
Slip speed at rated torque = 40 rpm.
E at rated conditions
= 189 V.
Im =

(a)

E
= 189/30 = 6.3 A
Xm

## Substituting values in Equation (15.66),

We get,

S = 0.067.

(b)

(0.2 / s )2 + (1.5)2
2
(6.30)2 =
(60)
2
2
(0.2 / s ) + (31.5)

## Slip speed in rpm = S.N

rpm = 0.067 1000 = 67 rpm.
(i) Since the flux is constant for a given torque, the slip speed will also be constant for all
frequencies. Thus, the slip speed can be evaluated from the rated frequency operation.
Now,

T =

139 =

3
104.7

(189)2 (0.2 / s )

2
2
(0.2 / s ) + (1.5)

2
0.2 + (1.5)2 = 1.472
s
s

or,

2
. R2 / s
3 Erated
=

Ws ( R2 / s )2 x2

S = 0.0284
Slip-speed,
Nss = 0.0284 1000 = 28.4 rpm.
Now for operation at 500 rpm
Synchronous speed
N = N + Nss = 500 + 28.4 = 528.4 rpm.
Frequency =

528.4
50 = 26.42 Hz.
1000

K = 26.42/50 = 0.528.

Solution Manual 85

S =

N ss 28.4
= 0.0568
=
Ns
500

## K.S.= 0.528 0.0568 = 0.03

Substituting the known values in equation (15.68),
We get
1/ 2

## (0.2 / 0.04)2 + (30 + 1.5)2

Im = 6.3

2
2
(0.2 / 0.04) + (1.5)
= 38.5 A.
(c)

Since, at a constant flux, speed-torque curves for different frequencies are straight lines, slipspeed
139
Nss =
40 = 29.56 rpm.
188
Hence, Synchronous speed
Ns = N + Nss = 500 + 29.56
= 529.56 rpm.

529.56 50 = 26.48 Hz
Frequency =
1000
S =

N ss
29.56
= 0.056
=
N s 529.56

K =

26.48
= 0.53, S.K = 0.03.
50

## (0.2 / 0.03)2 + (30 + 1.5)2

Im = 6.30 =
= 297 A
2
2
(0.2 / 0.03) + (1.5)
15.9
(a) The fundamental Rms live voltage of a six-step inverter is given by
E1 =

6
. Edc
p

(i)

(ii)

## Em is the peak of ac source live voltage.

E1 =

Here,

3 6

Em . cosa
p2
E p2
cosa = 1
Em 3 6

E1 = 460 V, Em = 460
cos a =

p 2 460
460 2 3 6

(iii)
2 V.

86

Power Electronics

a = 18.25.

(b) (i) For a given torque the motor operates at a fixed slip speed for all frequencies when the flux
is maintained constant.
\ Sleep speed in rpm at the rated torque,
Nss = Ns N =

120 60
1180
6

= 20 rpm
Hence, synchronous speed at 600 rpm.
Ns = N + Nss = 600 + 20 = 620 rpm.
Ns = 120 f/p =

120 60
= 1200 rpm.
6

620 60 = 31 Hz.
Inverter frequency =
1200
(ii) Back emf at the rated operation
Erated =

I2 = ( R2 / s )2 + x 2

where

I2 =

Also,

S =
I2 =

E1 / 3

( R1 + R2 / s )2 + ( x1 + x2 )2
1200 - 1180
= 0.017
1200
460 / 3

0.19 +

0.07
0.017

) +(

0.75 + 0.67 )2

= 58.5 A.
Erated

0.07 2

+ (0.67 )2
= 58.5

0.017

= 244 V
Now, torque at constant flux is given by
T =

2
R2 / ( K .S )
3 Erated
2 ( )2

Ws . R2 / KS + x2 2

where

Ws =

1200
60

## T = 3/Ws . I22 Rs/S

and,

T =

3 (
0.07
58.50)2
125.66
0.017

(iv)

Solution Manual 87

= 336.42 Nm.
Equation (iv) becomes

( )

( 244)2 0.07
336.42
3
K .S
=

2
2
125.66 0.07
+ (0.67 )2
KS

( )

Now,

k =

wr
500
0.42
=
=
ws (1 - S ) 1200 (1 - S ) (1 - S )

( 244)2 0.07 (1 - S )

336.42
3
0.42 s
=

2
125.66 0.07
2
2

(
)
(
)
0.42 s 1 - S + 0.67

which gives

S = 0.012

and

K = 0.425

## Thus, frequency = 0.425 60 = 25.5 Hz

Substituting the known values in Eq. (15.38), yields,
I2 =

244
2
0.07

+ (0.67 )2
0.425 0.012

= 17.76 A
Machine fundamental phase voltage,

R 2
V1 = I 2 R1 + 2 + K 2 ( x1 + x2 )2

0.07 2 (
+ 0.425)2 (0.75 + 0.67 )2
= 17.76 0.19 +

0.012
V1 = 107.51 V
Now, taking V1 as reference vector,
I2 = I2 - tan -1

k ( x1 + x2 )
( R1 + R2 / s )

= 17.76 - tan -1

0.425 (1.42)
(6.02)

= 17.76 88.10 A.
Im =
=

E1
- 90
K .X m
107.51
- 90 = 12.65 - 90
0.425 20

88

Power Electronics

Now,

I1 = 30.40 A.

## Rms harmonic current is given by

V1
1
Ih =

K ( x1 + x2 ) h = 3, 5, 11, 13 h 4

## Neglecting harmonics higher than 13, gives

0.046 V1
0.046 107.51
= 8.195 A.
=
K ( x1 + x2 ) 0.425 (0.75 + 0.67 )

Ih =

## Rms input current = ( I1 + I h )

= (30.40)2 + (8.195)2

= 31.49.
Ex 15.10. At the rated operations,
Ns =
Rated slip
Rotor Impedance,
Machine Impedance

=
Z2 =

120 f 120 60
=
= 1200 rpm = 125.66 rad/s
P
6
1200 - 1176
= 0.02.
1200
0.145
+ j 0.5 = 7.27 3.95W
0.02

= Z1 +

Z2 Zm
Z2 + Zm

= 0.19 + j 0.75 +

(7.25 + j 15.8)

## = 5.81 + j3.81 = 0.95 33.26W

I1 =

460 / 3
= 38.21 33.26 A
6.95 33.26

I2 =

Zm
15.3 90
I1 =
(38.21 33.26)
Zm + Z 2
17.38 65.35

= 33.64 8.61 A.
Im =

Z2
(7.27 3.95) (38.21 - 33.26)
I1 =
Z 2 + Zm
(17.38 65.35)

= 15.98 95.61
Torque

3 2
I 2 ( R2 / s )
Ws

Solution Manual 89

3
0.145
(33.64)2
125.66
0.02

T = 195.87 Nm.
(a)

For the three phase current source six-step inverter, fundamental Rms current is given by
I1 =
=

6
Id .
p

\ Id =

p . I1
6

p 38.21
= 49 A.
6

Irms = (
(b)

) Id =

3 . 49

= 40 A .

## Slip speed at rated torque and frequency,

Nss = s . Ns = 0.02 1200 = 24 rpm.

(c)

## At motor speed of 600 rpm, synchronous speed Ns = 600 + 24 = 624 rpm.

624
60 = 31.2 Hz.
Inverter frequency =
1200
When the motor is controlled at 9 constant flux, for a given torque, the stator current remains
constant at all speeds. Since the stator current is constant, the dc link current also remains
constant at 49 A.
Slip-speed is constant at all frequencies as the flux is constant for a given torque. Slip speed for
30 Hz operation at half the rated torque can be determined from 60 Hz operation. For 60 Hz
operation,
Erated = Im . Xm = 15.98 15.3 = 244.49 V
Now,

T =

2
R2 / s
3 Erated

2
Ws ( R2 / s ) + x2 2

195.87
3 (244.49)2 (0.145/ s )
=

2
125.66 (0.145/ s ) + (0.5)2
After solving, it gives

S = 0.01
Slip speed,
Nss = S.Ns = 0.01 1200 = 12 rpm
Now, consider the operation at 30 Hz,
K =

Synchronous speed,
Hence,

30
= 0.5
60

## motor speed = 600 12 = 588 rpm.

S =

I2 =

N ss
12
= 0.02
=
N s 600
K . Erated

(( R2 / S )2 + ( K . x2 )2 )

90

Power Electronics

0.5 244.46

= 16.81 A.

I22 =

(16.81)2 =

or

I 22 - I m 2
2x
1+ 2
Xm
I12 - (15.98)2
2 0.5
1+
15.3

I1 = 23.59 A.

or

## Also, d.c. link current Id can be given by the formula,

Id =
=

p I1
6
p 23.59
6

= 30.26 A.
Rms stator current,
15.11.

Irms =
Ns =

30.26 = 24.71 A.

120 f 120 60
= 1200 rpm.
=
p
6

V = 460/ 3 = 265.58 V
Ws =

1200 2p
60
1200 - 1164
= 0.03.
1200

## Without rotor resistance control,

T =

V 2 ( R2 / s )
3

2
2
Ws ( R1 + R2 / S ) + ( x1 + x2 )
3 (265.58)2 . (0.6 / 0.03)

125.66
0.6 2
2
0.4 +
+ (1.8 + 1.8)

0.03

= 78.48 Nm.
(a)

Also, we have
Rm1
S

2
2
= ( R1 + Rk1 ) + ( x1 + x12 )

Solution Manual 91

## When the breakdown torque occur at standstill,

( Rm1 )2 = ( R1 + Rk1 )2 + ( x1 + x2 )2
or
(Rm1)2 = R1K2 + 2RK1 R1 + R12 + (x1 + x2)2

(i)

## Also, Rk1 = 0.0966 Rm1

(ii)
(Rm1)2

\
Rm1

\
Also,

9.33 10

(Rm1)2

0.0579

Rm2

0.09 10.24 = 0

= 3.26 W

Rk

= 0.315 W

= R1 R2 1
= 3.26 0.6 = 2.66.

R e* =

2.66
aT12

2.66
= 0.426 W
(2.5)2

Also, for a = 0,
R = 2Re* Rd = 2 0.426 = 0.02
= 0.832 W
(b)

## With rotor resistance control,

Where

T =

V 2 ( Rm1 / s )
3

2
2
1
1
Ws ( R + R + R / s ) + ( x + x )
1

k
m
1
2

s =

1200 - 960
= 0.2.
1200

1.5 78.48 =

3
125.66

## (265.58)2 ( Rm1 / 0.2)

1 2
Rm

2
1
0.4 + 0.0966 Rm + 0.2 + (3.6)

which gives

Rm1 = 2.171 W

Hence

R e* =

Rm1 - R2 2
aT 12

2.171 - 0.6
(2.5)2

= 0.2513 W
Also,

2 R e * - Rd 2 (0.2513) - 0.02
=
R
0.832

a = 0.42

\
(c)

(1 a) =

Now,

## Re* = 0.5[0.02 + (1 0.6)0.832] = 6.1764 W

Rm1 = R2 + aT12 . Re*
= 0.6 + (2.5)2 0.1764 = 1.7025 W.
Rk1 = 0.0966 1.7025 = 0.165 W.

## Substituting all known values in torque equation,

92

Power Electronics

1.5 78.48 =

which gives ,

s = 0.15
N = Ns(1 s) = 1200 (1 15) = 1020 rpm.

\
15.12

(265.58)2 (0.6 / s )

2
125.66
1.7025
0.4 + 0.165 +
+ (3.6)2

Pf = cosf = 1 \ f = 0
Eq(rated) = Eb = Es = 460 / 3 = 265.58 V
Poles, P = 6, W = 2pf = 2p 60 = 376.99 rad/s
Base speed,
Now, ratio

wb =

2 376.99
6

K = Eb/Wb =

265.58
= 2.11
125.66

At 720 rpm,
2

## 720 = 143.28 Nm.

TL = (398)
1200
Ws = Wm = 720 2p/60 = 75.4 rad/s.
P0 = (143.28) 75.4 = 10803.31 W.
(a)

## Eq = k.Ws = 2.11 75.4 = 159.09 V

(b)

P0 = 3Eq Ia Pf = 10803.31

Ia =

(c)
(d)
(e)

10803.31
= 22.64 A
(3 159.09)

## E f = 159.09 22.64 (1 + j0) (j2.5)

= 169.1 19.52
torque angle (d) = 19.52. from Eq. (15.121),
3 159.09 169.1
= 428.82 N-m
Tp =
2.5 75.4