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MD Singh Power Electronics Solution Manual s

- Power Electronics
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15

15.1

(a)

where

Zf =

( R2 + j x2 ) jxm

R2 / s + j ( x2 + xm

(0.95 / 0.04) + j (1.63 + 81.4)

(1933.25 j -77.33)

= 21.27 + j 7.02

( 23.75 + j 83.03)

I1 =

Stator current

Input power

VIph

Zin

2300 / 3

= 57.49 A.

23.10

Pi = 3 Viph . I1 . cosQ

= 3

2300

3

57.49

= 229023.88 W

Pi = 229 kW.

(b)

haft power

2

= 210898.43 W.

Pgross = Pg(1 S) = 210898.43(1 0.04)

= 202462.49 W

Pstray =

1

3521.7 = 35.22 W

100

from (i),

P = 202462.48 (8300 + 35.22)

P0 = 194.12 kW

Now,

Also,

Wr = Ws (1 S)

S =

Ws - W

Ws

(i)

Solution Manual 79

0.04 =

\

Also,

Torque,

(c) Efficiency =

(a)

Ws - 1100

\ Ws = 120 rad/s.

Ws

T =

210898.43

229.02 103

Stator current

I1 =

Pg

Ws

210898.43

= 1757 NM.

120

= 92%.

V1ph

Zin

where,

Zf =

where

At starting

( R2 / s ) ( - j s2 ) j xm

R2 / s + j ( x2 + xm )

s =1

Zf =

=

0.95 + j (1.63 + 81.4)

0.95 + j 83.03

153.57 149.77

= 1.85 60.43

83.04 89.34

I1 =

(b)

Input power =

2300 / 3

= 389.6 A.

3.41

3 V1 I1 cos q1

=

= 484 kW.

(c)

At starting,

Ws = W = 1100 rpm.

2

Tstart =

3 ( 2300 / 3 ) 0.95

1100

2 p (0.15 + 0.95)2 + (1.63 + 1.63)2

60

= 3684.79 Nm

15.3 From Eq.(15.29),

Smax. T =

R2

R12 + ( x1 + x2 )2

80

Power Electronics

0.95

=

(0.15

)2

+ (1.63 + 1.63)2

= 0.291

Tmax =

3 ( 2300 / 3 )

= 6457.28 N-m.

15.4 In a constant power zone, at a constant rotor frequency, T a

F2 2

or,

F12

T1

T

, or F2 = F1 1

T2

T2

2000

= 57.74 Hz.

1500

F2 = 50

12

= 0.2

60

From equation (15.52), the ratio of breakdown torques for k = 0.2 and k = 1.

(1)

( 1 F )2 .

k = f/frated =

=

Tmax ( k = 1)

0.024

0.024 2 (

+ 0.24)2

0.2

0.2

( )

(2)

For motoring,

Tmax ( k = 0.2)

= 0.68

Tmax ( k = 1)

For breaking,

Tmax ( k = 0.2)

= 1.46.

Tmax ( k = 1)

Starting torque. Thus,

V 2 rated R2 / k

3

2

ws R1 + R2

2

+ ( x1 + x )

k

From equation (i), the ratio of starting torques for k = 0.2 and k = 1 is

T =

(i)

Ts ( k = 0.2)

0.024 / 0.2

=

Ts ( k = 1)

(0.048 / 0.2)2 + (0.24)2

0.024

(0.048)2 + (0.24)2

= 2.6.

The starting motor current is given by

Ims =

Vrated

R1 + R2

k

(ii)

) +(

x1 + x2 )

Solution Manual 81

I ms ( k = 0.2)

=

I ms ( k = 1)

(0.048)2 + (0.24)2

0.048 2 (

) + 0.24)2

0.2

= 0.72.

The preceding ratios of starting torques and starting rotor currents show that the constant (v/F)

control provides a high starting torque with a reduced motor current.

k = 30/60 = 0.5

From Eq. (15.49), for rated torque and f = 60,

Trated =

0.04

3V 2 rated

(1.34)

ws

(a)

0.024

V 2 rated

0.5 S

3

Trated =

2

ws 0.024 0.024

2

(

)

0.5 + 0.5 S + 0.24

Equating equations (a) and (b), we get

0.024

0.5 S

2

0.024 + 0.024 (0.24)2

0.5

0.5 S

or

or

= 1.34

26.04 s2 0.98 S + 1 = 0

S =

14.62

2 26.04

= 0.089 or 0.43.

The slip on the stable part of the speed torque curve will be 0.089.

Now synchronous speed for 30 Hz = 900 rpm.

Motor speed = 900 (1 0.089)

= 820 rpm.

Ns =

120 f 120 50

= 1000 rpm.

=

p

6

Ws =

1000 2p

= 104.7 rad/s.

1000

(b)

82

Power Electronics

Slip,

Rotor impedance

S =

1000 - 960

= 0.04

1000

Zr =

R2

+ jx2 = 5 + j1.5

s

= 5.22 16.7 W

Stator impedance

Machine impedance

ZQ = Zs +

Z2 . Zm

Z2 + Zm

I1 =

400 / 3

= 38.5 A.

6

I2 =

Zm

30

38.5

Is =

Zm + Z2

31.89

= 36.22 A

E = I2|Z2| = 36.22 5.22 = 189 V.

Rated torque

3 I 2 2 . R2

3 (

0.2

.

36.22)2

=

Ws

S

104 . 7

0.04

= 188 Nm.

(a)

25

= 0.5

50

Substitute values in equation (15.41), we get

At 25 HZ,

k =

188

3

=

.

2

104 . 7 (0.2)2 / (0.5 S )2 + 1.52

S = 0.0374.

\

From Eq. (15.39)

wr = kWs( 1 S)

or

= 481.3 rpm.

At 25 Hz1

R2

0.2

+ j k. x2 =

+ j 0.75

S

0.0374

Z2 =

= 5.4 8 W.

Taking E as a reference vector,

I2 =

E

94.5

= 17.5 8.

=

Z 2 5.4 - 8

Im =

E

94.5

=

= 6.30 - 90 A

J k . xm j 0.5 30

I1 = I2 + Im = 17.5 8 + 6.30 90

Solution Manual 83

I1 = 19.85 A.

\

(b)

Nss = S . Ns = 0.04 1000 = 40 rpm.

Since the speed torque curve is a straight line, slip speed at half the rated torque,

25

1000

Nss = 0.5 40 = 20 rpm. At 25 Hz, Ns =

50

= 500 rpm.

Since the slip speed remains constant for a given torque,

Motor speed

N = Ns Nss

= 500 20 = 480 rpm.

For a constant flux the E/F ratio must be constant.

Hence, at 25 Hz,

E = 0.5 189 = 94.5 V

N s 2 20

= 0.04

=

N s 500

S =

R2

jk .x2 = 5 + j0.75

S

Z2 =

= 5.06 8.5 W

Taking E as a reference vector,

I2 =

E

94.5

=

= 18.7 - 8.5 A .

Z 2 5.06 8.5

E

94.5

=

= 6.30 - 90 A .

jkxm

j 15

Im =

Hence

(c)

I1 = 20.6 A.

At the rated breaking torque, the slip speed will be the negative of the slip speed at rated

motoring torque.

Hence,

slip speed = Ns3 = 40 rpm.

Synchronous speed = N + Ns3 = 800 40

= 760 rpm.

Frequency = (760/1000) 50 = 38 Hz.

k = 38/50 = 0.76.

At 38 Hz,

E =

38

189 = 143.64 V.

50

S = 40/760 = 0.0526

Z2 =

R2

jk x2 = - 38.8 + j 1.14

s

= 3.97 163.3 1 W

Taking E as a reference vector,

84

Power Electronics

I2 =

E

143.64

=

= 36.2 - 163.3 A

Z 2 3.97 - 163.3

I1 = 36.2 163.3 + 6.30 90

= 34.62 j16.88 = 38.52 154.

= 156 17.3 V

Since phase angle between V and I is more than 90, hence power flows from motor to the

source.

15.8 From example 15.7, for 50 Hz operations

Ns = 1000 rpm, Ws = 104.7 rad/s

Rated torque

= 188 N-m.

Slip speed at rated torque = 40 rpm.

E at rated conditions

= 189 V.

Im =

(a)

E

= 189/30 = 6.3 A

Xm

We get,

S = 0.067.

(b)

(0.2 / s )2 + (1.5)2

2

(6.30)2 =

(60)

2

2

(0.2 / s ) + (31.5)

rpm = 0.067 1000 = 67 rpm.

(i) Since the flux is constant for a given torque, the slip speed will also be constant for all

frequencies. Thus, the slip speed can be evaluated from the rated frequency operation.

Now,

T =

139 =

3

104.7

(189)2 (0.2 / s )

2

2

(0.2 / s ) + (1.5)

2

0.2 + (1.5)2 = 1.472

s

s

or,

2

. R2 / s

3 Erated

=

Ws ( R2 / s )2 x2

S = 0.0284

Slip-speed,

Nss = 0.0284 1000 = 28.4 rpm.

Now for operation at 500 rpm

Synchronous speed

N = N + Nss = 500 + 28.4 = 528.4 rpm.

Frequency =

528.4

50 = 26.42 Hz.

1000

K = 26.42/50 = 0.528.

Solution Manual 85

S =

N ss 28.4

= 0.0568

=

Ns

500

Substituting the known values in equation (15.68),

We get

1/ 2

Im = 6.3

2

2

(0.2 / 0.04) + (1.5)

= 38.5 A.

(c)

Since, at a constant flux, speed-torque curves for different frequencies are straight lines, slipspeed

139

Nss =

40 = 29.56 rpm.

188

Hence, Synchronous speed

Ns = N + Nss = 500 + 29.56

= 529.56 rpm.

529.56 50 = 26.48 Hz

Frequency =

1000

S =

N ss

29.56

= 0.056

=

N s 529.56

K =

26.48

= 0.53, S.K = 0.03.

50

Im = 6.30 =

= 297 A

2

2

(0.2 / 0.03) + (1.5)

15.9

(a) The fundamental Rms live voltage of a six-step inverter is given by

E1 =

6

. Edc

p

(i)

(ii)

E1 =

Here,

3 6

Em . cosa

p2

E p2

cosa = 1

Em 3 6

E1 = 460 V, Em = 460

cos a =

p 2 460

460 2 3 6

(iii)

2 V.

86

Power Electronics

a = 18.25.

(b) (i) For a given torque the motor operates at a fixed slip speed for all frequencies when the flux

is maintained constant.

\ Sleep speed in rpm at the rated torque,

Nss = Ns N =

120 60

1180

6

= 20 rpm

Hence, synchronous speed at 600 rpm.

Ns = N + Nss = 600 + 20 = 620 rpm.

Ns = 120 f/p =

120 60

= 1200 rpm.

6

620 60 = 31 Hz.

Inverter frequency =

1200

(ii) Back emf at the rated operation

Erated =

I2 = ( R2 / s )2 + x 2

where

I2 =

Also,

S =

I2 =

E1 / 3

( R1 + R2 / s )2 + ( x1 + x2 )2

1200 - 1180

= 0.017

1200

460 / 3

0.19 +

0.07

0.017

) +(

0.75 + 0.67 )2

= 58.5 A.

Erated

0.07 2

+ (0.67 )2

= 58.5

0.017

= 244 V

Now, torque at constant flux is given by

T =

2

R2 / ( K .S )

3 Erated

2 ( )2

Ws . R2 / KS + x2 2

where

Ws =

1200

2p = 125.66 rad/s

60

and,

T =

3 (

0.07

58.50)2

125.66

0.017

(iv)

Solution Manual 87

= 336.42 Nm.

Equation (iv) becomes

( )

( 244)2 0.07

336.42

3

K .S

=

2

2

125.66 0.07

+ (0.67 )2

KS

( )

Now,

k =

wr

500

0.42

=

=

ws (1 - S ) 1200 (1 - S ) (1 - S )

( 244)2 0.07 (1 - S )

336.42

3

0.42 s

=

2

125.66 0.07

2

2

(

)

(

)

0.42 s 1 - S + 0.67

which gives

S = 0.012

and

K = 0.425

Substituting the known values in Eq. (15.38), yields,

I2 =

244

2

0.07

+ (0.67 )2

0.425 0.012

= 17.76 A

Machine fundamental phase voltage,

R 2

V1 = I 2 R1 + 2 + K 2 ( x1 + x2 )2

0.07 2 (

+ 0.425)2 (0.75 + 0.67 )2

= 17.76 0.19 +

0.012

V1 = 107.51 V

Now, taking V1 as reference vector,

I2 = I2 - tan -1

k ( x1 + x2 )

( R1 + R2 / s )

= 17.76 - tan -1

0.425 (1.42)

(6.02)

= 17.76 88.10 A.

Im =

=

E1

- 90

K .X m

107.51

- 90 = 12.65 - 90

0.425 20

88

Power Electronics

Now,

I1 = 30.40 A.

V1

1

Ih =

K ( x1 + x2 ) h = 3, 5, 11, 13 h 4

0.046 V1

0.046 107.51

= 8.195 A.

=

K ( x1 + x2 ) 0.425 (0.75 + 0.67 )

Ih =

= (30.40)2 + (8.195)2

= 31.49.

Ex 15.10. At the rated operations,

Ns =

Rated slip

Rotor Impedance,

Machine Impedance

=

Z2 =

120 f 120 60

=

= 1200 rpm = 125.66 rad/s

P

6

1200 - 1176

= 0.02.

1200

0.145

+ j 0.5 = 7.27 3.95W

0.02

= Z1 +

Z2 Zm

Z2 + Zm

= 0.19 + j 0.75 +

(7.25 + j 15.8)

I1 =

460 / 3

= 38.21 33.26 A

6.95 33.26

I2 =

Zm

15.3 90

I1 =

(38.21 33.26)

Zm + Z 2

17.38 65.35

= 33.64 8.61 A.

Im =

Z2

(7.27 3.95) (38.21 - 33.26)

I1 =

Z 2 + Zm

(17.38 65.35)

= 15.98 95.61

Torque

3 2

I 2 ( R2 / s )

Ws

Solution Manual 89

3

0.145

(33.64)2

125.66

0.02

T = 195.87 Nm.

(a)

For the three phase current source six-step inverter, fundamental Rms current is given by

I1 =

=

6

Id .

p

\ Id =

p . I1

6

p 38.21

= 49 A.

6

Irms = (

(b)

) Id =

3 . 49

= 40 A .

Nss = s . Ns = 0.02 1200 = 24 rpm.

(c)

624

60 = 31.2 Hz.

Inverter frequency =

1200

When the motor is controlled at 9 constant flux, for a given torque, the stator current remains

constant at all speeds. Since the stator current is constant, the dc link current also remains

constant at 49 A.

Slip-speed is constant at all frequencies as the flux is constant for a given torque. Slip speed for

30 Hz operation at half the rated torque can be determined from 60 Hz operation. For 60 Hz

operation,

Erated = Im . Xm = 15.98 15.3 = 244.49 V

Now,

T =

2

R2 / s

3 Erated

2

Ws ( R2 / s ) + x2 2

195.87

3 (244.49)2 (0.145/ s )

=

2

125.66 (0.145/ s ) + (0.5)2

After solving, it gives

S = 0.01

Slip speed,

Nss = S.Ns = 0.01 1200 = 12 rpm

Now, consider the operation at 30 Hz,

K =

Synchronous speed,

Hence,

30

= 0.5

60

S =

I2 =

N ss

12

= 0.02

=

N s 600

K . Erated

(( R2 / S )2 + ( K . x2 )2 )

90

Power Electronics

0.5 244.46

= 16.81 A.

I22 =

(16.81)2 =

or

I 22 - I m 2

2x

1+ 2

Xm

I12 - (15.98)2

2 0.5

1+

15.3

I1 = 23.59 A.

or

Id =

=

p I1

6

p 23.59

6

= 30.26 A.

Rms stator current,

15.11.

Irms =

Ns =

30.26 = 24.71 A.

120 f 120 60

= 1200 rpm.

=

p

6

V = 460/ 3 = 265.58 V

Ws =

Full-load slip =

1200 2p

= 125.66 rad/s.

60

1200 - 1164

= 0.03.

1200

T =

V 2 ( R2 / s )

3

2

2

Ws ( R1 + R2 / S ) + ( x1 + x2 )

3 (265.58)2 . (0.6 / 0.03)

125.66

0.6 2

2

0.4 +

+ (1.8 + 1.8)

0.03

= 78.48 Nm.

(a)

Also, we have

Rm1

S

2

2

= ( R1 + Rk1 ) + ( x1 + x12 )

Solution Manual 91

( Rm1 )2 = ( R1 + Rk1 )2 + ( x1 + x2 )2

or

(Rm1)2 = R1K2 + 2RK1 R1 + R12 + (x1 + x2)2

(i)

(ii)

(Rm1)2

\

Rm1

\

Also,

9.33 10

(Rm1)2

0.0579

Rm2

0.09 10.24 = 0

= 3.26 W

Rk

= 0.315 W

= R1 R2 1

= 3.26 0.6 = 2.66.

R e* =

2.66

aT12

2.66

= 0.426 W

(2.5)2

Also, for a = 0,

R = 2Re* Rd = 2 0.426 = 0.02

= 0.832 W

(b)

Where

T =

V 2 ( Rm1 / s )

3

2

2

1

1

Ws ( R + R + R / s ) + ( x + x )

1

k

m

1

2

s =

1200 - 960

= 0.2.

1200

1.5 78.48 =

3

125.66

1 2

Rm

2

1

0.4 + 0.0966 Rm + 0.2 + (3.6)

which gives

Rm1 = 2.171 W

Hence

R e* =

Rm1 - R2 2

aT 12

2.171 - 0.6

(2.5)2

= 0.2513 W

Also,

2 R e * - Rd 2 (0.2513) - 0.02

=

R

0.832

a = 0.42

\

(c)

(1 a) =

Now,

Rm1 = R2 + aT12 . Re*

= 0.6 + (2.5)2 0.1764 = 1.7025 W.

Rk1 = 0.0966 1.7025 = 0.165 W.

92

Power Electronics

1.5 78.48 =

which gives ,

s = 0.15

N = Ns(1 s) = 1200 (1 15) = 1020 rpm.

\

15.12

(265.58)2 (0.6 / s )

2

125.66

1.7025

0.4 + 0.165 +

+ (3.6)2

Pf = cosf = 1 \ f = 0

Eq(rated) = Eb = Es = 460 / 3 = 265.58 V

Poles, P = 6, W = 2pf = 2p 60 = 376.99 rad/s

Base speed,

Now, ratio

wb =

2 376.99

= 125.66 rad/s.

6

K = Eb/Wb =

265.58

= 2.11

125.66

At 720 rpm,

2

TL = (398)

1200

Ws = Wm = 720 2p/60 = 75.4 rad/s.

P0 = (143.28) 75.4 = 10803.31 W.

(a)

(b)

P0 = 3Eq Ia Pf = 10803.31

Ia =

(c)

(d)

(e)

10803.31

= 22.64 A

(3 159.09)

= 169.1 19.52

torque angle (d) = 19.52. from Eq. (15.121),

3 159.09 169.1

= 428.82 N-m

Tp =

2.5 75.4

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