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MEDICAL ETHICS // INTRODUCTION TO BIOETHICS 3.01 Intro to Bioethics | Dr. Acevedo Nov. 15, 2013
MEDICAL ETHICS // INTRODUCTION TO BIOETHICS
3.01
Intro to Bioethics | Dr. Acevedo
Nov. 15, 2013
Transcribed by: Trix and Gab

Schedule for Bioethics

I.

Orientation

II.

Introduction to Bioethics

III.

Human Person, Human Acts, Conscience

IV.

History of Bioethics, Hippocratic Oath

V.

Medical Oaths and Societies

VI.

Foundations of Ethics

VII.

Ethical Decision Making

VIII.

Christian and Basic Bioethical Principles

Methods of learning:

Lectures

Recitation/discussion

Brainstorming

Evaluation:

Quiz

Recitation

MODERN SOCIETY

It alters our view of the world by radically destroying values Before: abortion (murder of innocent life) Now: reproductive rights, women’s sexual freedom, betray the sanctity and dignity of human life Before, abortion is a big deal because everyone gives importance to life. Now, abortion is common and already legal to almost all countries.

“What is legal is not always moral!”

Instruments used by modern society to alter our view of the world:

Politics o So influential! o Kapag sila nagsasabi, daming naniniwala at sumusunod o Fortunately, the “educated people” don’t always follow them. o But the question is, who are the educated people? What do you think? Science o Our environment have been affected because of the advanced technology o Ex: global warming Economics o Now, before the doctors treat the patient, they think first if the patient can pay. Tsktsk! Technology o Ex: Stem cell therapy at first stages, this is safe and okay, but during the latter stages, there will already be changes in anatomy and physiology of the person which is very risky.

Media o Some people add intrigues and tsismis to the truth that’s why they sometimes may not be

reliable

Any human behavior performed under or with

KNOWLEDGE, FREEDOM, & VOLUNTARINESS

is within the ambit of moral and ethical judgment. As a doctor, lahat ng decision mo ay based on these three things.

Why study ethics? Controversies and problems in any professional discipline will always involve ethics because it has something to do with VALUES

INTRODUCTION TO BIOETHICS

Personal values of person, view on abortion and euthanasia Interpersonal intrigues, sex transfers, organ transplants Professional rivalries among professionals (ex:

stealing of clients/patients) Institutional different hospital policies (ex: public hospitals cannot deny patients, but in some private hospitals, they ask first for down payment before they accept the patient) Social issues population issue (RH Bill), control of AIDS

Medical practitioners also have to make everyday decisions:

Should you tell your patient about their disease? What treatment patient should consent or refuse to? What patient should be prioritized in case of scarce resources? For example, there are 5 patients who needs to be admitted in the ICU but only 2 beds are available, who will you prioritize? How much of the society’s fund be spent on health care, etc?

“A progressive nation should be a healthy nation.”

What to do:

Educate/train our conscience or sense of judgment We must be educated in virtue so that we can act with ease, competence and confidence Equipped with scientific knowledge and skills Know human needs and human values Study human acts o Ethics is concerned and interested in human behaviors, subject to the determination of right (virtue) and wrong (vice) Study modern biological technology

MEDICAL ETHICS // INTRODUCTION TO BIOETHICS

 

RATIONALE IN THE STUDY OF BIOETHICS

As a medical professional, be sensitive to the different variables in your environment:

o Social o Economic o Institutional o Political climate o Patient and family values o Relationships o Religious beliefs o Cultural orientation o Legal constraints

To address perennial ethical problems To address legal problems in health care

FUNDAMENTALS IN BIOETHICS

2 branches of Bioethics:

Knowledge attentive to critical examination of assumptions about matters of fact and argument Practice focuses on the critical examination of assumptions about norms or values

DILEMMAS OF A MODERN MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL

Right for a woman to have abortion Children with serious birth defects be put to death? Physicians lie to their patient Sex change Contraceptive

Why do we have legal problems? Because there is MALPRACTICE due to:

o Negligence o Ignorance o Arrogant doctors o Objective to get rich faster

“A good physician is an ethical physician.”

(likely to avoid legal problem) A legal problem always begins with an ethical problem

“A doctor without ethics is a mere technician. A doctor with ethics is properly called a physician.”

(Doctors must be grounded in bioethics because they handle life.)

BASIC PRINCIPLES MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS MUST KNOW IN THE PRACTICE OF THE MEDICAL PROFESSION

The care of the patient Alleviate pain and cure the disease Safeguard the patient’s life and health

ETHICS

Moral philosophy Greek: “ethika” – character; “ethos” – behavior Latin: “moris/mor” – moral, morality Study of social morality and philosophical reflection on its norms and practices (basic human behaviors that are specifically and inherently human) As a science: deals with the study of morality (rightness or wrongness) As a discipline: meant for the exercise of human conduct that is good or evil As a philosophical study: guides both the speculative and practical intellect in the acquisition and application of ethical principles in concrete human conduct (moral duty and obligation) Based on reason which studies human acts and provides norms for their goodness or badness Deals only with human acts insofar as they are performed with intellectual deliberation and volition

MEDICAL ETHICS Concerned with value choices in medical practice

BIOETHICS A more recent discipline An outgrowth of philosophy focusing on man as the center of reality and of human life It is a philosophy of life

Solutions for dilemmas created by these basic objectives can be guided by the application of the different ethical principles.

PURPOSE AND IMPLICATIONS OF BIOETHICAL KNOWLEDGE

Knowledge gained in the study and applications of Bioethics will contribute substantially to the holistic care of patient. Those who are found outstanding, effective and efficient in the care of patients are those who are both technical and ethical in ethos and praxis.

It is important not only to put right order and direction to the practice of an ethical profession, but also to

recognize the society’s awareness of its significance.