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AMBIENT

CONDITIONS
Humidity
Air Temperature
Substrate Temperature

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Parameters influencing the corrosion speed.


Atmospheric corrosion

Humidity
Temperature
Concentration of salts
Amount of air pollution,
including acid rain, soot and dust particles

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Atmospheric corrosion rate depends on


humidity
Corrosion rate

20

40

60

80

100

Relative Humidity, %
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Atmospheric conditions.
Requirement during blasting and painting

Surface temperature of the


structure must be minimum
3 C above the dew point
of the surrounding atmosphere

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ISO 8502 - 4
Estimating probability of condensation
Cold liquid inside hull and warm air outside causes
condensation
See how frames inside keeps the cold longer

B-24/2-4
4847-693

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Why Temperature & Humidity are


important
Condensation follows the contours
of the double-bottom tank

Frozen overnight
condensation, follows
the frames of the ship

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Main rule for pre-treatment


and paint application:
Temperature of substrate should
be at a temperature of
min. 3oC
above dew point of the air in the
vicinity

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Measuring ambient conditions


Electronic multi-function gauge
Electronic humidity gauge
Sling Psychrometer (Sling
Hygrometer, Dry and Wet bulb)
(Hair hygrometer, not suitable!)
Dew point calculator
Steel thermometer

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Electronic humidity gauge


Needs frequent
calibration.
Dependent on
batteries
Multi-function
models will measure
air temperature,
surface temperature,
relative humidity,
and calculate dew
point and T (*)
* difference between dew point and
surface temperature)

( )

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Sling Psycrometer
A dry and a wet thermometer put together in
one unit.
The difference in the measured temperatures
indicate the amount of humidity:
Large difference = low RH%
Small or none = high RH%

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

ISO 8502-4
Measuring the relative humidity
Photo: Sling
Psychrometer for
measuring:
- Dry temperature
- Wet temperature
Measure the
temperature in the
vicinity.
Calculate the relative
humidity
Use together with dew
point calculator

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Cd-4932-88

ISO 8502-4
Dew point calculator
For calculation of dew
point
To be used together with
surface temperature
thermometer and sling
psychrometer.
Use this frequently during
pre-treatment, application
and drying of the paint.
Recommendation: Every 6
hours and when weather
conditions are changing

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Cd-4932-89

ISO 8502 - 4
Humidity
Guidance on the estimation of the probability
of condensation prior to paint application
1.
2.
3.
4.

Air temperature
% Relative humidity
Steel temperature
Dew point

Steel temperature min. 3 oC above the dew point

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Contact thermometer
Electronic instrument for measuring the steel
temperature
Other types of thermometers are also available. E.g.
magnetic thermometers

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Ambient conditions, general


Painting should not be started when:
The relative humidity exceeds 85% (unless
the paint manufacturer consider it safe)
The substrate temperature is less than 3o
C above the dew point

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Ways to control the climatic conditions

Dehumidifier, reduces the actual humidity


in the surroundings
Heather, heat the objects (surfaces) prior
to application in order to reduce the
danger for condensation.
Forced ventilation is a must in order to
secure a proper evaporation of the
solvents from the paint film.

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Ambient Temperature and Steel Temperature


Is the temperature important ? YES !
Ambient
temperature will
influence:
shelf life (storage)
potlife (two-pack
paints: time between
mixing and no longer
useable)
induction time (prereaction before
application)
viscosity/sprayability

Steel Temperature

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Steel temperature
will affect:
probability for
condensation
solvent evaporation
speed of cure (drying
time)
degree of cure
recoating interval
service life of the
coating

Ventilation. Good practice

Solvent vapours
are heavier
than air

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Suction from
lowest points
in enclosed areas

Ventilation. Bad practice


Using an inlet fan

Using an exhaust fan

Air flow
Solvent vapour

Air flow
Solvent vapour

Inlet fan, air through pipe


Solvent
vapours
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Air in

Air out

Control of relative humidity


and temperature
Check the atmospheric
conditions before the
work starts
If required: Install
proper ventilation
Check the atmospheric
conditions while the
work is ongoing and
during drying / curing

Paint technology: Humidity_control1

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Temperature and humidity


of air used for drying.

Supply of heated air immediately after application


may lead to skin drying and entrapped solvents
Cold air will keep the film open longer and ensure
proper evaporation
Avoid high air temperature (especially epoxy)
High humidity will slow down the drying time
Exhaust from heating equipment using propane or
paraffin oil contain water and Carbon dioxide and
may create Amine sweating

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Blisters inside a tank due to poor ventilation.


Entrapped solvents
Blisters sometime
contain water
Rust will not be formed
inside intact blisters, due
to the high pH
As soon as the blisters
break corrosion will start
Use cathodic protection
to back up the paint
system.

Nguyen Cong Thuan/JPS DNV Vinashin Training/ 2007

Cd-4934-68