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Abstract

The development in the field of earthquake engineering requires experimental study. Laboratory
testing of components and structures as physical models is an effective way to study the complex
phenomena. Correlation of results from laboratory experimentation and analytical modeling will
increase the confidence of the researcher. A Shake table can be used to test the model of the
structure which may be scaled or prototype to seismic shaking. During strong earthquake
shaking, loose cohesion less soils below the water table develop high pore water pressures and
liquefy leading to significant degradation of strength and stiffness. The effects of liquefaction
depend on factors such as time to build-up liquefaction, duration for which soil remain liquefied
and time for pore water pressure dissipation. In order to minimize the ill-effects due to
liquefaction, various lab tests, field tests are being used which assess the liquefaction potential.
In the present study the shake table test has been used for assessing soil liquefaction of loose
saturated cohesion less sand by simulating earthquake conditions in the laboratory. The tests are
conducted on shake table apparatus, with the varying range of relative density and maximum
acceleration. This paper deals with the experimental investigations carried out to establish an
unique criterion for initiation of liquefaction for shake table test, which best delineate with the
initialization of liquefaction in clean uniform sand. It is observed that for the clean sand tested in
Shake table test liquefaction is observed to trigger at pore pressure ratios even less than or equal
to one for loose and medium state of soil up to maximum shaking of 0.32g. For higher
magnitude of shaking and for denser soils initiation of liquefaction is observed to take place for
pore pressure ratios greater than one. For the development in the field of earthquake engineering,
experimental study is required. To study the effects of earthquake, laboratory facilities are
needed. The development has reached to a stage where earthquake simulation is achieved in
laboratory. Shake table is used to provide earthquake simulation and to test the prototype and
scaled model of the structure. In order to reproduce actual earthquake data, a six-degree of
freedom electro-hydraulic shaking table is essential. They are very expensive and require high
maintenance and operational costs. There exists a need to develop suitable teaching and learning
aids to augment the classroom teaching. One of the most effective ways to achieve this is to
develop simple experimental setup with suitable shake table. Development of shake table for the
Earthquake Engineering laboratory to test models is a challenge. The cost of shake table is very
high and it is difficult for the institutes to acquire such facilities. Based on this fact, an effort has

been made to fabricate a low cost shake table with required specifications to test models and to
test the liquefaction behavior of Yamuna sand. Shake table is used to test the resistance of the
structures and the soil beneath them to shaking by simulating earthquake loading. An electromechanized Shake table for demonstrating liquefaction behavior of Yamuna River sand in east
Delhi or any type of liquefiable soil has been developed at NIDM. The main aim of the project is
to have a live demonstration of Liquefaction effects on River sand (liquefiable soil). In addition,
vibration effect on model buildings, reinforced slopes, pavements etc. can be demonstrated using
same device. In the present study the emphasis is given on the literature based on various
parameters of liquefaction phenomenon using shake table apparatus.
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