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By Doddy Sutarno

Classification

Introduction

Electromagnetic methods

provide another way of

estimating the resistivity

properties of the earth with

two benefits compared to

DC methods:

Depth sounding by

making measurements at

multiple frequencies, or

different times after some

excitation.

Contact for electrodesis

not necessarily required.

The Transformer

Without making contact to

the main power source, a

transformer will provide

electricity to light bulb (or

house).

The same physics will

allow us to determine

resistivity of the earth.

To understand we need

Maxwells Equations. But

first some background.

Vector Fields

E,e = electric field (volts/m)

H,h = magnetizing force

intensity (A/m)

B,b = magnetic induction

or flux density (Tesla)

D,d = dielectric

displacement (Coulomb/m2)

I,i = current density (A/m2)

V= Voltage (Volts)

D= E where is the

dielectric permittivity

Units = Farads/ m

(capacitance)

= r 0

0 Dielectric permitivity of

free space (8.85x10-12 f/m)

r = relative dielectric

permitivity or dielectric

constant

r =1 in air

r =80 in water

B=H

=magnetic permeability

Units = Henrys/m (Inductance)

= r 0

0 magnetic permeability of

free space (4px10-7H/m)

r=relative mag perm

J = E

=electrical conductivity of

earth

Voltage: V = Edl or E =-V

Maxwells Equations

Faradays Law :

Amperes Law :

Gausss Law :

B

( H )

t

t

D (E)

H J

E

t

t

D (E) qc

Unnamed equation:

B 0

(Note, qc is charge

density in Coulombs/m3).

GAUSS LAW

Wave Equations

Amperes and Faradays laws

can be combined to yield

E

2E

E

2

t

t

2

and/or

2H

H

2

H

t

t

2

If f >107 Hz or 1/ = =0, then

>>

2E

2

E

t 2

If f < 105, then <<

2 E

E

t

diffusive regime

If the wave is a plane wave traveling in the z

direction, solution to wave equation given as

E x E0 e az cos(t az )

H y H 0 e az cos(t az )

Where a

cos(t-az) indicates wave

is propagating as a

sinusoid in the z direction.

e-az indicates wave is also

decaying, or attenuating in

the z direction.

Skin Depth () defined as

the depth at which wave

amplitude has decayed to

1/e its original value.

=1/a.

503(/f)1/2 in meters

Skin Depth

yields estimate of

maximum depth

sensitivity for EM

methods.

Resistivity/frequency

dependence

indicates that

Greater sensing

depth in higher

resistivity materials.

Increasing depth

sensitivity with

decreasing

frequency.

Current (I) flowing in

conductive wire produces H

field via Amperes Law

(assuming << ): x H = J

High m value of core material

enhances B field: B=H

An E field is produced which

curls around the magnetic

field via Faradays law: x E

= -iB

This results in a voltage in the

coil: ( x E )nds=E dl =V

Since V=IR, current results in

second loop to light bulb.

The interaction between an EM geophysical measurement

system and the earth can be thought of as an interaction

between three different transformer systems:

A transmitter coil and a receiver coil (measured primary field).

A transmitter coil and an Earth coil (producing scattering or eddy

currents in earth).

An Earth coil and a receiver coil (measured scattered or secondary

field).

The simplified single

eddy current is best

represented by a LR

circuit.

Real earth is best

thought of as a series of

LR circuits.

Note- eddy currents that

are produced generate

secondary magnetic

fields that oppose the

timevariations in primary

magnetic field.

Geophysical Spectrum

General Spectrum

EM Spectrum

Classification of EM Methods

Magnetotellurics

Methods

Continuous

Wave Methods

Transient

Methods

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