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Electromagnetic Methods

By Doddy Sutarno

Electromagnetic Theory and


Classification

Introduction
Electromagnetic methods
provide another way of
estimating the resistivity
properties of the earth with
two benefits compared to
DC methods:
Depth sounding by
making measurements at
multiple frequencies, or
different times after some
excitation.
Contact for electrodesis
not necessarily required.

The Transformer
Without making contact to
the main power source, a
transformer will provide
electricity to light bulb (or
house).
The same physics will
allow us to determine
resistivity of the earth.
To understand we need
Maxwells Equations. But
first some background.

Electromagnetic Field Quantities


Vector Fields
E,e = electric field (volts/m)
H,h = magnetizing force
intensity (A/m)
B,b = magnetic induction
or flux density (Tesla)
D,d = dielectric
displacement (Coulomb/m2)
I,i = current density (A/m2)
V= Voltage (Volts)

Relationships between fields


D= E where is the
dielectric permittivity
Units = Farads/ m
(capacitance)
= r 0
0 Dielectric permitivity of
free space (8.85x10-12 f/m)
r = relative dielectric
permitivity or dielectric
constant
r =1 in air
r =80 in water

B=H
=magnetic permeability
Units = Henrys/m (Inductance)
= r 0

0 magnetic permeability of
free space (4px10-7H/m)
r=relative mag perm
J = E
=electrical conductivity of
earth
Voltage: V = Edl or E =-V

Maxwells Equations
Faradays Law :
Amperes Law :
Gausss Law :

B
( H )

t
t

D (E)
H J

E
t
t

D (E) qc

Unnamed equation:

B 0

(Note, qc is charge
density in Coulombs/m3).

GAUSS LAW

Wave Equations
Amperes and Faradays laws
can be combined to yield
E
2E
E
2
t
t
2

and/or

2H
H
2
H
t
t
2

Propagation or Radar regime


If f >107 Hz or 1/ = =0, then
>>
2E
2
E

t 2

Induction or Diffusion regime


If f < 105, then <<
2 E

E
t

Solution to Wave Equations in


diffusive regime
If the wave is a plane wave traveling in the z
direction, solution to wave equation given as

E x E0 e az cos(t az )
H y H 0 e az cos(t az )
Where a

Note that E and H are orthogonal.

EM Wave Propagation and Attenuation


cos(t-az) indicates wave
is propagating as a
sinusoid in the z direction.
e-az indicates wave is also
decaying, or attenuating in
the z direction.
Skin Depth () defined as
the depth at which wave
amplitude has decayed to
1/e its original value.
=1/a.
503(/f)1/2 in meters

Skin Depth
yields estimate of
maximum depth
sensitivity for EM
methods.
Resistivity/frequency
dependence
indicates that
Greater sensing
depth in higher
resistivity materials.
Increasing depth
sensitivity with
decreasing
frequency.

Skin depths for Different Resistivities

Back to the Transformer


Current (I) flowing in
conductive wire produces H
field via Amperes Law
(assuming << ): x H = J
High m value of core material
enhances B field: B=H
An E field is produced which
curls around the magnetic
field via Faradays law: x E
= -iB
This results in a voltage in the
coil: ( x E )nds=E dl =V
Since V=IR, current results in
second loop to light bulb.

The Earth Triple Transformer.


The interaction between an EM geophysical measurement
system and the earth can be thought of as an interaction
between three different transformer systems:
A transmitter coil and a receiver coil (measured primary field).
A transmitter coil and an Earth coil (producing scattering or eddy
currents in earth).
An Earth coil and a receiver coil (measured scattered or secondary
field).

This is signal we are interested in

The Earth Circuit


The simplified single
eddy current is best
represented by a LR
circuit.
Real earth is best
thought of as a series of
LR circuits.
Note- eddy currents that
are produced generate
secondary magnetic
fields that oppose the
timevariations in primary
magnetic field.

Geophysical Spectrum

General Spectrum

EM Spectrum

Classification of EM Methods
Magnetotellurics
Methods
Continuous
Wave Methods

Transient
Methods