You are on page 1of 46

INTRODUCTION

Hello
my
dear
second year students!
We are already in the
21st century. The period
where
tremendous
development has been
observed brought about by modern technologies. It
results to the creation of borderless world. However,
man is still searching about himself. There are lots
of queries about his existence as well as other living
things wherein their appearance becomes the
primary concern. Are you interested to find
answers? Come onexplore this module. This is
intentionally prepared for a special person like you.
Your questions about your similarities to your
brothers or sisters, to your parents or even
grandparents will be explained in a very light and
interesting way. It is expected that you can
demonstrate understanding on the Mendelian
principles of heredity. This can be done by analyzing
the Mendels experiments on garden peas to
illustrate Mendelian principles of inheritance,
identify the traits and solve monohybrid and
dihybrid
crosses
given
the
genotypes
and
phenotypes of parents. I know you can do all the
activities for one week. Just believe in your
potentials that you inherited from your parents and
1

with the aid of your environment. New technologies


are now available.
So get ready, do your best to surpass all trials
and challenges. I know you can do more than what I
expect. Later, youll realize that you win by default
as a genetic principle because the traits and values
you possess are enough to become dominant over
others.

STATEMENT OF
PURPOSE
What you need to know
Youll find genetics as
branch of Biology as interesting,
easy to understand and play
essential roles not only for
human development but also
some changes among living
organisms. As you go through
this module you will determine
the reasons why is it entitled Winner by Default: A
Genetic Principle. It actually focuses on how traits
are passed on from parents to offspring.
In order to achieve the purpose of this module,
here are some pointers that you have to follow as
you go over to this module:

Do not forget to take the pre-test. This is to


determine what you already know about
Gregor Mendel and his experiments with
garden peas.
Go through the pages one by one since topics
are interrelated and interconnected. If you
missed one page, you may not understand the
succeeding pages.
Perform the activities as instructed and be
sure to finish them.
If ideas are not clear, you can always go back
to the pages where they are discussed.
At the end of this module, do not forget to
take the post-test.

PREREQUISITE
SKILLS AND
KNOWLEDGE

What you already know

Before studying this module,


you
should
have
background
knowledge on molecular genetics
which includes the following:

3. Chromosomes

1. RNA
2. DNA

4. Proteins and expression of traits


5. Mutation

INSTRUCTIONAL
OBJECTIVES
What you should learn
After studying this module,
you should be able to
1. Trace the history of genetics
and give its significance;
2. Analyze
Mendels
experiments on garden peas
to
illustrate
Mendelian
principles of inheritance;
3. Identify the traits that follow
Mendelian
patterns
of
heredity ;
4.
Solve

DIAGNOSTIC PREmonohybrid and TEST


dihybrid crosses

genotypes and phenotypes of parents.

Lets check what you know

given the

I. Multiple Choice. Choose


the letter of the best answer.
Write the letter of the best
answer on the space provided.

________1. Who is considered as the father of


Genetics?
a. Charles Darwin
c. Gregor Mendel
b. Carolus Linnaeus
d. Hugo de Vries
________2. How can we determine the phenotype of
an individual?
a. test-breeding
c. looking
b. testing for linkage
d. back-crossing
________3. Which of the following does genetic trait
usually depends?
a. genotype only
b. environment only
c. both genotype and environment
d. neither genotype nor environment
________4. An organism has the genotype AaBb. This
organism produces gametes with how many possible
combinations of alleles?
a. 1
c. 3
b. 2
d. 4
________5. When two heterozygous animals mate, the
resulting offspring is expected to exhibit a genotype
ratio of
a. 3:1
c. 1:2:2:1
b. 1:2:1
d. 9:3:3:1
________6. The color of black coat in guinea pigs (W)
is dominant over the color white (w). A homozygous
black (WW) is crossed with a homozygous white
(ww). All the F1 generation will be heterozygous
black (Ww). If the F1 were self-crossed, the
genotype ratio of the F2 would be
a. 3:1
c. 1:2:1
b. 6:3:2
d. 3:2:1
________7. Which of the following refers to the
contrasting forms of genes?
5

a. alleles
c. factors
b. chromosomes
d. strains
________8. Which of these is a combination of the
dominant and recessive genes present in the cells of
an organism?
a. genotype
c. neotype
b. lectotype
d. isotype
________9. Which of the following is NOT a
Mendelian law of inheritance?
a. In every organism, there is a pair of factors
that control the appearance of a particular
trait.
b. The first filial generation does resemble
either parent. Therefore no allele is dominant
over the other.
c. During gamete formation, the pair of factors
segregates or separates from each other.
d. During fertilization, the genes come together
again to form new combinations.
________10. When Mendel crossed the yellow peas
with the green peas, the hybrids appear to be yellow,
then this character is said to be
a. Dihybrid
c. Monohybrid
b. Dominant
d. Recessive
11- 13. are about this diagram of a punnet square
M R
r
ale
Female
R

II

III

IV

________11. Which of the following is the genotype of


the offspring in box I?
a. R
b. Rr
c. RR
d. rr
________12. If R represents a dominant gene for
round seed and r represents a recessive gene for
that seed, which will be the genotypic ratio of the
offsprings?
a. 1:2:1
b. 2:1:1
c. 1:1:2
d. 3:1:0
________13. What percent of the offspring will exhibit
the dominant character?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%
________14. Which of the following serves as the role
of punnet squares?
a. assure the outcome of crosses
b. dominate the outcome of crosses
c. number the outcome of crosses
d. predict the outcome of crosses
________15. Which of the following deals with the
study of how traits are inherited from parents to
offsprings?
a. economics
c. politics
b. genetics
d. polygenic
II. Problem Solving (5 points each)
1. Provide the genotype of the given cross.
Yellow color in peas (Y) is dominant over
green peas (y). A homozygous yellow pea plant
is crossed with a homozygous green pea plant.
What will be the genotypes of all the possible
offspring?
7

2. In fruit flies, long wing (L) is dominant over


short wing (l). Two heterozygous long-winged
fruit flies (Ll) are crossed. What are the possible
phenotypes of their offspring?

Do you want to find the correct answers?


Of course youre very eager to know. You can
find the answers in the answer key at the last
page of this module.

How many correct answers did you get?


Well, dont worry. There are lots of funs in the
following pages. Are you ready to learn?
Good luck!

IMPLEMENTERS
What you need to prepare

Learning
Episode 2
Inventory survey
forms
Pen/ marker

Learning
Episode 1
Computer
Broadband/
Learning
Internet
Episode 3
Flash drives
2 paper bags
Ballpen
100 red beans
Paper
100 white
beans
Paper
9
Ballpen

Learning
Episode 4
Calculator
(Optional)
Paper
Ballpen

Are you ready to have fun? Be a


winner by default by exploring
the world of genetics with me
Enjoy!

10

MODULAR
PROGRAMS
Welcome
Episodes

to

the

Learning

Learning Episode 1
Gregor Mendel and the Science of
Genetics
Activity 1.1 Research Work
You can go to
library
or
internet caf to
gather
information
about
Gregor
Mendel
and
the science of
genetics. Trace
the historical perspective of this branch of science
and answer the questions below.
1. How did genetics evolved as one of the major
branches of Biology?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
11

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. Explain how genetics improved the life of
mankind.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Are you inspired in the life of Gregor Mendel?
Elucidate your answer.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
Things to Remember in Learning Episode No. 1

12

Genetics (from Ancient Greek


genetikos, "genitive"
and that from genesis,
"origin"), a discipline of biology,
is the science of genes,
heredity, and variation in living
organisms.
Genetics deals with the molecular structure and
function of genes, with gene behavior in the context
of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and
epigenetics), with patterns of inheritance from
parent to offspring, and with gene distribution,
variation and change in populations. Given that
genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can
be applied to the study of all living systems, from
viruses and bacteria, through plants (especially
crops) and domestic animals, and to humans (as in
medical genetics).

Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822 January


6, 1884) was an Austrian scientist and Augustinian
friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of
the new science of genetics. Mendel demonstrated
that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants
follows particular patterns, now referred to as the
laws of Mendelian inheritance. Although the
significance of Mendel's work was not recognized
until the turn of the 20th century, the independent
rediscovery of these laws formed the foundation of
the modern science of genetics. With the said
contributions, Mendel was considered as the father
of genetics

13


It was not until the early twentieth century that
the importance of Mendel's research and ideas was
realized. In 1900, his work was finally rediscovered
by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von
Tschermak.
Mendel's
results
were
quickly
replicated, and genetic linkage quickly worked out.
However, a period of tense argument ensued over its
significance between William
Bateson and Karl Pearson.
Ronald Fisher (R.A. Fisher) in
1918
used
Mendelian
genetics as the basis of the
start of the modern synthesis
in evolutionary biology.
Learning Episode 2
Mendels Experiment
Gregor Johann Mendel
used garden peas (Pisum sativum) in his
experiments. He chose peas because a) they grow
quickly; b) they reproduce by self-pollination which
indicates that pea flowers have both male and
female parts; c) possess characteristics that can
easily be recognized; d) pollination could be
controlled in this group of plants with minimum
work; and e) garden peas could also produce enough
offspring to conduct a study.
He started with pure tall plants and short plants
wherein he performed artificial pollination. The
pollen grains from the tall plants were used to
fertilize the ovules of dwarf plants. He then planted
the seeds that were produced. He was surprised
when he found that all the offsprings were tall. He
14

had also same results when he fertilized pure tall


plants with pollen grains from pure short plants. It
resulted with the concept that any cross between a
pure tall plant and a pure short plant produced only
tall plants. Furthermore, the concept of dominant
traits, recessive traits and hybrid evolved. Dominant
traits are those traits that appeared while recessive
traits are those hidden. Meanwhile, hybrids are the
results of a cross between parents differing in one or
more traits. The picture below shows the seven
traits being studied by Mendel.

To understand the experiment conducted by Mendel,


the following activities will enlighten you about some
concepts in genetics. This is based on your observation,
personal situation or even experiment on how traits are
passed from one offspring to another.

Activity 2.1
An Inventory of My Traits
You are going to work like
Gregor
Mendel.
You
will
examine first yourself then
15

answer the inventory survey form. This will give you


sufficient
knowledge
about
your
physical
appearance. Just answer the form full of confidence
and honesty. Remember that everyone is unique.
Materials
Inventory survey form
Pen/ marker
Procedure
Answer the survey below by putting a check
mark. Just decide whether it is yes if you posses the
trait and no if not.
Traits

Yes

1. I am left handed.
2. I have long eyelashes.
3. I have attached earlobes.
4. I have cleft chin.
5. I can roll my tongue.
6. I have straight little finger.
7. I have a dark hair.
8. I can see the colors red and green.
9. The hairline on my forehead is
straight.
10. I have rounded eyes.
Activity 2.2
Do I Belong?

16

No

Youre going to work with your classmates. You


can have minimum of three and maximum of five
members to determine your similarities and
differences physically. Enjoy working with your
group.
Traits

Names
of Ratio
as
classmates
compared with
possessing the the
opposite
traits.
trait.

1. Left handed

2.
eyelashes

Long

3.
Attached
earlobes

4. Cleft chin

5.
Can
tongue

roll

17

6. Straight little
finger

7. Dark hair

8. Can see red


and green

9.
Straight
hairline
10.
eyes

Rounded

Answer the following questions:


1. How many members in your group have each
trait?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

18

2. Is there any similarity in the results between


your table and that of other groups? Compare
the result with the other groups.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. What is the importance of having assessed your
traits?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. Is it possible for two persons to have exactly the
same observable traits?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
Activity 2.3
Who Am I?
1. Try
to
examine
some
of
your
observable
characteristics.
2. Identify the traits
that are similar to
your parents.
3. Fill in the table below to show the traits that
you and your parents possesses.
4. Put a check if the trait is present.
Observable
Traits
1. Earlobes
a. Free earlobes

Father

19

Mother

You

b.
Attached
earlobes
2. Tongue
a. Tongue roller
b.
Non-tongue
roller
3. Hand
a. Right handed
b. Left handed
4. Hair
a.
Naturally
curly hair
b. Straight hair
5. Dimples
a.
Dimples
present
b. No-dimples
Answer the following questions:
1. What traits do you and your father have in
common?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. In what way are you similar with your mother?
Father?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. What traits do you share with both of your
parents?

20

___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. Do you show traits not common to your parents?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Suppose you get married and have a child
whose traits are totally different from yours and
your spouse. How will you explain this?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
Things to Remember in Learning Episode No. 2
Gregor Mendel studied the
garden peas (Pisum sativum)
because
of
the
unique
characteristics essential in
conducting research.
There are seven traits of the
garden peas being studied
which can be a dominant or recessive. His
studies can also be applied not only in plants
but also among animals or even humans.
Learning Episode 3
Mendels Principles
From
the
study
conducted
by
Gregor
Mendel, he formulated the
following
hypotheses
or
21

concepts: the concept of unit character, principle of


dominance and recessiveness, and the law of
segregation. You can easily understand the said
concepts by performing the following activity.
Activity 3.1
Patterns of Mendelian
Inheritance
Problem
How does chance affect combinations of genes?
Materials
2 paper bags
100 red beans
100 white beans
Procedure
1. Place 50 red beans and 50 white beans into a
paper bag. Place 50 red beans and 50 white
beans into a second bag. Each bean represents
an allele for flower color.
2. Label one of the bags female for the female
parent Label the other bag male for the male
parent.
3. Without looking inside the bags, remove one
bean from each bag. The two beans represent
the alleles that combine when the sperm and
egg join.
4. Use a Punnett square to predict how many
red/red, red/white, white/white combinations
will be selected.
5. Make a table like the one shown with room for
100 data entries. Record the color combination
of the beans each time you remove two beans.
22

Then return them to their original bags and


shake the bags.
6. Repeat step 5 ninety-nine times.
7. Count and record the total numbers of red/red,
red/white and white/white bean combinations in
your data table.
8. Compile and record the class totals.
Data and Observations
Beans
Red/Red

Red/White

White/Whi
te

Total
Class Total/
Ratio
Analyze
1. Which combination occurred most often?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. If red is dominant and white is recessive, how
many plants have heterozygous genes?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. How did your predicted/ expected results
compare with your observed/ actual results?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. What was the ratio of red/red, red/white and
white/white?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

23

Conclude and Apply


5. What are the chances of selecting the same
color in a pair of alleles each time?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. Does chance affect allele combination? Explain.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. How do the results of a small sample compare
with the results of a large sample?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
8. Hypothesize how you could get predicted
results to be closer to actual results.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
Activity 3.2
Concept Map Making
This time youre going to
make a concept map about your
understanding on genetics based
on the experiments conducted by
24

Gregor Johann Mendel. The following diagram will


help you in performing this activity.

Things
to
Remember
in
Learning Episode No. 3
The Mendels principles include
the concept of unit character,
25

principle of dominance and recessiveness and


the law of segregation.
The concept of unit character states that within
the peas are factors (later to be called genes)
which control the expression of hereditary
traits, and that these factors occur in pairs.
Principle of dominance and recessiveness states
that one factor (gene) in a pair may mask the
expression of the other.
Law of segregation states that a pair of factors
(genes) is segregated, or separated during the
formation of gametes. That is, a gamete or sex
cell (an egg or sperm) contains only one factor
of the pair, and the other factor having gone to
another gamete. Furthermore, the composition
of one factor is not altered by the presence of
another factor of another trait.
Learning Episode 4
Applying Mendelian Principles- Test Crosses
Activity 4
Problem Solving
Answer the following
problems:
1. In pea plants,
having axial position
of flowers on stem (A)
is dominant over the
terminal position (a).
A heterozygous axial
flower position in a
pea plant is allowed to
26

pollinate by itself. Give the


phenotypes of the resulting F1.

genotypes

and

2.

2. What will be the genotypes of offspring from the


following matings? Indicate the frequencies of
each genotype among them.
a. AABB x aaBB
c. AaBb x aabb
b. AaBB x AABb
d. AaBb x AaBb

3. Given this cross, TtGg x TtGg, fill-up the


squares with the correct answer.
Ovu

TG

Tg

m
27

tG

tg

Sperm
TG
Tg
tG
tg
a. How many are tall green? Short yellow? Tall
yellow? Short green?
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
b. Give the phenotypic ratio.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
Things to Remember in Learning Episode No. 4

Steps
in
Solving
(Monohybrid Cross)
28

One-Factor

Cross

1. Choose a letter to represent the genes in the


cross.
2. Write the genotypes (in symbols) of the parents
involved in the cross (P1).
3. Determine the possible gametes that the
parents can reproduce.
4. Place these gametes at the top and side of a
Punnett square.
5. Fill in the empty boxes of the Punnett square by
writing the alleles from the gametes that
combine in the appropriate boxes.
6. Using the results written inside the boxes,
answer the problem given.

Steps in Solving Two- Factor Cross


(Dihybrid)
1. Select the letters to represent the genes.
2. Write the genotypes of (P1).
3. Determine the possible gametes from (P1).
4. Make a Punnett square. Enter the gametes.
5. Complete the Punnett square by combining the
gametes forming alleles on the appropriate
boxes.
6. Using the results from step 5, answer the
problem.

Terms Used in Modern Genetics


1. Genes are units of information about heritable
traits, transmitted from parents to offspring.
Each gene has a specific location (locus) on a
chromosome.
2. Mutation alters a genes molecular structure
and its message about a trait. It may cause a
trait to change, as when one gene for a flower
29

color specifies white and a mutant form


specifies yellow. All molecular forms of the same
gene are known as alleles.
3. When offspring inherits a pair of identical
alleles for a trait generation, we expect him to
be a true-breeding lineage. Offspring of a cross
between two individuals that breed true for
different forms of a trait are hybrids; each one
has inherited nonidentical alleles for the trait.
4. When a pair of alleles on homologous
chromosomes is identical, this is a homologous
condition. When the two are not identical, this is
a heterozygous condition.
5. An allele is dominant when its effect on a trait
masks that of any recessive allele paired with
it. We use capital letters to signify dominant
alleles and lowercase letters for recessive ones.
A and a are examples.
6. Pulling all this together, a homozygous
dominant individual has a pair of dominant
alleles (AA) for the trait being studied. A
homozygous recessive individual has a pair of
recessive alleles (aa), and a heterozygous
individual has a pair of non-identical alleles
(Aa).
7. Two terms help keep the distinction clear
between genes and the traits they specify.
Genotype refers to the particular alleles that an
individual carries. Phenotype refers to an
individuals observable traits.
8. P stands for the parents, F1 for their firstgeneration offspring, and F2 for the secondgeneration offspring.

30

RELATED
EXPERIENCES
Based
on
the
genetic
concepts in this module and with
your experiences as the best
teacher,
have
small
group
discussion or just have personal
reflection on the following:
What I know What I want to What I learned
about
know
more from
the
Genetics?
about
topic?
Genetics?

Think on the importance of Mendelian principles in


a real life situation. Explain.
31

______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_-

SUMMARY
______________________________________________________

Genetics is the science that


deals with the study of heredity.
Gregor Johann Mendel, an
Austrian monk, was the first
person
to
study
genetics
methodically through the used
of garden pea (Pisum sativum) plants.
Mendel chose the garden peas as his
experimental subject because of some important
factors. Seven traits were being studied
wherein the traits can also be either dominant
or recessive.
There are various traits that follow the
hypotheses or concepts formulated by Mendel.
These hypotheses or concepts are the concepts
of unit character, principle of dominance and
recessiveness and the law of segregation.
To determine the probable outcome of
experiments in monohybrid and dihybrid
crossing, a Punnett square is used. It shows the
phenotypes, or the effects of genes, and the
32

genotypes, or the genetic makeup, of the


organism. Mathematical computations are also
used for better analysis of ratios.

Were you able to perform all


the tasks? I hope you did the
activities with commitment and
dedicationCongratulations for
that

33

Now, its time to assess


yourself if you really learned
from this module by taking the
evaluative post-testGOOD
LUCK!

EVALUATIVE POSTTEST

Lets check your learning

I. Multiple Choice. Choose the


letter of the best answer. Write
the letter of your answer on the
space provided.
_______1. Curly hair is dominant over straight hair. If
both parents with curly hair produced a child with
straight hair, which of the following statements is
true?
a. The child is heterozygous for the straight hair
character.
34

b. One of the parents is heterozygous curly.


c. Both parents have heterozygous gene pair for
curly hair.
d. It is impossible for two parents with curly
hair to have a child with straight hair.
_______
2.
Two
gene
pairs
are
assorting
independently. A and B are the dominant genes
while a and b are recessive. Which of the following
is impossible to get?
a. an Ab gamete from an AaBb parent
b. an ab gamete from an aaBb parent
c. an Aabb offspring from AABb x AaBB
d. an AaBb offspring from AaBb x AaBb
_______ 3. Which of the following offspring is
produced if a heterozygous pea plant is crossed with
a homozygous short pea plant?
a. all tall
c. 2 tall, 1 short
b. all short
d. 2 tall,
2 short
_______ 4. What is the phenotype of this offspringYyss?
a. yellow, tall
c. green, short
b. yellow, short
d. green, tall
_______ 5. How many possible combinations are
formed if the genotype is TtSs?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 4
d. 5
_______ 6. Which of these pairs of genes are alleles?
a. RY
b. Rr
c. YR
d. Rt
_______7. Which of the following charcters in garden
peas is dominant?
a. terminal flower
c. round seed
b. green seed
d. short pea plant

35

_______ 8. What ratio of gene combination is


obtained between a cross of a pure tall and a
heterozygous tall plant?
a. 1:1
b. 3:1
c. 1:2:1
d. 2:2
_______ 9. You can find out if a tall plant is
homozygous or heterozygous by crossing it with:
I.
itself through self-pollination.
II. a homozygous tall plant.
III. a heterozygous tall plant
IV. a homozygous dwarf plant.
a. I & II
b. III & IV
c. I, II, & III
d.
I, III & IV
_______ 10. Crosses between F1 pea plants from the
cross AABB x aabb lead to F2 phenotypic ratios
close to
a. 1:2:1
b. 3:1
c. 1:1:1:1
d. 9:3:3:1
II. Analogy
1. Carolus Linnaeus: taxonomy; ________________:
genetics
2. same
trait:
purebred;
contrasting
trait:
________________
3. inflated: pod shape; green: ________________
4. dominant: expressed; ________________:masked
5. Aa x Aa: monohybrid cross; AABB x aabb:
_______________
III. Problem Solving. Solve the following
problems.
1. Mendel also performed experiments on hybrids.
Suppose you are Mendel and you are doing a
study on a flowering plant. Predict the colors of
36

your plants offsprings when you cross-pollinate


two hybrid red plants. Determine all the
probable genotypes and phenotypes.

2. Suppose you cross-pollinate a purebred blue


pitted bell flower with a purebred yellow
smooth bell flower. Blue pitted is dominant over
the yellow smooth bell. Determine the hybrid
offspring in the F1 generation. State the
genotype and phenotype. Then do cross study of
the hybrids. Determine the genotypes and the
phenotypes of the offspring.

37

ANSWER KEY

Pre-test
I.
1. c
11.
c
2. c
12. a
3. c
13. c
4. d
14. d
5. b
15. b
6. c
II.
1. Genotypes of all possible
offspring: All Yy
7. a
Phenotype of offspring: All yellow
8. a
2. Genotypes of all possible
offspring: LL, Ll, ll
9. b
Phenotype of all possible
offspring:
10. b
LL and Ll= long wings;Monohybri
d Cross
ll= short wings
Mendels
Activities 1-3.1
Principles
Answers vary. It depends upon the result of yourDihybrid
research or experiment conducted.
Cross

Concept of
Unit
Character

Principles of
38 Dominance
&
Recessivenes
s

Law of
Segregation

Activity 3.2

Activity 4
1. Genotypes: homozygous axial, heterozygous axial,
homozygous terminal
Phenotypes: axial and terminal
2. a. All offspring will be AaBB
b. AABB, AABb, AaBB, AaBb (25% of
each genotype)
c. AaBb, Aabb, aaBb, aabb (25% each
genotype)
d. 1/16 AABB (6.25%), 1/8 AaBB (12.5%), 1/16
aaBB (6.25%), 1/8 AABb (12.5%) 1/4 AaBb (25%),
1/8 aaBb (12.5%), 1/16 AAbb (6.25%), 1/8 Aabb
(12.5%), 1/16 aabb (6.25%)
3.
m

Ovu

Sperm
TG

TG

Tg

tG

tg

TTGG

TTGg

TtGG

TtGg

39

Tg

TTgG

TTgg

TtgG

Ttgg

tG

tTGG

tTGg

ttGG

ttGg

tg

tTgG

tTgg

ttgG

ttgg

a. There are 9 tall and green peas; 3 short green; 3


tall yellow and 1 short yellow peas.
b. The phenotypic ratio is 9:3:3:1.

Post-test
I.
1. c
II. 1. Gregor Mendel
2. c
2. hybrid
3. d
3. pod color
4. b
4. recessive
5. c
5. dihybrid cross
6. b
7. c
8. a
9. c
10. d
III. 1. Rr x Rr
RR, Rr, Rr, rr
3 red flowers and 1 white
1 homozygous red, 2 heterozygous red, 1
homozygous white
2. BB xbb
F1: BB, Bb, Bb, bb
40

Hybrid: Bb x bb
F2: BB, Bb, Bb, bb
Result: 2 heterozygous Bb, 1 homozygous BB,
1 homozygous bb
CongratulationsYoure really one of the
best. Just continue searching for truth and
be a winner by default

REFERENCES
A. Books
Abad, May C. et.al. Teaching Guide in Science
Biology. Batangas: United Eferza Academic
Publications, Co. pp. 160-171
Aquino, Jesunino R. et.al. (2005). Biology. Manila:
St. Augustine Publications, Inc. pp. 347-351
Bordador, Carmita V. (2002). Science and
Technology II- Biology. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 297- 301
Capco, Carmelita M. (2003).Biology .Quezon City : Phoenix Publishing
House, Inc. pp.403- 408

41

Olivares, Maria et.al. Science and Technology for the Modern World II.
Makati City: Diwa Scholastic Press Inc. pp. 200-202
Starr, Cecie. et. al. (2006). Biology Concepts and Applications with
Human Emphasis. (6th Ed.). Singapore: Thomson. pp. 152-158
________________. (2009). Biology. Mandaluyong City: Book Media
Press, Inc. pp. 166- 177
________________. Genetics: The Study of Inherited Traits. Pasig City:
Bureau of Secondary Education
B. Cyber Trip
www.amazon.com/Gregor-Mendel-Genetics-PortraitsScience/
www.scienceshorts.com/gmendel.htm
www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/mendelexperiments.html
www.wikinfo.org/index.php/Gregor_Mendel
EVALUATION SHEET ON THE MODULE
Name: __________________________________________ School: _______________________________
Position: _____________________________ Subject/s taught (if a teacher)_________________________
Date: _______________________________________ School Year: _______________________________
Age Range: ( ) 14-19
( ) 41- 45
Gender: ( ) Male
Civil Status: ( ) Single

( ) 20-25
( ) over 45

( ) 26-30

( ) 31-35 ( ) 36-40

( ) Female
( ) Married (no. of children) ________ ( ) Others ________

To the Students/ Teachers: Please take time to fill out this evaluation questionnaire. Your comments on the
module will help the writer in revising and improving.
PART. Instruction. Below are statements that refer to the module. Please circle your reaction to each
statement using the following code:
STRONGLY DISAGREE
(SD)
DISAGREE
(D)
AGREE
(A)
STRONGLY AGREE
(SA)
NOT APPLICABLE
(NA)
1. The language used is easily understood.
SD
D
A
SA
NA
2. Highly technical topics are well-explained.
SD
D
A
SA
NA
3. The objectives of the units/ modules are
SD
D
A
SA
NA

42

NOT clearly stated.


4. Examples/ exercises/ activities are appropriate.
SD
D
A
5. The content is adequate to meet the modules
SD
D
A
objectives.
6. Illustration/ diagrams help make the content
SD
D
A
clearer.
7. Instructions/ directions to SAQs and activities
SD
D
A
were clear, well-explained, and easy to fallow.
8. The SAQs and activities are challenging and
SD
D
A
thought provoking.
9. The materials and requirements required for the
SD
D
A
activities were easily to obtain and
were available in the locality.
10. The activities were easily to perform.
SD
D
A
11. Most of the module content are NOT new to me.
SD
D
A
12. The ASAQs provide clear explanations.
SD
D
A
13. The SAQs and ASAQs prepare the learner
SD
D
A
for the mastery test.
14. The topics are NOT presented in a logical order.
SD
D
A
15. Subject matter content of the module were
SD
D
A
interesting and challenging.
16. The evaluative activities embodied in the module
SD
D
A
were fair assessment to the materials presented.
17. Sufficient attention is given to issues related to
SD
D
A
the course/ subject.
18. The objectives of the module were met.
SD
D
A
19. In general, the material is attractively packaged.
SD
D
A
20. I would recommend the use of the module.
SD
D
A
PART II. Instructions. Please answer the following questions briefly and sincerely.
1. Did you feel the need for a human teacher while working on this module?
( ) NO
If not, which of the following approximates your answer.
( ) Module is clear/ self-explanatory.
( ) Im an independent learner.
( ) Anyway, there is a classroom discussion later on.
( ) Others__________________________________
( ) YES

2.

3.

SA
SA

NA
NA

SA

NA

SA

NA

SA

NA

SA

NA

SA
SA
SA
SA

NA
NA
NA
NA

SA
SA

NA
NA

SA

NA

SA

NA

SA
SA
SA

NA
NA
NA

If yes, which of the following approximates your answer?


( ) Module is not thoroughly explained.
( ) Im used to being guided by a teacher.
( ) I need verbal feedback.
( ) Others __________________________________
Are there parts in the module that need revision?
( ) None
( ) Yes
Specify the parts
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
What improvements in the module can you suggest?
( ) Correct typographical error (s) on page/s __________________________________.
( ) Add more graphics.
( ) Give more examples.
( ) Reduce the readings.
( ) Add more supplementary readings.
( ) Explain concepts/ content further.
( ) Simplify technical terms.
( ) Add more SAQs, exercises and activities.
( ) Provide references.

43

( ) Enlarge font size.


( ) Make a clear copy of the material.
( ) Make the language conversational.
( ) Others _______________________________________________________________________
4. Approximately how much study time did you spend on the module? Check appropriate box.
( ) 1 hour
( ) 4 hours
( ) 2 hours
( ) 5 hours
( ) 3 hours
( ) others __________________________________
5. a. What did you particularly like in this module?
( ) Relevant content
( ) SAQs and ASAQs
( ) Clearly explained
( ) Interesting subject matter
( ) Easy to understand
( ) Systematic arrangement of topics
( ) Attractive presentation
( ) Challenging
( ) Applicable to my work/ life
( ) Appropriate illustrations
( ) Informative
( ) others __________________________________
( ) Encouraging remarks
b. What did you particularly dislike in this module?
( ) Typographical errors
( ) Not relevant to subject/ course
( ) Too time consuming
( ) Too many readings
( ) Poor binding
( ) Unclear readers
6. What additional comments would you like to give?
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

Department of Education
Region I
Pangasinan II Division
BAUTISTA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Bautista, Pangasinan

Winner by Default:
A Genetic Principle
44

A MODULE IN SCIENCE II
( BIOLOGY )

Prepared by:

RITCHIE G. MACALANDA
SST- III
Consultants:

OLIVIA P. QUINTO
Head Teacher III-Science

EDUARDO B. CASTILLO
Principal

IV

TABLE OF
CONTENTS
Page
1

Introduction
Statement of Purpose

Prerequisite Skills and Knowledge


3
Instructional Objectives

Diagnostic Pre-test

45

Implementers

Modular Programs
Learning Episode
Learning Episode
Learning Episode
Learning Episode

10
10
12
19
23

1
2
3
4

Related Experiences

27

Summary

28

Evaluative Post-test

30

Answer Key

33

References

36

Evaluation Sheet on the Module


38

46