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Cheese belongs to a group of fermented milk based food products, produced by coagulation of

milk proteins. These are becoming popular due to their rising demand throughout the world. The
cheeses are also one of lifes wonders because they are highly nutritious, come in great diversity
of flavors, tastes and a variety of shapes. Many varieties of cheeses have been developed in the
world, which are classified on the basis of their form, manufacturing, ripening and chemical
composition (Walstra et al., 2006).
Mozzarella is one of several pasta filata or stretched curd cheeses that originated in Italy. The
name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot
water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties
(29).
Several recent investigations have shown a significant correlation between milk fat intake and
coronary heart diseases. Such studies have caused consumers to become more concerned about
their consumption of milk fat in cheese and other dairy products (29).
Calcium plays an important role in the functional properties of cheese. Recent studies have
shown that reduced calcium Mozzarella cheeses had improved softening, melting flow
characteristics and higher proteolysis. Mozzarella cheeses were made by direct acidification
using glucono--lactone or using starter culture. Milk was pre-acidified using citric acid and
acetic acid to a pH of 5.9 to lower level of calcium. Reduced calcium cheeses made with this
preacidified milk were compared with control cheeses made with milk without pre-acidification.
The level of reduction of calcium in final cheeses was approximately 45% [Thakur 2007] (29).
Proper melting of cheese is an essential attribute of Mozzarella cheese for its functional
performance on a baked pizza. This is influenced by fat content (Merrill et al., 1994; Paulson et
al., 1998), moisture content (Perry et al., 1997), combined fat and moisture content (Barz and
Cremer, 1993), sodium content (Paulson et al., 1998), total calcium content (Paulson et al., 1998;
McMahon and Oberg, 2000; Joshi et al., 2003a,b), protein-bound calcium (Walstra and Jenness,
1984), extent and type of proteolysis (Oommen et al., 2002), and the conditions of baking. An
increased meltability of 2.6 times was reported with the decrease of calcium level from 0.65 to
0.35% (Joshi et al., 2004). Such low levels of calcium are obtained when Mozzarella cheese is

made using direct acidification (McMahon et al., 2005). Decreasing the calcium causes an
increased interaction of proteins with surrounding serum, causing more hydration of proteins and
better melting of the cheese(30).