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Soaps, Detergents, Oleochemicals,

and Personal Care Products

Luis Spitz
L. Spitz, Inc.
Skokie, Illinois, USA

Champaign, Illinois

Copyright 2004 AOCS Press

AOCS Mission Statement

To be the global forum for professionals interested in lipids and related materials through
the exchange of ideas, information science, and technology.
AOCS Books and Special Publications Committee
M. Mossoba, chairperson, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland
R. Adlof, USDA, ARS, NCAUR, Peoria, Illinois
J. Endres, The Endres Group, Fort Wayne, Indiana
T. Foglia, USDA, ARS, ERRC, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania
L. Johnson, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
H. Knapp, Deaconess Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana
A. Sinclair, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
P. White, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
R. Wilson, USDA, REE, ARS, NPS, CPPVS, Beltsville, Maryland
Copyright 2004 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced
or transmitted in any form or by any means without written permission of the publisher.
The paper used in this book is acid-free and falls within the guidelines established to ensure
permanence and durability.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

SODEOPEC : soaps, detergents, oleochemicals, and personal care products / editor, Luis Spitz.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-893997-76-6 (acid-free paper)
1. Soap. 2. Detergents. 3. Toilet preparations. I. Spitz, Luis.
TP991.S6884 2004
Printed in the United States of America.
08 07 06 05 04 5 4 3 2 1

Copyright 2004 AOCS Press


I first approached the American Oil Chemists Society about a seminar on soap technology more than 15 years agoan idea which eventually launched four conferences
and three books. At the time, many firms had expressed interest in conferences and
publications devoted exclusively to the issues and advances important to the soap
industry, so I presented an outline for a comprehensive overview of soap technology.
The project was approved and the seminar took place on May 1 and 2, 1989, in
Cincinnati, Ohio. With over 375 participants, we had the largest attendance of any
previously held AOCS technical seminar.
The success of our 1989 meeting prompted three additional and expanded AOCS
conferences: Soaps and Detergents Technology Today (1994), Soaps, Detergents, and
Oleochemicals (1997) and SODEOPEC (2002).
This book contains updated material from some of the salient presentations at
the 1997 and 2002 conferences, including several new chapters.
Like its two predecessors, Soap Technology for the 1990s and Soaps and
Detergents: A Theoretical and Practical Review, I hope this publication will be a
valuable resource for those of us who are active in the increasingly interrelated and
quickly changing fields of soaps, detergents, oleochemicals, and personal care products.
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to AOCS for their trust, backing, and
help in organizing this series of seminars, and for publishing this book and its predecessors.
My gratitude also goes to all the contributors of this book for sharing their expertise for the benefit of all of us in these industries.
Luis Spitz
L. Spitz, Inc.
Skokie, Illinois, USA
es, there has been remarkable advancement in the field of biotechnology. The first
phase of genetic engineering in crops was centered on agronomic traits, whereas
the current trend focuses on value-added traits such as oil or protein content, modifications, or yield enhancement. This biotechnology advancement in conjunction
with the globalization in trade has resulted in the development of new opportunities and challenges for the industry and society.
Appropriate valuation and differentiation of these value-added quality products
around the globe pose a major challenge faced by large number of industries and
other grading organizations in different regions of the world. This is caused by differences in the technologies and procedures approved by various official agencies
for the assay of value-added traits.
Accurate determination and proper assessment of value-enhanced products are

Copyright 2004 AOCS Press


Chapter 1


Chapter 1 The History of Soaps and Detergents

Luis Spitz
Chapter 2 Soap Structure and Phase Behavior
Michael Hill and Teanoosh Moaddel
Chapter 3 Formulation of Toilet, Combo, and Synthetic
Cleansing Bars
Edmund D. George
Chapter 4 Comparison of Palm- and Tallow-Based Soaps:
Specifications, Formulations, and Performance
Ainie Kuntom and Luis Spitz
Chapter 5 Chemistry, Formulation, and Performance of
Syndet and Combo Bars
Marcel Friedman
Chapter 6 Laundry Products in Bar Form
Jos L. Berna, Csar Bengoechea, and Alfonso Moreno
Chapter 7 Multicolored and Multicomponent Soaps
Luis Spitz
Chapter 8 Raw Materials for Sulfonation and Sulfation:
Production, Characteristics, and Uses
Jos L. Berna
Chapter 9 Manufacture of Methyl Ester Sulfonates and Other
Norman C. Foster
Chapter 10 Household Detergents Production: Technological
Evolution and Trends
Icilio Adami

Copyright 2004 AOCS Press

Chapter 11 Oleochemicals: Physical Constants, Specifications,

and Product Stability
Donald V. Kinsman
Chapter 12 Palm-Based Oleochemicals: Overview and Perspectives
Tian Lye Ooi and Hamirin Kifli
Chapter 13 New Developments in Liquid Hand Soaps and Body
Wash Products
Robert. J. Jaworski
Chapter 14 Secondary Surfactants for Personal Care Applications
Minh V. Tong and Thomas J. Giese
Chapter 15 New Anionic Surfactants Derived from Olefin
Sulfonic Acids
Paul D. Berger and Gregory P. Dado
Chapter 16 Personal Care Products Based on Cosmeceutical and
Nutraceutical Ingredients
Shyam Gupta
Chapter 17 Certified Organic Personal Care: An Emerging Market
Peter C. Murray .
Chapter 18 Technical Aspects of Perfumery
Leslie C. Smith

Copyright 2004 AOCS Press