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Electromagnetic Wave -->defined as oscillations of the electric and

magnetic fields field or strength which propagate through free space with the
speed of light (3 x 108 m/s). -->used to carry signal by Earths atmosphere as
medium of tx -->classified as a transverse wave because both electric &
magnetic field oscillate in the dir perpendicular to the dir of wave propagation.
Electromagnetic Wave-->radio wave -->microwave -->Ray (Gamma Ray, XRay) -->Light
(Infrared, Visible, UV)
RADIO WAVE (or RF wave) is electrical energy that has escaped into free
space in the form of transverse Electromagnetic wave
MICROWAVE is an Electromagnetic wave that has very high frequency AND
very short wavelength -->P2P (sending and receiving antennas need to be
aligned) -->Easily interfere with other signals sent at same frequency range
-->Microwave tx lines are; Waveguide ,Planar line / strip line and Coaxial
conductor
MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS -->Satellite Communication -->RADAR
communication -->Cellular -->Telemetry -->UHF TV -->Mobile Radio
Needs For Microwave Comm -->Bandwidth multiplexing(Higher frequency
means a wider bandwidth can be used for data tx) -->Improving antenna
directivity(A short wavelength, enables the construction of high-gain antennas
that can radiate narrow sig beamwidth resulting in a good directivity.)
-->Reliability (Sig reception increases because the fading effect is less at
microwave freq) -->Economic (Smaller power required by tx and rx at
microwave freq compared to short wave) ;
Disadvantage -->Requires more repeater stations -->Not suitable for military
because of the short wavelength and compact circuit -->Produce heating effect
such as microwave oven
Hazard = negative/adverse effects ;
Radiation = is energy that transmitted through space in the form of
electromagnetic waves ; Radiation Hazard (RADHAZ) = the negative effects
that caused by electromagnetic radiation ; Electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
= Radio Frequency radiation (RFR).
CATEGORIES OF RADHAZ -->
Hazard of Electromagnetic Radiation to Personnel (HERP)-potential of
electromagnetic radiation to produce harmful biological effects in humans.
Hazard of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO)- potential of
electro explosive devices to be adversely effected by electromagnetic radiation
Hazard of Electromagnetic Radiation to Fuel (HERF)-potential of
electromagnetic radiation to cause spark ignition of volatile combustibles such
as vehicles fuels
HERP -->
Caused by the thermal effect of radiated energy when the body
absorbs radiation
two heating types: 1.) dielectric heating occurs at relatively low frequencies
(several kHz to MHz), 2.) induction heating occurs at higher frequency from RF
to microwaves. -->Examples: Eye damage, Skin Damage, Immune system and
other effects
HERO -->Effect of Microwave energy to ordnance like weapon system, safety
and emergency devices and other equipment containing sensitive electro
explosive devices (EEDs). -->Radiated fields can cause unintentional triggering
of EEDs
HERF -->Occurs due to possibility of accidently igniting fuel vapors by RFinduced areas during fuel handling operations proximity to high level RF fields.
(during fuel handling operations close to high powered radar and radio
transmitting antennas. )
HERF precautions -->Do not energize a tx (radar/comm) on an aircraft or
motor vehicle being fueled or on an adjacent aircraft or vehicle. -->Do not
make or break any electrical, ground wire, or tie down connector while fueling
Radiation Protection --> dont coming close to transmit antenna or any
microwave generators or propagating medium.-->In areas where high power
radar are used, the service and maintenance personnel must wear microwave
absorptive suit
MICROWAVE TX LINE -->TX line basically consists of two or more parallel
conductors that are used to carry signal from source to load
high losses -->Skin Effect -->Radiation Loss -->Dielectric Loss
transmission lines -->Coaxial Line -->Strip Line -->Microstrip Line
-->Waveguide
COAXIAL LINE -->TEM wave-->an unbalanced line because the two
conductors are at two different potentials --> For power transmission,
coaxial lines are used up to 3GHz -->For small signal transmission, up to about
18GHz -->used to feed balanced circuits such as dipole antennas or ordinary
parallel-wire lines
PLANAR LINE -->STRIP LINE -->MICROSTRIP LINE -->COPLANAR STRIP LINE
-->SLOT LINE
MICROSTRIP LINE -->Below 20GHz use Aluminium strip line -->Above 20GHz
use Teflon, Quartz or Sapphire as the dielectric-->Propagation mode is TEM
MICROSTRIP LINE Application: -->a type of electrical TX line which can be
fabricated using printed circuit board -->Lighter and more compact -->Higher
bandwidth than waveguide -->used as TX line as well as antennas, couplers,
filters, power dividers
STRIP LINE -->Dielectric subtrate used :Teflon, Polyolefin, Polystyrene -->
propagation mode Quasi TEM.-->used for frequency in the range of 100MHz
to 30GHz
STRIP LINE Application -->Used as filter, power coupler, power combiner
PLANAR LINES Disadvantages -->Lower power handling Capacity -->higher
losses compare to waveguide. -->susceptible to cross-talk and unintentional
radiation
WAVEGUIDE DEFINITION -->is a hollow structure that guide or transmitting
microwave signal from one point to another with low losses -->Constructed
from copper, silver , aluminium or brass and dielectric material.-->low
attenuation, low loss -insulated by gold or silver
4 types of waveguide -->Rectangular waveguide -->Circular waveguide
-->Ridged waveguide
-->Flexible waveguide
RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE -->made from cuprum, aluminium, or brass

Application -->used as connector between antenna and electronic equipment


-->used in laboratory -->Very stable - low temperature coefficient. -->suitable
for high power transmission
CIRCULAR WAVEGUIDE -->Lower signal att compare to rectangular
waveguide. -->using TM0,1 mode-->Capable to guide wave in small area - path
is easy to control.-->Capable control power better than rectangular
waveguide-->40 300 GHz signal flow-known as Milimeter waveguide
-->Unstable operation because shape has no curve/corner
Application -->used in limited/special application that need certain technical
shape and propagation mode such as RADAR
RIDGED WAVEGUIDE-->ability to control power is low -->Reduce the phase
velocity-->Higher loss than ordinary rectangular waveguide
Application-->Used as terminator due of its high loss and attenuation.-->Used
as impedance matching for two waveguides having different characteristic
impedances
FLEXIBLE WAVEGUIDE-->Power handling ability and SWR are similar to
rectangular waveguide --> attenuation (dB/m) is about 5 times bigger than
rectangular waveguide
Application -->used when several tx and rx are interconnected to a complex
combining or separating unit-->Used to connect between directional coupler
and antenna -->designed to isolate vibration, eliminate installation difficulties
caused by misalignment
WAVEGUIDE advantages -->Easier to fabricate than coaxial cable.-->No
flashover.-->Better power handling capability -->Lower power loss-->Higher
operating frequency
Discontinuities Waveguide components --> is a waveguide with irregular
shape -->occur when there is abrupt change of propagation path inside these
waveguide components-->Discontinuities will increase SWR-->To overcome waveguide components must be constructed according to specific dimension
WAVEGUIDE COMPONENTS-->Basic accessories (bend, corner, twist, taper
-->Attenuator-->Directional Coupler-->Slotted Line section-->Isolator->Circulator-->Mixer
BEND-->To change the direction of wave propagation at 90 direction -->EBEND & H-BEND
-->radius of curvature, R : R > 1.5b for E-bend & R >
1.5a for H-bend
CORNER-->To change the direction of wave
propagation at 90 direction. It is for signal with longer
wavelength -->E-CORNER & H-CORNER -->to cancel
the reflected waves from both ends of waveguide corner, the mean length, L,
between the junction is kept an odd number of the quarter wavelength,
g/4. Where n= 0,1,2,3.... g = wavelength in the waveguide

L 2n 1

g
4

E CORNER
TWIST -->To change the polarization of wave
propagation at 90 polarization. From vertical
(E-plane) to horizontal (H-plane) polarization
and vice versa.
L 2g

H CORNER

coupling a known fraction of microwave power to the coupled port in the


auxiliary line while flowing from input port to output port in the main line.
Types of directional coupler -->Two-hole coupler.--> Waveguide coupler->Microstrip coupler
ATTENUATOR -->are passive devices used to control power levels in
microwave system by partially absorbing the transmitted signal wave
-->designed using resistive films (aquadag) -->2 types: i. fixed attenuator
ii.
Variable attenuator
SLOTTED LINE-->To determine the SWR
(ratio Vmax to Vmin) and Load impedance, ZL
with
or without Smith Chart.
CIRCULATOR -->is a non-reciprocal
transmission device that use property of
Faraday rotation in the ferrite material->is
a multiport waveguide junction - wave can
travel from
one
port to next
immediate
port
in one dir
only.-->2
main classes:
i)4port
circulator:
based on
Faraday rotation
ii)3-port
circulator :
based on
cancellation of
waves
OPERATIONAL:
The
input from port n will come out at port n +
1
but not out at any other port.
APPLICATION -->Isolator - When one
port
of a three-port circulator is terminated in a
matched load -->Duplexer -In radar, are
used as a type of duplexer, to route sig
from the tx to the antenna and from the
antenna to the rx -->Reflection
amplifier- a type of microwave
amplifier circuit
ISOLATOR -->is a 2 port nonreciprocal device - produce a
minimum attenuation to wave
propagation in one direction very high attenuation in opposite
direction. -->used to protect
equipment on its input side from
the effects of conditions on its
output side

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Frequency MIXER -->Microwave mixer

TAPER -->To connect 2 waveguides with different Size


or
different shape. L 2g
E PLANE T-JUNCTION
(a) Power Divider -->When input through arm-H, the sig is divided into 2 at
junction and exit at the collinear arms with SAME phase.
(b) Power Combiner -->Both input sig into collinear arm must be out of phase
of 180o ,then, the sig is combined at the junction and
exit at the E-arm.
H PLANE T-JUNCTION
(a) Power Divider -->Input at arm then, the signal is
divided into 2 at the junction and exit at the collinear
arms with phase shift of 180o
(b) Power Combiner -->Both input sig into collinear
arm must be in phase,then, the sig is combined at the junction and exit at Htranslate the frequency of electromagnetic
arm.
signals. -->is a 3-port electronic circuit: 2
MAGIC-T / HYBRID-T
ports for the input, 1-port for output -->F out
Fin1 + Fin2 -->Nonlinear devices -->the
down conversion / up conversion
5 Propagation Modes -->Transverse
Electromagnetic wave (TEM)(Free Space,
Coaxial line)
-->Quasi TEM mode(Planar line)
-->Transverse Electric (TE)
JOINT / CONNECTOR
mode(Waveguide) -->Transverse Magnetic
Provide interconnection between waveguide sections with minimum loss and
(TM)( Waveguide) -->Hybrid HE
radiation. smooth mechanical junction and suitable electrical characteristics
(combination of TE and TM)(Dielectric Rod
(low external radiation and internal reflection).
TEM -->E and H field are perpendicular to
3 types of connector:--> Plain flange --> Choke flange --> Rotary joint
each other as well as to the direction of
CHOKE FLANGE -->depth, d = g/4, --> d+s = g/2 -->used for very high
propagation, z
powers to improve apparent contact of joint.--> used together with plain
Poynting Vector-->P(t) = E(t) x H(t) -->is
flange.--> more sensitive to misalignment --> used in microwave oscillator,
parallel to direction of propagation, but
amplifier tubes and coaxial rotary joints.
perpendicular to both fields-->
ROTARY JOINT-->low reflection, negligible power leakage -->used to change
the direction of microwave propagation between 2 waveguides by rotating one orientation/direction of the fields E and H
follows the right hand rules
with respect to other
DIRECTIONAL COUPLER --> 4 port waveguide junction -->consist of main line TEM PROPAGATION MODES -->2
boundary conditions - i)Electric field, E
(primary waveguide) and auxiliary line (secondary waveguide) -->Used for
must be in perpendicular (normal) to the

E arm
Collinear
arm 2
Collinear arm
1
H arm

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conductor surface
TRANSVERSE ELECTRIC(TE) / H mode -->E field must perpendicular to H
field -->E field components must transverse to propagation -->No E field in
direction of propagation - H mode
TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC(TM) / E mode
-->H field must perpendicular to E field
-->H field components must transverse
to
propagation-->No H field in direction of
propagation E mode
PROPAGATION MODES -->signal is
launched into a waveguide by a probe or
loop antenna -->TEm,n or TMm,n -->TX m,n (X
is;
E for Transverse Electric,TE , M for
Transverse Magnetic,TM )
SIGNAL PROPAGATION IN WAVEGUIDE WAVEFRONT -->Spherical wavefront and
Plane wavefront
FREE SPACE
WAVEGUIDE

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changes in wave
characteristic/parameter -->Type of
propagation mode:TEM into TE/TM -->
Wave Velocity -->Operational Wavelength
into guide wavelength -->Characteristic
Impedance
fc

c c m


c 2 a

CUT-OFF FREQUENCY,
fc -->the min operating frequency, fo which
allowed to propagate inside waveguide with
lowest att. -->fO > fC Rectangular
waveguide; -->a is always bigger

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than b in ratio 2:1 -->

A( dB )
is wavelenght

c cSmn
fc

c
d
Circular waveguide; Smn = Bessel value for
circular waveguide , d = diameter of circular waveguide
Why calc fc -->To determine the min operating freq, f o
that is allowed to propagates inside the given waveguides dimension at
selected propagation mode.-->If fo fc, the sig cannot propagates inside the
waveguide -->If fo > fc, the signal will be propagated inside the waveguide.->waveguide is known as high pass filter. It allows certain freq to exist in the
waveguide. -->higher operating freq,fo the larger the angle of incident wave
and the wave path between the opposite walls is relatively longer. -->When
operating freq,fo reaches the cut-off freq, fc of the waveguide (fo = fc), the sig
bounces back and forth between the sidewalls of the waveguide. No energy is
propagated. -->Therefore, the operating freq must bigger than cut-off
frequency (fo > fc).
c

c
2

2
fc
m
n

a
b

Dominant mode -->A propagation mode (either TE m,n or


TMm,n) that has the lowest cut-off freq, f c at certain waveguide dimensions -->is
a propagation mode that has the lowest attenuation in the guide
-->Rectangular waveguide, dominant mode is TE1,0. --> For Circular
waveguide, dominant mode is TE1,1
CUT-OFF WAVELENGTH, c -->the max operating wavelength, o that is
allowed to propagate inside the waveguide with lowest att --> O < C

c
d

f c S mn

Rectangular waveguide; a is always bigger than b in ratio


2:1
Circular waveguide; Smn = Bessel value for circular waveguide,
d = diameter of circular waveguide

fc

fo

m
z d dm

GUIDE
WAVELENGTH, g -->
a distance between the max
value or min value in parallel
with the propagation dir.
-->O < g
(C=f
0=C/f0)
p

c

1 o
c

&

c
f
1 c
fo

PHASE VELOCITY,
p -->the speed of the incident wave/
reflected wave to the internal wall.
-->Faster than speed of light, c and group velocity, g

/
2

ia
x
n

54.5 z
c

length of the guide.


( = attenuation factor =
,
z = length of the waveguide,
c = cut-off wavelength)
Attenuation in unit dB;
Attenuation Factors -->Reflection due to distraction, discontinuity, and
misalignment in parts of waveguide.-->Smoothness level of internal wall
surface.-->Conductor material of waveguide walls -->Dielectric materials
inside waveguide -->Operating freq of sys
MATERIAL SELECTION-->Low resistance material --Light material such as
aluminum
-->Non-corrosive material -->material plated with silver/ gold to avoid high
radiation.
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT -->the ratio of
magnitude reflected voltage wave to incident
wave is called REFLECTION COEFFICIENT (r ) &
can be represented by :
VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR)
-->A standing wave is formed by the addition of incident and reflected waves
and has nodal points that remain stationary with time -->VSWR is define as
the ratio of max of standing wave to the min standing wave pattern

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Microwave Testing Block Diagram


Microwave Source
a generator that generate uwave signal with frequency in uwave spectrum

Isolator -->To allow the wave propagates in one direction only. The waves
which travel in opposite dir will be attenuated by isolator ;
Attenuator -->To control the power level in the system to a suitable value ;
Cavity Wave Meter -->To measure the microwave frequency in the system.
Directional Coupler -->To divide the microwave signal with a certain power
ratio. ;
GROUP VELOCITY, g -->the speed of resultant
Power Meter -->To measure the microwave power in the system. ;
wave in the
Slotted line -->Used w Diode Detector to sampled the strength of the sig and
middle of the guide where the speed is less than speed
sent to VSWR meter
of light, c.
VSWR meter -->To measure the VSWR value that generated in the microwave
system. ;
377
377
Tuner -->To allow the correct frequency exist in the system. ;
2
2


f ZTE
2
2
Termination -->To terminate the system with a matched load
o
fc
ZTM 377 1 o 377 1 c

1
1
MICROWAVE Measurements --> i)FREQUENCY Meas, ii)POWER Meas ,

c
fo
c
fo
iii)VSWR Meas
i. FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT ->to determine whether the microwave
TE & TM
source gen a sig with a correct freq - also for source calibration -->freq is
CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE, ZTE & ZTM -->the characteristic impedance of measured by RESONANCE CAVITY WAVE METER
waveguide either for TE mode or TM mode. -->Determined by the ratio of E
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT - operation
field and H field -->In free space, Zo = 377
->volume of resonant cavity is controlled by plunger.->rotation of screw
-->Zo inside guide
micrometer will adjust the depth of the plunger inside cavity.
will change
->adjustment of plunger will adjust volume of resonant cavity. Hence,
according to the
freq of resonant is also varied.
z
->When resonant freq is same as the freq of microwave that propagates along
the waveguide, a large amount of microwave signal will be absorbed by the
cavity.->only a small amount of microwave signal will continue propagates
resultant propagation mode, either TE mode or TM mode
through the waveguide and sampled by diode detector
ATTENUATION -->is the reduction of the power through the device
ii. POWER MEASUREMENT ->is a microwave measurement to measure the
(watt)
power of microwave signal. ->Power is defined as the quantity of energy
2
dissipated or stored per unit time.
-->Power Meter measure low power. While, Calorimeter measure high power.
c
-->uwave power meter consists a power sensor which absorbs and converts
the uwave power to heat energy.
and normally defined in decibels(dB) of loss.-->occurs per unit
MICROWAVE POWER 3 CATEGORIES; i)Low power (<10mW) ; ii)Medium
power (10mW 10W) ; iii)High power (>10W)


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3 TYPES OF POWER
SENSOR ; i)Schottky Barrier
Diode ; ii)Thermocouple ;
iii)Bolometer BOLOMETER
->is a power sensor whose
resistance changes with
temperature as it absorb the
microwave power. ->2 types
of bolometer are Thermistor
and Barretter.
COMPARISON
THERMISTOR AND
BARRETTER
THERMISTOR ->A
semiconductor sensor
->Negative temperature
coefficient ( T R).
->Smaller, compact size and
easily mounted in
microwave line.->Non-linear
resistance change
BARRETTER ->A short thin
metallic (platinum) wire.
->Positive temperature
coefficient( T R).
->More delicate than
thermistor ->Linear
resistance change.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
POWER MEASUREMENT

SWR

Vmax I max 1

Vmin I min 1

iii.
VSWR MEASUREMENT
->is a uwave measurement
to measure the standing
wave ratio (SWR) in uwave
tx line. ->SWR is defined as
the ratio of max standing
wave pattern to min.>Standing wave is a uwave
signal which generated
when the terminator
is unmatched terminated.
(ZO ZL). ->Standing wave
can be
represent by voltage or
current
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF
VSWR MEASUREMENT
->VSWR is measured by
using slotted line, diode
detector, and VSWR meter
or Meter Ampere.
2 ways to measure
VSWR;
-Direct
method
(VSWR10)
-Double Min
method
(VSWR>10)

SMITH CHART ->is a


graphical aid for tx line
calculations.-> is a clever
tool for analyzing tx lines.
-> is a graphical plot of the
normalized resistance, r and
reactance, x functions in the
complex reflectioncoefficient plane. ->It is a
graph showing the normalized impedance, Z =r jx,
SWR and the reflection coefficient,
SMITH CHART FUNC/APPL ->Plot real, imaginary & complex impedance or
admittance.-> Find VSWR for a given tx line.-> Find the reflection coefficient.->
Find input impedance at any point in front of a tx terminated in an open, short
or complex load.-> Locating the distance of first maximum and minimum from
any load
STUB MATCHING ->When a line is matched the reflection coefficient = 0
and so the standing wave ratio, VSWR = 1. Most system are therefore designed
to work with VSWR as near to 1 as possible. ->When VSWR > 1, represent
mismatched and there is loss of power at the receiving end.
SINGLE STUB IMPEDANCE MATCHING
->stub-matching a complex load to the line is
achieved by placing a stub parallel with the line
and load, thus, it is convenient to work with
admittance

MICROWAVE SOURCES ->is a gen/oscil that gen uwave signal with freq in
microwave spectrum.
FUNCTION: Oscillator, Amplifier
2 TYPE MICROWAVE SOURCES -> i)VACUUM TUBE ii)SEMICONDUCTOR
DIODE
i)VACUUM TUBE TYPE ->MULTI-CAVITY KLYSTRON ->REFLEX KLYSTRON
->MAGNETRON ->TWT
ii)SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE ->CRYSTAL DIOD ->SCHOTTKY DIODE ->TUNNEL
DIODE ->GUNN DIODE ->VARACTOR DIODE ->PIN DIODE ->IMPATT DIODE
VACUUM TUBES ->devices used for controlling a large current with a small
voltage to produce amplification, oscillation, switching,
and other operations. ->used in microwave transmitters
requiring high output power. ->klystron, magnetron and
the traveling-wave tube widely used for microwave
power amplification.
KLYSTRON ->is a uwave vacuum tube using cavity
resonators to produce velocity modulation of an electron
beam that produces amplification.->used as an amplifier
or oscillator -> when used as an amplifier, requires at least 2 resonant cavities:
i)the Buncher cavity ; ii)the Catcher cavity
KLYSTRON AMPLIFIER: -> Amplifies uwave signal using velocity modulation.
->Forms high velocity electrons. ->Typical efficiency: 30% - 45%, Max 70%.
->0.5 6.4GHz.
TWO CAVITIES /

AR B R A
K
11
2 2

MULTI CAVITIES
KLYSTRON
->K - KATOD Memancarkan elektron
->A1 - Anod pemfokus

dan pemecut - Memfokus elektron menjadi satu alur


Memecut elektron-elektron kehadapan dgn halaju yg sama .

->R1 - Resonant Buncher Cavity - Merupakan bekas logam yang bertindak


sebagai litar salun.
Ia ditala agar freq salun rongga sama dengan freq isyarat masukan supaya
ayunan boleh terbentuk
->B - Drift Space - Ruang yang bebas dari pengaruh medan E dan medan H
luaran. Proses penggugusan berlaku di sini
->R2 - Resonant Catcher Cavity - Penguatan isyarat berlaku dlm rongga ini
akibat pembebasan tenaga yg banyak oleh gugusan elektron ke medan E dlm
rongga
->A2 - Anod pemungut (collector) - Elektron-elektron yg kehabisan tenaga
ditarik oleh anod dan dihantar ke katod.
REFLEX KLYSTRON ->Used as an oscillator.->frequency is determined by size
and shape of cavity.->Electron transit time is controlled by the REPELLER
voltage
KLYSTRON OSCILLATOR: ->Low power ->Low efficiency microwave oscillator
->Typical efficiency: <10% -> 4 - 200GHz. ->Type Po=100Mw
-> K = K above ; ->A = A1 above
->R - Resonant Cavity - Merupakan bekas
logam yang bertindak sebagai litar salun.
- Modulasi halaju elektron berlaku di sini Ia ditala agar frekuensi salun rongga
sama dengan frekuensi isyarat masukan
supaya ayunan boleh terbentuk
->P - Repellent Space - Ruang yang
dipengaruhi Medan E yang mempunyai
arah berlawanan dengan arah
pergerakan elektron. Proses
penggugusan elektron berlaku di sini
->T - Repeller Plate - Dikenakan voltan
negatif yang tinggi Berfungsi untuk
menolak elektron-elektron yang berlainan halaju balik ke Rongga Gap.

T
P
R
A
K

REFLEX KLYSTRON OPERATION: --> When voltage is applied to the cathode, the filament will
heat the cathode which causes the electrons produced. -->These electrons are focused into a
beam of electrons by the anode and will be accelerated forward at the same speed by Grid
Accelerator. -->Oscillating Resonant Cavity will produce Electric field in a narrow Cavity Gap. -->
Electrons beam that entering the cavity gap will having velocity modulation when
they(ELECTRONS) interact with the E field in the Gap. -->Those electrons beam will have different
velocity. -->Due to the difference in speed of the electrons and the direction of E field that contrast
with the movement of electrons causes the electrons are reflected back into the cavity gap by the
reflector plate (repeller). -->The electrons will a form a cluster and will deliver maximum energy to
the E field in the resonance cavity. -->The generated RF energy will be fed out through the
Magnetic Coupling Loop.

MAGNETRON ->widely used microwave tube ->combination of a simple diode


vacuum tube with built-in cavity resonators and an extremely powerful
permanent magnet. ->capable of developing extremely high levels of
microwave power ->When operated in a pulsed mode, magnetrons can
generate several megawatts of power ->is for heating purposes in microwave
ovens.
3 fields exist within a magnetron that influence operation: ->DC
Electric Field, D between the anode and cathode. ->AC Electric Field, E
produced by the oscillating resonant cavities and on the same plane as the dc
field. ->DC Magnetic Field, B produced by the permanent magnet which is
perpendicular to the DC Electric Field.
MAGNETRON
TRAVELING WAVE
TUBE

CRYSTAL DIODE
SCHOTTKY DIODE

Can be more than one major lobe. ->Propagates and receives the most energy.
Minor lobe (Secondary Beam): In direction other than major lobe
->Normally represent undesired radiation or reception.
Horizontal Plane @ H Plane @ Azimuth (see from the top)
Vertical Plane @ E Plane @ Elevation (see from the front)
2 TYPES OF RADIATION PATTERNS ->Directional = The radio wave is
radiated in particular direction. Antenna Dipole antenna, Horn antenna,
Parabolic antenna and so on.
->Omni-directional = The radio wave is radiated in all directions (360) or
circle. Omni-directional refers only in the horizontal plane. Antenna - Dipole
antenna, Quarter-wave antenna, Marconi antenna and so on.
ISOTROPIC RADIATOR ->Isotropic Antenna ->A reference antenna that has
Omni-directional radiation pattern in both planes (horizontal and vertical plane)
->is an ideal antenna that radiates power at a constant rate uniformly in all
directions. ->isotropic antenna is DO NOT EXIST
ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS ->FRONT-TO- BACK RATIO ->BEAMWIDTH,
->BANDWIDTH
->POLARIZATION ->POWER GAIN, G ->DIRECTIVITY @ DIRECTIVE GAIN, D
->ANTENNA EFFICENCY, ->EIRP ->EFFECTIVE APERTURE AREA, Ae
FRONT-TO-BACK RATIO ->two qualities that can be calculated:
Front lobe power
Back lobe power
300
Front to back ratio
6
50
Front to back ratio 10 log 6 7.78dB

2 antennas that could be a reference antenna because have omnidirectional radiation pattern; ->Isotropic Antenna ->Dipole Antenna
DIRECTIVITY, D ->D = the direction in which an antenna radiates and the
narrowness of the radiated beam. ->D = the ability of an antenna to focus the
energy in particular direction when transmitting OR the ability of antenna to
receive energy better from particular direction when receiving.

G D(unitless )
G 10 log D( dB)

POWER GAIN, G ->G = same as Directive Gain, D


except that
the total power fed to antenna is used. (which means the
antenna efficiency, is considered) ->For Omni-directional
antenna, the Gain is always unity, G, D = 1.
-->D directive gain ; antenna efficiency (0 ~ 1)

G
P
Prad
rad
D
Pin
Prad Pdis

GUNN DIODE

VARACTOR DIODE

PIN DIODE

IMPATT DIODE

BAB 5
ANTENNA- ->is a metallic conductor that act as transducer which converts
electric currents into electromagnetic waves and vice versa. ->capable to
radiate(tx) and capture(rx) the electromagnetic energy in free space or in
waveguide. ->is a transducer, an impedance matching device, a radiator, and a
sensor of electromagnetic waves
ANTENNA - Function ->Radiates energy w high efficiency. (several kW).
->Receive low power (mW) ->Provides a match between free space between
the receiver and transmitter in free space.
->Direct the radiation toward. the desired or filter radiation in the nondesired
direction ->As radiator - at transmitting end ->As sensor - at receiving end
->As impedance matching device
ANTENNA RECIPROCITY ->is a PASSIVE RECIPROCAL device ->is a passive
device because it cannot amplify the signal. However antenna has a Gain
(function as an amplifier ->TX antenna must be able to handle high power
->Received antenna
produce very small current
and voltages
RADIATION PATTERN ->is
a diagram or a graph
representing field strength
or power density at various
angular position relative to
antenna ->is a graphical
depiction of the relative
electromagnetic field
strength transmitted from
an antenna. ->could be
plotted either in polarcoordinate graph or in
rectangular-coordinate
graph
ANTENNA TYPE
->Quatrer-wave
Monopole Antenna
->Hertzian Dipole
Antenna ->Loop
Antenna ->Yagi-Uda
Antenna ->Horn
Antenna ->ParabolicDish Antenna
Major lobe (Primary
Beam):

measure of how
efficient is an antenna in converting all of its input
electrical energy into electromagnetic waves in
free space. -> = it is a ratio of the power radiated,

i)Front-to-Back Ratio = The ratio of the power in


the direction of propagation (front lobe) to the power opposite the direction of
propagation (back lobe).
->Front-to-Back ratio = Front Lobe Power / Back Lobe Power
ii)Front-to-Side Ratio = The ratio of the power in the dir of
propagation (front lobe) to the power in the side dir(side lobe).
->Front-to-Side ratio = Front Lobe Power / Side Lobe Power
BEAMWIDTH, ->the angular separation between the two Half Power (-3dB)
points on the major lobe of an antennas plane rad pattern. ->Half Power
Beam Width (HPBW) or -3dB beamwidth.
->Beamwidth is inversely proportional to antenna Gain, i.e the higher the
Gain, GP the narrower the beamwidth, . ->For omni-directional antenna, the
Gain, GP = 1, the beamwidth, = 360. ->Typical antenna has beamwidth in
the range of 30 < < 60.

BW

FINDING THE VSWR FOR A GIVEN LOAD


ANTENNA EFFICIENCY, -> = it is a

Front to back ratio

TUNNEL DIODE

NORMALIZE ADMITTANCE AND PLOT

FH FL
100%
FC

EIRP Prad DT
EIRP PinGT

Prad by antenna to the total input power, Pin. (Prad = power


radiated/transmit (W) ; Pin = power input (W) ;Pdis = power dissipated (W) )
->Unit less ->Values: 0 ~ 1 ->In percent: from 0% ~ 100% EFFECTIVE
ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER (EIRP) ->the equivalent power that an
isotropic antenna would have to radiate to achieve the same power density in
the chosen
direction at a given points as another antenna. ->D T = transmit Directive
Gain (unit less) ; GT = transmit Power Gain (unit less) ;
Prad = transmit/radiate power (W) ; Pin = input power (W)
EFFECTIVE APERTURE, Ae ->Ae = the area presented to the radiated or
received signal.

Ae kA

BANDWIDTH, BW ->The range of frequencies over


which
the antenna can operate correctly.
FH the highest Half power frequency in the band
FL the lowest Half power frequency in the band
FC the Center frequency in the band @ Optimum frequency of operation.
POLARIZATION ->the orientation of the Electric Field of an
electromagnetic wave radiated from an antenna. ->
4 types of Polarization ->i)Vertically polarized (linear polarization) :
-Antenna radiates a vertically polarized EM wave. -Example a dipole in vertical
position. ->ii)Horizontally polarized (linear polarization) : -Antenna
radiates a horizontally polarized EM wave. -Example a dipole in horizontal
position. iii)3. Elliptically polarized: -Antenna radiates electric field rotates
in an elliptical pattern. -Example a helix antenna. ->Iiii)Circularly
polarized: -If the radiated electric field rotates in a circular pattern. -Example
a helix antenna.

Ae = an area which extracts energy from the electromagnetic wave,


out
of total area of antenna. ->A = actual antenna area (m2) ;k = Aperture
Illumination Efficiency (m2)

Ae

PR
G 2
A R
Pd ,avg e
4

GR = Received Power Gain ;PR = Received Power


Pd,avg = Average Power Density
HORN ANTENNA - 4 type ->Sectorial E-plane Horn >Sectorial H-plane Horn
>Pyramidal Horn >Conical Horn ADVANTAGES: >Good directivity and gain
(less than parabolic dish) >Narrow beam width >Easy to manufacture and
lighter >Wider frequency range no resonant part >Low SWR.
-Widely used as UHF antenna and higher microwave frequency above 300MHz
-Widely used as a Feeder for large Parabolic antenna in Satellite, Astronomy,
Radio Brodcasting and communication dishes.
-Used as calibration antenna to measure the gain of
others antenna.
FINDING THE INPUT IMPEDANCE AT ANY DISTANCE FROM THE LOAD
Corrugated Horn Antenna - A horn with groove inside
the antenna -Usually in conical shape.
Advantages: have wider bandwidth and smaller side
lobes
PARABOLIC ANTENNA >Parabolic antenna is an
antenna that used parabolic reflector to radiate the radio
waves. >Parabolic reflector is a curved surface with the
cross sectional shape of the parabola >It consist 2 main parts >Feeder
>Reflector (Primary and Secondary Reflector)
4 main types of feed >Front feed (horn feed, dipole feed, omnidirectional)
>Offset feed >Cassegrain feed >Gregorian feed
Function: >Its function is similarly to a torchlight to direct the radio wave in a
narrow beam.
>To receive radio waves from one particular direction only.
Application: >Radio telescope >Spacecraft communication antenna >Home
satellite TV receiver antenna e.g ASTRO antenna.
REFLECTOR: >Reflector is a passive device that reflects the energy radiated
from feed into a concentrated, highly directional beam

Mi
Major Front
Lobe /
N
no
Mi
Main
Lobe
u
Circular Polarization
(a) Linear Polarization
(b) Elliptical (c)
Polarization
no
r
l
Si
r
ANTENNA GAIN ->GAIN the ratio between radiated power of an
l
antenna in the maximum direction with the radiated power of a
Ba
de
reference antenna that radiate in all directions (omni) as shown in
below figure ->shows a variation of Field strength and Power Density,
(a)
Polar
Graph
P.
Lo
ck
TWO TYPES OF GAIN IN ANTENNA: -> Directive Gain, D
->Power Gain, G
Lo
be
P
D
(unitless )
be
P
Major Front Lobe /
P
N
D 10 log
( dBi @ dBd )
P
Main Lobe
u
(1) NORMALIZE IMPEDANCE AND PLOT
DIRECTIVE GAIN, G -> D = the ratio of
the power density
l
radiated in particular direction to the power density
radiated to all directions at the same point by a reference
l
antenna. (assume both antennas are radiating the same

(b) Rectangular Graph

FINDING REFLECTION COEFFICIENT

d , ref

d , ref

amount of power). ->Pd power density of given antenna


at some point (W/m2) ; Pd,ref power density of reference
antenna at some point (W/m2).