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# These Notes Are Downloaded From www.toppersarena.

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Top Definitions

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## A line is a breadth less length

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A straight line is a line which lies evenly with the points on itself.

4.

## A surface is that which has length and breadth only.

5.

A plane surface is a surface which lies evenly with the straight lines on

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itself.

proof.

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## previously proved statement and deductive reasoning.

All attempts to prove Euclids fifth postulate using first four postulates

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geometries.

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Top Concepts

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## The edges of a surface are lines.

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Euclids Axioms:

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(i)

Things which are equal to the same things are equal to one
another.

(ii)

(iii)

amount results.

(iv)

another.

(v)

(vi)

another.

(vii)

another.

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## Magnitudes of the same kind can be compared and added but

magnitude of different types can not be compared.

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## A > B means that there is some quantity C such that A = B + C.

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Euclids 5 Postulate:
(i)

(ii)

## Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a

straight line.
Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn

(iii)

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(iv)

(v)

## If two lines are drawn which intersect a third in such a way

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that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two
right angles, then the two lines inevitably must intersect

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## each other on that side if extended far enough. This is known

as the parallel postulate.

## Equivalent version of Euclids fifth postulate:

(i)

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For every line l and for every point P not lying on l, there

(ii)

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## exists a unique line m passing through P and parallel to l.

Two distinct intersecting lines cannot be parallel to the same

line.

Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.

9.

8.

## from the point to the line.

10.

Though Euclid defined a point, a line and a plane, but the definitions
are not accepted by mathematicians. Therefore these terms are now
taken undefined.

Top Diagrams
A line

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A ray

3.

A line segment

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