of Topic:

1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

o) b) c) d) d) b)

Mechonisns of noss movemeni q) Whot is moss movement? b) Sheor strengfh ond sheor stress Types of moss movement

Flow Foll

Foctors offecting moss movement (noturol ond onthropogenic)

Effects of moss novemen-t Mqnogement of moss movement Mitigotion Meosures Responses to the effecis of moss movemenfs


the end of this seclion, you should be oble toi . Discuss the rnechonisrns of moss movemen-t . compore the inlensity of ditfercnt types of moss movemen-t . Discuss the foctors offecting moss movement . Discuss the effec-fs of moss movement . Assess fhe sirotegies used io respond ond mifigote to the effects of moss

Additionol Reodings/References



> } > I >

Clork ond Smoll (1990) Slopes and l,l/eathertng. combridge University Press: 6reot Britoin. Ch.3 Guinness & Nqgle (2OO4) Advanced aeography. Hodder & Stoughtoni London Murck, Skinner, Portee (1997) Dcngerous Earth: An fntuoduction lo 6eologic Hazards. John Wiley & Sons, fnc.: United Stqtes Nafional Lands/ide fnfornafion Cenler

hitp://-oeohozords.cr.usgs.qovlhtml f ileslnlicgun.hlml Overview of Engineeting Te.hniques fo Reduce 6roding httpr,/,/www.coostol.co.qov,/londf orm/attoch3.html
Geo Foclsheelt The Lqndslide Hozord (sep 2001)

q) Whqt is Mqss ,ilovemenf?
Mqss rnovemen-t is the downhill movenenf of rock ond regolith neor the Eorth's surfoce primorily under the influence of grqvity.

Moss movement is on importont port of denudotion, os it moves moteriol from higher elevotions to lower elevotions where fronsporting ogenfs like streoms ond glociers conihen pick up the mqteriol ond move it io even lower elevqliohs.

Moss movemen-t ptocesses ote occurring continuously on oll slopes; some processes oct very slowly, others occur very suddenly, often with disostrous results. They show greot vorieiy of scole, rote, moleriol ond resuliing

b) Sheor Strength ond Sheor Sfress
The detdchment ond novement of eorth mqteriols occurs if the shear stress imposed is gredler lhan the shear ttrength of fhe ndieriol to hold i.t in place. Hence, os long os sheor strength exceeds shear stress, the rock of debris will nof move.

Shear sttength is a meosure of the resistance of eorth moieriols to be moved downhill. Thus, the sheor strength of the moterioi is the mqximum resastonce fo sheor stress ond it depends on fhe inlernol cohesion ond internol fricfion of soil pqrficles.


fnturudl cohesion: produced by the interldqking of gronulor porticles, poriiculorly in cloyey soils ond rocks, which enobles the moteriols to res-f ct on ongle. Dry sond is cohesionless. Cohesion is independent of the weight of
rnqteriql obove lhe surfoce. The cohesion ond interlocking of soil porticles incredse the qbility of .the moteriol 1o stoy in ploce.

> Inlernal friction the resistonce of porticles of gronulor soil to slide
ocross eoch other. This component weight of moteriol obove the surfoce.

of sheor strength

depends on the

shear slress is primorily q functioh of the force exerted by the weight of lhe moteriol under the influence ol grovity octing in the downsloPe directioh. Grdvify is the driving lorce behind oll slope processes. The force of grovity is continuous, but ii con move moteriol only when it exceeds the cohesive strength of the surfoce moteriol.
The rotio of sheor strehgth lo shedr stress is the safety foctor.

Sofety foctor


!f;9s151194q1 Sheor stress


the sofety foctor is less thon 1, fhe slope is unstoble. equols to or obove 1, the slope is stoble.


the sqfety foctor is

The slope of the surfoce detetmines the omount of stress thot occurs on eorth moferiqls. As the slope 5ecomes sleepet, the sheor stress becomes lorger (Figure l).

Figure 1. Shedr stress increoses os the slope steepens

Wqfer odds weight to increose sheor stress bul olso octs fo lubricote the

The movemeni, especiolly in the cose of slides ond slumps, is olong o foilure plone. The foilure plone moy be q well-delined loyer of cloy or rock upon which sits the destobilized surfoce moteriol.
Humons induce mqss movemenf when subjecfing c slope to o lood thol exceeds ifs obility to resist movemenl. People building ho.uses on scenic hill slopes often find their homes lhreatened by o londslide. Undercuttinq of hrllsides during rood construction commonly crofes unstoble slopes, moking them prone

to foilure-


. I $ I

Corson ond Kirkby (1972) identified 3 moin types of rnoss movement: heove

f low

Figore 2. Corson ond Kirkby Clossificotion of il oss Movement

However, o 4'h type of mqss movement

ho s

been recognizedi Fo'll


Refers to ihe roising of porticles ql right ongles to the slope during exponsion of the ground qs it f"eezes. When the ground controcts (with the coming of spring ond worming), fhe porficles drop ver.ticolly to o downslope position.


Soil cleep Soil creep is one form of heove.It is o slow, sieody downslope movernent of soil, or rock, often indicoted by cuved ttee trunks, bent fences or reloining wolls, tilted poles or lences. Soil creep is neorly imperceptible to the naked eye qs types of moss movement.
6enerolly occurs in the top few melres of the surfoce.
Cloy soil (which is of high porosity) is poriiculorly susceptible moist clqy deforms slowly under grovitoiionol stress.


is ihe slowest of oll

io soil creep



,,€llr up {tla \---d\,.., .ain,Il tuet atay I -,--*. 11 ttoh, dope atnst* \


,/ rcq


] pt

doua uha,





wAf n"n"


| ,, *r*-, ]"*

Figure 3: Soil creep

Ihere are 2 mojor



of creep,l:oth resulting frorn repeoted



Soil creep during wei-dry periods: during roinfoll. moisfure increoses the volume ond weight of the soil, cousing exponsion ond upon controction, the soil
move downslope under grovity (Figure 3).

Freeze-thow: when the soil freezes, lhe presence of ice crystols increose the volume of the soil by 9%. As the soil exponds, por.ticles ore lifted ot rightongles to the slope in o process colled heove (Figure 4). When the ground ldter thows ond the soil controcts, these porticles foll bock verticolly under the influence of grovity ond so move downslope.







Olher foctors olso cohtribule to soil creep: growing plonfs exerting o wedge like pressure \etween tock porticles in the soil thus, cousing them to be disploced downslope; bur.owing orgqnisms disploce poriicles ond with eoch
movement, the force of grovity pulls the pdrficles downslope; undercutting from runoff ond sireoms, increosed loods of roinwoter ond snow, ond disturbance of slope surfoces by eorfhquokes ond conslruction by humons.

. .

regions, movehent is greotest in the uppermost 50 cm soil loyer onounfing io 1 - 2 rnm per yeor.

In temperote

of the

Evidence of octive soil creep: on occumulotion of soil on the up-slope side of fences, walls, hedges. curved tree trunks, etc. (Figure 5).


. . . .

Smoothens ond rounds the slope creep o.ting onthe upper slope where rqinwosh is ot o minimum hqs given rise to




creep leads lo o nofurol downslope increment of soil becquse the soil formed oi ohy point is odded lo by soil qeeping f rom obove. Therefore. the slope will need to be steeper downslope for lhe rncreosing omount of soils to 6e removed.

Figure 5. Effects of soil cre€p on surfoce feotures ohd bedrock. Sfeeply inclined rock loyers hove been drogg€d ove. fhe surfoce by creep so fhey oppeor fold€d.


Solifluction (soil flowage)

A speciolized, ropid form of soil c(eep fhot results from soturofion of the surfoce moferidl by neltwoter from snow ond ground ice.
Dorninont in polot / petiglo.iol oreos, such 05 Alasko ond Siberio, where groundwoter in fhe pore spoces of soil ond rock is permonently frozen. This loyer of permonently lrozen ground is the perndfrost-

Occurs when the fhow seoson leods to high soil rnoisture content becouse percolotion is inrpeded by the impermeoble permofrosl loyer. As meliwoler connot percoldie downword info the permofrost loyer, the upper zone of soil becornes complelely soturdfed, ond lorge oreqs ,of rcgolith will flow slowly dow^ even the gentlest slope.


. . .

Creoles on uneven ond hummocky tertoin where Ihe layers of rockond soil are very dislurbed ond distorted; vegetqtion is often disrupted os well Forms solifluction lobes, which ore round€d domes of soil or rocks _thot hove

\ been moved downslope by ihe Often the lobes hove flot tops known os solifluction terroces


b) slide

. . . . . . . .

Londslides comprise o cloy)

vorie\ of

ptocesses offecling weok rocks (sond ond

Londslides offect mosses of moteriol which generolly retoin while moving ocross o cleorly defined slide plone.

their coherence

Velocity is rqiher uniform throughout the sliding moss in mos-t coses. The movement is often ropid ds the occumulotion
plone is releosed.

of stress

obove the slide

They ote chqacterized by most of the movement toking ploce ocross q welldefined slide plone. Very shollow slides moy occur altet heovy roin, usuolly on cloy slopes ond involve moinly the weothered surfoce moteriql resting on solid rock.
Deep londslides usuolly occur ocross crcudte slide plones.

Londslides ore very sensitive fo woter confent, which reduces the sirength of the mo-feriol by increosing wotet ptessute in pores ond joints. This hos lhe effect ol pushing the particles oport. The woter cohteht olso odds weight to the moieriol so thot downslope force is increosed while resistohce (friction) is decreased.


Thete ore two mdin types of londslides: fronslotionol ond rototionol slides

Trdnsldtional Landslides

. . . . I I


translational landslides, there is uniforn movenenf in one direction wiih no rofotion.
Mosses move down ond oui by sliding on surfoces of weok weokness such os foults. joints, o cloy-rich loyer qnd soff rocks slipping off hord rocks.

A tronslotionol slide moy move qs long ds surfoce ond its sheqr stress still exisfs.
Include: Rock slide Debris slide

it sits on the downword-inclined


Pock slide

fs the sudden downslope

movemeni of detoched, individuol mosses of resistont bedrock (Figure 6) or large-scole movenenls influencing ldrge ports of o slope
Bedding pldnes ond joint plones ore inportont in ollowing the rock to frogment ond providing ready-mode slide plones over which deloched mosses coh slide.

affected by rock slide show the strong conlrol exeied by geologicol slruciure (such os bedding plones)

Exomple: The 1903 Fronk rockslide which occurred in Alberto, Conodo. This slide occurred ocross bedding plones in o steep onficline formed in the welljointed limes-ione of Turtle Mountoin, which wqs olso subjected fo mining octivify. The rockslade destroyed porf of the smoll town of Fronk, killing dbout 70 people.



Rock ond debris slides


Debris slides
The sliding moss moy deform ond disintegrote to form o debris slide.


Similor to rock slides except fot the moteriol involved which con consist of o mixture of rocks, soil, regolith ohd orgonic motter.
Exomple: Debris slide in Vdiont Dom, Itqly in 9 Octobe\ 1963. The dom wos built in 1960 ond the reservoir impounded 150 millioh m3 of woter. Heovy roins couse the collopse of the south woll of the dom ond triggered o debris slide (1.8km long ond 1.6km wide) thot killed neorly 7000 people in 7 minuies.

ii) Pototiondl ldndslides

. .

Rototionql slides move downword ond oulword on top of curved slip surfoces

Result is o poifern of scors ond depositionol feotures; the rnosf common is ihe spoon-shoped scor ossocioied with sheor foilures olong orcuote plones

. fn contrcst with lrohslotiohol

slides, rototionol slides move shorler distoncesj their orcuole movements tend fo res-tore equilibrium soon becouse the sheor slress decreoses ond the sheor strengfh increoses Rotdliondl slip


. Often ossocioted wilh permeoble cap rock (e.9. sondstone) overlying on impermeoble loyer (e.9. cloy). Ii offects ovet-steepened slopes such os morine
cliffs or octively reireoting escorpnents.

. . .

Coherent blocks of moferiol slip down ocross one or more converging slide plones (Figure 7).
As lhe block rnoves downword ond outword, it cornnonly rotdtes so ihof bedding or other surfoces ore filted bockword ioword the source.

Tilted bock-slopes


trop sediment or woter.


Figure 7- Rofotiohdl slip tdking ploce olong orcuote slide plones



Similo|to rototionol slips in some ospects but the coherence of the moss is lost. Although there is o slide plone, movenent tokes ploce os o flow especiolly neor the lower port of ihe slipped mcss or foe.
The rotqtiohol movemeni moves rndferiol from the highet Forts of the slope to the lower, ond fhdt the sediment thot wos ot the lower end of the slope is pushed oufwcrds, offen forming o lobe protruding ihto o vdlley.
Slumping producesr on orcuote scor, or disfincf curved incision, ot the heod where tnoteriol hqs been moved: o lineor tongue of mobile moterial ond, o bulging loe, i^ the lowen port of the slump, subjected to flow (Figure 8).

> > r

Exomple: 5lump in Ensenodo, Colifornio in 1976. Arcuate crocks o few hundred tnetres long begcn forming on o hillslope dt 90 to 120m obove seo level. As the crocks widened, most residenis evdcuofed their homes. Howevet, two people were osphyxioted during their sleep one night when the slow-moving slump severed the noturol gos lines inside their house. The body of the slump olso corried o 275m long porfion of Mexicon Highwoy 1 towords fhe Pdcific Oceon.


Flows ore moss movements

thot behove like fluids.

Moy occur simply ot the soturqted toe dislinctive tronspo[t type in its own right.

of o



moy form


Commonly occurs in thick weothered monlles confoining nuch soil woter. A flow hos rnoxirnum velocity neor the surfoce, ohd reduced velocity ot depth (Figure 9) ond is o slow continuous movernenf.



Figure 9. Conporison between the velocity ol flow ond slide ot eoch depth

A flow is nore continuous thon o slide ond less jerky. The rnateriols conprising q flow ore usuolly of snoll size (no lorger thon sond) ond would include soil, regolith or pulverized rock-

Figure 10. Diogrom of Flow

I . . . . .

Ropidly flowing moss of wet hoieridl thdt conioins ot least 50 percent sdnd-, silf-, ond cloy-sized porticles, typicolly following streom vclleys. Occurs when fine-textured sediment such os cloy ond silt become soiuroted ond flow downhill os the excess woter hos teduced lheir internol strength

Moy conlqin up to 60% wofer by weight. They ore more likely to occur qfter periods of intensive roinfoll, when both volume ond weight ore odded to ihe soil, giving it o higher woter content thon debris flow.
Trovel dt gredt velocities due to fhe high woter content Mudflows thot occur on the slopes of volconoes due to snowmelt during volconic eruptions ore called lahors.



Nevodo del Ruiz (1985) - The eruption of Nevqdo del Ruiz in 1985 ttiggered a lohor which killed 25,000 people in fhe villoge of Amero.

. /t4i Pinolubo, Philippihes

(1991) - In the fist few yeors following lhe cotdclysmic l99l e1ption, they ho"te deposited more thon 0.7 cubic miles of debris on the lowlonds surounding the volcono, burying hundreds of squore rniles of lcnd. Duning heovy roins, lohors ot Pinotubo cqn lTonsport qnd deposit iens of millions of cubic yords of mud in o single doy. Since the I99l eruption, lohors from Pinotubo hove destroyed the homes of more thon 100,000 people

I . . . .

Involves soil ond other loose sediments moving downhill in o viscous moss qt q much slower poce thon o nudflow Most of moleriol is silt or clqy sized. ond eorthflows occur on slopes of between -fhey 2" qnd 35". arc thick€r in consistency ond deeper.
They ore dssocioted with high roinfoll ond soturoted ggound.

Usuolly confined to o chonnel ond they lose their velocity guickly when they reoch o flot surfoce

. . .

Eqrthflows vary in speed from lm/day to several hundred m/hr.
Form distinctive lobes when they orrive on o volley floor Less dongerous thqn mudflows but they con roods ond roilwoys



infrqstrlcture such


I . . . . . .

Debris flow
Ropid mqss movenent in which loose ond unconsolido-ted soils, rocks, ond orgonic motte|ihot flows downslope ds viscous fluids, typically spredding ouf fron a river chonnel to form on olluviol fon.

Occur when loose moteriqls become unconsolidqted, resulting in q loss of cohesion ond internol friction belween the grqnulqr particles, so thqf on unstoble slurry mixfure is produced
Mqjor feoture in fhe tropics where th ey ore triggered by prolonged roinfoll

Debris flows with higher woter content move foster ond further from fhe originol source os compored to londslides
hove greot destructive force ond con temove latge boulders qnd hoqses from their poihs. They con olso couse high cosuolty rofes. Due Exornple: Debris flow oi Cordillero de lo Cosio, Venezuela killed olmosi 19,000 people in December 1999 (Figure 11)

io their high densities dnd veloctties, debris flows

Figure 11 December 1999 debris-flow dotnoge to ihe city of Corobolledo, north coost of Venezuelo.

> .

Deb s ovolanches
Moss novenents involving lqrge volumes of rocks ond debris thot breok up on impoct, but continue to lrovel downslope. They hove the gredtest impoct in populqted mounlqinous dreqs.



yungay, Peru (1970) - A debris ovolonche wos triggered on the norfhern flonk of ihe Rio Sonio Volley in the Andes of Peru on 31 Moy 1970. An eorthguoke dislodged on 800m moss of ice ond rock from the mountqin sumni-t of Huoscoron. This fell 1000m ond traggercd o debris ovolonche thot trovelled ot o velocity of 480km/hr. The town of Yungoy wos devosiqted ond 10,000
inhdbitonis were killed

Mont Blonc, Itoly (1717) - fn September 1717, o lorge debris ovalonche (of rock ond ice) fell from Triolei Glocier neor Mounf 8lqnc, Ifoly. Debris moved ropidly downslope reoching velocities up lo 3zOkm,/h ond fell over 1850m. As the debris hit the volley floor, it iroveled 6Om ond there it overwhelrned lwo entire villoges .


Foll Abrupt movements of moferiols thol become detoched f.om steep slopes or cliffs, moving by free-foll, bouncing, qhd rolling.


Pock falls The free loll of deloched bodies of bedrock through the qir from o steep bore rock slopes (ongles gtealet thon 40 degrees).


Occurs when o piece down the slope.

of rock on o steep

slope becomes dislodged ond folls

A rock foll moy be o single rock or o mcss of rock, ond the folling rocks con dislodge olher rock os lhey collide wifh the cliff. Eecouse this process involves Ihe ftee toll of rno-teriol, folls conrnonly occur whete lhete ote steep

Detoched rock frogments foll ond bounce (but hot slide) E.9. The foll of o 162,000 fonne noss of gronitic rock ot Glocier Point ih yosenite Nofionol Pork, USA, on 1O July 1996. fhe follen rock moss hit the ground ond creoted o mognifude 3+ eorthguoke. However, only one person wos killed by o lree blown down by the oirblost in froht of fhe fqllen rock moss.


presence of joints, bedding plones, foults and fissures offer lines of weokness olong which detochment of blocks occur. The greotest rock foll hozord exists when joints ond bedding plohes o.e inclined ot steep ongles, os in the highly folded rock in mountqin chains.
Processes possibly responsible

for initioting


rock foll:

> I > > >

Thermol frocture Freeze-thow cycles Woter pressure in pores or joints Pressure-releose jointing Chemicol octivity

of these processes ore clirnote-reloted, for p.g. o seosonol pottern of rock folls with o mqximum in sprihg ohd dufunn. Some rnojor folls moy be

triggercd by an externol evenf such os

on eorthguoke or severe coostql storm.

At the bose of rnosf cliffs is on qccumuldlion of follen moteriol te.med talus
(Figure 12). As the products of wedfhering occumulote on o hill slope, the dry, loose rock frogments will tend to occumulote ot o neorly uniform slope ongle inclined af whot geologists coll the angle of repose. This ongle is the steepest slope ol which loose moteriol, such os tolus, will rernoin oi rest without rolling further downslope. This is the inclincfion of o slope ot equilibrium. Ihe angle ol repose is commonly obout 30" for dry sond, but it vories depending on the size, shope, ond sortihg of the frdgnents ond the onount of moisture belween the groins.
Rocl( and

Figure 12. Folling rocks ond debris occumulote ot the boses of


os fdlus.

presence of tolus is dn indicotion ihoi folls ore on octive process on d given cliff, ond should oct os o wdrning fo people to be coreful. A vegetoled tolus suggests thof folls were once active in thot locotion, but ore no longer, since the presence of vegetalaon shows thoi the tolus hos beeh undisfurbed for long enough to ollow vegefotion to begin fo gro1t.



. . ,

Produces recession (relteaI) of steep rock wolls (cliffs) Provides debris which feeds the screes ond tolus slopes often found ot of o free foce.

ihe foot

Debris folls ore similor to rock folls, except they.involve o mrxture of
regolih . \ eget oI ion. ond rocks.



FACTORS AFFECTING MASS MOVEMENT Moss movernents vory in scole, roies of movements, moteriols ond in their resulfdnt londforms. Among fhe focfors thof affect slope siobility, the noture ohd speed of moss movemen-ts dre nofurol ond onthropogenic (humon-induced) foctors.


i) Naturol Foctors

o) . .

Slope 6rodient

Ihe steepet the

likelihood ond speed of moss moveneht as the sheor stress exerted by grovitotionol forces will be higher.
ongle, the
Eg. in mountoinous environmenls such os the Hitnoldyos ond the Andes, obout one

gteotq the

cotostrophic rock foll, which involves huge nosses

of moterial (up io

100 x

occurs per decode

b) . . . .

Type of ,iloleriol
Thin soils iehd to be more unstdble os they con only supporl limited vegefotion.

A porous ond permeoble soil, e.9. Sond, is less likely-to become soluroted thon impermeoble soil such os cloy. Unconsolidcfed sond hove lower internol cohesion ond lower sheqr strehgth ds conpored to cloy. Areas .oveted with thick sheets susceptible to flows ond slides


wind-blown loess

or tephro ore olso

Where the weothered loyer is very deep, or where rocks ore weok, the slope will olso be nore unstoble.


aeologicol sfructure
Geologic s-tructures

d strength

. .


tefet to the rock structure

ond sirengfh


of the rock or

Especiolly fovouroble to noss movenent ore mossive rocks overlying wedk rocks (cloy or shole); o clossic situoiion for slope foilure

. .

Porous moteriql qbsorbs watet.6e.oming heovier qnd prone woter lubricoies the sheer plone to focilitote movemenf

to novemehf. The

Slope foilure increoses when lines of weqknesses 0oints,/bedding plqnes/foults) incTeqse os these lines of weoknesses ollow woter to enfer


Climote Includes temperdture ond roinfoll which con influence weqthering processes ond slope slobili+y

. . > .

Weathering processes promole the physicol ond chemicol breokdown moteriols, which influences slope stobility Tenperdlure



Influences evoporofion rotes ond weothering processes such os fteeze-thqw ocfion ond thermol frdcture which in furn influences slope stqbility ond moss

I .

heovy roin or olternqte freeztng and fhowing leods to olternote exponsion ond controction of the soil which encouroges moss movemenl

. fn oreos thdt regulorly expetien e monsoon rainfqll

or tropicol cyclones, rock weothering con penettote deep 6elow the ground surfoce (up to 60m). These deep ond porous weathering montles ore olso prone to mqss movements such os


Moss movernents ore oflen ossocidted with heovy or persistent roinfoll thoi odds weight ond volurne to the soil The iniensity ond durotion of roinfoll greotly increases the likelihood of slope foilure by increosing the weight of moteriol ond reducing cohesion of porticles ii) Woter olso octs os o lubraconf to ollow porticles to eosily move over one onoiher by reducing friciion o.t the bose of \d hqss of rock ihrough increosed woter pressure iii) Sdlurqtion of sojl or rock leods to increose of pore woter pressures ond porticles gel pushed apori qnd lose contoct with one qnother. Hence, the more soturoted the moteriol, the more likely ii is to move


. . .

This soturotes the soil, increosing pore wotet pressure ond reducing the sheor strength of the soil, moking it unstobl€.
Heavy roin increoses the erosive power of cny river of the bose by removing moteriol, mokes lhe slope less sloble Heovy snowfoll odds volume dnd weight novenents such c5 ovolonches

of o slope


to the soil ond encouroges ropid




. . .

The mechonisms whete\y vegelotion influences slope stqbilify moy be broodly clossified os either hydrological ot mechdnicdl in natute.
tl,lechanicol foctors orise from the phvsicol interoctions of either the folioqe 9! root syslem of fhe pldnt with the slope. Hydtologicol rnechonisms ore those intricocies of the hydrologicol cycle fhof exist when vegelotion is present.

Hydrolog ic a I mec hanisn s : l4echanisms beneficial to slope stabilify:



Roinfoll on o vegetoted slope is portly intercepled by the foliage/vegetation conopy, leoding to loss of moislure through obsorption ond evoPordtion thof ultimotely reduce rhe qmount of roinfoll ovoiloble for infiltrotion. At the some lime, the foliage protects the soil ogoinst roin splosh impocf qnd trqnspirotion processes oid in drying out ihe slope. Roots extroct noisture from ihe soil which is lost to the otmosphere vio tronspirofion, leoding to lowe. pore-woter pressures.
hlechanisms adverse to slope stabi/ity:

3. On the ofher hond, presence of roots ond stems lends to increose the roughness of the slope surfoce, which moy leod to a gteatet copocity for

4. 5.

Root chdnnels noy olso contribute to the erosion of internol pipes in some soils. Prolonged extrdction of moisture by roots con leod fo desiccotion of the soil ond

crocks in soil. Once formed, such crocks moy increose the permeabilify ohd infiltrdtion cdpdcity of soil. formotion


|Uechahical mechdnisms :

l4echaisms benefrcial lo slope stability:

6. Plont roots bind the soil porticles fogether, ihus reducing the rote of 7.


erosion which moy olherwise leqd to undercutting ond slope instobility. Lorge toots, especiolly of trees, moy penelrcte deeply ond become onchored in firm strotq fhereby forming o supporf to the soil montle upslope of the ttee. Hehce, roots teinfotce the soil, increosing soil sheor strength.

Mechanisns adverse to slope stability:

8. yet 9.

on rock slopes, tree roots moy enien discontinuities ond wedge block opqrt, possibly cqusing the detochment ond foll of boulders. Vegetotion exposed to wind tronsmits forces into the slope, cnd if uprooting or overturning occurs, both increosed erosion ond infilirqfion noy result.

Figure 13. Sone €ffects of vegetotion on slope stobility.

f) I . .

Triggering Events
Earthquakes Eorihquokes moy releose so much energy thol slopes foilures of vorying types ond scole ore triggered sitnultoneously os sheor sfress is increosed

Intense shoking con couse o buildup of woter pressure in the pore spqces of sedimenl, Ieoding to liguefoction. fn other words, liquefocfion is nol qlwdys relqfed fo on increose in woter conlentj sometimes shoking couses the pore watet already presenf in ihe sediment to coolesce so thot the sediment groins lose contoct with one onother.


. . > . . . . .

l97O Peru Eorthquoke triggeted a debris ovolonche thot moved more fhon 3.5 krn down the sieep, rock slopes of Mount Huoscoron, reoching speeds of 480 krn/h. The villoge of yuhgoy wds destroyed ond os mony os 1O,O0O people killed.
1929 mdjor eorthguoke in northwestern Souih fslond, New Zeolond, friggered of leost 1850 slides.
Volconic Eruplions
Volconic eruptions olso frigger moss movement-

Lorge strotovolconoes consist of unstqble occumulotiohs of lovo flows, tePhro ond pyroclostic loyers ihdt forrn steep slopes. on ice-clod volconoes, slopes rnoy be ovetsteepened by glociol erosion. During on erupfion of hof lovo ond pyroclostic flows, lorge volumes of woter moy be releosed when fhe sumnit glociers ond snowfields melt, forming ldho.s (mudflows) thot rnove ropidly down volleys. Exomple; The Nevqdo del Ruiz eruption(1985) in Armero, Columbio generoted o lohor ihot killed 25,OOO people

9) Undercutting . Slurnps ond other lypes of .

coostol londslides con 6e triggered. by the undercutting ociion of o streom olong its bonk or by wgve oction olong o codst
Heovy rain incredses the erosi\e power of ony river ot the bose of o slope ond by rernoving mcieriol, increoses sheor stress, which mokes the slope less stoble

Un s upp


clil{ collapses

Hiqh Tide

Figure 14. Uhdercutting of


ii) Anthropogenic foctors (Humon Activities)

o) . .


of vegefotion

Through human octivilaes such


logging, overgtozing, ogriculture or

Surfoce moieriols become looser due to the loss of soil binding by roofs ond the slope is olso more exposed to the erosive oction of surfoce runoff.

b) .



Roods on Slopes by undercutting

Londslides often occur when noturol slopes hove been tnodified by humon ocfivities E.g. Where roods hove been cul in-io regolith, creofing on ortificiol slope thot exceeds ihe ongle of repose
The underculfing of o previously stoble slope is quite o common prcciice in the construction of roodwoys, especiolly in mountoinous lerroin. Londslides ore cornnon even.fs in the Himoloyos, especiolly during the high intensity roinfoll of lhe monsoon seoson. 5lopes become soturcted, there are mony foults thot could oct os sheor plones, ond thete ote oh incredsirg number of roods ond settlemenfs builf olong the foof of slopes overlooking river volleys. Londslides ore olso cornnon olong the coostol cliffs h,Jve 6een carved inlo deforned sedimeniory rocks-



of Colifornio whete toods


Adding Weight



Overlooding or odding weight to slope (building construction, woste dumping or o moss of excovoted moteriol ot the top of o slope) con contribute io slope

Urbonizotion ond residentiol development not only odds weighi through the buildings, increosing ihe grovitotionol lorce 6eing opplied to the slope bul olso through excess woter supplied from londscope irrigotion or seepoge from
swimming pools ond sewoge systems.


1966, excessi\e roin in Rio de Jqneiro cdused on over steepened slope, in o rodd cut, to foil. The rnoss of mqferidl overlooded the top of the slope ond coused o mojor londslide, killing 132 people.
On 5 June 1993, o rototionol slump occurred in the bock gorden of the Holbeck Holl Hotel in Scorborough. Although the couses of this slump ore ot leost threefold (soturoiion of boulder cloy on the cliff following o porticulorly wet spring, undercutting of the cliff by coostol erosaon ond the extrd weight of the hotel) there seems liltle doubt fhof the ptesence ol the hotel wos o significont conlributory fqctor in cousing fhe slunp.


Shocks ohd vib.otions

Abrupf shocks (e.g. explosion, operotion of heovy construction rnochinery, vibrdtion coused by heovy iroffic) olso destobilize slopes


Moss novements, especiolly londslides con suddenly rush down o steep slope ond couse greof desfruction ocross q wide qrea of hobitoble lond con couse floods by domming up bodies of wqter. This will result in o greot loss of lives ond property Domoges to buildahg struciures ond infrostructure Loss of productivity of ogriculfurol londs Loss of industriol producfivity 5ecouse ol interrup{ion of tronsporlqlion systems by moss movements 5low rnovement of creep does long lerm economic domoge to roilroods, buildrng structure ond underground prpes.



i) .

The likelihood of rnoss movenents cdn be reduced by increosing sheor strenglh ond reducihg sheor s-iress. This will reduce the chonces of slope foilure whrch occurs when sheor siress is greoter thon sheor strength.

. Wiih

coreful onolysis ond plonning, logether with oppropriote stobilizotion techniques, the impocts of moss moveneht processes on humons con often be
reduced or eliminoted.

o) Prediction ond Hozqrd


. .

Londslide control is most successful when combined with urbon risk ossessment ond londuse plqnning through the use of hozord mopping techniques, legislotion ond eorly worninq sysfern.

Hozord ossessnenfs posed by poientiol moss movement events qre bcsed on:


Reconstruction of similor posl events and freguency;


order to evoluote their mognitude


Anolysis of slopes to deiermine their susceptibility to destobilizing processes through the following pqrqmefers: geologicol doto (rock structure), geomorphologicol doto (slope ongles), hydrologicol doto (groundwoter) ond the seismicity (susceptibility to eorthquokes)

I . . .

Hazard nopping
Through the use of


(Geogrophicol fnformotionol Systerns)

Mops showing oreos lhot coald be affected by noss rnoven€ht e\ents ote imporiont tools for lond-use plonners.
Hozord zonoiion is inportont becousel .1. Vulneroble oreos con be identified ond developlnent con be minimized in fhese oreos .a. Ftequency of movement con be idehlified ond preventive meosures con be tokeh in odvonce


An ideol hozard mop should provide informotion on: d. Spotiol probobiliiy b. Temporol probobility c. Type of mcss movement d. Moghilude e. Velocity f. Runout distonce

@ 'E414

8ddrnfu h.:.d



Figure 15. A londslide hozord tnop

> .


The use of low ond reguldtion to restrict construc-tion in oreos risk oreos so thot domoges will be minimol


known high

For e.9. lond thoi is susceptible to mild foilures might be suitqble for some Iypes of development (e.g. tectealion or pork) bui not others (e.9. intensive ogriculture of housing).
Groding ordinonces such os the Uniform Euilding Code odopted in the USA ore importon t regulotory tools.

With the inlroduction of o gtoding ordinqnce in Los Angeles in 1952, losses ot new construction sites ore less thon 27". Befovihot, more thon 10% of


building lots were dornoged by slope foilure.

c) Slope Stqbilizotion Technigues

. In .

ossessmeni, prediction ond eorly worh,hg, sone e gineering fechhiques con be used to mitigote ot even ptevenl londslides. These include reloining devices; droinoge pipes; groding; ond diversion wolls.



Slope stobilizotion, olong wifh hozord-resastonf construction techniques, is the most effective preventave strdtegy for new development.

1, structurol Control


Enqineerinq Meosures

> . . . .

Pelaining structures

A reloining woll is o structure thot holds bock eorth. E.g. Piles, buttresses ond
retoining wdlls, geotextiles. Retoining wolls stobilize soil ond rock from down slope moverneht ond provide supporJ for verticdl or neor-veriico! grode chonges.
One of the most common opprooches is the use of concrete block wolls, poured or sproyed concrele (sholcrete), rock bolts or gobions (rocks conJoined in wire mesh coges) to sirengthen slopes Guidi^g structures near lhe slope bose, such os diversion wolls con deflect smdll debtis f low s el I ectiv ely.

unstdble slopes. The locotion

of properly

boundories moy olso

resfrict the




hrs opprooch

Figure 16. A reloining woll

Drdhage Mefhods include the removol of surfoce wotet.lhe dtainoge ol fension crocks, the use of droinoge pipes ond fhe insertion of ttenches filled with grovel or horizoniol droins.
Slopes thqf ore subjected to creep can be stobilized by drqihing woter from sofuroted sediment.



subsurfoce droinoge con be equolly effective where chonges in pore woter pressure hove been coused by d rise in the wote toble.

This is occomplished by the inseriion of permonenl droinoge pipes, often in
combinotion with o woll.


Properly designed ond constructed droinoge systems work well bui others soon \ecome clogged by fine porticles.

FiE)re 17. Droinoge conf.ol meosures
Oversteepened hill slopes ccn 6e prevenled from slumping to ongles equol to or less fhon the noturol angle of repose.

if they

ore regroded

This type of rcgroding is usuolly successful but fhe slide oreo increoses.


becomes more expensive os

Groding con be done through the use

excovotion ond filling methods to produce o more stoble overoge slope, especiolly ot roodcuts olong hill slopes.


Specific fechniques include unlooding the heod of o slide ond looding the toe, with .the replacernent ol f oiled moteriol with lighter loods.



Figure 18. Excovotion ond Fill lilethod


Rood Consfruction on Hillslopes


Diversion Walls
Downslope s-tructures con be prolected by consiructing diversion wdlls slope itself connot be sidbilized.




some mouhloin volleys subject to mudflows from qctive volconoes, resetvoits con be emptied so thqf doms will holf mudflows before they reoch populotion



2. Othe. ,l^eosures

> . > . .

Chemical sldbilization

e.9.Ion exchonge to improve the slobility of slopes

fncredse densify of vegefation cover This will increqse sheor strength if more ttees cre plonted in o plot of lond since vegetdtion binds soil togeiher which teduces the likelihood of noss

Vegetoiion conopy olso helps to protect the soil dgoinst roinsplosh inpoct which reduces the cohesion of the soil porticles.

I . .

Soil biotechnology or soil bioengineering syslens
These construction methods use moinly un-rooted cuttings, token from live plonts ond instqlled in the ground. The plont cuttings ioke root ond become estoblished on the slope.

These systems reduce surface erosion qs well os reinforce the soil. How effective the soil is reinforced depends on the depih of which the culfings cqn be ploced ond the depth to which roots will penetrote.


Peduce slrippihg

of ldnd


shear strengfh will increose
oyetgrszing is reduced




lond by deforestotion




to the Effects of Moss


> .

Disdsler Aid
fndividuol moss movemeht disdslers rorely ottroct ot)ention ond emetgency oid due fo fhe smoller scole losses os compored to othet geologic hozords.

. .







sheher, food, bosic hygiene

omenities ond medicol core.

E.9. the londslide disoster of December 1999 in Venezuelo prompted the nqtionol government to evocuote obout 130,O00 people fron the densely populoted northern coostol strip qnd relocqted them to less crowded ports of the country

End of Topic


of topic; ,tloss


. . . . .

Mass movement opplies fo ony unit ond controlled by grovity.

of novement of o body of moteriol, propelled

Moss movemenls con ronge frorn dry io wet, slow from free-folling to g.oduql or intermittent.

to fost, smqll to lorge ond

The ongle of repose of loose sedirneni groins represents o bolonce of driving ond resisling forces on o slope.

Vegetotion con influence slope sfqbilify beneficiolly or odversely.

lower pore-woter ptessutes ote beneficiol, while those thdt leod to increosed pore pressures ore odverse. Of the mechqnicol rnechonisms, those thot increose Sheqr resistonce in the slope ore 6eneficial, while those thot increose sheqr stress ore odverse.
people hove increosingly developed slopes, porticulorly in LEDCS, moss movements ore more common ond people ore increosingly more vulneroble.

The hydrologicol mechonisms thot leod


. As

Types of Mass Movements
Types of
Moss Movements
Soil creep

Noture of mqieriol


of Slope




(obout 5"

or more)

Chorocferis+ics of /llovemenl (speed, form etc) a slowest ol o role of less lhon 1 cn o yeor - huhid tehperote clinoles: 1-2 tnfir o
- +ropicol hulnid climotes:5nmoyeor a conlihuor.ts paocess +hof occurs ih the top few hetres of the surfoce



Triggering Processes




Repeo+ed expohsion ond

conlrqclion of porticles due 10 freeze-thow octioh r ol+erno+e wetting ond drying of

smoothen ond rolnds the slope


. .

formdtion of ndturol

convex slopes downslope


thermol expohgioh ond

controc+ion of rninerol groins biologicol activity such os wedging €ffect of plont roo+s, burrowing


occumulotion of soil formo+ion of

. .

ond trompling



underculting from runoff ond



Streoms high roinfoll or snow

r . eorthquqkes

oJ +tee +runks , fences, poles,

a corclruc+ion octivi+ies






soilond regolilh


siow but s ighily foster +hon soil creep . role ronging from 5


salurotion of soil by hleltwo+er froln snow ond grolhd ice durihg the +how seoson



a formotion of solifluction lobes ond sheets of debris ihot
aveatide one


Lewis Hills,6ros




so ifllctlon

iobeB, Jotunheim

Types of

Noture of mareridl

Noture of slope

Chorocleristics of
(speed, form etc)



Triggerihg Proc€sses





sudden lorge-scale lnovesrent on o relo+lvely



sudden shocks e9. EorlhqLrdkes

(formed by

floi incliied rock


4 berrd in 1903

such os Joinls, foLrhs ond bedding plones


b.eoklng !p of rocks

Debris slide

Property ard loss




Debris slide

shock eg. Eorthquokes


Ilo y

in 9


O.robet 1963

rnoveneht - (rhiforln


sLrdder shocks e9. Earthquakes




lnovenl€nt olong o well-

defined plofe

lohdslide in Moniand. 1959 (earihquoke): movemeni of 28 r'\i lioh cubic hetre



rolotion6l movernent -



moierio (cloy

nlovenrenl occurs olohg

orcuote sllde p ones

. .

sudd€n shocks e9. Earlhqldkes

Slunlp in

ot the !pper port


offiflciol nlodificolion of the

tilied bockwords wrth the ioe risii9 at the end

londecapa eq. Comtruction ociivities thoi overste€pen slopes, c{rttinq of

. undercutiinq of ihe bdse by streom ond wdve dctioh

at the s ope


bllging toe ihot



*9:{<i 5*
-e b-P

Er 9 :S I

5 5E 5E8

e hJ= a-3

?f ":€E

d$ .:



b€ J : Y'r-ilyr_,d;6 s s >I E ! o ; i 9 * b E e; 3 b + 5 s gri i I



.! b'=







i i











6g p&






E€9 :s

b Fe


o+ 9:i j E 9{f ;

=d! 9E



E; Po)9

Birs$!ebtE x -E 3
; nt*

tr -- " $Sf Ei q I < o 9 F t. i-€.!:-E3l9a c ;**;Ea



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tv) z



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€tI P-9b FRii.i?;:gP

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g, 3. 5_9

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100 feared dead as mudslides
100 lblians wcrc feaEd in a scrics ofmudslides seL otl by freak hea\a rarns in the southe.n region oI Canpania

hit south Italy




with he.!y rai.f,ll ovcr

The iesjon had beei douscd thc

Rescue workers used


,esierdiy. As hundreds oftrooF joined in tl'c rcscDc etron,

regional authorities and the llaliar govement were accused
ol failitrg b take steps
to tr€vent

helicopters 10 scour the st icken for slrvilors Anong rhc dead and nissi.g wcrc parie.ls and doctos at the Sanro hospital.


which Ms engul|d by



At le!s1 25 pcopl€ were conimcd dcad whilc 70 others
wcre tisted asmissins and leaEd

Tlre.ising dealh toll pronplcd


and abo!1 800 were madc

past corruftion in local government vhich alto*ed

to lioi.i drc n.ger al

bobeLess. louses, atarinent
blocks, ca.s dd 6re eDgines wre swcpr away in ives ofmud lhar

ProPeny developmenl in ddas oa

streaked thrcusb rhe towns ol Samo, Sieo and Ildclglituro nl the p.ovince ol Salerno ald ihe rown ofQulndici in lhe province of,{vcll'no Abont 2000 people had lo be evacuated in Sam0, rhe worst hil lown. ahcr lddslidcs

high risk. Cainparia is tronc t. l&dslidcs, which havc killed 3?2 pcople over ihe past 50 years


!a6ro Bertinoti, lhe le.<ler ol leii wins Rifondazionc


thc Primc Mnrisler, and

pirty, sajd thc ol Roman. Prcdi,

on lwo hountanB, Mourt


dd Momi Lc

Porche, tumed

re8ional adnnistrairon were 1o blane lor the mudslides &s tncy had nol car.jed out prclcnraiivc

\ork lter frvc

'The mounbnr opeEa up in Iive places hd a sca of niud
pourcd down likc lava,'cxplarned

yer killcd 20 people in

lardslidcs lasl


ih. rc\.rri uorkers

Ecolugical gtuups, inclDdlng W.'ld Widc Fund for N.ture


lhllt Le8dbrnre.
bur a

sdd fiar

the disdter 'was nor d naLuitl



dis$rd ctused h! dccadcs of ransacknre thc land
and sprawling construction

'n'ssng Qui.dici whilc at San Felce . Canccllo. neff Casede,

Lnndslidds and toodnr! lcft dead lnd scvenl !r


Among those criticised was

,veaFold womu va cushed lo death m her hone by a flood ol



Franco Barbei,,


UndeF Abour 65 pc' ccrt

sec€ory lor Civil Delence. who
.eplied that thee had bee. dcl.ys

ol ltaly


cldsed !s bcng al rsk

(!i7 nillion) elrhar\ed bJ authoritics i. Romc for won{ lf
Seven people


nakingivrilable 53 billion lire

died nr Sanro

and there *ere reports



ir 1954. wlct hcavy ranr brooghl tuas landslides which killed 205 peopld .nd nldc anolhcr 5466

fronr landslld€s Thc woNt dsrsler ol rli is rccoid happened



lour pcople dierl *hen


ueE car.ied a$ay by x mldslirir

oll w.nia, and hcr lhrc. chi[n0
oa a :14 yslr
aged bctwecr

'Ih. b.dics

.rllcn i.i a co'.nrissLo. .1
.pcred iuo

Lllgj iua ircdi, a scnrlor lor .tr.snon l.rzr lblrx pan!.
lxilianrenltty inqutrJ r! he th. srt.l .ivi

lour and

0km2A j

lasired oul rnlo

r s.cel

Il {oc

Bracrjrli o exrly lesterda! alLer r Dudslirle hiL Lh. village thc
prevrous nrghL Lhe aurho.ilics srld Anoll,e, trvo Fople werr

rdpo ca

b hrv..lLel ir




Newspaper articlc: 100 feared .lead as mudstio.s hit south ltaLv lSource:

In: tme. '

Nrar 19981


Highly dewloped

alluval fan, Caftballeda, Venezuela, aetial view laokins nafth

importan! ar€a ofnatural ha"ard research. This fact sheet d€scrib€s the alluvial fan €nvironment and
associaied hazards. with examples

material. A debris flow ilpically has the consjstency ofwetconcrete and moves at speeds in excess of 16

neters persecond


miles per hour).



Larye populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angelcs, Califomia, Salt Lake City, Utal, Denver, Colomdo, Naples, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. In time scales sparming thousands of years, alluvial
fans are dynamic zones

Deb.is flows are fast moving lafldslides that occur in a wide mnge ofenvironments. A debris flow is a Epidly rnoving mass ofwater and material $at is mainly composed of sand. gravel, and cobbles, but typically includes trees, cars, small buildings, and other antluopogenic

Alluvial fans are gently sloping. cone- to far-shaped landforrns created
ov€r thousands to millions ofyears by deposilion ofcroded sediment at the base of mountain ranges. They are easily recognjzed in arid, to semi-arid environments such as that of the westem United States; howeveralluvialfans can occur in more hn'nid


geonorphic activity. D€bris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these environments, and placc many comnun;ties at hieh risk duing inlens€ and prolonged rainfall. ALthough scientists arc constantly inproving their abilily to understand and deiineate areas ofhigh natuml hazard, population expansion and development pressure have put more people a! risk than ever before. Thercfore. debris flow and flash flood hazard analysis is a critically
US Deoanm
ol the

Ablique view laoking south at the Cudilleta de la t:ostu. Venezuela

"Dp"d "\ 2,0U nete6 ^tdorFtt" high nomtain range 16.6AA feet) fans wee heavily inp ted by ftaads and debtis lbw it 1999 caunsy of f Uftani. Univ{sidadde venezuela
the base at the

lod\d.dlL. dlfan



oD t

The alt




environments, including the northem coasr ofVen€zucia- Alluvial fans may be highly active. whcrc floods and debris flows cart occur episodically at any location on thc fbn suriace. Other alluvill fans are less acriv€.1vherc tcdonic uplift and incision have

flow is lastconfincd
by moDntain

.h,nneliz€d flows so tlralmuch ofthe fan is not affccled during floods.]'hc
principal natural hazards on alluvial fans are floods and debris flows that arc induced mainly by lntense and prolonged rainfall. Floods on alluvial fars commonly occur with little to no waming, and have high velocities and sedimenttransporting capabilities.
Water-generated natural hazatds on alluvial fans are!"ically relalively shallow but can strike wilh little wamlng, travel al high speeds, and car4' massive smounrs of sed;menl and debris- Alluvialfan floodins t_vpically begins at the hydrographic apex, which is lhe highest point wberc

multiple channels. Flooding is
cnough encrgy lo

shallow flow
depths. The abrupt Aetialvjew ol l:araballeda aluvialfan laakins south. shawil9 ar Estinated 1.8 nillon tans of fteshly deposied sednent that was sptead actu$ he hlghly ufianized cannunry by floods and debris flows n

during a flood may

subsbntially alter
hydraulic conditions and initiate new, distinct flow paths ol uncertain directioo. The uncertainry oflddslide risk csn blj heighteoed by scdiment deposidon in an alluvial fan channel, resulting in rapid overbank Ilooding ofa channel that wr-s
perceived as too large to overflo\!- Il is this floa path unceftainty that nrakes debr;s flou, anrl flood hazard on alluvial fhns extremely dangerous.

{#,. ".,r'..











The landslides and


flooding trigge.ed by intense rainfall nr

Severat hundred thousand people

live in a nanow coastal zone nonh


Calacas, Venezuela, in the state of Vargas. Located at the base of ste€p mountains that rise to elevations of more than 2,000 meters (6,600 feet), th€ population is highly vuln€rabl€ to episodic rainiall-induced landslid€s. An unusually wei period in Decernber

December 1999 were not unique in this region or elsewhere in
Venezirela. Sedimcnts banks

ofriver channels

prehisto.ic floods and
Ihis house was canied and rotaEd by debtis flows in Arabaleda.

999 included rainfall accumulalion along the Caribbean coast of200 mjtlim€ters (8 inch€s) on D€cember 2-3, followed by an additional9ll milljmeters (36 inches) ofninfsll from December 14 to 16. The rdinfall induced thousands of debris flows and other t p€s of landslides in the coastal mountains, and downslope, these landslides coalesced into massive debris flows that moved rapidly though steep narrow canyons ,nd onto tie alluvial fans- Residents with hon€s on the alluvial fans d€scribed nultiple floods and debris flows fllat began late on the night of December 1 5 and continued until the aftemoon ofDecember 16.

debns flows. Histori.al records indicate that.
on average, at least one

The landslides (mostly debris

flows) and flash floods along the coastal zone oftbe slate ofvargas and neighboring stat€s in northem Venezuela killed an estimated 19,000
people, caused extensiv€ ProPertY darnage, and changed hillslope,

or two high-magn iiudc flash-flood or landslide events per century have occurred in this regio. since the l?th century. Spanish archives indicate that flash floods and debris flows caused extensivc damasc

219 homes and goverunent

strean chamel, and alluvial ran morpholog/. Residents had little advance waming ofthe debris flolvs .nd n.sh floods ihar stflrck in the early hours ofDecember 16, so many were caught in their homes and their bodies were canied outto seaor buried by the flood debris.

buildings and destroyed aU bridges in La Guai.a in lebruary 1798; Lre floods and debris flows associated wilh this event were so iarge that Spanish soldiers placed cannons
cross,w;se in ftont of the upstrearnfacing €ntrrnce of a fon 10 banjcade the structure near the strcam channel.

A combination ofdebris flows
that transpoded massiv€ boulders, and flash floods carrying er.lremely high

sedim€nt loads, were dle principal agents of destruction. On virtualiy every alluvial tan alongtbe Vargas coastline. rivers incised new chamels into fan surfaces to depths of several
meters, and massive amounts ofnew sediment were disgorged upor fan surfaces. Sedirnent and debris,

including massjve boulders a5large as l0 meters {ll feet' in diairetcr. s erc
dcposited in layers up to seveftl meters thick across large poriions
Debis flow danage

?astan caused by


on alluvial tan, Carabal leda. Varyas

Venezuela Eouldets passed lxough the

fiat twa stuties af the builtlinA

thc alluvial fans east ofMaiqueria. Hundreds of houies, bridges and other structurcs wcrc damaged or destroyed. Total danage h Vargas was estimated ai $1.9 billion.






foundalan al lh3 hause and gatage


Canbaleda fhe santj. eTbbles and boultJets tD.n which the sttucture.ests aE an jtl debtis il1w

Irlanhew C larsen:, ccEld f. W onel7. L S..11 Eamn3, Bedani n A. [40.0a1, ar!


651tederal v., Sr r-A 400 15 Cmyiah,P!c1atu 009i5.llSA mcl sr@rqstuv

s ceoioo.i S{ruel Gr

bbpan D sn ri. CNI l]e.rer

Gcolo,oic, Suv.y R-arof,Vlninia !SA


[,ladisonUnive6qHarisorl!ru,!fi rr,



The definition

a common

lem used by many pcoplc 1o describ. a sudden \lopo failutu or c6llapsc, involving the dowDlrill tmDslerofnraterial, bod)
consolidaled and unconnn,ddlcd, mccnrnism: fall. slidc.nd now

by dnc or norc of thrcc


complelely alterins thc hndscrre ol e arca whilsl rDst landslidcs big and snDll occLr h remolc and uninnabitcd are6 where they present ltulc or nd hazrd Lr people, $c n.rcasing ulillsilio. of marenral laDd for setllemenl, Irirnnl8 a.d comnmicaliotrs hls led ro an incr€ase in the Imdsldo htz.rd

whilsr tbk umbrcllarype of den tion is perfeclly accepLble


considerins the hazards associated with slopc llilure, il is idrotult t) appre.irle tlat 6e lcnn 'landslidc'docs lmvc a vcry prccisc nrccl ical de6.i1ion in lhai il rs only oDe olsever,l specific tlTes or apid has nove eit fF,& /./, ils mair lcaturcs bcirei

Stutu 1: vaioat Resetvn Slid.,Itab', t96l Or E^Acbber t9()3 a h se sbb oltu k, :."1e 2Alrh ttid., slri dow d wfut sile ihlo dt liaioht Resnor'tFE 2) I/.'"ated a hq?wve t00nt

thd.wnopper! rhelan (untuzkglynot btuaki

. . . .

th. rolley belo\

It itroltet a


ne.ltutistn, olen dohg a


itrrddti Erilag4




git!)udnlry.di teqle


ofweaLie$ et


h is 6uotq a w!lai lon alhorcn. It ihralv6 kntendl that 6 n1arc. ar ks drr h wuat4, inr.ltes ttu lovllhil b.^1, alr larCel! coheteht Jlab ofhldterial, \|hj.h ntar then breok,p as it..nes to rest

6 o fou,

or a b.d.ling plane

FiE.2 Uaio,l &esmoir slirlz, hab



I Comnon tfpes ofsuddcn

mass movcm.nt

ro tihubr! caus.s? tlt t6ls wftd|,ptnstlowk lowanlt 4t" bor,, oJ lu tuIq.Mtiltt Mtwl slip pla"6. TLft \Erc dL\o lrtl lh.\ Natirg sla pld$. . r'tu tuI.! hrd Lr.. thc st.n. ofd pttriors lu ,ltlila nnl n th aftre tuck \'6 r 'ttrbk . The rc:arwir hd.l !.J to h thct 6c it arcu d\rd1tr p.i. .
What were lhe
olslope fa,llE illNblred in F,!: / dcu in isolaln,n Usu,lly indiliduxl dcnt rvill involvc . onbi.ntio. ollwo or Dorc qlcs of novemon for cxample a slnle will ft.qumr.ly hrve a 'flow componol paniculdly n tr irs roc rror tlis nasor I is nuppop'iatc in drc study ofslope haads, rvhere lne concem is abo $e impacr olslope flillre pdrplc, to $ick ri8omusly to dic tiglrt .rcchanical dcnrition. ds l,acrshect wc shall adopt ihc brcadcr dcfinition oldre Icm lanGlide', so all rlt tlTEs ol molem.nt shoLm in Fls / crn hc includcd
ln r61ity, Ibw oflhe $ecific





ds the


table ros.




Th. siteshorld netet hay blen cha:ch tnnjot ehgireeiht error

lbtd rcseno": itv's




. .

trhat wer. rc tiggartrcto$? Th(r pau,l te oflhe tqLnal in.trdsinat)ot tu.tpt?set b u lungenur l.v.l d .l redctitdthgah ald ttule

pdiod af hea\y rctnJa||
the cots.qa.rc.s?



is th. l.ndslidc hazard? l', irs brold sense, rhc&nrc, r Lndn c cm bu rh.ughr o1 trs ! suddcn lnd rurcipcctcd downnill novcncn( ol pan ol a hillsidc lr can bc a vcry rDall

d.rs lnadcn ti't6
at t :x1r,raswa


'!.r. 1,.a,. F








nLr( tuk L,e.n.o^tha.t n 1]u n nahnl li\ulter


in. onsc qucnrial c\

c ! sucl


clill.otlaps.ardEco6l, or

€n nvohe

llre catatrcDh,c novenent


huse chunk olnrounbinsidc,

The landslnlc hazarl
d'c past. drc landslidc hazard has bcetr sonrewhat neglect.d dd urdcrestimrtsd in lnatit has bcon li.tcd solclyraith thchiglr maenitudc. lo$ fr.quoncy events thal luve caus€d nassivc ioss ofltla, such as tho l96l Va,o.l Dam d6r{d n,Iraly, whc. ovd2000 pcollc fqkhcd lLl.art l]14 J) or lhc l9T0lluascanu rock avaiarchc in lhe teruvian A.dcs,
*hich rv,ped oullv. vilhgcs rnd killcd 25,000 lcotl..
Nlany p.ople, panicul.rly


Fig.3 Frciorr contribdln'g lo slope insrrbiliq:

cfclivcress of the
nrore likcly








slopc, lhc great.r will be thc pull ol sravity, tolknrg c.lltpsc is, h.wcvcr, wrore lo asumc drat


atenrion to drc

'n.dir, hdilnLs drt ..cur $






!olcr.oe\ orhuFicrnc\

NIL'ch ol rho dcrlruclion

a ...scqucncc ol c.rthquxkcs. dld loss ollifcllrl occu6

lray rptropri.tc

durina rh.sc dlcnG is oltcn d,rc.lly rlaled to slope failurc ranrcr nrar to gtuund sliaknig .r nnr and slonB w ds. All ioo ohen, lhe cfiecls ol Ihc landslidcs. h tcrns oflos ollifc finnncFl cosls, are lorrecordins ptrrtoses, $rbsumcd wiihin thc nr.in event itsclfind theefoE receivc lirtle acknowlcdscrrcntas a baard in $en orm nsh!. The result is ttol lddsldcs oftcnro l.pely utrccosniscd asse.ous and li€quenr nrrurnlhaaftls.




lrndslidcs arc onlyasociatcd wilh stecD slopes. /)'/a Rocls dillij in 6cn.bili(y lo lDld a sloNi grn.it. and lnn6bnc. for exanrple, r'ill hold a vcnical slope vidorr collaps,ng wh@as sands rd chys dc only irblc il llr slopc is a lorv turglc Rocks lnal arc loos. and uncoDsolidaled arc nruch more prone ro collatle R.ckjrhl[snni is nrlpon too, as wc.terrocks or lop of sNnaer rccks nay be prcne ro slidins o\er thc $de yins srdla ceotusiut ttruLtute |l\c dip al rocLs. or lhc frscncc ol inclbcd iaults. rviilinnuene lhe likelihood ofshdins. Hcivrly |raclurcd or cd rocks qill bc n.rc pro.c ro qcathcrn€ proc.s.s such rs nost snaftcri.e, making them wlnerble to collaps..



lotrs o. dr ul k$6 t or.xmph, nr an nrqukcpmneara,weshouldnot o lv build boNs tlft will sld$i{d shakiux brt we slould build ddn ir ald .way tuD lhe danscn olslop3 lailure llslor€ frilure scs uln@snisql {s a polential hu&l $en lhe ask ol,lnf,{cr is incMsul hgcly rhrough ,gnomcc.

Su.h tr'istolre'ntalion is dturgLrous in


studr.s, for il Esulis in a lack


n'ntu co"tent an.l pcthcobilit, W3rur conrcnl, or mlrc trcu,s.ly varcr pore prossurc, is rc.og.is.d as bcnrg o.c oi rlrc noli
impodnnt lacros in afiectinj. sloDe vulnembility. walcr scncs k) icducc llrc friclian ber$ec. panicles a.d n lubricares the sloD. p.omorinscollapse Thcmdjdiryollandsl,d$cdnbclinkcdtiltr'
picscncc ofwatel nr a slope. Retnowl of vesetalio". vegdldlio., prnicularly in tlle fom of irccs, rcduces 1he likelilood olslopc collapsc because

H,s thc lrtrdslide hazrrd inc.e,s€d? lteE {e sfleEl r6oN why dd lMdslidc lEtd hts i..rety{ n, 4ht yca: . L@se t)ot1t oJ th? w'lrt hdE bea opeEl rq li rcmnle expbitdir-,

Eenaali. d d inJ stttlw l&Aqn.nk ,1Mr thd w otu . tidaal b he Ende hnv lx.onlt.bthped, p ti'g nnnr ?.L?Luti:L . tnb iw itrt, ?aniculurt i| LttDCs, hu: l.d t tht t?rutul.J urlun

ninrall, uies w.icr to grorv and hclps
bcconcs more wlDerable to collapse.

parriclcs togelhc. if vecetalion n timbeior aor drc dcvclopnrcntofrski slopc, tlrc slopc immcdiately

bind soil and rock reDoved, for cxample, lnr



. .

ure^ o b hjlL-itL: ?rctiausl!.ottrLrcd too tuhgctols for hdl'naian t g in Litna, P.tu dnd llin de Johent. Brdil atul in llo\K.ry. Cauiul au: hdt. b.." ihct osiht, d.r.lap..l lor ittduirr od tonri:n, arl.lilfl..r!: ur pd nrlarb' rtlherabl. ta calhps. thnu aLt^iLr hr! nrarrcl vrh slnp. !tuft.s ad rr,c.scs Sl.rc: h.r.l.rh rnotltfrd c.! fot turtl l, llr\ ar.l tlrdi a!., trd th4t tno,lili.dLiahs ahl dh.r.tiohs r) thc notunl slat). srsta hz\e t h.,n!.1 \ (: nfld trd l\' r?q,rr.r t)f lor.tstt.l.t
r,trisr. r,orc p.opLc

slop. undscutlir!. ll a slope k 0.dercul, cilho !y DaLual processes such trs lluviilor mrn.c smsnin,.rby humln a.lions,


road buildnrg,


becomcs unslnble, incFasnrs rhc



6onra sr.nid nurnlis

those those

$ lar c!usrs landslidesl lr h po$lblc ro dislirrllrslr
contiliurlnE Io


ber\een n{o set


ol lirclo6, fimtly ol a l.ndslide, and sccoodly,

rcspoNiLl. lo, lri8ecrne thc laDdslide ilsell

i c.n\kntly clolving l.ndslrpc unir Ir i. a rcsNnsc b a nrruril sct ol tucrffs r.d cond tuns, such rs tuck tytc, vcgcrrrion cdvc. ..d climrrc, rnd non slopcs will rvcnlually Nhicvc a sirt oI b.l.n.c or cquilibnud H.lv.vcr it n a dyn.nic cquilibriunr 3s it is onl' vlcn
Aslopc ir

I. Co,ttibutoryJAdts-

ihc dcv.lopmo.i ol slopes bas increanal rr ycrA ior sctlcDrenl. resourcc cxploiklion rn{l injiAtucru,t deve)qlncn! noFs hilc bc..ni. n!.r.rsnrgly rbdincd, oncn maknre lk.r nrorc $hcrxblc lo collapsc.Ilouringdere lnDcnr ln' qinpl., b.i i,r.r.xscd tlr vciglfon nopcs: l irlerlcr.d wnhI r naluai dr? .Be syscnr.1hc duorti.g ol collieq Nx{. on rmcr sbpcr ir rodrcr \'.y lruna a.tions . pljt nMeascd pres$E on a sLol]c, 6 a( AbcrlD. In allen.|: slopc I'olilcs and F)rcss.s, dy sulo ol balan.o rhat rngl,r hrle cxhled is nnnr.dmrcly co prcmned lnndslides € nrcreasing beirg linled lo hum n ac1ivr1y, lbr exampl. lcaking titls, lhc .cnrral ol \cgctriid\ ard
L .oo onar pLL.r- .. e J ur rg lakc accounl olrbc Dossitrlc cllccrs ol{lovclopncnton in.rcNt'g tllc

Itz,t,u rrro,j ,\s



or o! . \l

r'. <.'i'

.ondnbns.llr.gc, cilhcr naturnll!, sDch as a for6t firc or cafhquakc, or as dr.suholhuhma.livit' llat thc stoN bccomcs usablc and rcsFnds by dilcntrgnsprollcinordcr lorchi$canewshteolbaldrear..Irr .r. 2. Ttigeo Dtethant a E .h lbdnide cvcntcan bc linkcd lo a l'loces lhal IDs tiiggercn ihc slopc lirild rqikt scvcnl proccscs car acl .s tieScs, srch as a pciod of

./,l T'o{Jr.r.trdsi.n,i ,r\.y '.'ll't1tr12\ l inmt! in gtuurl*akr'.1 ',.,o"ino rgg. pn:in is r.n!id.rc./ L'! sLp. . t 9\\.' b b! th( rn.rt L.nD o" tut!.ltd,rtst ta lht urldi , n \n1?r.anLdn? rt. bdkinrlai aspir)asa. .!olen,.li t hd^y rax4a En|]rtDna : rthjtdta b roi.dt ol int.Lt tklin. fu dn plc q,.lo .r .t ,bn\r. t drc t)aturrldtlf v ne,abl. t. lndtlid4 1\.se ttr'L\lider \t.r1 n trinr rtnbld) d\ a ft! t .l t ttt.:dtu Mix:h . Seienit a.th'itt. 71k ,ihanid6 tr:tLair !Lr| urtlqnaka! tnl vtu"i. dhi0frqtl( h hirsu land:lirla: t'r un cuihqrub tt.nt e|! .li.n b( h..L$..n!r.l lanlthl.s that eill.d^t Et?tt.n kas . l l ilL u l dtna tc 1. p'? r,..rr't r it is pa ii.rlarlt th..ns. ||Act sirs
u.l.laJ,! L,..o



shxrcn.g, slotc udcrcunnre by tie

sea or

vibntions caused by


th th. 19614laJknr

hqt./i.J A.|\lik ) ir t"st)ors.


M6w att, rd

shdki,E at \ns rtjudkut

The lrndslide hazard


can thc landslide hlzard be redu.€d?


Reducina rhe sio|c

h'2'd.xn hkc Ift



Sbuctural cryit.erhry t.spo s.s (p@ention)

ioural rcsponscs,

Nhich involvo rcdu.ire pcople s{rlncEbilrry lohndslidei ,nn or cneineerila responses, r'h,ch dcdcsigrcd to r.duc.lbe lik.lihood ola l.ndslidccvcnl occurnls Landslides nr rcmorc and unpopuldtcd arcasdo rot E|rercnr a haTrrd is su.h and c.n bc lar!.ly rSmred.


Srruclurdl r.sponscs. hlolvnrs sonrc loro ol .nsinccring, a,e lh. mon co'nDoD and lvldesp.crd ftspiin\cs ro rl,c landslidc hrzat(l Thc us. o1 rc umnon rdnriqos s(ccl pi.r, Rrc cagcs .nd rclinlg arc. a€. aimcd ar nabilisins a slop€or rcdu.ing rl[ cfii.ts ol$allsctrle collapsc, d) is a tunld.onnnor su.h rs rocklalk. lnrrcvhs sloDe drinar:e



l,nl ncps in hazxnl nnig.tiod ls lhc lannslidc hazad map lhesc nllN rrc connrucrcd lollowiru cxrcnsnc cnsi.ccin! survcys olcucot slopc chaftctcisiics, bgcrlrcr $ill cvidcncc ol pasl landshle lcrility. Tne linished nlls nrdicalc rhose areas rl slerresr risr li'onr hndslidcs and. iluscd !Lotcrly in rbs rlan.t,g lroccs, snould scNc to rednce the llndslde hazard by
Orc of rlre mosl impotunL

t. Behdriount rcspons6 (a,oilanc4 cton ol



Fig. 5 j\t€thods of slope sr.bilisittun.

kccpins people a{ay lron rhc

n!^l lulncriblc sl.p.s

Landshdc baza'd Dal,t,na is rscll dcvclopcd nr nany I[rts ofdrc w.rld how.vcr $oh sur!.ys are expeDsive and requrc consideriblc tcnnicrl expedisc Thcy !ls) rcquft plbnds Io rcspond apt&prialcly to lhcir lindnres, whi.h ls nol alval,s rbc c"sevhc. prcs:u.c lnrdcvclopmcn( is hiah Urbdn sprdwl omo mareinal lrillsides incities such $ Cnracas fc6c ,!r,/f l) occu6 bec.us rhc sho rcmr dcDrnds lar housing dnd lmd {urvcrsh rhc p.$ible problcnrs associarcd wilb a landslide, which, of coursc,nrshtneverluppen.Nevenhcl€ss.rlnsvcrybasiclevcl,plaMcn do hrve r duty to oltcr advi.c to pco|lc and 10 hclp thc'n rccogDisc Ihc rosr bl.tantly dang.rous slopcs, {hich should be rvoidrd rorhabihd.n

S.i.rnn. noflnorn,e can be ettcclilc m prcdicdr8 lrd5lidcs lnshacnrs moni!' gJund dchnnrt.n, gmundrvilci picsurr ard rc .xprnsni ol.rack.rd fisurcs. llowelc't Lhe hndsllc cvcnrs lbcDsehcs irt onen so $ dco rs !r givc Do *minA Thcrclnrc, n$ iGi.g can orlt rus!.$thc lik.lihood olcolhrs.- il cxnnot p'o e a rclirblc ri'ncsalc
can be used to

Cts. StutU 2: IIMr Et*t stop. st'bitisutit



IriC- 6

lntrrovn,s slopc dnn,rge.

Dt 4: n torlrr<tu.r rl ntt h!r\ Pt ,ift nn r^rur,:)hulldr ltrntlltr .tt ,&! o o[ th. ,(\U .u1 n.t6. i1 on'L)irrtiat oJ :tnd(t.l nt&!n?s \4s slh\.qrotLr. Vloftl t. lahiht! thr ll.pc
I tt. 1 lloa. Ldcr,Irp. ldbni\ i r.




lutttr sti^ tak s pkr.
A tu.k L,unrcst


a"st../ ttupnf L ru: l.*.ttd b ftnt.c

thc ltk.lihDod


iat tonrruttulb k !u: u \rrlldt

th( hu:tor





r'.tc dtlat:hrd

wll rnt t\ld i) !!&t h) 1t .:drL u .tn thut b. lqo ofiablr'tuhbn i l,!lor,1h. st1\,1n

conno. wilh allfonns ofhazad manrgcmcnl, a c.sl l,cdcil analysis nceds to be conducrcd bcrrc.nginccring works rF underllkcn UIl,mr{cl}, only {hoso slopcs losnrS thc grcalest risk t) pcoplc an! Irieh.sr lDancial losscs rvill bc pdccled *irh thc ho$ cxlcnsiyc an.l sothntlrtd nructtrcs lidhennorc,.s wilh flood.lclcnccs, no schctr,c

'l Th", n|h,'l
eflccr,ve Ior


1",i ". r roc.in.r\lron 'lun r(.'1. 0.r1.'. "' ''tuJ_ " r,'mi,,lnriLt,,rL i h, ,.'\ rn rl
Drevenhon can be both Lvo'Ll,rvhile




\tc,".htlot d

ar,. -n,,r", O.*. *, **


r l.w h.gnirudc. buttolcntirlly ticqlcnr tnJc ofev.nr.

The lardslidc h.rzard
( as. Stud! J:

l/u..u.la lr.btis flo$,1999

. k .

What N.re the.ontributory &us.s?

sllcrnal! h l1t :nal itlr .f l/aryns k, th.. r.tlt .l the .:drilat I'ltuttatio r, bntlt n rl hjf,h\u!! trctr J^lnld unl dp.r]J,rt" .|.tu|.|nknni d.r! Bilio !.lnaltatt wdh oJ ldrndEc wt\ uu\&l
tt, in t( ddr\ tn ulidldf l lldring th.lloarls :h.Icrahd n.dtal h.lp |et? r' lhon ntnU

O)I5 I6" D".anhr lrt9 l tl:tu1.sr d,1udll.rt ncrattdl.tl p.ts.[ ,oin,rh vdd"dn (Fi1: 7) ,p b aa,a00 pr.pl. ].a thdr lir.J dn.l nn? |ho 400.0A0 *ot Lu.l. h.nkl.s dt 90,040 h.ni.r \FR l.trtuj,al. rdllt.d.t".t.t httied ht v*rnt na,t:4 nul Ttu r.^t ltrt dr.a' \'.t. !h? \ttutr b\n! u th. .d!. .f aim.as ot.l Lh.

t\pcrittud lt. lrcdrir! tri8

Jjttt tu rael-\ nt D(anb.r t999, L ht.h
to hdw


s.ib bL@antasntotukt

olrtnd n1 104 :r!ax. nrL l.l anlt rdula, intpatultdtnt juttrr'r



.hwtt al b..s to trl.r../ tallall ird n.ld to[cttv
undorbted, tonhb"led to thr s.ah.J thc A'urlar:

turh1d..td.s. tary.e tructs oJtan.l ha./ bto .ta,rt .4t, !! ri \tu) fur uhda.l.talorDLt t, in patt)rutu:l)u t) to\t"s. 11.




oald sttip.fr.tth tle .?u.la is u.u,tartaur o.l lkr u.L st.:.p tl.pc!. The lfib Mounnlin RanE4 tht r.nh4n nrrt pttt rl th.,1n.1.s tkcs t..\,.t 2,500hr6t rno,.l ofth..oda




ttCarucas, Wnezu.lu

. aatuut t L.u lcl.

nLa! s

l.! l'! ttt st..? ,illslopcs tu d

a uuryi al Jorhabitunn O'ullttyu]: \ht t L\tr |x1t b.. d(t.lopd on nr6. !.cp !1.p.!, $tnti *dh lr ..t ro pla rE u d a srbsequdl !a.:k./hutite\ sr|h ds .ltaitnXe Presidthl Chnr.z Llo,t.l .ortut)t pt r\\n Sor.rr .rts lor oU.viry iI.1:41 shd,ty bw"t b dlvtlop r nrl i L.ntideret! b he bo nnhg.ttllt ht habitalioh il CNN rcp,t pnblish.d on 19\ De.e thct I99t staled 4rat nlil!tun.t .tJ p.rr p.arle hut! huilt h.hte! (JIihLtr pft.ati.u!ry ?efth.d shd.ks) o th. t outot sd. becnus. the) cartdnl .4lotd b tire ary. rra
th.t i: devril,ed ds bei

.ls., atullotdecad.t, sor.rhnt.nt alJn:ialt


b i.p thL


tntu $as the tiegerfact.'t! Ih.r, ninfull rhtuu,lh.rr Decrthbet 1999,

ponictldrb'thc e,brrtt tajnJa ercr$ th acruttu.lo" t5n.l 16 Dr. antho dvins *hi.h rr b 9qt)tnn f(ll 1h.!. !.nhs lcd 1.ltusl1 ll.odr't ard , iql!.tttl ,rl

,lhat Nu. the.ons.quu.d?
h i ,l$ast.t hdt illtrttdki l)c b pld tthu t/!rrlofn)t"^ rt,! "ttl rotluth n tht jntutr .li,t $ltili nr.k krc ntut nttrrul lklu. ltu\r hr. ulhrt(l .ottnbrtiuE to\tdt.lt th../i\ua.'i ?.tof1! tl nrU lo.tcutrr suth pt?"tialL h"F,aus htlLlo!^ "01


Case Studj 4: chctry Hilt! La"lslid., Anlipolo Cil),

[is. I


Chetr IIiUs landnide.

a liM:ln,1: lunlsli.l.o..rrtul ih the ah.tt! lIils ol Ahtip.la Ci4, (Fk 8), tust ! qbt to thc eatt aJ Mdnila Manr A.6es wre de:h.yed ona ent! 53 peapL l.! theirlit.s.

(rt.l",,luAt:r l919


What eerc the .oatibutoryfactors? me Chezt- Hilts drvloptol .rnpti::tl l.\r..st hDutihg knns u,tln1d.d ut sL..p st.!.s (up 1a 25 .t.Erc.s) a th. c&.s oJ the .:lry . 1 he tucks.ot4,1s..1 h.nritlrcchu?l Ftt;ntnarr tnrl': (:i|tra1!s vtutu.ns a1d Lla):), f irh tdtlhq des@s af pen .dbih\ x d shc(strc sth. Therc hdd beo u tcnu\ t.nllilet nt hepn!





. r' r\t r.r" tL t , Lu D,1 \,or,1t,I\,dJ p- :"1 of tulb. ?diuhn), dfier hedv), rah mesc sis'ts ofsbp. i5tahililr ntauv ha\ e atetud ttu urluiti4 to kc inp.ntlk,r dung.r af d ^q./ lund.'lidt th.rt t6 .rilcr.. .fpreri.6 landslid5 ir thc d"d ar.t th. lad | 6 lerb, ur,llthl. Jnr ]tmun hdritutu,1
What was I'e ttrutt- rutnlnll h.ht..k

lnttut! Jl'JrUard2 Aq,:t as..totcd vtt Ttori.al :knr. Ct.l.t. hrtt:, \dinh nbt,-il;cd t]1a,on l nnn:.on 'ujnkl 565 n afruin tu^ tur.hl.d th nan'lhta. d,rt



erc tl'e

\o) nuth

th. tduh D{pa tldrrrE M& |t.l tltr chn)' htlls tlcvelat)h)c,lrha,ld (rcr h@r htu q')hlt&l tr nk nbkrr!.,) .1. :!. t,.,-1f..,.i.8.uu lLt r,,i.4 t 1. tti!^1.1 rtls

Thc landslnlc hazard
C6e Stutl! 5: Los Coti,ns n'udnida, El Sut'u.lor,2001

F! Snlv.dn': .tt'in! (i.l(4rrt.l .Lrtstrlior ar.i .iEt.tul: t.\.rtl the.npiLlt su Salrrtlot (t i! 9) | l&1dshl.r /11 Lor Cahui ".at c rudllN :utrul tl.\!n a ,tlkid. h .Er4 tt. ,1tt. . t Mar.\ "us! ^ hur. .dt aJr.p!'.1o\1 tht. !rr?\ d t1 se,.n] th.talrtl \t.r. n't tl


2001 a'.artA,1udk. h!1 tl)a (-o t11l



h :nt( is .aned.nnn. rnn d(rit. th. dnan.: it :ro: liktlr thnl hrt.h ol 14. tdnd ettt hc thr n./.I. ctls! It\,?lL?el .n.. aquin, olthouAh p$rhlr "ot "i1h A.,sirq thnt w ttlelt btpr. th. ntulsl"l.
t-ig , Lo.ation
,1dtr of EI

Whd ,'erc thz Mnszqut"tt!! 1tu ?rt!'nr 1. d.\ch4, c\ nkar l


,/hat .r. ntz uncibttot!lacto6? . nE t?t.1et1intt^lnLt hcs ut ]tu /i'.! .,ld r.t| !.rr hillslr,r,. t,.tt .f \hnh snrt,L" ..ltrt.'i o b lhr h."\nt[ htt.r\ ,h r th? ,oL\i)E hat d h.r t. !t1r.t.rl ." t( hnlslat. itstf. it las Lltuh tuht(tnLlr la lot)r fonurc . Frt \tvrdl ftd)\ ori)unkntul lt tp! unl lorrl tultt.rb hll L'(" ptrAtunt: uttn)! thc dtttrlttau.r d att dtrrL)pn)ut o1 At ridti.tJ t!1t ( t,drtlou tal Bul:otu .' tkUrlih? ntu.\.tl.okr Lu: CDllhdt. ) l.rlrtit vrt c|d l.dEll .A uln tit t,t:1tu... ..nt)a t!t, rhrth bt.ryh! . nrlu!4 h.l,q .lc\rlop"1.ht. |!o\t r.t: thdl \!tt.r.rr.it..l at 1999 a ddevlip'on",u!lba4)uru! t t!: nntl L linbttul).s?.,f11.hi:l.pe . H.arf rcn^-.1ufi1A11t. wnkt hd.! t ttle 1tu eil\ hlow unl s.hnne.l
tYhnt wus lte triqst fu.hr? r'iSS.rlot th. hu.Lrtt,l.:!a: d t a:sir!7 6a,tl)quul!


Pd.lir dzu b


eutL.fsah Sohad..

Exant Hint: Case studies 3,4 and


suppo4ing your

ow, exaa a.swers as 16eyarc recent, cteadv pte.is. fa.tua| derail. Read thtough

set our and lutt



causcs \9.rc physjcat,

hr roo mJny ki lii t'ctuj.ny s.ar.h wiLlre\.allilc'n ly hundrrdr h rl\Lils a sircs Lllobxl rnd locrl ncu\ xgcDcics ($w,6rr. .. good rlrnins roi'n) \vill lrni!id. r.u pil| addilion uionnrlron on (hr tuccr1..sc n!di$ lcalured jI this !ni.l. !n1l oD orcs 1l,r( pon-dilc i(.
'l herc nrc



'lhc iinnrlilchazai lrir nrhc l)rib..n tun.\!hrt und.rcs(nmtd, olic. bcin! $,bsu.rod *1trLi,, tlrc co.1r\l !l odr.r ritual c!.n1s, su.h d carthquilcs and vol.inic crlrplions lakcn ir isohrroD, ho*c1.r, Lndshdes are .rc ol tt,c m.{ scrious or rl1 natual h.zards, posnrc

l'o. cxccllcnl lrionnriion or rh. ltn./uclrn lx lnil.s. rinr colon.lo SLrl. tlnivc^ir) s Franr lir.$d LaLonr.ry x\ | | na tu .rlor,r' d14l,!h\.r!.k1|

l ttr

re TJSCS'S wir.r Rc!)urcr tirr dr. c rbbern s1! ar :ttnnta xqlr.ptt ulli /\ttr-rl.1d ld nnlnLi.cnr nr{s rd tho(,sof ls

ri:n,liclnr rlkats u !..!1.


frp.rly lvorldn


Lrn,lnnfus tukc n'xry Lnns rrd, wlrikl msny occur iir remole !re!s por.slinldl ea! to pcorlc, rn,.cusns runbcr nrw o.curnr lofulalcd

A Ll

what n


landslidc nazad?

W|al L.1o6

C. Eunnr, with


resfonsibl! lni lrnilslidcsl lo cxrnrples you l,alr nudicd, rhc rolc ol


\Vhilnlr.ddidcs arcp.,i.clly naluml Espooses roslo|re $hbility,

pcoplcandlunanrctirilyinnrrcNnrgtl[landsl chrztrd.a/r,tr


in in

rcasnrg numhcr olthonr


r dNtn.(ilc h!dr. clc.rnl ir lhcir

crui., rturi.nlarl] $hcLcunnritiblc land hrs becn ovcrnovclol)cd
h rol to in.rcisc nnhel' srenier reserch needs 1o bc undcnlk.n lo slody sbpc rfuccssc\ ldJ ro ptuducc hazald na$. tlrn.c6 thcn nccd to rcstord accordrnely. enher b] rcsiridins dcvclopmcrl on dangeurs slopes, or by e.sunng rhrr adlors arc Ixkcn
rhc lrndslidc



This is a rrirly sbriglrtfor*tud qucslon rcquinnr dein{n,n. xnd rlcrr sci ro roDlc RcDrcnrb!, lntu bclwccn lhc n.luftl er€nt u]d $c Lharx h':nl'onlycxisl whc Fcopleor hunran &tl!i1yrrcrlnst




nccd ro be clea' about thc dillirc cc benvcen ibr

Rcfcrcnccs and furthcr rcserrch Mon,4S rndA2 lcvcltcrdr.ks lirlc.nrtle,sncvolcdbslopcpocesses,and drto dc \.v.r.lbools dcihrg {ilh Nrunl Hxzrds dlrhrvc nh.le(harre$ deroled to linGlnLs Ir iall,Nins rclLrcnccs tu! NnrN lcis vcllktu]vn.
wahlraD, A c-.

conrriburory ficlors.nd rl,c kiggcr hclols llnrtralclhc ftrcrors ulth .€laicncc to cxaDpl.s. Thn is a Drorc chrlleneing qucslnt! q4rich rcqunes you 10 evalurt. ddid.s oi d,c rolc ol l.oplcorlum actions in either sendfutins -lhe.6t turnnrs rncnr Iionr Dalural evcnrs inlo rn Dade disxstcr srudics in th. rn,clc givc you rnd't/ to rci.r lo, bur mrkc surc to! tucus on lhc qucstio..


/i,f,/d!r, ! .t trrz,rnri ) a;r,rr,/A

a;f,/,,rry (Blac[c Acadcnnc

.\. h-,.-)" ",1h^'' -}.;





(lipnr Lanl]ll,de S.riely) bArd d Ky.r) Ulivcrsir!. Ui,, Kyot',6l I 001l, Japan (w.6stt. h4, t,'t rt\rt.tlj)ri tu\.ou.at jt't i:
rn ourstarlrgtubl'rxrn)n Fxckrd


J.H (I:J


llalL, l!92)

,,1,r"4' rt tu"r,i,t



auiln r\"r.



li l rl

rccc l Lrtrdslid. c.s. studics

dhrttht tt r4 trt 'lar.tthtu tturtat r{4'\i,



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