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P.G.Programme Physics 2014.

UNIT I

Coordinates Systems: Curvilinear coordinates: orthogonal curvilinear coordinates;

rectangular, spherical and cylindrical polar coordinates. Velocity, acceleration and volume

element in spherical polar coordinates.

Mechanics of a Single and of System of Particles: Newtons laws of motion, Mechanics

of a Particle, Equation of motion of a particle ( simple cases; motion of a particle subject to

a resistive force, motion of a projectile in a resisting medium), Mechanics of a system of

particles; angular momentum and energy of a system. Motion of a system with variable

mass.

Motion in a central force field: Equivalent one body problem, equations of motion in

central force field and their solutions. Motion in an inverse square law force field ,

Equation of the orbit; elliptical hyperbolic and parabolic orbits. Keplers laws of planetary

motion and their derivations

UNIT II

Collision of Particles: Elastic and inelastic scattering. Elastic scattering: laboratory and

centre of mass systems, kinematics of elastic scattering. Inelastic scattering. Cross section

;differential cross section , impact parameter, the Rutherford formula.

Lagrangian Formulation : Constraints, Generalized coordinates, DAlemberts principle.

Lagrangian equations, general expression for kinetic energy, Lagrangian of some simple

systems (simple pendulum, spherical pendulum, charged particle in an electromagnetic

field).

Moving coordinate systems : Rotating coordinate systems. The Coriolis force, motion on

the Earth, effects of Coriolis force on a freely falling particle.

Oscillations: Simple harmonic oscillator; energy of a simple harmonic oscillator,

compound pendulum, mass attached to a spring. Damped harmonic oscillator;Energy

dissipation. Forced oscillations; Amplitude resonance.

UNIT III

Special Theory of Relativity: Newtonian relativity. Michelson-Morley experiment, special

theory of relativity, Lorentz Tranformations and their consequences ( Relativity of

simultaneity,Lorentz-FitzGerald length contraction , time dilation. Relativistic addition of

velocities; variation of mass with velocity, mass energy relation. Space-time fourdimensional continuum, four-vectors.

UNIT IV

Vector Calculus: Scalar and Vector Fields, Triple Vector Product, The operator ,

Laplacian operator, Gradient of a Scalar and its geometrical interpretation, Divergence

and Curl of Vector, Physical interpretation of Curl and Divergence. Line, Surface and

Volume integrals, Evaluation of double and triple integrals. The fundamental theorem for

gradients, Gausss Divergence Theorem, Stokes Theorem.

Electrostatics: Multipole Expansion of E for Distribution of Charge at Rest, Dipole and

Quadrupole Fields, Electrostatic Field Energy, Force per unit area on the surface of a

conductor in an electric field, Point Charge in front of a Grounded Plane Infinite Conductor.

Dielectrics: Parallel Plate Capacitor with a Dielectric, Dielectric Constant, Polarization and

Polarization Vector P, Displacement Vector D, Relation Between E, P & D, Boundary

Conditions Satisfied by E and D at the interface between two Homogenous Dielectrics,

Illustration Through Simple Examples.

UNIT V

Current Electricity: Steady Current, Current Density J, Non-Steady Currents and

Continuity Equation, Rise and Decay of Current in LR and RC circuits, Decay Constants,

Transients in LCR Circuits, AC circuits, Complex Numbers and their applications in

solving AC circuit problems, Complex Impedance and Reactance, Series and Parallel

Resonance, Q factor, Power Consumed by an AC circuit, Power Factor.

Magnetostatics: Magnetic Dipole Moment, Biot -Savarts law, Amperes Circuital Law,

.B = 0, x B = 0 J, Magnetization Current, Magnetization Vector, H Field (magnetizing

field), Calculation of H in Simple Geometrical Situations (Hystersis Loop, Rowland ring)

Susceptibility and Magnetic Permeability (linear cases).

Faradays Laws, Integral and Differential Forms, Energy in a Static Magnetic Field,

Maxwells Displacement Current, Maxwells Equations, Electromagnetic Field Energy

Density.

The wave equation satisfied by E and B, Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum,

Poynting Vector and Theorem, Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Boundary of

Dielectrics.

UNIT VI

Kinetic theory: Basic concepts, Degrees of freedom, Equipartition of energy. Specific

heat of monatomic diatomic and tri-atomic gases, behaviour at low temperatures,

Maxwells velocity distribution, distribution of speeds ; mean values.

Transport phenomena in gases: Molecular collisions, mean free path and collision cross

section. Transport Phenomenon: transport of momentum, mass and energy and their interrelationship. Brownian motion, Einsteins theory.

Deviation from perfect gas behaviour, van der Waals equation of state, nature of Vander

Waals forces, comparison with experimental results, the critical constants.

Joules expansion of ideal gas and of a Vander Waals gas, Joule coefficient, estimates of

J-T cooling.

Liquefaction of gases: Boyles temperature and inversion temperature, principle of

regenerative cooling and of cascade cooling, Liquification of hydrogen and helium,

refrigeration cycles, meaning of efficiency. Cooling due to adiabatic demagnetization.

UNIT VII

Thermodynamics:Concept of thermal equilibrium, internal energy. Carnot theorem. Entropy,

Principle of increase of entropy, the thermodynamic scale of temperature, its identity with the

perfect gas scale, impossibility of attaining the absolute zero, Third law of thermodynamics.

Thermodynamic relationships: Thermodynamic variables ; Extensive and Intensive, Maxwells

general relationship. Clausius-Clapeyron heat equation, thermodynamic potentials and equilibrium

of thermodynamical systems, relation with thermodynamical variables.

The Statistical basis of thermodynamics: Probability and Thermodynamic probability,

Probability distribution. The expressions for average properties, constraints , accessible and

inaccessible states, distribution of particles with a given total energy into discrete set of energy

states; microstates and macrostates.

Probability and entropy: Boltzmann Entropy relation, Statistical interpretation of the second law

of thermodynamics, Boltzmann Canonical distribution law ; partition function, partition function of

an ideal monoatomic gas. The rigorous form of Equipartition of energy.

Maxwell-Boltzmann ,Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics( Derivation of distribution laws in

each case).

UNIT VIII

Transverse waves on an ideal stretched string; The wave equation, general solution of

one dimensional wave equation; harmonic waves, Standing waves on a string of fixed

length, energy of a vibrating string.

Longitudinal waves in a solid: The wave equation for longitudinal waves on a thin

cylindrical rod, energy density and energy transmission in waves. Application to

Earthquakes.

Waves over liquid surface: concept of gravity waves and ripples. Group velocity and

phase velocity.

Two dimensional waves: Standing waves on a stretched rectangular membrane: solution

by method of separation of variables, normal modes of vibrations.

Interference of light: The principle of superposition, two-slit interference, Intensity

distribution, Displacement of fringes. Interference in thin parallel films.Non-reflecting

films. Michelson interferometer, its application for precision determination of wavelength,

wavelength difference and width of spectral lines. Multiple beam interference, Fabry-Perot

interferometer and etalon; Intensity distribution.

UNIT IX

Fraunhofer diffraction: diffraction at a slit, the intensity distribution. Diffraction at a

circular aperture. Two slit diffraction pattern, intensity distribution.

Diffraction gratings: Diffraction at N parallel slits, intensity distribution at an N parallel

slits.Plane diffraction grating

Resolution of images, Rayleigh criterion, resolving power of telescopic and microscopic

systems, resolving power of a grating .

Frensel diffraction: Frensel half-period zones, The Zone-Plate. Diffraction at a circular

aperture, Diffraction by a straight edge (analysis using half-period zones). Rectilinear

propagation of light.

Polarization: Polarization by reflection, Maluss law. Double refraction, Refraction in

Uniaxial crystals.Optical activity, Rotation of plane of polarization.Origin of optical rotation

in liquids and in crystals.

Unit X

Origin of quantum theory: Black body radiation; Plancks radiation law, Photoelectric

effect, Compton Effect.

Wave properties of particles: De-Broglies matter wave, the concept of wave packets

and group velocities, evidence for diffraction and interference of particles, Davison-Germer

Experiment, Heisenbergs uncertainty relation for p and x, its extension to energy and

time, applications of uncertainty principle.

Quantum mechanics: Schrdingers wave equation (Time independent form), linearity

and superposition, expectation values, operators. Applications: particle in a box, finite

potential well, tunnel effect, harmonic oscillator.

Quantum Theory of Hydrogen atom: Schrdinger equation for Hydrogen atom,

separation of variables, Quantum numbers ( n, l, m), space quantization, electron

probability density.

Unit XI

Atomic Structure: Electron spin, Stern-Gerlach experiment, Paulis exclusion principle,

symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions, atomic structures (shells and sub-shells).

Spin-orbit coupling, total angular momentum J, L-S coupling, j-j coupling;Term-symbols

Normal and anomalous Zeeman Effect, Lande g-factor.

The molecular bond, mechanism of electron sharing, the hydrogen molecule.

rotational spectra .Vibrational energy levels, pure vibrational spectra. Rotation-Vibration

spectra of diatomic molecules.

Raman Effect: Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, classical theory of Raman-effect, Ramanactivity (concept of Polarizability ellipsoid).

Unit XII

Structure of Nuclei: Nuclear composition, nuclear properties(size, spin, magnetic

moment), Stable Nuclei ( Nuclear decay, Binding energy), Liquid drop model, Shell model.

Meson theory of nuclear forces.

Radioactive decay: Half-life, radioactive series. Theory of Alpha decay ( Tunneling effect)

, beta-decay, gamma- decay.

Nuclear Reactions: Cross section, Nuclear Fission, Nuclear reactors. Nuclear Fusion;

Nuclear Fusion in Stars, Fusion reactor.

Elementary

particles: Interaction and

particles, Classification;Leptons and

hadrons,Elementary particle quantum numbers;Baryon,lepton and strangeness numbers.

Quarks; colour, flavour, quark confinement.

Unit XIII

The crystalline state; crystal lattice,the unit cell, Bravais lattice and seven crystal systems.

Point groups, space groups , non- Bravais lattice. Crystal planes and Miller indices. Simple

crystal structures; Sodium Chloride, Diamond, Zinc sulfide. Amorphous solids.Interatomic

forces,Types of bonding( ionic,covalent,metallic,hydrogen,van der Waals)

Reciprocal lattice and X-ray diffraction, The diffraction condition, Braggs law.

Experimental techniques; the rotating-crystal method, the Laue method, the powder

method.

Lattice vibrations: Elastic waves, density of states of continuous medium. Specfic heat;

Einstein and Debye models.Lattice waves; the one-dimensional monoatomic

lattice,density of states of a lattice. The concept of Phonons.

Unit XIV

Motion of electrons: Quantum mechanical free electron gas, Electrical conductivity,

electrical resisitivity versus temperature, Heat capacity of conduction electrons. The Fermi

surface; electrical conductivity ( effects of the Fermi surface),thermal conductivity in

metals.

Band Structure: Energy bands in solids; the Bloch theorem, Electrons in one

dimensional periodic potential, concept of Brillouin zones, explanation of energy bands

on the basis of Brillouin zones. Metals, insulators and semiconductors.

Semiconductor theory: Band structure, intrinsic semiconductors; temperature

dependence of carrier concentration. Impurity states ( acceptor and donor), extrinsic

semiconductors; the electron-hole concentration product. Electrical conductivity;

temperature dependence. The effect of magnetic field on a semiconductor; the Hall effect.

Unit XV

Semiconductor Devices: p-n junction, working (on the basis of energy band diagram),

rectification property, derivation of rectification equation. The junction transistor, its

working (on the basis of energy band diagram), Tunnel diode, the Field effect transistor.

Pn-junction diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator. bridge rectifier, ripple

factor,passive filters, regulated power supply.

Transistor load line, Transistor biasing techniques (Voltage divider),bias stability, thermal

runaway.

Transisitor equivalent circuits, h-parameters; h-parameter equivalent circuit for CE

configuration,. FET and its characteristics, MOSFET; types and characteristics ,

applications of MOSFET.

Transistor amplifiers, Two-stage RC coupled amplifier; equivalent circuit at midfrequency,Gain at mid frequency., Transformer coupled amplifiers, expression of gain at

mid-frequency. Emitter follower.

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