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# M.

## Sc Physics Entrance Syllabus for admission to

P.G.Programme Physics 2014.
UNIT I
Coordinates Systems: Curvilinear coordinates: orthogonal curvilinear coordinates;
rectangular, spherical and cylindrical polar coordinates. Velocity, acceleration and volume
element in spherical polar coordinates.
Mechanics of a Single and of System of Particles: Newtons laws of motion, Mechanics
of a Particle, Equation of motion of a particle ( simple cases; motion of a particle subject to
a resistive force, motion of a projectile in a resisting medium), Mechanics of a system of
particles; angular momentum and energy of a system. Motion of a system with variable
mass.
Motion in a central force field: Equivalent one body problem, equations of motion in
central force field and their solutions. Motion in an inverse square law force field ,
Equation of the orbit; elliptical hyperbolic and parabolic orbits. Keplers laws of planetary
motion and their derivations
UNIT II
Collision of Particles: Elastic and inelastic scattering. Elastic scattering: laboratory and
centre of mass systems, kinematics of elastic scattering. Inelastic scattering. Cross section
;differential cross section , impact parameter, the Rutherford formula.
Lagrangian Formulation : Constraints, Generalized coordinates, DAlemberts principle.
Lagrangian equations, general expression for kinetic energy, Lagrangian of some simple
systems (simple pendulum, spherical pendulum, charged particle in an electromagnetic
field).
Moving coordinate systems : Rotating coordinate systems. The Coriolis force, motion on
the Earth, effects of Coriolis force on a freely falling particle.
Oscillations: Simple harmonic oscillator; energy of a simple harmonic oscillator,
compound pendulum, mass attached to a spring. Damped harmonic oscillator;Energy
dissipation. Forced oscillations; Amplitude resonance.
UNIT III
Special Theory of Relativity: Newtonian relativity. Michelson-Morley experiment, special
theory of relativity, Lorentz Tranformations and their consequences ( Relativity of
simultaneity,Lorentz-FitzGerald length contraction , time dilation. Relativistic addition of
velocities; variation of mass with velocity, mass energy relation. Space-time fourdimensional continuum, four-vectors.

UNIT IV
Vector Calculus: Scalar and Vector Fields, Triple Vector Product, The operator ,
Laplacian operator, Gradient of a Scalar and its geometrical interpretation, Divergence
and Curl of Vector, Physical interpretation of Curl and Divergence. Line, Surface and
Volume integrals, Evaluation of double and triple integrals. The fundamental theorem for
gradients, Gausss Divergence Theorem, Stokes Theorem.
Electrostatics: Multipole Expansion of E for Distribution of Charge at Rest, Dipole and
Quadrupole Fields, Electrostatic Field Energy, Force per unit area on the surface of a
conductor in an electric field, Point Charge in front of a Grounded Plane Infinite Conductor.
Dielectrics: Parallel Plate Capacitor with a Dielectric, Dielectric Constant, Polarization and
Polarization Vector P, Displacement Vector D, Relation Between E, P & D, Boundary
Conditions Satisfied by E and D at the interface between two Homogenous Dielectrics,
Illustration Through Simple Examples.
UNIT V
Current Electricity: Steady Current, Current Density J, Non-Steady Currents and
Continuity Equation, Rise and Decay of Current in LR and RC circuits, Decay Constants,
Transients in LCR Circuits, AC circuits, Complex Numbers and their applications in
solving AC circuit problems, Complex Impedance and Reactance, Series and Parallel
Resonance, Q factor, Power Consumed by an AC circuit, Power Factor.
Magnetostatics: Magnetic Dipole Moment, Biot -Savarts law, Amperes Circuital Law,
.B = 0, x B = 0 J, Magnetization Current, Magnetization Vector, H Field (magnetizing
field), Calculation of H in Simple Geometrical Situations (Hystersis Loop, Rowland ring)
Susceptibility and Magnetic Permeability (linear cases).
Faradays Laws, Integral and Differential Forms, Energy in a Static Magnetic Field,
Maxwells Displacement Current, Maxwells Equations, Electromagnetic Field Energy
Density.
The wave equation satisfied by E and B, Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum,
Poynting Vector and Theorem, Reflection and Refraction at a Plane Boundary of
Dielectrics.
UNIT VI
Kinetic theory: Basic concepts, Degrees of freedom, Equipartition of energy. Specific
heat of monatomic diatomic and tri-atomic gases, behaviour at low temperatures,
Maxwells velocity distribution, distribution of speeds ; mean values.
Transport phenomena in gases: Molecular collisions, mean free path and collision cross
section. Transport Phenomenon: transport of momentum, mass and energy and their interrelationship. Brownian motion, Einsteins theory.

Deviation from perfect gas behaviour, van der Waals equation of state, nature of Vander
Waals forces, comparison with experimental results, the critical constants.
Joules expansion of ideal gas and of a Vander Waals gas, Joule coefficient, estimates of
J-T cooling.
Liquefaction of gases: Boyles temperature and inversion temperature, principle of
regenerative cooling and of cascade cooling, Liquification of hydrogen and helium,
refrigeration cycles, meaning of efficiency. Cooling due to adiabatic demagnetization.
UNIT VII
Thermodynamics:Concept of thermal equilibrium, internal energy. Carnot theorem. Entropy,
Principle of increase of entropy, the thermodynamic scale of temperature, its identity with the
perfect gas scale, impossibility of attaining the absolute zero, Third law of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamic relationships: Thermodynamic variables ; Extensive and Intensive, Maxwells
general relationship. Clausius-Clapeyron heat equation, thermodynamic potentials and equilibrium
of thermodynamical systems, relation with thermodynamical variables.
The Statistical basis of thermodynamics: Probability and Thermodynamic probability,
Probability distribution. The expressions for average properties, constraints , accessible and
inaccessible states, distribution of particles with a given total energy into discrete set of energy
states; microstates and macrostates.
Probability and entropy: Boltzmann Entropy relation, Statistical interpretation of the second law
of thermodynamics, Boltzmann Canonical distribution law ; partition function, partition function of
an ideal monoatomic gas. The rigorous form of Equipartition of energy.
Maxwell-Boltzmann ,Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics( Derivation of distribution laws in
each case).

UNIT VIII
Transverse waves on an ideal stretched string; The wave equation, general solution of
one dimensional wave equation; harmonic waves, Standing waves on a string of fixed
length, energy of a vibrating string.
Longitudinal waves in a solid: The wave equation for longitudinal waves on a thin
cylindrical rod, energy density and energy transmission in waves. Application to
Earthquakes.
Waves over liquid surface: concept of gravity waves and ripples. Group velocity and
phase velocity.
Two dimensional waves: Standing waves on a stretched rectangular membrane: solution
by method of separation of variables, normal modes of vibrations.
Interference of light: The principle of superposition, two-slit interference, Intensity
distribution, Displacement of fringes. Interference in thin parallel films.Non-reflecting
films. Michelson interferometer, its application for precision determination of wavelength,

wavelength difference and width of spectral lines. Multiple beam interference, Fabry-Perot
interferometer and etalon; Intensity distribution.
UNIT IX
Fraunhofer diffraction: diffraction at a slit, the intensity distribution. Diffraction at a
circular aperture. Two slit diffraction pattern, intensity distribution.
Diffraction gratings: Diffraction at N parallel slits, intensity distribution at an N parallel
slits.Plane diffraction grating
Resolution of images, Rayleigh criterion, resolving power of telescopic and microscopic
systems, resolving power of a grating .
Frensel diffraction: Frensel half-period zones, The Zone-Plate. Diffraction at a circular
aperture, Diffraction by a straight edge (analysis using half-period zones). Rectilinear
propagation of light.
Polarization: Polarization by reflection, Maluss law. Double refraction, Refraction in
Uniaxial crystals.Optical activity, Rotation of plane of polarization.Origin of optical rotation
in liquids and in crystals.
Unit X
Origin of quantum theory: Black body radiation; Plancks radiation law, Photoelectric
effect, Compton Effect.
Wave properties of particles: De-Broglies matter wave, the concept of wave packets
and group velocities, evidence for diffraction and interference of particles, Davison-Germer
Experiment, Heisenbergs uncertainty relation for p and x, its extension to energy and
time, applications of uncertainty principle.
Quantum mechanics: Schrdingers wave equation (Time independent form), linearity
and superposition, expectation values, operators. Applications: particle in a box, finite
potential well, tunnel effect, harmonic oscillator.
Quantum Theory of Hydrogen atom: Schrdinger equation for Hydrogen atom,
separation of variables, Quantum numbers ( n, l, m), space quantization, electron
probability density.
Unit XI
Atomic Structure: Electron spin, Stern-Gerlach experiment, Paulis exclusion principle,
symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions, atomic structures (shells and sub-shells).
Spin-orbit coupling, total angular momentum J, L-S coupling, j-j coupling;Term-symbols
Normal and anomalous Zeeman Effect, Lande g-factor.
The molecular bond, mechanism of electron sharing, the hydrogen molecule.

## Diatomic molecules: Quantization of rotational energies; rotational energy levels, pure

rotational spectra .Vibrational energy levels, pure vibrational spectra. Rotation-Vibration
spectra of diatomic molecules.
Raman Effect: Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, classical theory of Raman-effect, Ramanactivity (concept of Polarizability ellipsoid).
Unit XII
Structure of Nuclei: Nuclear composition, nuclear properties(size, spin, magnetic
moment), Stable Nuclei ( Nuclear decay, Binding energy), Liquid drop model, Shell model.
Meson theory of nuclear forces.

Radioactive decay: Half-life, radioactive series. Theory of Alpha decay ( Tunneling effect)
, beta-decay, gamma- decay.
Nuclear Reactions: Cross section, Nuclear Fission, Nuclear reactors. Nuclear Fusion;
Nuclear Fusion in Stars, Fusion reactor.
Elementary
particles: Interaction and
particles, Classification;Leptons and
hadrons,Elementary particle quantum numbers;Baryon,lepton and strangeness numbers.
Quarks; colour, flavour, quark confinement.
Unit XIII
The crystalline state; crystal lattice,the unit cell, Bravais lattice and seven crystal systems.
Point groups, space groups , non- Bravais lattice. Crystal planes and Miller indices. Simple
crystal structures; Sodium Chloride, Diamond, Zinc sulfide. Amorphous solids.Interatomic
forces,Types of bonding( ionic,covalent,metallic,hydrogen,van der Waals)
Reciprocal lattice and X-ray diffraction, The diffraction condition, Braggs law.
Experimental techniques; the rotating-crystal method, the Laue method, the powder
method.
Lattice vibrations: Elastic waves, density of states of continuous medium. Specfic heat;
Einstein and Debye models.Lattice waves; the one-dimensional monoatomic
lattice,density of states of a lattice. The concept of Phonons.
Unit XIV
Motion of electrons: Quantum mechanical free electron gas, Electrical conductivity,
electrical resisitivity versus temperature, Heat capacity of conduction electrons. The Fermi
surface; electrical conductivity ( effects of the Fermi surface),thermal conductivity in
metals.

Band Structure: Energy bands in solids; the Bloch theorem, Electrons in one
dimensional periodic potential, concept of Brillouin zones, explanation of energy bands
on the basis of Brillouin zones. Metals, insulators and semiconductors.
Semiconductor theory: Band structure, intrinsic semiconductors; temperature
dependence of carrier concentration. Impurity states ( acceptor and donor), extrinsic
semiconductors; the electron-hole concentration product. Electrical conductivity;
temperature dependence. The effect of magnetic field on a semiconductor; the Hall effect.
Unit XV
Semiconductor Devices: p-n junction, working (on the basis of energy band diagram),
rectification property, derivation of rectification equation. The junction transistor, its
working (on the basis of energy band diagram), Tunnel diode, the Field effect transistor.
Pn-junction diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator. bridge rectifier, ripple
factor,passive filters, regulated power supply.
Transistor load line, Transistor biasing techniques (Voltage divider),bias stability, thermal
runaway.
Transisitor equivalent circuits, h-parameters; h-parameter equivalent circuit for CE
configuration,. FET and its characteristics, MOSFET; types and characteristics ,
applications of MOSFET.
Transistor amplifiers, Two-stage RC coupled amplifier; equivalent circuit at midfrequency,Gain at mid frequency., Transformer coupled amplifiers, expression of gain at
mid-frequency. Emitter follower.
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