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Modeling of steel elements in civil

engineering structures

Code_Aster, Salome-Meca course material


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Outline
Modeling of pre-tensioning
Modeling of reinforcing steel

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : principles


Cable = bar elements embedded in a 3D or DKT mesh
Mesh of bars independent of the concrete mesh

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : principles


The DEFI_CABLE_BP command creates loads corresponding to :
The link (assumed perfect) between the cable and concrete :
automatic definition of Lagrange multipliers
The calculation of tension in the cables as recommended by BPEL
(ETCC implementation in progress).

CAB1 = DEFI_CABLE_BP (...)


CMCABbi=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(
MODELE=MO,
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,
SIGM_BPEL=OUI' or 'NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI' or 'NON'))

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command
cabl_pr = DEFI_CABLE_BP (
MODELE = modele,
CHAM_MATER = chmat,
Required for calculating the tension
CARA_ELEM = caelem,
GROUP_MA_BETON = grmabe,
Required for kinematic links
DEFI_CABLE = _F (
GROUP_MA = grmaca,
GROUP_NO_ANCRAGE = l_gnoa,)
TYPE_ANCRAGE = (ACTIF, PASSIF),
TENSION_INIT = f0,
Defining a
RECUL_ANCRAGE = delta,
cable
RELAXATION = _F ( R_J = rj, )
CONE = _F ( RAYON = rayon,
LONGUEUR = long,
PRESENT = ('OUI','NON'))
TITRE = l_titr, [l_tx]

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command
cabl_pr

= DEFI_CABLE_BP (

MODELE = modele,
CHAM_MATER = chmat,
CARA_ELEM = caelem,

GRI

N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

GROUP_MA_BETON = grmabe,

DEFI_CABLE = _F (
GROUP_MA = 'cable1',

cable1

GROUP_NO_ANCRAGE = ('GRI','GRF',)
TYPE_ANCRAGE = (ACTIF, PASSIF),
TENSION_INIT = f0,
RECUL_ANCRAGE = delta,
RELAXATION = _F ( R_J = rj, )
CONE = _F ( RAYON = rayon,
LONGUEUR = long,
PRESENT = ('OUI','NON'))

TITRE = l_titr, [l_tx]

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GRF

N6

Modeling of pre-tensioning : potential difficulties


[U4.42.04]

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : diffusion cone


Possibility of introducing a diffusion cone
Real situation

Without modelling the shaft

[U4.42.04]

With modeling of the


effect of shaft vanishing

mesh size required


management of redundant boundary conditions
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Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command
cabl_pr

= DEFI_CABLE_BP (

MODELE = modele,
CHAM_MATER = chmat,
CARA_ELEM = caelem,
GROUP_MA_BETON = grmabe,

DEFI_CABLE = _F (
GROUP_MA = 'cable1',
GROUP_NO_ANCRAGE = ('GRI','GRF',)
TYPE_ANCRAGE = (ACTIF, PASSIF),
TENSION_INIT = f0,
RECUL_ANCRAGE = delta,
RELAXATION = _F ( R_J = rj, )

Calculation of
the tension

CONE = _F ( RAYON = rayon,


LONGUEUR = long,
PRESENT = ('OUI','NON'))

TITRE = l_titr, [l_tx]

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : calculating the


tension in the cables
Calculating the tension at any point of the cable as recommended
by BPEL91

5
F ( s)

F (s)= F (s){x flu F 0+ x ret F 0 +r ( j)


1000
100
S a f

0 F ( s)}
prg

Taking into account the instant losses by friction and anchor recoil

F c (s)= F 0 exp ( f  s )

F c (s) F (s)=[ F c (d ) ]

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : calculating the


tension in the cables
Calculating the tension at any point of the cable as recommended
by BPEL91

5
F ( s)

F (s)= F (s){x flu F 0+ x ret F 0 +r ( j )


0 F (s)}
1000
100
S a y
Creep of
concrete

Shrinkage
of concrete

Relaxation of steel

Taking account of losses depending on time

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : calculating the


tension in the cables
Data setting
MBETON=DEFI_MATERIAU(ELAS=_F(E= 30.E9,...),
BPEL_BETON= _F(

PERT_FLUA = 0,
PERT_RETR = 0),);

MCABLE=DEFI_MATERIAU(
BPEL_ACIER=_F(

F 0, , r ( j )

Sa

ELAS=_F(E=200.E9 ),
FROT_COURB

=3.0E-3,

FROT_LINE

=1.5E-3,

F_PRG

=1.94E11,

RELAX_1000

= 0,

MU0_RELAX

= 0),)

in DEFI_CABLE_BP
in AFFE_CARA_ELEM

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : two strategies


Tensions le long du cble
6,E+06

5,E+06

Tension (N)

4,E+06

3,E+06

2,E+06

1,E+06

0,E+00
1

11

21

31

41

51

61

71

81

91

101

111

121

131
Elment

BPEL

Solving with STAT_NON_LINE,


instant tensioning
Loss of tension due to the instant
deformation of the concrete
No possible phasing

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DCBP sans correction

DCBP aprs correction

Command CALC_PRECONT
Final tension in the cables = BPEL
Allows successive tensioning in cables

Modeling of pre-tensioning : two strategies


Strategy #1
chcab=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(...
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(
CABLE_BP=cable,
SIGM_BPEL=OUI',
RELA_CINE='OUI'))
RES1 = STAT_NON_LINE(...
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE = CLIM,),
_F(CHARGE = chcab)),
...,)

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Strategy #2
chcab =AFFE_CHAR_MECA(...
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(
CABLE_BP=cable,
SIGM_BPEL=NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI',),);
RES1 = CALC_PRECONT(...
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE =CLIM,),
_F( CHARGE = chcab)),
CABLE_BP=cable,
...,)

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : two strategies


Tensions le long du cble
6,E+06

Strategy #2 :

CALC_PRECONT

5,E+06

Tension (N)

4,E+06

Strategy #1 :
3,E+06

STAT_NON_LINE

2,E+06

1,E+06

0,E+00
1

11

21

31

41

51

61

71

81

91

101

111

121

131
Elment

BPEL

DCBP sans correction

DCBP aprs correction

STAT_NON_LINE

CALC_PRECONT

Instant tensioning
Loss of tension due to the instant
deformation of the concrete
No possible phasing
Easier implementation
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Progressive tensioning
Final tension in cables = BPEL
Allows successive tensioning in cables
A little more complex
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Modeling of pre-tensioning : tips for strategy #1


Combine a maximum cables in DEFI_CABLE_BP
Option CONE : Pay attention to redundant connections (not
factorable matrix) + size of elements
If TYPE_ANCRAGE = ('PASSIF', 'PASSIF'), there is no
tension in the cable !
In case of a continuation calculation (POURSUITE), define a new
load without tension, otherwise the two tensions will be added
chcab2=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,
SIGM_BPEL=NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI',),);
RES1 = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =RES1,
ETAT_INIT=_F(EVOL_NOLI=RES1,
EXCIT =(_F(CHARGE = CLIM,),
_F(CHARGE = Chcab2),
),)
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Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command
statnl [evol_noli] = CALC_PRECONT(
reuse = statnl, ETAT_INIT = _F()

Boundary conditions, instant loads,


kinematic links related to cables
already strained

MODELE = mo ,
CHAM_MATER = chmat ,
CARA_ELEM = carac ,
COMP_INCR = _F()

INCREMENT =_F(

LIST_INST = litps ,
INST_FIN = instfin,),

EXCIT =(_F( CHARGE = chi ), ),


CABLE_BP = cabl_pr ,

The cables that will be strained


between instini and instfin

CABLE_BP_INACTIF = cabl_pr ,
Inactive cables (no stiffness)
+ mot-cl facteur STAT_NON_LINE)

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command, example
CAB_BP=DEFI_CABLE_BP(...)
CH_L=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BP,
SIGM_BPEL=NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI',),);

EVOL = CALC_PRECONT(CABLE_BP = CAB_BP,


EXCIT = _F(CHARGE = CL),
INCREMENT =_F(LIST_INST=L,
INST_FIN = 1.,
)
EVOL = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =EVOL,
ETAT_INIT =_F(EVOL_NOLI= EVOL)
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE= CL),
F(CHARGE=CH_L),

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1. definition of cables
2. CH_L contains the
kinematic links

Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command, example
CAB_BP=DEFI_CABLE_BP(...)
CH_L=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,

RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,

SIGM_BPEL=NON', RELA_CINE='OUI',),);

EVOL = CALC_PRECONT(CABLE_BP = CAB_BP,


EXCIT = _F(CHARGE = CL),
INCREMENT =_F(LIST_INST=L,
INST_FIN = 1.,
)
Tensioning of cables defined in
CAB_BP, from t= 0 to 1
EVOL = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =EVOL,
ETAT_INIT =_F(EVOL_NOLI= EVOL)
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE= CL),
F(CHARGE=CH_L),
.

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Loads : only boundary conditions +


instant loads

Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP


command, example
CAB_BP=DEFI_CABLE_BP(...)
CH_L=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,

RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,

SIGM_BPEL=NON', RELA_CINE='OUI',),);
EVOL = CALC_PRECONT(CABLE_BP = CAB_BP,
EXCIT = _F(CHARGE = CL),
INCREMENT =_F(LIST_INST=L,
INST_FIN = 1.,
)

EVOL = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =EVOL,


ETAT_INIT =_F(EVOL_NOLI= EVOL)
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE= CL),
F(CHARGE=CH_L),
.
Continuation of the calculation
Load : boundary conditions +
kinematic links related to cables +
other loads

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Modeling of pre-tensioning : staging


For staging, possibility of alternate or link STAT_NON_LINE and
CALC_PRECONT
Pay attention to the loads to be taken into account !

See documentation U2.03.06 or practical sessions

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Modeling of staging
Simulation suggested :
BARRE element + DEFI_CABLE_BP + STAT_NON_LINE or
CALC_PRECONT

But always possible to use temperature differentials, imposed


deformation, ...

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Outline
Modeling of pre-tensioning
Modeling of reinforcing steel

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Modeling of reinforcing steel


In a 3D model
Option #1 : use the BARRE model (or if needed POUTRE)
Mesh steels with SEG2 elements
Steel and concrete nodes must be identical

Option #2 : use the GRILLE_MEMBRANE model


Steel is meshed with 2D elements : QUAD4, TRIA3, QUAD8, TRIA6
Overlay meshes for different directions of reinforcement
(CREA_MAILLAGE)
CREA_MAILLAGE( MODELE=MO,
CREA_GROUP_MA=_F(NOM = 'barreH',
GROUP_MA = 'surf',
PREF_MAILLE='h'))
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Modeling of reinforcing steel


With a shell model (DKT)
Use GRILLE_EXCENTREE
The steel is meshed with linear 2D elements : QUAD4 or TRIA3
Overlay meshes for different directions of reinforcement
(CREA_MAILLAGE)

For a 1D model
Use of multi-fiber beam POU_D_EM

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Modeling of reinforcing steel


Model GRILLE_MEMBRANE
Kinematics of the surface : no unknown for rotation
Membrane elements without torsional stiffness
Only one direction of reinforcement
No possibility of eccentricity

Model GRILLE_EXCENTREE
DKT shell kinematics: unknown for rotation
Only one direction of reinforcement
Opportunity to offset the grid

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Modeling of reinforcing steel


Possibility to explicitly represent the steels :
With 1D elements
With 2D elements, of membrane type (for isoparametric modeling) or DGT
type (for plate modeling)
Possibility of using global modeling of reinforced concrete : DKTG elements
and GLRC-DM or GLRC-DAMA constitutive laws

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End of presentation
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