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# Modeling of steel elements in civil

engineering structures

## Code_Aster, Salome-Meca course material

GNU FDL licence (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)

Outline
Modeling of pre-tensioning
Modeling of reinforcing steel

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : principles

Cable = bar elements embedded in a 3D or DKT mesh
Mesh of bars independent of the concrete mesh

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : principles

The DEFI_CABLE_BP command creates loads corresponding to :
The link (assumed perfect) between the cable and concrete :
automatic definition of Lagrange multipliers
The calculation of tension in the cables as recommended by BPEL
(ETCC implementation in progress).

## CAB1 = DEFI_CABLE_BP (...)

CMCABbi=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(
MODELE=MO,
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,
SIGM_BPEL=OUI' or 'NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI' or 'NON'))

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command
cabl_pr = DEFI_CABLE_BP (
MODELE = modele,
CHAM_MATER = chmat,
Required for calculating the tension
CARA_ELEM = caelem,
GROUP_MA_BETON = grmabe,
DEFI_CABLE = _F (
GROUP_MA = grmaca,
GROUP_NO_ANCRAGE = l_gnoa,)
TYPE_ANCRAGE = (ACTIF, PASSIF),
TENSION_INIT = f0,
Defining a
RECUL_ANCRAGE = delta,
cable
RELAXATION = _F ( R_J = rj, )
CONE = _F ( RAYON = rayon,
LONGUEUR = long,
PRESENT = ('OUI','NON'))
TITRE = l_titr, [l_tx]

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command
cabl_pr

= DEFI_CABLE_BP (

MODELE = modele,
CHAM_MATER = chmat,
CARA_ELEM = caelem,

GRI

N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

GROUP_MA_BETON = grmabe,

DEFI_CABLE = _F (
GROUP_MA = 'cable1',

cable1

GROUP_NO_ANCRAGE = ('GRI','GRF',)
TYPE_ANCRAGE = (ACTIF, PASSIF),
TENSION_INIT = f0,
RECUL_ANCRAGE = delta,
RELAXATION = _F ( R_J = rj, )
CONE = _F ( RAYON = rayon,
LONGUEUR = long,
PRESENT = ('OUI','NON'))

GRF

N6

[U4.42.04]

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : diffusion cone

Possibility of introducing a diffusion cone
Real situation

[U4.42.04]

## With modeling of the

effect of shaft vanishing

## mesh size required

management of redundant boundary conditions
8 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command
cabl_pr

= DEFI_CABLE_BP (

MODELE = modele,
CHAM_MATER = chmat,
CARA_ELEM = caelem,
GROUP_MA_BETON = grmabe,

DEFI_CABLE = _F (
GROUP_MA = 'cable1',
GROUP_NO_ANCRAGE = ('GRI','GRF',)
TYPE_ANCRAGE = (ACTIF, PASSIF),
TENSION_INIT = f0,
RECUL_ANCRAGE = delta,
RELAXATION = _F ( R_J = rj, )

Calculation of
the tension

## CONE = _F ( RAYON = rayon,

LONGUEUR = long,
PRESENT = ('OUI','NON'))

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : calculating the

tension in the cables
Calculating the tension at any point of the cable as recommended
by BPEL91

5
F ( s)

## F (s)= F (s){x flu F 0+ x ret F 0 +r ( j)

1000
100
S a f

0 F ( s)}
prg

Taking into account the instant losses by friction and anchor recoil

F c (s)= F 0 exp ( f  s )

F c (s) F (s)=[ F c (d ) ]

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : calculating the

tension in the cables
Calculating the tension at any point of the cable as recommended
by BPEL91

5
F ( s)

## F (s)= F (s){x flu F 0+ x ret F 0 +r ( j )

0 F (s)}
1000
100
S a y
Creep of
concrete

Shrinkage
of concrete

Relaxation of steel

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : calculating the

tension in the cables
Data setting
MBETON=DEFI_MATERIAU(ELAS=_F(E= 30.E9,...),
BPEL_BETON= _F(

PERT_FLUA = 0,
PERT_RETR = 0),);

MCABLE=DEFI_MATERIAU(
BPEL_ACIER=_F(

F 0, , r ( j )

Sa

ELAS=_F(E=200.E9 ),
FROT_COURB

=3.0E-3,

FROT_LINE

=1.5E-3,

F_PRG

=1.94E11,

RELAX_1000

= 0,

MU0_RELAX

= 0),)

in DEFI_CABLE_BP
in AFFE_CARA_ELEM

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : two strategies

Tensions le long du cble
6,E+06

5,E+06

Tension (N)

4,E+06

3,E+06

2,E+06

1,E+06

0,E+00
1

11

21

31

41

51

61

71

81

91

101

111

121

131
Elment

BPEL

## Solving with STAT_NON_LINE,

instant tensioning
Loss of tension due to the instant
deformation of the concrete
No possible phasing

## DCBP aprs correction

Command CALC_PRECONT
Final tension in the cables = BPEL
Allows successive tensioning in cables

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : two strategies

Strategy #1
chcab=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(...
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(
CABLE_BP=cable,
SIGM_BPEL=OUI',
RELA_CINE='OUI'))
RES1 = STAT_NON_LINE(...
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE = CLIM,),
_F(CHARGE = chcab)),
...,)

## 14 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material

Strategy #2
chcab =AFFE_CHAR_MECA(...
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(
CABLE_BP=cable,
SIGM_BPEL=NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI',),);
RES1 = CALC_PRECONT(...
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE =CLIM,),
_F( CHARGE = chcab)),
CABLE_BP=cable,
...,)

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : two strategies

Tensions le long du cble
6,E+06

Strategy #2 :

CALC_PRECONT

5,E+06

Tension (N)

4,E+06

Strategy #1 :
3,E+06

STAT_NON_LINE

2,E+06

1,E+06

0,E+00
1

11

21

31

41

51

61

71

81

91

101

111

121

131
Elment

BPEL

## DCBP aprs correction

STAT_NON_LINE

CALC_PRECONT

Instant tensioning
Loss of tension due to the instant
deformation of the concrete
No possible phasing
Easier implementation
15 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material

Progressive tensioning
Final tension in cables = BPEL
Allows successive tensioning in cables
A little more complex
GNU FDL Licence

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : tips for strategy #1

Combine a maximum cables in DEFI_CABLE_BP
Option CONE : Pay attention to redundant connections (not
factorable matrix) + size of elements
If TYPE_ANCRAGE = ('PASSIF', 'PASSIF'), there is no
tension in the cable !
In case of a continuation calculation (POURSUITE), define a new
chcab2=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,
SIGM_BPEL=NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI',),);
RES1 = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =RES1,
ETAT_INIT=_F(EVOL_NOLI=RES1,
EXCIT =(_F(CHARGE = CLIM,),
_F(CHARGE = Chcab2),
),)
16 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command
statnl [evol_noli] = CALC_PRECONT(
reuse = statnl, ETAT_INIT = _F()

MODELE = mo ,
CHAM_MATER = chmat ,
CARA_ELEM = carac ,
COMP_INCR = _F()

INCREMENT =_F(

LIST_INST = litps ,
INST_FIN = instfin,),

## EXCIT =(_F( CHARGE = chi ), ),

CABLE_BP = cabl_pr ,

## The cables that will be strained

between instini and instfin

CABLE_BP_INACTIF = cabl_pr ,
Inactive cables (no stiffness)
+ mot-cl facteur STAT_NON_LINE)

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command, example
CAB_BP=DEFI_CABLE_BP(...)
CH_L=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,
RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BP,
SIGM_BPEL=NON',
RELA_CINE='OUI',),);

## EVOL = CALC_PRECONT(CABLE_BP = CAB_BP,

EXCIT = _F(CHARGE = CL),
INCREMENT =_F(LIST_INST=L,
INST_FIN = 1.,
)
EVOL = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =EVOL,
ETAT_INIT =_F(EVOL_NOLI= EVOL)
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE= CL),
F(CHARGE=CH_L),

## GNU FDL Licence

1. definition of cables
2. CH_L contains the

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command, example
CAB_BP=DEFI_CABLE_BP(...)
CH_L=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,

RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,

SIGM_BPEL=NON', RELA_CINE='OUI',),);

## EVOL = CALC_PRECONT(CABLE_BP = CAB_BP,

EXCIT = _F(CHARGE = CL),
INCREMENT =_F(LIST_INST=L,
INST_FIN = 1.,
)
Tensioning of cables defined in
CAB_BP, from t= 0 to 1
EVOL = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =EVOL,
ETAT_INIT =_F(EVOL_NOLI= EVOL)
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE= CL),
F(CHARGE=CH_L),
.

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : DEFI_CABLE_BP

command, example
CAB_BP=DEFI_CABLE_BP(...)
CH_L=AFFE_CHAR_MECA(MODELE=MO,

RELA_CINE_BP=_F(CABLE_BP=CAB_BPi,

SIGM_BPEL=NON', RELA_CINE='OUI',),);
EVOL = CALC_PRECONT(CABLE_BP = CAB_BP,
EXCIT = _F(CHARGE = CL),
INCREMENT =_F(LIST_INST=L,
INST_FIN = 1.,
)

## EVOL = STAT_NON_LINE(reuse =EVOL,

ETAT_INIT =_F(EVOL_NOLI= EVOL)
EXCIT=(_F(CHARGE= CL),
F(CHARGE=CH_L),
.
Continuation of the calculation
kinematic links related to cables +

## Modeling of pre-tensioning : staging

For staging, possibility of alternate or link STAT_NON_LINE and
CALC_PRECONT
Pay attention to the loads to be taken into account !

## GNU FDL Licence

Modeling of staging
Simulation suggested :
BARRE element + DEFI_CABLE_BP + STAT_NON_LINE or
CALC_PRECONT

deformation, ...

## GNU FDL Licence

Outline
Modeling of pre-tensioning
Modeling of reinforcing steel

## Modeling of reinforcing steel

In a 3D model
Option #1 : use the BARRE model (or if needed POUTRE)
Mesh steels with SEG2 elements
Steel and concrete nodes must be identical

## Option #2 : use the GRILLE_MEMBRANE model

Overlay meshes for different directions of reinforcement
(CREA_MAILLAGE)
CREA_MAILLAGE( MODELE=MO,
CREA_GROUP_MA=_F(NOM = 'barreH',
GROUP_MA = 'surf',
PREF_MAILLE='h'))
24 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material

## Modeling of reinforcing steel

With a shell model (DKT)
Use GRILLE_EXCENTREE
The steel is meshed with linear 2D elements : QUAD4 or TRIA3
Overlay meshes for different directions of reinforcement
(CREA_MAILLAGE)

For a 1D model
Use of multi-fiber beam POU_D_EM

## Modeling of reinforcing steel

Model GRILLE_MEMBRANE
Kinematics of the surface : no unknown for rotation
Membrane elements without torsional stiffness
Only one direction of reinforcement
No possibility of eccentricity

Model GRILLE_EXCENTREE
DKT shell kinematics: unknown for rotation
Only one direction of reinforcement
Opportunity to offset the grid

## Modeling of reinforcing steel

Possibility to explicitly represent the steels :
With 1D elements
With 2D elements, of membrane type (for isoparametric modeling) or DGT
type (for plate modeling)
Possibility of using global modeling of reinforced concrete : DKTG elements
and GLRC-DM or GLRC-DAMA constitutive laws

## GNU FDL Licence

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