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Water Coolers

Water coolers are manufactured in many sizes and models to suit various
requirements. Water cooling equipment is divided into two classes:
1. Bottle coolers.
2. Pressure or tap coolers.
Bottle Coolers
The bottle type of water cooler differs from the pressure type mainly in that
the former does not require any plumbing connection since the bottled water
(usually distilled) is delivered to the customers premises as required, where as the
pressure type depends on tap water connected to the cooler by means of a water
supply line.
Bottle coolers lend themselves to office use and particularly in temporary
locations, since no plumbing is required. The only requirement is an electric
source for the condensing unit and the availability of distilled water which is
usually delivered in five-gallon glass bottles.
The Condensing Unit
The condensing unit normally used in bottle coolers is of the hermetic or
sealed rotary type, with a 110-volt, 60-cycle, alternating current motor of
approximately 1/12 horsepower. Most condensing units of this type are equipped
with a natural-draft, finned-type condenser which is so arranged and baffled that
efficient circulation is assured.
Cooling Chamber
With reference to Fig. 2 the evaporator consists of two concentric shells
soldered together at the top and bottom. The liquid refrigerant enters the space
between the shells at the bottom and the suction line is connected at the top of the
out-side shell. A restrictor-type refrigerant control is located in the insulation of
the cooler and the thermostatic switch-bulb well is soldered to the evaporator. The
inner shell forms the water storage tank of -gallon capacity, and all parts of this
cooling chamber are hot tinned to prevent corrosion.
Controls The operation of the condensing unit is controlled by a thermostatic switch
and cold control for temperature adjustment by the user. Motor protective relays
are normally incorporated in the condensing unit.

Pressure Water Coolers

The pressure-type water cooler differs from the bottle cooler mainly in that
the water is supplied from the building water lines as fast as it is used, whereas in
the bottle cooler the water must be replenished from time to time. As shown in
Fig. 3, the individual pressure cooler is a self-contained, complete refrigerating
system and water-cooling unit. It is equipped with all the necessary fittings for
dispensing drinking water as well as catching and disposing of the waste water.
This type of water cooler is usually equipped with a compact fractionalhorsepower compressor (from 1/8 to 1/3 horsepower), and has capacities ranging
from 3 to 9 gallons per hour.
A precooler is a device in which the incoming water receives partial cooling
from the waste water, thus decreasing the quantity of heat to be removed by the
compressor. The amount of heat removed by the precooler depends on the volume
of waste water as compared to the water drawn from the cooler. The amount of
heat which the precooler will remove also depends on the length of the tubing
comprising the precooler. In various designs of precoolers and water coolers, it
may be said the precooler increases the capacity of the unit from 25% to 75%.
Remote Bubbler
There are times when an individual water cooler is so located that a
proportion of those drinking from it are in another room. This means that they
have a long way to go for a drink or that they do not get the amount of water they
should have. To avoid this, individual water coolers have been designed for
remote bubbler connection and are supplied by various manufacturers.
The water cooler should be located at the point where the greatest demand for
water exists and the remote fountain (bubbler) run to the area of lesser demand.
This run should never exceed a total of 15 feet. The pipe running from the watercooler unit to the remote bubbler should be brass and no larger than 3/8 in. And
preferably in. The pipe must be insulated for ice water with cork or its
Plumbing Connections
If the water inlet valve is brought through the floor, a shut-off valve should
be installed under the flooring. After installing the shut-off valve, bring the water
inlet line through the floor and up through the hole in the base of the cooler where
a reducing connector should be installed for connection to the copper tubing in the
cooling unit.

To facilitate the installation of the drain circuit, a union should be installed

in the pipe so that the union is accessible through the panel opening in the rear of
the cabinet. The pipe should then be continued through the hole in the cooler base,
through the floor to a trap, and then to the main drain.
If water connections cannot be brought through the floor, but must run thorough
the wall, it may be necessary to bring the piping through the cabinet grilling in the
rear of the cooler rather than through the cabinet shell. This will permit removal of
the panel without disconnecting the water lines.
To install the drain line when the piping is to be brought out the back of the
cooler, first install the connection by means of a nipple leading into the drip pan. A
street ell should then be screwed into the elbow and, by proper adjustment of the
elbow, the street ell can be brought out through the service panel opening.
Cycle of Operation (typical bottle water cooler)
On a bottle-type model, such as that illustrated in Fig.1, drinking water is
supplied from an inverted bottle which rests on the top of the water cooler. The
neck of this bottle extends down into a watertight extension above the cooling
chamber. When water is drawn from the chamber, the water level falls below the
outlet of the bottle, allowing air to enter the bottle and water to flow out until the
water level covers the bottle opening. Water from the bottle passes down to the
cooling chamber through a baffle which directs the incoming water along the
refrigerated sides of the cooling chamber. Cooled water is drawn from the bottom
of the cooling chamber and passes through a tube to the faucet at the front of the
cooler. Waste water from the faucet is caught in a receptacle which has a drain
tube running from the chamber outlet to a connection at the rear of the water
cooler, where it is sealed with a special safety plug.
Cycle of operation (typical pressure water cooler)
On pressure models, city water enters the cooler through the inlet connection
at the rear of the cooler. Here, the water passes through the precooling jacket
surrounding the drain tube, where it is precooled by the waste water in the drain.
The precooled water from this jacket enters the cooling chamber at the top. A
baffle inside the cooling chamber directs the incoming water down the sides of the
cooling chamber close to the refrigerated walls. The outlet water tube runs close to
the bottom of the cooling chamber where the coolest water lodges. The cooled
water passes through this tube to the self-closing valve pressure regulator and
bubbler on some models and to the faucet on other models.
Air which finds its way into the cooling chamber is released through a small
hole in the outlet tube near the top of the chamber. The glass filler connection is
connected in the outlet line between the cooling chamber and the self-closing

valve. Water for a remote bubbler passes through a tube leading from the bottom
of the water-cooling chamber to a connection at the rear of the water cooler. This
connection is sealed with a special safety plug when a remote bubbler is not used.
From the bubbler or faucet, waste water passes through the catch basin strainer to a
short length of drain tubing leading directly to a drain connection at the rear of the

Pressure Water Cooler

Bottle Water Cooler