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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)

500 kV Single Phase Reclosing Evaluation Using Simplified


Arc Model
Kanchit Ngamsanroaj1, Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn2, Neville R. Watson3
1,2

Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 5200, Thailand
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140,
New Zealand

Auto-enclosing is an efficient tool to compensate the


expected growth in the number of line faults caused by
lightning strokes which is presumable in any compact line
design because of the reduced insulation distances. This is
concluded by L. Prinkler, et al [1 and 2]. A representation
of the secondary arc is essential in determining the autoreclosing performance of EHV transmission lines. The
dynamic behavior of the arc is presented as a time-varying
resistance using models feature of the ATP-EMTP
program. It is shown that random variation of the arc
parameters influences significantly the arc extinction time
besides the capacitive and inductive coupling between the
faulty and the sound phases. Parameters for the arc model
have been extracted from staged fault tests records carried
out on a double-circuit uncompensated 400 kV line.
Tavares and Portela [3] studied the importance of
optimizing transmission system parameters from its
conception, considering altogether the relevant options and
possibilities, in order to have better cost-performance
result. The presented results were obtained in the study of a
real transmission system expansion, based on an 865 km
long line. The single-phase auto-reclosing procedure was
one of the aspects carefully studied. The secondary arc
current was mitigated through the traditional solution of
using the neutral reactor on the existing shunt reactor
banks. The method of obtaining the optimized value for the
neutral reactor was discussed. Several system elements
were adjusted to improve the system performance.
Danyek and Handl [4] collected and analyzed several
articles from the international publication about secondary
arcs. They classified the parameters which influenced on
the secondary arc extinction time into two groups. The first
group parameter (line length, rated voltage, method of arc
ignition, degree of compensation, location of shunt reactor
and distance between arcing horn) is influenced by the
network configuration and operation (at field test) or by the
laboratory test circuits. The others (fault location, primary
arc current and duration, wind, secondary arc resistance,
recovery voltage and secondary arc current) are depending
on atmospheric or other stochastic conditions.

Abstract The interaction between a fault arc and power


system has a big influence on the successful reclosing of a
faulted system and hence evaluation of this interaction is very
important. This paper mainly focuses on a proposed
technique of simplified arc model for evaluation of single
phase reclosing scheme for extra high voltage transmission
system. Both primary and secondary arcs behavior have been
simplified and implemented in a custom PSCAD/EMTDC
model as a time-varying resistance. The successful singlephase reclosing is investigated by conducting fault clearing
and reclosing cases utilizing the simplified arc model. The
illustrative cases are presented in order to determine
approximately the maximum arc duration that may be
expected. To improve the scheme, the shorten pre-set dead
time is investigated. The proposed simplified arc model has
been used to evaluate the studied existing EHV transmission
system for single phase reclosing. By making the pessimistic
assumptions with respect to still air conditions, the more
severe conditions derived from the studied system were
simulated to determine the longest likely extinction times.
Keywords Single phase reclosing; Secondary arc current;
Arc model; ElectroMagnetic Transients Program.

I. INTRODUCTION
More than 90 % of all line faults are single phase to
ground type and most of these are transitory. For these
faults, phase-to-ground faults have received the most
attention in system studies. The fault arc will be quenched
and the fault path dielectric will completely restore during
the dead time of the breaker, usually 25 30 cycles (0.5
0.6 s) for 500 kV systems. Three-phase reclosing, however,
may cause system instability and result in system breakup
and outages. For such instances, single phase reclosing
provides an improvement, without causing system
instability, to enhance transmission system availability.
Over the years analog and digital techniques have been
extensively used by the researcher to predict system
performance, but the main difficulty has always been the
arc modeling during the secondary arcing phase with
resultant uncertainty associated with the predictions of
secondary arc extinction times and the empirical rules used
as measures of acceptability and subsequent reclosing.
1

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
Jamali and Ghaffarzadeh [5] proposes an algorithm for
adaptive single phase auto-reclosing based on processing
the mode current signal using wavelet packet transform,
which can identify transient and permanent faults, as well
as the secondary arc extinction time. The studied method
has been successfully tested under fault conditions on a 500
kV overhead line using EMTP. The algorithm does not
need a case-based threshold level. Its performance is
independent of fault location, line parameters, and pre-fault
line loading conditions.
Many studies have been made based on measurements of
secondary fault current and time for arc extinguishing on
single-circuit and double-circuit lines. Hasibar, et al. [6]
reported the use of high-speed grounding switches. This is
an effective method for extinguishing secondary arc current
associated with single-pole switching. High-speed
grounding switches are connected at each end of BPAs
existing 500 kV transmission line, hence in parallel with
the secondary arc, and will permit rapid circuit breaker
reclosing.
Kappenman, et al. [7] performed fault tests on a 528 km
500 kV single-circuit line. The tests were made at three
different positions along the line. The line had reactive
compensation. Although not specifically stated, it is
expected that the shunt reactors were selected for optimum
or near optimum compensation. The secondary arc current
extinguished very quickly, probably because the line was
well compensated and fault current (If) was low. The slope
of the recovery voltage (R) in the first few ms after the arc
extinguished is very low. It was noted that the time until
extinguishing was mainly dependent upon the DC offset of
the secondary fault current, which was a function of the
breaker opening time.
The results of a large number of single-phase reclosing
experiments on two transmission lines were reported by
Scherer, et al. [8]. The first line was a 243 km 765 kV line
in the United States, and the second was a 417 km 750 kV
line in the USSR. Reactive compensation with the usual
neutral reactor was used on both lines, although various
reactor configurations were used during the tests. Scherer,
et al. indicates that the tests on the 765 kV line with the 4.2
m arc length support a TRV initial rate of rise of 10 kV/ms
for successful extinguishing.
Shperling, et al. [9] presented on test results on the same
243 km 765 kV line as considered in [8]. It was noted that
the arc resistance has a significant effect on the secondary
arc current, with this secondary current had a third
harmonic component of about 40%. It is also stated that the
withstand rate of rise of the 4.2 m gap was about 10 kV/ms,
and also that for this line the rate of rise was around 0.2If .

Based on the results reported above, it would appear that


for a 500 kV system, single pole reclosing schemes have
pre-set delay times (typically 0.4 to 0.5 s) that reclose the
open circuit breaker phase whether the arc has extinguished
or not. Successful reclosing will occur when the secondary
arc self-extinguishes prior to the time of reclosing.
Considering the range of published reference data, the
following values will result in successful reclosing for the
majority of cases:
The secondary arc current is less than 40 A rms.
The rate of the recovery voltage after the arc clears is
less than 10 kV/ms.
In order to improve the stability of the system, it is
desirable to restore the service as soon as possible; it is a
common operating practices to reclose a circuit breaker a
few cycles after it has interrupted a fault.
Auto-reclosing provides a means of improving power
transmitting ability and system stability which notes that
many adaptive reclosing algorithms have been proposed at
present. At the same time, the conventional reclosing which
adopts the fixed dead time interval strategy, that is, the
reclosing is activated after a time delay to restore the
system to normal as quickly as possible without regard to
the system conditions. Although these simple techniques
cannot provide the optimal operating performance, the
conventional reclosing scheme is still used in many
utilities. For this reason, in practical point of view, the
simplification of the arc model will be another approach
because of the difficulty of setting up field tests for realistic
representation as indicated in some of the above published
studies. This paper focuses on a proposed technique of
simplified arc model for evaluation of single phase
reclosing scheme for extra high voltage transmission
system. Both primary and secondary arcs behavior were
simplified and implemented in a custom PSCAD/EMTDC
model as a time-varying resistance. Due to highly random
and complex behavior of the secondary arc it is difficult to
reproduce the exact arc duration by digital simulation. This
notes that the simplified arc model is suitable for arcing
fault simulation applications. The model and simulation
results are compared with field test reported in the technical
literature and the published detailed arc model while the
rest of studied system model and associated parameters will
be calibrated with the field test for line energization in
Thailand. The successful single-phase reclosing is
investigated by conducting fault clearing and reclosing
cases utilizing the proposed simplified arc model by using
Thailand 500 kV transmission system between Mae Moh
(MM3) and Tha Ta Ko (TTK) as studied cases.
2

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)

I fs I fc I fm

The illustrative cases are presented in order to determine


approximately the maximum arc duration that may be
expected. To improve the scheme, the shorten pre-set dead
time is evaluated together with compensation of secondary
arc; the successful reclosing will occur and bring the
system stability back. The proposed simplified arc model
has been used to evaluate the studied existing EHV
transmission system for single phase reclosing. By making
the pessimistic assumptions with respect to still air
conditions, the more severe conditions derived from the
studied system were simulated to determine the longest
likely extinction times.

(1)

II. SINGLE PHASE RECLOSING AND ARC CURRENT


A.

Single Phase Reclosing


If single phase reclosing is used, then for a single-line
to-ground fault, only the faulted is cleared. After a time
delay the breakers at each line end are cleared. The two
unfaulted lines remain connected, and keep on carrying
around 54 % of the pre-fault power [10 and 11]. With
single phase switching, the energized phases inductively
and capacitively coupled energy into the faulted phase.
This coupled fault current which can sustain the arc. This
coupled fault current is usually called the secondary arc
current. With relatively short transmission lines, the
secondary arc current may be so low that the fault
extinguishes quickly and reclosing can be accomplished
after only a slight delay. With longer lines, some type of
action is needed to reduce the fault current.
After fault inception, the current spurting into the fault
with all there beakers poles closed can be defined as
primary arc current (Ifp) as shown in fig. 1 (a). After the
faulted phase is isolated, the current is sustained due to the
coupling from the other two phases. Due to this coupling,
current will proceed to pour into the fault, by means of
maintaining the arc in a reduced state commonly referred to
as a secondary are current (Ifs) as depicted in fig. 1 (b). As
the arc path is cooled, and probability elongated, a current
zero may be reached where arc extinction will take place.
Even so, the capacitive and inductive coupling also
produces a recovery voltage across the former arc path.
This recovery voltage may be big enough to cause reignitions or restrikes of the fault arc. And finally, after the
arc has quenched, a complete reclosing still depends on the
ability of the switched phase to withstand the transient
voltage at the instant reclosing.
As above explained, the secondary arc current consists
with two currents preserved by electrostatic (Ifc) and
electromagnetic (Ifm) coupling from the two unfaulted
phases [12].

Fig. 1 Diagram concept of arc current

The inductive is recognized as the smallest and the


capacitive coupling as the largest contributor to the
secondary arc current. When shunt reactors are present,
these cancel the contribution of the shunt capacitance to the
secondary arc current and the inductive component
increases.

Fig. 2 Electrostatic coupling diagram of a single, symmetrical and


fully transposed line

The calculation of secondary arc current via electrostatic


coupling was developed by IEEE Power System Relaying
Committee Working Group [12]. Fig. 2 illustrates the
system during the pole-open condition after the system
experiences a single-phase-to-ground fault. Fig. 2(a)
depicts the secondary arc for an open phase A. It presents
the capacitive coupling between phases (Ch) and phase to
ground (Cg). The diagram is a representation of a line that
is assumed to be fully transposed. The Thevenin equivalent
circuit derived from fig. 2(a) is shown in fig. 2(b).
The magnitude of Ifc is in direct proportion to the line
voltage and the line length. As shown from fig. 2(b):

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)

1
I fc Vth (
)
1 / j 2Ch

(2)

When the line is loaded, there is a component of


secondary arc current induced by the electromagnetic
coupling (Ifm) from the unfaulted phases. The accurate
calculation of Ifm needs transient studies due to the fact that
the induction is the sum of many dynamic variables
involving the line currents flowing in the unfaulted phases,
adjacent line loading, the method of secondary arc
extinction, etc.
The magnitude of the recovery voltage (Vr) is directly
proportional to the line voltage and the relative value of Ch
and Cg. Consequently, Vr does not vary with line length.
According to fig. 2(b), the recovery voltage on phase A
after fault clearing can be approximated by:

1/ jC g
Vr Vth

(1/ j 2Ch ) (1/ jC g )

(3)

B.

Arc Current
The single phase reclosing of a typical 500 kV
untransposed line with length of 135 km has been
investigated by the analysis of arc measurement on the arc
tests at FGH in Germany [13 and 14]. The single phase to
ground fault of phase b at the sending end is isolated by
single phase switching. The secondary arc voltage and
current obtained from the simulations are presented in Fig.
3. The arc duration determined from the Fig. 3 is 0.42 s.
The primary fault arc period is considered between fault
inception and clearing at both ends of the faulted phase.
After the transition of primary arc to secondary arc occurs,
it can be observed that the voltage across the arc path is
gradually built-up until the final extinguishment of arc.
Then both end breakers are reclosing consequently which
characteristic offset of the recovery voltage is noticed as
shown in Fig. 3(a). The arc duration determined from the
Fig. 3(b) is 0.42 s.
The simplification of Johns, et al. [15] in this study can
be represented according to the principle of thermal
equilibrium for modeling the fault arc. This arc is evaluated
by the following differential equation:

dg fi
dt

1
(G fi g fi )
T fi

Fig.3 Simulation of single phase reclosing on 500 kV line [14]


(a)Arc voltage (b) Arc current

The subscript fi presents each phases of the fault arc (fp


for primary arc and fs for secondary arc). Tfi is considered
as the time constant of the arc path, while gfi presents the
time varying arc conductance. The stationary arc
conductance (Gfi) and can be obtained from:

G fi

i
V fi l fi

(5)

The stationary arc conductance can be explained as an


arc conductance when the arc current is kept for a fairly
long time under constant external conditions. The arc
voltage per unit length is defined as Vfi. For the primary
arc, Vfp is constant and given as 15 V / cm when the range
of the peak of the primary current is between 1.4 to 24 kA
[15]. In the other point, Vfs is a function of the peak of the
secondary current (Ifs) in the range of Ifs from 1 A to 55 A.
Vfs can be averaged by Vfs = 75Ifs-0.4 V/cm. Where i is the
absolute value of arc current and lfi presents the arc length
of each phase. The time constant can be determined
according to the rate of rise of the arc voltage from the
following equation:

(4)

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T fp
T fs

I fp
l fp

I 1fs.4
l fs (t r )

It needs to be noted that the simplification indicate the


desirability of performing simulation runs consistent with
relatively low wind speed or zero speed and with initial arc
length of 4 m. in order to determine the worst case
extinction time condition. When interpolation was added to
PSCAD/EMTDC, this component worked satisfactorily for
the secondary arc. In this study, the algorithm of fault arc
modeling from single phase to ground fault based on
simplified model is proposed and simulated. The logic
function and other modules in the PSCAD/EMTDC are
used to accurately establish model of dynamic
characteristics of primary and secondary arc. The initiation
time of fault inception and duration of fault can be set
before simulation of fault at desired location in the studied
system.

(6)

(7)

Where the coefficient is about 2.8510-5 for primary


arc current and is around 2.51103 for secondary arc
current. Ifi is defined for the peak current.
The probability of secondary arc extinction is considered
by the sustained secondary arc current and the post-fault
recovery voltage. Many published papers have indicated
that a typical secondary arc current for a 500 kV is below
20 A per 161 km. The required breaker dead time is
between 0.25 and 0.4 s. A typical recovery voltage value is
between 10 to 25 % of the live voltage without shunt
reactor compensation. [7 - 9], [11], [12] and [16].
III. DESCRIPTION OF ARC MODEL
The fault arc is very important when studying arc
phenomena such as single-phase reclosing because
reclosing operation must be after secondary arc is
permanently extinguished. The secondary arc is what
happens to highly sophisticated occurrence. Anticipating
the quenching of a second arc is certainly not enough to
make precision impossible with the information and
knowledge that is available to date.
In this paper, the arc is simplified and incorporated as a
custom component model in PSCAD/EMTDC. It is based
on a changing resistance for the primary arc and a changing
resistance for the secondary arc and a changing current
source after the transition to secondary arc. The proposed
simplified arc model is considered with the successive
partial arc extinctions and restrikes when the arc current
and voltage pass through zero many times. The permanent
arc extinction will occur when the voltage impressed across
the discharge path is lower than the arc reignition voltage.
The steps for calculating the arc resistance are shown in the
flowchart of fig. 4.
The flowchart consists of calculation of arc conductance,
arc equation and solution. The arc conductance is updated
at each time step of the solution. It consists of an arc
component which effectively modeled both a primary arc
(the high current arc before circuit breakers open) and the
secondary arc which remains after the circuit breakers
open.

Fig. 4 Flowchart of the simplified arc model

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The alteration from primary arc to the secondary arc can
be counted from the time of the first current zero in the arc
after which the magnitude of the primary arc decreased
significantly. A Thevenin equivalent of the network seen
by the arc, which can be done by freezing the entire history
in terms of electromagnetic transient solution at each time
step. Once the Thevenin equivalent network has been
considered in the calculation procedure, its characteristics
are superimposed on the secondary arc characteristic. And
at the intersection, the arc current is defined robustly. The
network solutions are re-calculated with the resolved arc
current comprised as a current source.
For verifying of the model, validation test needed to be
considered. The comparisons between field tests and
simulations are another direct way that directly to verify the
representations. But field tests require resources and
network outages which may affect the reliability of system
Moreover, in some field tests could not be able to perform
because of operational limitations. To get more confidence
with proposed model, the comparison with published
computed result or detailed arc model [19].
In this paper, the simplified arc model has been
investigated with a good record of the field test from
published detailed arc model [13 and 14] while the rest of
studied system models and associated parameters are
calibrated with the field test for line energization.

It is apparent from Fig. 5 that the nonlinearities in the


fault arc path current manifest itself into significantly
distorting the voltage waveforms in the time period from
breaker opening to final arc extinction. It is noted that the
peaks and trajectories of both voltages and currents in
proposed arc model and detailed arc model are in same
pattern. This ensures the validity of the proposed model.

A.

It, nevertheless, is very hard to have a complete


agreement of the field tests and the simulation cases. From
the comparison it is noted that in general the
correspondence of waveforms is reasonably good for
reclosing simulation with following observations:

Fig. 5 Simulation result from the proposed arc model on 500 kV line
from [14]

Verification with published detailed arc model


The proposed simplified arc model is improved with
published detailed arc model. Based on the arc model given
in [14], the former detailed arc model described in [14] has
been improved by the analysis of arc measurements on the
arc tests performed by FGH (Power Research Institute) in
Germany. The secondary arc transients have then been
compared between the proposed simplified arc model and
detailed arc model from [14] and using the same network
configuration of 500 kV untransposed line with length of
135 km. as in the published detailed arc model. The
secondary arc voltage and current obtained by the proposed
arc model are given in Fig. 5. By means of comparison
between Fig. 3 and Fig. 5, the influence of arc parameters
on arc duration and arc length at the moment of extinction
is shown. The elongations of the arc and time variation of
arc time constant depending on arc length are the major
factors in this respect. The arc extinction is the most
difficult phenomenon of the secondary arc to define. The
arc extinction criteria used in the detailed models are
derived and adjusted empirically and have been improved
by means of extensive arc tests on real insulator
arrangements.

The simulated primary arc current wave shapes are


somewhat similar in agreement with the recorded
primary arc current.
In comparison between actual and simulated cases, the
size of the primary arc currents and the recovery
voltages are not always close in the peak value.
For the published detail case, the duration of the
secondary arc extinction time was similar to or less
than the simulated case.
Although the simulated results on secondary arc
extinction times are concurring but not precise, the
differences can be attributed to modeling accuracy and
imprecision of data. For published detailed test, the system
equivalents at each end of the line are not known exactly.

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B.

Calibration for studied system model components with


field test
The rest of the studied system components and
associated parameters such as transmission lines,
transformers, generating sources, circuit breakers, surge
arrestors and shunt reactors are calibrated with field test for
line energization. For validating the studied system model
components, the comparisons between simulation and field
tests are also used.

The almost random variation of arc parameters


influences significantly the arc performance during single
phase reclosing on transmission lines. Whereas the primary
arc presents generally a deterministic behaviour as
observed at field and laboratory tests [13 and 14], the
secondary arc has extremely random characteristic affected
by external conditions around the arc channel like ionized
surrounding air, wind, thermal buoyancy and
electrodynamic force. Due to highly random and complex
behaviour of the fault arc, it is almost impossible to
reproduce the exact arc duration by digital simulations.
However, the proposed simplified arc model has been
evaluated and can employed to determine maximum dead
times (worst case) and to evaluate the performance of arc
suppression schemes in single phase reclosing studies. This
is point to the essential for this work.

Fig. 7 Simplified arc model for fault arc at the fault location

Due to the limitation of system availability and stability,


the scope of field tests was defined to line energization
with all protection. During the simulation, recorded field
tests results are used to calibrate the system model
components and associated parameters. The accuracy of the
model of the system as shown in Fig. 6 can be verified by
field tests from the studied system. The receiving end
voltage waveform during the field tests were recorded and
compared with the corresponding simulation results [18
and 19].
Fig. 7 depicts the comparison results between field test
record and simulation test for the case of MM3 TTK
circuit no. 2 which is one of many tests. TTK was he
receiving end for each test while the rest of the system was
in service. The simulation was configured as the field test
configuration. The voltage waveforms are nearly similar.
The comparisons give satisfactory results to confirm the
validity of the simulation model components and
parameters used [7], and [20 - 23].

Fig. 7 The comparison of field test (a) and the simulation results (b)

The validation tests for the proposed simplified arc


model and transmission line system components from the
above ensure the accuracy of representation for this study.
The proposed fault arc, transmission line and system
component models are used to study secondary arc
extinction times for single phase reclosing after single line
to ground fault in an EHV line.
IV. SYSTEM MODELING
The system adopted for simulation represents the three
500 kV lines from Mae Moh (MM3) to Tha Ta Ko (TTK),
as shown in fig. 7, which is the longest transmission line
section (about 330 km for each line) in Thailand.
7

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The simulation study is conducted to determine the form
of single-phase reclosing using simplified arc model
occurring after single-line-to-ground fault in different
locations. The PSCAD/EMTDC software is incorporated in
the study. The 500 kV circuits in the network have been
modelled using the frequency dependent model [23].
According to the studied system, the 500 kV interconnected
between MM3 and TTK substation comprises three
circuits:

The factors considered to have the most influence on


arcs are the duration and magnitudes of the primary arc
currents, the fault location, wind and humidity conditions,
and line power flow. From the test results in [7], no
correlation can be determined of the effect of primary arc
magnitude and duration as well as fault location upon
secondary arc extinction time. Also no correlation could be
found linking the pre-fault power flow on the line to
secondary arc extinction time. Wind speed may have some
subtle effects upon the secondary arc extinction time. It
needs to be emphasized that the considerations indicate the
desirability of performing simulation runs consistent with
relatively low wind speed or zero speed and with initial arc
length of 4 m. in order to determine the worst case
extinction times.

Single circuit 500 kV MM3 TTK, using 4x795 MCM


ACSR/GA conductors per phase, 325.675 km, with
3x90 MVAr/525 kV line shunt reactor at both ends.

Double circuits 500 kV MM3 TTK, using 4x795


MCM ACSR conductors per phase, 334.855 km, with
3x110 MVAr/525 kV line shunt reactor at both ends.
The parameters of the line are calculated based on the
conductor sizes and their geometric spacing on the
transmission towers. All effects of inductive and capacitive
coupling between each phases of particular circuit, and
coupling between circuits on the same transmission tower
are therefore included in the network model. Phase
transposition and fixed compensating reactors are
represented. Each transformer and auto-transformer will be
modeled in detail with available information: MVA rating,
winding voltage and configuration, tap change ranges and
normal setting, and leakage reactance between windings.
The generators in the network are represented using a 3phase AC voltage source, with specified source and/or
zero-sequence impedance. The locations of the circuit
breakers that will be switched are associated on the studied
system. Other parameters of the circuit breakers are
considered: protection delay or clearing times, reclosing
sequences, mechanical closing time and variation in pole
closing times, and closing resister. The location and rating
of installed surge arresters are included. At the boundary of
the simulation, the external grid or the remaining parts of
500 kV network are represented by a voltage source
connected with driving impedance for the feeding network.
For simulation of the fault, the simplified arc model is
applied. The proposed fault can be represented by time
varying resistance model during primary arc period and for
secondary arc until self-extinguish occurs, as previously
described. The arc model will present the successive partial
arc extinctions and restrikes when arc current and voltage
pass through zero many times. The permanent arc
extinction will occur when the voltage impressed across the
discharge path lower than the arc reignition voltage. The
developed custom model for the arc is used at the fault
location as shown in Fig. 6. The investigation is conducted
at no load on the system.

V. RESULTS
Having developed the proposed simplified arc model, it
was decided to utilize the digital simulation to evaluate the
studied existing EHV transmission system. By making the
pessimistic assumptions with respect to still air conditions,
the more severe conditions derived from the studied system
were simulated using EMTP to determine the longest likely
extinction times. For the 500 kV circuit MM3 TTK#1,
the studied system is considered to be at steady-state
operating condition prior to the inception of a phase-toground fault on phase A at time 0.25 s (T 1). The sending
end phase A breaker clears at time 0.5 s (T2), followed by
the opening of the receiving end breaker at time 0.52 s (T 3).
The primary arc is taken during the primary arc period (T 1T3). The arc transition is occurred at the time the current in
fault arc path first reached zero, after the receiving end
breaker interrupts current. Actual current interruption is
arranged to occur at the first current zero following contact
separation of breaker pole inquisition. It can be seen that
the voltage exhibits the usual high frequency travelling
wave induced distortion during the primary arc period.
Follow arc transition to secondary arc period at time T3,
there is a gradual build-up of the voltage across the arc
path. Initial oscillations in the secondary arc current are
observed. The source of the oscillation is caused from the
excitation of the natural frequency formed by the fault
points with transmission line. This does not appear to
hinder arc extinction. Considerable high frequency
distortion is observed near final arc extinction, and this is
caused by collapse of voltage across the secondary arc
following sudden restrike. After final extinction of
secondary arc at time 0.604 s (T 4), the line is re-energized
by sending end phase breaker closing at time 1.05 s (T 5)
and then time 1.07 s (T6) for the receiving end.
8

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The characteristics of the fault arc, current and voltage at
fault point, throughout the process of single-phase
reclosing are depicted in Fig. 8.
This is also illustrated three distinct stages of
development of the secondary arc; an initial half cycle
period of relatively high noise distortion caused by
travelling wave components traversing the fault point, a
relatively long period during which arc the arc voltage
increases due to the effect of an increase in the arc length,
and a final short pre-extinction period where the arc tries to
extinguish but sudden re-ignition causes current and
voltage spikes to be generated.

Fig. 9 Primary arc resistance

Fig. 9 depicts the dynamic resistance curve of the


primary arc attained by dividing the arc voltage by the arc
current. It is clearly seen that the fault arc resistance is
highly nonlinear. In particular, it is clear that while the arc
current periodically passes through current zero, the arc
resistance shows small abrupt changes and is primarily
responsible for causing the distortion in the fault arc
voltage.
A series of studies have been performed in similar
manner for each one of the other double circuit between
MM3 and TTK (MM3 TTK#2 and MM3 TTK#3). Fig.
10 and Fig. 11 present the arc current responses from the
simulation for single-line-to-ground fault occurring at the
sending end of the line.

Fig. 8 Simulation result for fault arc at the fault location (System
response of Current and Voltage for phase A to ground fault at
sending end, MM3-TTK#1)

When a phase-to-ground fault occurs, a heavy short


circuit current or primary arc flows through the faulted
phase until both end breakers trip. The arc transition occurs
at the time the current in fault arc path first reached zero,
after the receiving end breaker trips. Actual current
interruption is arranged to occur at the first current zero
following contact separation of breaker pole. Before final
extinction of secondary arc, several partial extinctions and
restrikes are observed. It is noted that the nonlinear
variation of the arc manifests itself into producing high
frequency components which in turn distort the wave form.

Fig, 10 System response for phase A to ground fault at sending end,


MM3-TTK#2

Fig, 11 System response for phase A to ground fault at sending end,


MM3-TTK#2

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TABLE 4
SECONDARY ARC CURRENT AND RECOVERY VOLTAGE FOR PHASE TO
GROUND FAULT MM3 TTK#3

Following the arc transition at time T 3, there is a gradual


build up of the voltage across the arc path until final
extinction occurs at time T4. . The different fault locations
are taken place at the sending end, middle of the line and
receiving end for each simulation. The arc duration, as
considered from studied system, is concluded in Table 1.
Due to highly random and complex behaviour of the
secondary arc it is almost impossible to reproduce the exact
arc duration by digital simulations. However, the simplified
model evaluated in this paper can be employed to
determine maximum dead times in the worst case and to
examine the performance of arc suppression schemes in
reclosing studies. Table 2, 3 and 4 are the studied results
from which it can be summarized that the electrostatic
component of the secondary arc current and recovery
voltage are below 20 A and 50 kV level respectively (often
regarded as the limit for successful reclosing). For the
system studied, the maximum arc duration is 354 ms at
MM3 TTK #1. It is important to reduce dead time setting
and reclose both end breakers as quickly as possible after
completely arc extinction for enhancing the operational
availability of the system.

Fault location
Sending End
Middle Line
Receiving End

Sending End
Middle Line
Receiving End

Secondary Arc Extinction Time after Fault


Inception (ms)
MM3-TTK#1 MM3-TTK#2
MM3-TTK#3
354
324
333
343
266
266
333
255
254

VI. CONCLUSIONS
Clearance of short-circuit faults on EHV transmission
line is critical for power system stability. Therefore, most
system operators use single phase tripping and reclosing in
order to give single phase arcing faults a chance to
extinguishing while keeping the two healthy phases of the
line in operation. The dead time of the reclosing should be
long enough for the secondary arc to stop burning, and yet
as short as possible in order to reduce the power system
disturbance. Since a same fixed time setting is used for all
EHV lines. In this case, the operators have to decide
whether it is appropriate to manually reclose the line after a
couple of minutes, by assessing the risk of fault restrike.
Due to highly random and complex behavior of the fault
arc, it is almost impossible to reproduce the exact arc
duration by digital simulations. However, the proposed
simplified arc model has been evaluated and can employed
to determine maximum dead times (worst case) and to
evaluate the performance of arc suppression schemes in
single phase reclosing studies.

TABLE 2
SECONDARY ARC CURRENT AND RECOVERY VOLTAGE FOR PHASE
TO GROUND FAULT MM3 TTK#1
Fault location
Sending End
Middle Line
Receiving End

Ifs, A
12.10
11.20
9.10

Recovery voltage, kV
43.60
41.45
32.84

TABLE 3
SECONDARY ARC CURRENT AND RECOVERY VOLTAGE FOR PHASE TO
GROUND FAULT MM3 TTK#2
Fault location
Sending End
Middle Line
Receiving End

Ifs, A
11.00
10.35
8.34

Recovery voltage, kV
39.21
37.54
30.35

As the main purpose of this study, it is important to


know the worst dead time that must be allow for complete
arc extinction, to prevent the arc restriking when voltage is
re-applied. The successful single-phase reclosing is
evaluated by conducting fault clearing and reclosing cases
utilizing the proposed simplified arc model. The illustrative
cases are presented in order to evaluate approximately the
maximum arc duration that may be expected. To improve
the scheme, the shorten pre-set dead time is investigated
together with compensation of secondary arc; the
successful reclosing will occur and bring the system
stability back. The proposed simplified arc model, which
has been used to assess the performance of the system
operating conditions in this study, can be employed to
determine the maximum dead times in worst case. The
maximum secondary arc duration is 354 ms for the studied
Mae Moh Tha Ta Ko system. The total reclosing time,
including 300 ms for circuit breaker closing time, should be
654 ms. The existing single phase reclosing schemes have
pre-set dead times typically 700 ms ( with total reclosing
time of 1000 ms) that reclose the open breaker phase which
can be shorten by the studied reference.

TABLE 1
SECONDARY ARC EXTINCTION TIME FROM SINGLE PHASE TO
GROUND FAULT
Fault location

Ifs, A
10.81
10.17
8.18

Recovery voltage, kV
39.96
38.22
30.92

10

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014)
[3]

The transient study evaluated the single-phase reclosing


of the 500 kV lines in case of Thailand system between
Mae Moh and Tha Ta Ko substations. The results present
especially emphasised the effect of EHV transmission
system on secondary arc current. The work considers the
characteristic of secondary arc current after clearing of
transitory fault and returning the system to normal
operation. The both primary and secondary arcs behaviour
were implemented in a custom PSCAD/EMTDC model as
a time-varying resistance. This notes that the simplified arc
model is suitable for arcing fault simulation applications.
The successful single-phase reclosing is investigated by
conducting fault clearing and reclosing cases utilizing the
developed arc model. The illustrative cases are presented in
order to determine approximately the maximum arc
duration that may be expected. Due to highly random and
complex behaviour of the secondary arc it is difficult to
reproduce the exact arc duration by digital simulation.
Single phase reclosing schemes detect the presence of
single-phase-to-ground faults on a transmission line and
trigger the circuit breaker of only the faulted phase to open.
To improve the scheme, the shorten pre-set dead time is
investigate together with compensation of secondary arc;
the successful reclosing will occur and bring the system
stability back. However, the proposed simplified arc model
which has been used to evaluate the performance of the
system operating conditions in this study, can be employed
to determine the maximum dead times in worst case. The
results could then be used for further evaluation EHV
system in many different areas such as protection, reclosing
scheme and power quality.

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

Acknowledgements

[12]

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the


contributions of Dr. Suthep Chimklai from Electricity
Generating Authority of Thailand and Dr. Dharshana
Muthumuni from Manitoba HVDC Research Centre,
Canada on their technical and information supports, thank
the National Research University (NRU) Project from the
Office of the Higher Education Commission of Thailand.

[13]
[14]

[15]

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