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Romania (

Romania ( <a href=i / r o ʊ ˈ m e ɪ n i ə/ roh- MAY -nee-ə ; Romanian : România [rom ɨˈ ni.a] ( listen ) ), occasionally misspelled Rumania , a nd formerly also spelled Roumania , is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern - Central Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula and on the western shore of the Black Sea . It borders Hungary , Serbia , Ukraine , Moldova , and Bulgaria . It covers 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi) and has a temperate - continental climate . With its 20.1 million inhabitants, it is th e seventh most populous member of the European Union . Its capital and largest city, Bucharest , is the sixth largest city in the European Union. Modern Romania emerged within the territories of the ancient Roman province of Dacia , and was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia . The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I , Transylvania , Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania . At the end of World War II , territories which today roughly correspond to the Republic of Moldova were occupied by th e Soviet Union , and a few years later Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact . After the 1989 Revolution , Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a capitalist market economy . Following rapid economic growth in the 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom . Living standards have improved, and currently, Romania is an upper-middle income country with a high Human Development Index . It has been a member o f NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. Around 90% of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians , and are native speakers of Romanian , a Romance language . With a rich cultural history , Romania has been the home of influential artists , musicians , and inventors , and features a variety of tourist attractions . Etymology [ edit ] Main article: Name of Romania Romania derives from the Latin romanus , meaning "citizen of Rome" . The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th-century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, [18][ 19][ 20][ 21] " id="pdf-obj-0-5" src="pdf-obj-0-5.jpg">
Romania ( <a href=i / r o ʊ ˈ m e ɪ n i ə/ roh- MAY -nee-ə ; Romanian : România [rom ɨˈ ni.a] ( listen ) ), occasionally misspelled Rumania , a nd formerly also spelled Roumania , is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern - Central Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula and on the western shore of the Black Sea . It borders Hungary , Serbia , Ukraine , Moldova , and Bulgaria . It covers 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi) and has a temperate - continental climate . With its 20.1 million inhabitants, it is th e seventh most populous member of the European Union . Its capital and largest city, Bucharest , is the sixth largest city in the European Union. Modern Romania emerged within the territories of the ancient Roman province of Dacia , and was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia . The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I , Transylvania , Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania . At the end of World War II , territories which today roughly correspond to the Republic of Moldova were occupied by th e Soviet Union , and a few years later Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact . After the 1989 Revolution , Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a capitalist market economy . Following rapid economic growth in the 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom . Living standards have improved, and currently, Romania is an upper-middle income country with a high Human Development Index . It has been a member o f NATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. Around 90% of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians , and are native speakers of Romanian , a Romance language . With a rich cultural history , Romania has been the home of influential artists , musicians , and inventors , and features a variety of tourist attractions . Etymology [ edit ] Main article: Name of Romania Romania derives from the Latin romanus , meaning "citizen of Rome" . The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th-century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia, [18][ 19][ 20][ 21] " id="pdf-obj-0-26" src="pdf-obj-0-26.jpg">

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misspelled Rumania, [10][11][12][13][14] and formerly also spelled Roumania, [15][16] is a unitary semi-presidential republic located in Southeastern-Central Europe, north of the Balkan Peninsula and on the western shore of the Black Sea. It borders Hungary, Serbia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Bulgaria. It covers 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi) and has a temperate-continental climate. With its 20.1 million inhabitants, it is theseventh most populous member of the European Union. Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth largest city in the European Union.

Modern Romania emerged within the territories of the ancient Roman province of Dacia, and was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. At the end of World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. At the end of World War II, territories which today roughly correspond to the Republic of Moldova were occupied by theSoviet Union, and a few years later Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards democracy and a capitalist market economy.

Following rapid economic growth in the 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, and is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom. Living standards have improved, and currently, Romania is an upper-middle income country with a high Human Development Index. It has been a member ofNATO since 2004, and part of the European Union since 2007. Around 90% of the population identify themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians, and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. With a rich cultural history, Romania has been the home of influential artists, musicians, and inventors, and features a variety of tourist attractions.

Etymology[edit]

Main article: Name of Romania

Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome". [17] The first known use of the appellation was attested in the 16th-century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia,

and Wallachia. [18][19][20][21]

<a href=Neac ș u's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian . " id="pdf-obj-1-3" src="pdf-obj-1-3.jpg">

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written inRomanian.

The oldest surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", [22] is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească ("The Romanian Land",țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească).

Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably [a] until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumâncame to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. [23] After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. [b] Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia." [24]

The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—is first documented in the early 19th century. [c] The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861. [25] English-language sources still used the terms Rumania or Roumania, derived from the French spelling Roumanie and/or the Greek Ρουμανία, as recently as World War II, [26] but the name has since been replaced with the official spelling Romania. [27]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Romania

Early history[edit]

<a href=Neac ș u's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian . The oldest surviving document written in Romanian , a 1521 letter known as the " Letter of Neac ș u from Câmpulung " , is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Ț eara Rumânească ("The Romanian Land", ț eara from the Latin terra , "land"; current spelling: Ț ara Românească ). Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean " bondsman " , while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român . Tudor Vladimirescu , a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia. " The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—is first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been officially in use since 11 December 1861. English-language sources still used the terms Rumania or Roumania , derived from the French spelling Roumanie and/or the Greek Ρουμανία, as recently as World War II , but the name has since been replaced with the official spelling Romania . History [ edit ] Main article: History of Romania Early history [ edit ] Main articles: Romania in Antiquity , Dacia and Roman Dacia " id="pdf-obj-1-112" src="pdf-obj-1-112.jpg">

Roman provinces in the regions now forming Romania in the 2nd century AD

The human remains found in Peștera cu Oase ("The Cave of the Bones"), radiocarbon dated as being from cca. 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. [28][29]

Prior to the Roman conquest of Dacia, the territories between Danube and Dniester rivers were inhabited by various Thracian peoples, including the Dacians and the Getae. [30] Herodotus, in his work "Histories", notes the religious difference between the Getae and other Thracians, [31] however, according to Strabo, the Dacians and the Getae spoke the same language. [30] Dio Cassius draws attention to the cultural similarities between the two people. [30] There is a scholarly dispute whether the Dacians and the Getae were the same people. [32][33]

Roman incursions under Emperor Trajan between 101–102 AD and 105–106 AD led to result that about half of the Dacian kingdom became a province of the Roman Empire called "Dacia Traiana". The Roman rule la