You are on page 1of 14

# LEARNING AREA : 1 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

1.1 Observe everyday objects such as a table, a pencil, a mirror etc and A student is able to :
Understanding discuss how they are related to physics concepts.
Physics • explain what physics is.
View video on natural phenomena and discuss how they are related
to physics concepts. 3/1 – 4/1
• recognize then physics in everyday objects and
natural phenomena.
Discuss fields of study in physics such as forces, motion, heat, light
etc.

## 1.2 Discuss base quantities and derived quantities. A student is able to :

Understanding base
quantities and From a test passage, identify physical quantities then classify them • explain what base quantities and derived quantities
derived quantities into base quantities and derived quantities. are.
7/1 – 11/1
List the value of prefixes and their abbreviations from nano to giga,
• list base quantities and their units.
e.g nano (10 -9) nm (nanometer) • list some derived quantities and their units.

Discuss the use of scientific notation to express large and small • express quantities using prefixes.
numbers. • express quantities using scientific notation.
Determine the base quantities (and units) in a given derived quantity
( and unit) from the related formula. • express derived quantities as well as their units in
terms of base quantities and base units.
Solve problems that involve the conversion of units.
• solve problems involving conversion of units
1.3 Carry out activities to show that some quantities can be defined by A student is able to :
Understanding magnitude only whereas other quantities need to be defined by
scalar and vector magnitude as well as direction. • define scalar and vector quantities.
quantities 14/1 – 18/1
Compile a list of scalar and vector quantities.
• give examples of scalar and vector quantities.

1.4 Choose the appropriate instrument for a given measurement. A student is able to :
Understanding
measurements Discuss consistency and accuracy using the distribution of gunshots • measure physical quantities using appropriate
on a target as an example. instruments.
21/1 – 1/2
Discuss the sensitivity of various instruments.
• explain accuracy and consistency.
Demonstrate through examples systematic errors and random errors
1
• explain sensitivity.
Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date
Discuss what systematic and random errors are. • explain types of experimental error.

## Use appropriate techniques to reduce error in measurements such as

repeating measurements to fine the average and compensating for
• use appropriate techniques to reduce errors.
zero error.
1.5 Observe a situation and suggest questions suitable for a scientific A student is able to :
Analysing scientific investigation. Discuss to :
investigations (a) identify a question suitable for scientific investigation • identify variables in a given situation.
(b) identify all the variables • identify a question suitable for scientific
(c) form a hypothesis investigation. 4/2 – 15/2
(d) plan the method of investigation including selection of • form a hypothesis
apparatus and work procedures.
• design and carry out a simple experiment to test
Carry out an experiment and : the hypothesis.
(a) collect and tabulate data
(b) present data in a suitable form • record and present data in a suitable form
(c) interpret the data and draw conclusions
(d) write a complete report. • interpret data to draw a conclusion

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

2.1 Carry out activities to gain an idea of : A student is able to :
Analysing linear (a) distance and displacement
motion (b) speed and velocity • define distance and displacement
(c) acceleration and deceleration • define speed and velocity and state that that v = s/t
• define acceleration and deceleration and state that 18/2 – 22/2
Carry out activities using a data logger / graphing calculator / ticker a=v–u
timer to : t
(a) identify when a body is at rest, moving with uniform • calculate acceleration / deceleration
velocity or non-uniform velocity • calculate speed and velocity
(b) determine displacement, velocity and acceleration.
• solve problems on linear motion with uniform
Solve problems using the following equations of motion :
acceleration using
(a) v = u + at
v = u + at
(b) s = ut + ½at2 s = ut + ½at2
(c) v2 = u2 + 2as v2 = u2 + 2as
2
Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date
2.2 Carry out activities using a data logger / graphing calculator / ticker A student is able to :
Analysing motion timer to plot
graphs (a) displacement-time graphs • plot and interpret displacement time and velocity- 25/2 – 29/2
(b) velocity-time graphs time graphs.

## Describe and interpret : • deduce from the shape of a displacement-time

(a) displacement-time and graph with a body is :
(b) velocity-time graphs (i) at rest
(ii) moving with uniform velocity.
Determine distance, displacement, velocity and acceleration from (iii) moving with non-uniform velocity
displacement-time and velocity-time graphs.
determine distance, 27/2 – 7/3
Solve problems on linear motion with uniform acceleration displacement and velocity (Test 1)
involving graphs. from a displacement-time graph.
deduce from the shape of a
velocity-time graph
when a body is :
(i) at rest.
(ii) moving with uniform velocity.
(iii) moving with non-uniform velocity
determine distance,
displacement, velocity and
acceleration from a velocity-time graph
solve problems on linear
motion with uniform
acceleration.

2.3 Carry out activities / view computer simulations / situations to gain A student is able to :
Understanding an idea on inertia.
inertia explain what inertia is.
Carry out activities to fine out the relationship between inertia and 3/3 – 7/3
mass. relate mass to inertia.
8/3 – 16/3
Research and report on give examples of situation involving inertia. (school
(a) the positive effects of inertia suggest ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia. holidays)
(b) ways to reduce the negative effects of inertia

2.4 Carry out activities / view computer simulation to gain an idea of A student is able to :

3
Analysing momentum by comparing the effect of stopping two objects :
momentum (a) of the same mass moving at different speeds define the momentum of an object. 17/3 – 21/3
(b) of different masses moving at the same speed.
define momentum (p) as the product of mass (m)
and velocity (v) i.e p=mv

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Discuss momentum as the product of mass and velocity. state the principle of conservation of momentum.

View computer simulation on collisions and explosions to gain an describe application of conservation of
idea on the conservation of momentum. momentum.

Conduct an experiment to show that the total momentum of a closed solve problems involving momentum.
system is a constant.

## Carry out activities that demonstrate the conservation of momentum

e.g water rockets.

## Research and report on the application of conservation of

momentum such as in rockets or jet engines.

## Solve problems involving linear momentum.

2.5 With the aid of diagrams, describe the forces acting on an object : A student is able to :
Understanding the (a) at rest
effects of a force (b) moving at constant velocity describe the effects of balanced force on an 24/3 – 28/3
(c) acceleration object.
describe the effect on an object.
Conduct experiment to fine the relationship between :
determine the relationship between force, mass
(a) acceleration and mass of an object under constant force
and acceleration i.e F=ma
(b) acceleration and force for a constant mass
solve problems using F=ma
Solve problems using F=ma.

2.6 View computer simulations of collision and explosions to gain an A student is able to :
Analysing impulse idea on impulsive forces.
and impulsive force • explain what an impulsive force is.
Discuss • give examples of situations involving impulsive 31/3 – 4/4
(a) impulse as change of momentum forces
(b) an impulsive force as the rate of change of momentum in a
4
collision or explosion, • define impulse as a change of momentum, i.e
(c) how increasing or decreasing the magnitude of the Ft=mv-mu
impulsive force.
Research and report situations where :
• define impulsive force as the rate of change of
momentum in a collision or explosion,
(a) an impulsive force needs to be reduced and how it can be
i.e F = mv-mu
done
t
(b) an impulsive force is beneficial
Solve problems involving impulsive force. • Explain the effect of increasing or decreasing time
of impact on the magnitude of the impulsive force.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

• describe situation where an impulsive force needs
to be reduced and suggest ways to reduce it. 7/4 – 11/4
• describe situation where an impulsive force is
beneficial.

## • solve problems involving impulsive force.

2.7 Research and report on the physics of vehicle collisions and safety A student is able to :
Being aware of the features in vehicles in terms of physics concepts. 7/4 – 11/4
need for safety • describe the importance of safety features in
features in vehicles Discuss the importance of safety features in vehicles. vehicles.
2.8 Carry out activity or view computer simulations to gain an idea of A student is able to :
Understanding acceleration due to gravity.
gravity Discuss • explain acceleration due to gravity.
(a) acceleration due to gravity 7/4 – 11/4
(b) a gravitational field as a region in which an object • determine the value of acceleration due to gravity.
experiences a force due to gravitational attraction and • define weight (w) as the product of mass (m) and
(c) gravitational field strength (g) as gravitational force per unit acceleration due to gravity (g0 i.e w=mg
mass. • solve problems involving acceleration due to
gravity.
Carry out an activity to determine the value of acceleration due to
gravity.

## Solve problems involving acceleration due to gravity.

2.9 With the aid of diagrams, describe situation where forces are in A student is able to :
Analysing forces in equilibrium, e.g a book at rest on a table, an object at rest on an
equilibrium inclined plane. • describe situation where forces are in equilibrium. 14/4 – 18/4

5
With the aid of diagrams, discuss the resolution and addition of • state what a resultant force is.
forces to determine the resultant force. • add two forces to determine the resultant force.
• resolve a force into the effective component force.
Solve problems involving forces in equilibrium (limited to 3 forces) • solve problems involving forces in equilibrium.

2.10 Observe and discuss situation where work is done. A student is able to :
Understanding work, Discuss that no work is done when :
energy, power and (a) a force is applied but no displacement occurs • define work (W) as the product of an applied force 14/4 – 18/4
efficiency (b) an object undergoes a displacement with no applied force (F) and displacement (s) of an object in the
acting on it. direction of the applied force. i.e W=Fs

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Give examples to illustrate how energy is transferred from one A student is able to :
object to another when work is done.
• state that when work is done energy is transferred 21/4 – 25/4
Discuss the relationship between work done to accelerate a body and from one object to another.
the change in kinetic energy.
• define kinetic energy and state then Ek = ½mv2
Discuss the relationship between work done against gravity and
gravitational potential energy.
• define gravitational potential energy and state that
Carry out an activity to show the principle of conservation of energy. Ep = mgh

State that power is the rate at which work is done. P=W/t. • state the principle of conservation of energy.

Carry out activity to measure power. • define power and start that P=W/t

## Discuss efficiency as:

• explain what efficiency of a device is.
useful energy output X 100%
energy input
• solve problems involving work, energy, power and
Evaluate and report the efficiencies of various devices such as a efficiency.
diesel engine, a petrol engine and an electric engine.

## Solve problems involving work, energy, power and efficiency.

2.11 Discuss that when an energy transformation takes place, not all of A student is able to :
Appreciating the the energy is used to do useful work. Some is converted into heat or
importance of other types of energy. Maximizing efficiency during energy • recognize the importance of maximizing efficiency 21/4 – 25/4
maximising the transformations makes the best use of the available energy. This of devices in conserving resources.
efficiency of devices helps to conserve resources.
2.12 Carry activities to gain an idea on elasticity. A student is able to :
6
Understanding
elasticity Plan and conduct an experiment to fine the relationship between • define elasticity 28/4 – 2/5
force and extension of a spring.
• define Hooke’s law
Relate work done to elastic potential energy to obtain Ep = ½kx2 • define elastic potential energy and state that
Ep = ½kx2
Describe and interpret force-extension graphs. • determine the factors that affect elasticity.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Research and report on application of elasticity. • describe applications of elasticity

## Solve problems involving elasticity.

• solve problems involving elasticity

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

3.1 Observe and describe the effect of a force acting over a large area A student is able to :
Understanding compared to a small area, e.g. school shoes versus high healed shoes.
pressure • define pressure and state that P =F/A 5/5 – 9/5
Discuss pressure as force per unit area.
• describe application of pressure.
Research and report on applications of pressure.
• solve problems involving pressure.
Solve problems involving pressure.
3.2 Observe situation to form ideas that pressure in liquids : A student is able to :
Understanding (a) acts in all directions
pressure in liquids (b) increases with depth • relate depth to pressure in a liquid. 5/5 – 9/5

Observe situation to form idea that pressure in liquids increases with • relate density to pressure in a liquid.
density.
• explain pressure in a liquid and state that P=ρ gh.
Relate depth (h), density (ρ ) and gravitational fields strength (g) to
pressure in liquids to obtain P=ρ gh • describe applications of pressure in liquids.
Research and report on 14/5 – 23/5
• solve problems involving pressure in liquids. (Exam)
(a) the applications of pressure in liquids.
(b) Ways to reduce the negative affects of pressure in liquids.
24/6 – 8/6
(school
7
Solve problems involving pressure in liquids. holidays)

3.3 Carry out activities to gain an idea of gas pressure and atmospheric A student is able to :
Understanding gas pressure.
pressure and • explain gas pressure. 9/6 – 13/6
atmospheric Discuss gas pressure in terms of the behavior of gas molecules based
pressure on the kinetic theory. • explain atmospheric pressure.
Discuss atmospheric pressure in terms of the weight of the
atmosphere acting on the Earth’s surface.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Discuss the effect of altitude on the magnitude of atmospheric • describe applications of atmospheric pressure.
pressure.

## Research and report on the applications of atmospheric pressure.

• solve problems involving atmospheric pressure
and gas pressure.
Solve problems involving atmospheric and gas pressure including

3.4 Observe situation to form the idea that pressure exerted on an A student is able to :
Applying Pascal’s enclosed liquid is transmitted equally to every part of the liquid.
principle • state Pascal’s principle. 16/6– 20/6
Discuss hydraulic systems as a force multiplier to obtain :
output force = output piston area
input force input piston area
• explain hydraulic systems.

Research and report on the application of Pascal’s principle • describe applications of Pascal’s principle.
(hydraulic system).
• solve problems involving Pascal’s principle.
Solve problems involving Pascal’s principle.

3.5 Carry out an activity to measure the weight of an object in air and A student is able to :
Applying the weight of the same object in water to gain an idea on buoyant
Archimedes’ force. • explain buoyant force. 23/6 – 27/6
principle Conduct an experiment to investigate the relationship between the
weight of water displaced and the buoyant force. • relate buoyant force to the weight of the liquid
displaced.
Discuss buoyancy in terms of :
(a) an object that is totally or partially submerged in a fluid • state Archimedes’ principle
experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid

8
displaced • describe applications of Archimedes’ principle.
(b) the weight of a freely floating object being equal to the
weight of fluid displaced • solve problems involving Archimedes’ principle.
(c) a floating object has a density less than or equal to the
density of the fluid in which it is floating
Research and report on the applications of Archimedes’ principle,
e.g. submarines, hydrometers, hot-air balloons.
Solve problems involving Archimedes’ principle.

Build a Cartesian diver. Discuss why the diver can be made to move
up and down.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

3.6 Carry out activities to gain the idea that when the speed of a flowing A student is able to :
Understanding fluid increases its pressure decreases. E.g. blowing above a strip of
Bernoulli’s principle paper, blowing through straw between two ping-pong balls • state Bernoulli’s principle.
suspended on string. 30/6 – 4/7
• explain that a resultant force exists due to a
Discuss Bernoulli’s principle. difference in fluid pressure.
Carry out activities to show that a resultant force exists due to a
difference in fluid pressure. • describe applications of Bernoulli’s principle.

View a computer simulation to observe air flow over an aerofoil to • solve problems involving Bernoulli’s principle.
gain an idea on lifting force.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

4.1 Carry out activities to show that thermal equilibrium is a condition in A student is able to :
Understanding which there is no net heat flow between two objects in thermal
thermal equilibrium contact. • explain thermal equilibrium. 7/7 – 11/7

Use the liquid-in-glass thermometer to explain how the volume of a • explain how a liquid-in-glass thermometer works.
fixed mass of liquid may be used to define a temperature scale.

## 4.2 Observe the change in temperature when : A student is able to :

9
Understanding (a) the same amount of heat is used to heat different masses of
specific heat water. • define specific heat capacity. 7/7 – 11/7
capacity (b) The same amount of heat is used to heat the same mass of
different liquids. • State that c = Q

Discuss specific heat capacity.
• determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid.
Plan and carry out an activity to determine the specific heat capacity
of • determine the specific heat capacity of a solid.
(a) a liquid
(b) a solid

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Research and report on applications of specific heat capacity. • Describe application of specific heat capacity.

Solve problems involving specific heat capacity. • Solve problems involving specific heat capacity.

4.3 Carry out an activity to show that there is no change in temperature A student is able to :
Understanding when heat is supplied to :
specific latent heat • state that transfer of heat during a change of phase 14/7 – 18/7
(a) a liquid at its boiling point does not cause a change in temperature.
(b) a solid at its melting point.
• define specific latent heat (l).
With the aid of a cooling and heating curve, discuss melting,
solidification, boiling and condensation as processes involving • state that l = Q/m
energy transfer without a change in temperature.
• determine the specific latent heat of fusion.
Discuss
(a) latent heat in terms of molecular behavior • determine the specific latent heat of vaporisation.
(b) specific latent heat
• solve problems involving specific latent heat.
Plan and carry out an activities to determine the specific latent heat
of :
(a) fusion
(b) vaporization

## Solve problems involving specific latent heat

4.4 Use a model or view computer simulation on the behavior of A student is able to :
Understanding the molecules of a fixed mass of gas to gain an idea about gas pressure,
gas law temperature and volume. • explain gas pressure, temperature and volume in 21/7 – 25 7
terms of the behavior of gas molecules.

10
Discuss gas pressure, volume and temperature in terms of the • determine the relationship between pressure and
behavior of molecules based on the kinetic theory. volume at constant temperature for a fixed mass of
gas i.e. pV = constant.
Plan and carry out an experiment on a fixed mass of gas to determine
the relationship between :
• determine the relationship between volume and
temperature at constant pressure for a fixed mass
(a) pressure and volume at constant temperature.
of gas i.e. V/T = constant.
(b) Volume and temperature at constant pressure.
(c) Pressure and temperature at constant volume. • determine the relationship between pressure and
temperature at constant volume for a fixed mass of
Extrapolate P-T and V-T graphs or view computer simulation to gas i.e. p/T=constant.
show that when pressure and volume are zero the temperature on a • explain absolute zero.
• explain the absolute / Kelvin scale of temperature.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

P-T and V-T graph is -273oC. • explain absolute zero.
• explain the absolute / Kelvin scale of temperature. 28/7 – 1/8
Discuss absolute zero and the Kelvin scale of temperature.

Solve problems involving the pressure, temperature and volume of a • solve problems involving pressure, temperature
fixed mass of gas. and volume of a fixed mass of gas.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

5.1 Observe the image formed in a plane mirror. Discuss that the image A student is able to :
Understanding is :
reflection of light (a) as far behind the mirror as the object is in front and the line • describe the characteristics of the image formed by 4/8 – 8/8
joining the object and image is perpendicular to the mirror. reflection of light.
(b) The same size as the object,
(c) Virtual, • state the laws of reflection of light.
(d) Laterally inverted.

Discuss the laws of reflection. • draw ray diagrams to show the position and
characteristics of the image formed by a
Draw ray diagrams and determine the position and characteristics of (i) plane mirror
the image formed by a (ii) convex mirror
(a) plane mirror (iii) concave mirror
(b) convex mirror
(c) concave mirror. • describe application of reflection of light.

Research and report on applications of reflection of light. • solve problems involving reflection of light.

11
Solve problems involving reflection of light. • construct a device based on the application of
reflection of light.
Construct a device based on the application of reflection of light.

## 5.2 Observe situation to gain an idea on refraction. A student is able to :

Understanding
refraction of light Conduct an experiment to fine the relationship between the angle of • explain refraction of light. 11/8 – 15/8
incidence and angle of refraction to obtain Snell’s law. • define refraction index as n = sin i
sin r
Carry out an activities to determine the refraction index of a glass or
Perspex block. • determine the refractive index of a glass or
Perspex block.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Discuss the refractive index ,n, as speed of light in a vacuum • state the refractive index ,n, as
speed of light in a medium speed of light in a vacuum 16/8 – 24/8
speed of light in a medium (school
Research and report on phenomena due to refraction, e.g. apparent holidays)
depth, the twinkling of stars.
• describe phenomena due to refraction.
Carry out activities to gain an idea of apparent depth. With the aid of
diagrams, discuss real depth and apparent depth. • solve problems involving the refraction of light.

## Solve problems involving the refraction of light.

5.3 Carry out activities to show the effect of increasing the angle of A student is able to :
Understanding total incidence on the angle of refraction when light travels from a denser
internal reflection of medium to a less dence medium to gain an idea about total internal • explain total internal reflection of light 25/8 – 29/8
light reflection and to obtain the critical angle. • define critical angle (c)

Discuss with the aid of diagrams : • relate the critical angle to the refraction index i.e.
(a) total internal reflection and critical angle n = 1 /sin c
(b) the relationship between critical angle and refractive index
• describe natural phenomenon involving total
Research and report on internal reflection
(a) natural phenomenon involving total internal reflection • describe application of total internal reflection
(b) the application of total internal reflection, e.g. in
telecommunication using fiber optics. • solve problems involving total internal reflection
Solve problems involving total internal reflection.
5.4 Use an optical kit to observe and measure light rays traveling A student is able to :
Understanding through convex and concave lenses to gain an idea of focal point and

12
lenses focal length. • explain focal point and focal length
• determine the focal point and focal length of a
Determine the focal point and focal length of convex and concave convex lens.
lenses.
• determine the focal point and focal length of a 1/9 – 5/9
With the help of diagrams, discuss focal point and focal length. concave lens.
• draw ray diagrams to show the position and
Draw ray diagrams to show the positions and characteristics of the characteristics of the images formed by a convex
images formed by a lens.
(a) convex lens • draw ray diagrams to show the position and
(b) concave lens. characteristics of the images formed by a concave
lens.

## Learning Objective Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Date

Carry out activities to gain an idea of magnification. • define magnification as m = v/u
8/9 – 12/9
With the help of ray diagrams, discuss magnification.
• relate focal length (f) to the object distance (u) and
Carry out an activity to fine the relationship between u, v and f. image distance (v)
Carry out activities to gain an idea on the use of lenses in optical
• describe with the aid of ray diagrams, the use of
devices.
lenses in optical devices.
With the help of ray diagrams discuss the use of lenses in optical
devices.

With the help of ray diagrams discuss the use of lenses in optical
devices such as a telescope an microscope. 15/9 – 26/9
(revision)
Construct an optical device that uses lenses.
• construct an optical device that uses lenses.
29/9 – 3/10
Solve problems involving to lenses. (cuti Raya)
• solve problems involving to lenses.
6/10 – 10/10
(revision)

13/10 –24/10
(Exam)

27/10 – 14/11

13
(revision)

14