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# Micromechanics:

Homogenization
3/2/15

Objectives
Review Voigt, Reuss and Hybrid
Introduce Semi-Emperical Halpin-Tsai relationships
Introduce Self-Consistent Field Relationships
Introduce codes

Voigt

Reuss

Hybrid

## Halpin-Tsai micromechanics: transverse modulus

Perhaps the most widely used micromechanics model
was developed entirely empirically. The
insightfulness of Halpin and Tsai has been admired by
all for many years. The coefficient x ranges from 1-2
to represent the various microstructures from
hexagonal (x =1) to square (x =2) arrays. Note that
the model allows for non-isotropic fibers, E2f.

x = 1 hexagonal array

x = 2 square array

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and data

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## Halpin-Tsai micromechanics: shear modulus

The Halpin-Tsai equations use the same form for
prediction of the in-plane shearing modulus as it
used for the transverse Youngs modulus. While the
Halpin-Tsai equations provide good estimates of the
matrix dominated properties of the composite.
The fiber dominated properties such as E1 and n12
are adequately predicted by the simple rule of
mixtures.

x = 1 hexagonal array

P = VfPf + VmPm
Note that it is the volume fraction of each constituent
that is important. Yet one encounters typical
measures of mixtures in weight fraction. Use of
density is required for the conversion.

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## Halpin-Tsai limiting conditions

The limiting conditions for the Halpin-Tsai equations
are the Voigt and Reuss models. By expanding the
expression for the property:

Pm [ P f xPm xV f ( P f Pm )]
P=
[ P f xPm V f ( P f Pm )]

## Thus, the Halpin-Tsai equations provide a way to

interpolate between the Voigt and Reuss estimates
for elastic properties of the equivalent homogeneous
and to account for microstructural geometry ranging
from square to hexagonal arrays. Note that the Voigt
model (x = )is volume averaging of the stiffnesses
while Reuss model (x = 0 )is volume averaging of the
compliances, thereby giving the inverse relationships
for moduli.

= :

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## See: Micromechanics of Composite Materials

by George Dvorak, Springer Solid Mechanics
and its Applications, Vol. 186, (2013), XVII, 442 pages.
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## Self-Consistent field representations

The self-consistent field equation for the primary
Youngs modulus was developed using a more complex
mathematical formulation as shown below:

The same is true for the primary Poissons ratio. The first
two terms typically dominate this prediction as well.

4 n m n f km k f Gm (1 V f )V f
E1 = E1 f V f EmVm

G
k

k
G
V
f
m m
f
m m f

## E1f=fiber primary Youngs modulus

Em=matrix (resin) Youngs modulus
km=matrix (resin) plane strain bulk modulus
kf=fiber plane strain bulk modulus
Gm=matrix shearing modulus
Vf=volume fraction fiber
Vm=volume fraction matrix (resin)

n 12 = n 13 = n f V f n m 1 V f

n m n 2f km k f Gm (1 V f )V f

k f Gm km k f km GmV f

## These results clearly show that the linear rule of

mixtures is appropriate for these properties:
P = VfPf + VmPm

## Yet, by examining the relative magnitude of the last term

for most materials, it is clear that the first two terms
dominate the prediction.
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## Self-consistent field equations for transverse modulus

The self-consistent field model produces a complex
equation for the inter-relationships of the composite
properties:
1
E2 =
1
1
n 122

4kT 4G23 E1

## Where kT is the plane strain bulk modulus of the

composite:
kT =

k f Gm km k f km GmV f
k f Gm k f km V f

G23 =

## And the transverse shearing modulus, G23 is:

Gm km Gm G f 2G f Gm km (G f Gm )V f

km Gm G f 2G f Gm km 2Gm G f Gm V f
Thus, the determination of E2 require that the values
of kT, G23 and E1 be first determined in this approach.
Given the potential for cumulative error in each
calculation, this approach can be problematic. Finally
n23 is:
2
2 E1kT E1E2 4n 12
kT E2
n 23 =
2 E1kT

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## Weight fraction and volume fraction

It is common for mixtures of materials to be reported as weight fractions since one need only measure weight
on a scale. Volume fraction, however, is the important
measure. Conversion between weight and volume fraction is an important calculation as shown:

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## Hexagonal and square arrays

To determine fiber volume fraction, one only need
determine the cross-sectional area occupied by fiber
in the representative volume element (RVE).

## Where 2R is the center-to-center fiber spacing, 2r is

the fiber diameter an d is the smallest distance
between fibers

Hexagonal array:
Square array

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## Example Problems and Solutions

Example problem 1
a) For the same fiber volume fraction, how different is the fiber center-to-center fiber spacing for hexagonal
and square array geometries?
Sol: Set the volume fraction equations equal:

r
=

2 3 Rhex

4 Rsq

Rhex

= 2 = 3.63
R
3
sq
Rhex
= 1.91
Rsq

Sol:

1 / 2

1in
the difference
minimum
3

0.347

hhex
=
= 1.37
=
hsq 1 / 2 0.253
1
2

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Example problem 2
a) What are the maximum packing fractions for hexagonal and square arrays?
Solution:
Let R = r

V fhex =

=
= 0.907
2 3 Rhex
2 3
2

sq
f

r
=
= = 0.785

4 Rsq

b) If the fiber diameter is 5 microns, what is the area of the RVE for Vf = 0.6?
Solution:
The area containing the fibers is made up of 6 equilateral triangles with sides 2R for a total area of 6R2(3)1/2.
V

hex
f

= 0 .6 =

Rhex

2 3 Rhex

1 .2 3
=
Rhex = 6.15

2
ARVE = 6 3Rhex
= 393 2 (10 12 m )

If the number of fibers in the hexagonal RVE is 7, then the total fibers in the RVE is [1 + 6(120/360)] = 3, with a
fiber area of 3r2
A f = 3 (5 ) 2 = 235 2

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Example problem 3

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Problem 3 - Solution

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Problem 3 - Solution - 1

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Problem 3 - Solution-2

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Problem 3 - Solution-3

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Problem 3 - Solution-4

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Problem 3 - Solution-5

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Problem 3 - Solution-6

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## Problem 4 Solution: Halpin-Tsai model

Consider the properties used in the previous example
and use the Halpin-Tsai equations to determine the
continuous fiber composite material property G12 for
volume fractions of 0.3 and 0.6 for square and
hexagonal arrays.
E f = 380 GPa G f = 172 GPa n f = 0.1
Em = 68 GPa Gm = 26 GPa n m = 0.3

Solution:
G12 =

Gm 1 xV f
1 V f

x = 1 hexagonal array
x = 2 square array

G12 f Gm
G12 f xGm

G12 =

Gm 1 xV f
1 V f

Let x = 1 =
Let x = 2 =
G12sq =

G12 f Gm
G12 f xGm

G12 f Gm
G12 f Gm

G12 f Gm
G12 f 2Gm

Gm 1 xV f

172 26
= 0.737
172 26
=

172 26
= 0.652
172 226

261 20.652V f

1 V f
1 0.652V f
261 1.3040.3 36.2
G (30) =
=
= 45.0 GPa
1 0.652(0.3)
0.804
261 1.3040.6 46.3
G12sq (60) =
=
= 76.2 GPa
1 0.652(0.6)
0.608
sq
12

G12hex =

Gm 1 xV f
1 V f

261 0.737V f
1 0.737V f

G12sq (30) =

=
= 40.8 GPa
1 0.737(0.3)
0.779

G12sq (60) =

=
= 67.2 GPa
1 0.737(0.6)
0.558

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## Problem 4 Solution: Halpin-Tsai model - 2

Now compare these values to the estimates given
previously for the other models:

## The Halpin-Tsai model compares favorably with the

square fiber model

*H-T
(60)
*H-T
(60)
*H-T (30)