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be able to direct this change, composers, composers,middlemen(TV,radio,andCDpubl
hemusicandpresent it to the listening public) and listeners must be well educat
ese groupsconstituteasubjectforresearchinandofitself;Iwouldliketolimitmyarti
serscando. Polyphony adds a different dimension to music. Turkish music should
this dimension. Polyphonic works, when they are executed intelligently and in a
with Turkish music, listening, experimenting, researching, should not be excluded.
osedinthetonalsystemandstyleofTurkishmusic.) Composersshouldnotbeafraidtothin
onytogether. Lyrics diminish the abstractness and subjectivity of music. The list
s imagination, his infinite opportunity to choose. (As beautiful as the poetry ma
perceived under the direction of lyrics.) Poetry provides ease to the listener,
heapnessintheindustry. Weshouldincreasethenumberofinstrumentalworksinourmusic.
c is generally a lyric based music. The very few instrumental works within it
posed as if they were songs, according to the patterns of the human voice (in
cent intervals and creation of musical phrases). In a new trend, beginning with
strumental works began to feel in places as if they were truly written for inst
of H. Sadettin Arel, Ferit Alnar, Resat Aysu and a great many composers still l
learly beenwrittenforinstruments. In addition to passages written in a vocal sty
al works should contain sectionsthatdisplaythepossibilitiesoftheinstruments. Ino
ition,every playeraddsornaments orsimplifies each notetohisown likingandaccordi
eryperformancecanbedifferentfromtheone before, and from the notation. This bec
parent when one compares Cemil Bey's playing with the notation (for example, the
Semaisi). However, as on TRT and the radio, many performances today never cross
ttennotation. As our works are written in the same form for all players, our p
s in jazz, Baroque and earlier music, play them as the composer intended them t
though the character and possibilities of each instrument are different, our music
n written separately for each instrument. It is not written with the possibiliti
dual instruments like the piano, guitar and cello in mind, as if everything they
ed and written down. Though names such as "Ney Pesrev" or "Saz semaisiforkemen
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In light of this, Serif Muhiddin Targan has written and played works and etudes
r ud, and been well received the world over. These works push the possibilities
nice expressions were been achieved that would never even occur to an ud player.
ra wrote "Dalgalarin Oyunu" for kanun, and pieces for ud that were played at th
al by Mnir Nurettin Beken. More such works works, like those which we have wr
n limited circles,shouldbewrittenanddisseminated. Piecesshould be written thatco
fically to our instruments' charactersand expressivepossibilities,whichexhibittheir
esandpushtheirboundaries. We have a repertoire full of masterworks, written acco
sody of our metered poetry. Such is not the case for free poetry and new Turk
songlyric"cheapnesshasemergedonTV,FMandamongCDproducers,based onanattitudeof
.")Ineveryera,musicianshavesetthe poetry of their times to music. Turkish mu
of new Turkish poetry. Metric poetry has its own rhythm that is immediately felt
found its counterpart in our music; relationships have been established between th
d the "aksak" (2+3)and "major" usuls, the principle beingthat a long syllableco
g note, or a short syllable to a short note. In the recent past, the concept
duced to this relationship, and at the direction of the TRT Repertoire Committee,
ontinually been set to the music in a "syllabic" manner (long note for a long
e for a short syllable). However the generalcharacterofTurkishmusicis"melismati
preadoverseveral notes). The exaggeration of this character leads to the rhythm
o the background, and the words become unintelligible. A balance must be struck,
'scompositions,andfolksongsofRumeli. A balance must be struck in the relations
able and the note that achieveintelligibilityofthepoetrywithoutmarringthecharact
ry poem has a feeling, a main feeling, a world. For this to be expressed in
l.Apartfromthisisthelanguageinwhichthepoemwaswritten.The same poem, written
me out with a different number of syllables, as well as different stress pattern
, the music must be in harmony with the Turkish in the poetry, as if the deve
thin the poetryisexpressedinthelanguageitself. In their singing, performers shou
nd the music and emotional world of thepoetry.

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esinrecentJewishhistory,andoneofthegreat voices of our country; possibly the
sician of the early twentieth century. Algazi Efendi did not win the admiration
ut of Turks as well. In histime,hebecameawellknownartistinallmusicalcircles,
owledgeofmusic,hewasreferredtobytheTurksashoca(teacher). Because of Algazis
ge and superior singing style, he has survived to the modern day on 78 recordin
uarters of a century have passed since the 1920s and early 30s when these recor
no longer show up on the 78 market. Although he was a famous rabbi and well k
ng the period he lived in Turkey, almost nothing has been written about him,eit
arstofollow.Nosatisfyinginformationonhimistobe found, either in the form of
The Turkish Jewish historian Prof. Avram Galnti devoted part of his book, Trkler
he Turks and the Jews), written in 1827 in Arabic script and republished in 194
, to Algazi, and providesthefollowinginformationabouthim: shak Algazi was the
; his name was well known in Turkey, and especially in Izmir and Istanbul. This
his extraordinary voice gained great fame with his works, especially his kr comp
, as well as his evkefza,mye,szidilandbestenigrfasls. shakAlgazilivedin
nownthere.Duringthe period when the issue of the revision of Turkish music was
e newspapers, the late Atatrk invited Algazi to Dolmabahe Palace in order to g
ging pieces from various eras, Maestro Algazi gave a history of Turkish music. I
atitudeand appreciation, Atatrkgave him agift of a Holy Koranwhichhehadsigned
is book,Trk Hars ve TrkYahudisi (Turkish Culture and the Turkish Jew), publi
ce again treated the issue of Jews and Eastern Music,andwrotethefollowingabou
eat and recognized Turkish Jewish artist,shak Algazi came to Istanbul and, remai
n years, busied himself with Turkish music, wrote many articles on the subject i
apers, and was personally received by Atatrk. During this visit, which lasted fo
, Algazi sang some pieces in various makams, and provided explanations of these
d with Algazis voice and information, Atatrk presented him with an autographed
ran printed in the new [Latin]script.
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As Algazis beautiful voice and knowledge were well known in the Jewish world, t
uire him into their synagogues with the appellation Rabbi. When offered the pos
he eastern Jewish congregation in Montevideo Uruguay, South America, Algazi settled
s there were many eastern Jews of Turkish nationality in Montevideo, the ceremony
gue was held with eastern music. An eastern Jew by the name of Nisim Hayon who
e about that synagogue and ofshak Algazi. On Fridays and on Jewish holidays it
the handwritten Torah was taken from the Ark, to recite a prayer for the long
ror, king, president) of the country. The eastern Jewish community followed this
rayed first for the president of Uruguay Luiz Barres, and then for the prime mi
[smet] nn (Istanbul newspaper LEtoileduLevant,Issue44,March201949). Today A
nown, not only among young people but middle aged people as well. Algazi is a
remembered by those 60 years old or older, those with 78 collections or who hav
ew of his recordings. But even those only know Algazi by his music, and know t
o a certain degree. It is hard to believe that even the majority of Jews in T
rmation about his life after he left turkey. For example even Avram Galanti, in
he Turkish Jew, seems not to have been aware of Algazis death threeyearsafter
esting life story, his noteworthy personality, the story of his politics and thou
ous facets of his art only came to light with book, published in 1989, titled
fe and Music of R. Isaac Algazi from Turkey, published by the Institute for Jew
ks author, Professor Edwn Serouss,wasthenalecturerintheMusicologyDepartmentof
ow the director of the Center for Jewish Musical Studies of the Hebrew Universit
).Below,IdrewfromhisbookinprovidingAlgazislifestory. Two cassettes of Algazi
cordings have been produced together with a booklet. And in 2002, the Wergo musi
many recorded 25 of AlgazisworksonCD(SM16222).Asthetwocassettescontain32re
onto the CDs. Neither collection included any of the Turkish musical piecesAlgazi
IFE zak Algazi was born in Izmir on April 24, 1889. His family was an old, w
s father and grandfather were both cantors at synagogues. Like all Turkish citize
,zak grew up in an environment where traditional religious values were coming i
free though. He came up within a Parisbased, western influenced, new mindset on
an orthodox teaching in an elementary schoolteachingtheTalmudandTorah. His educa
urkish public school. Later he continued at a Hillel Yeshiva, the director of
ntor in Izmir. At the age of 19, he was appointed cantor to the newly built s
ka quarter, and in 1914, began teaching in Izmirs Jewish schools. At a very y
ted in a variety of social activities both in and out of the Jewish community,
n Jewish
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institutions. From 19081911 he was a member of the Izmir City Council. In 1918
gina,andayearlaterhisfirstsonSalomonwasborn. Although zaks musical talent b
g age, he often had financial troubles while young. Witnesses report that he sec
me by giving musiclessonstochildreninthecommunityandtoprivategroups. During th
, he began to learn OttomanTurkish music in addition to Jewish religious music.
eacher was his father, Salomon Algazi. Professor Avram Galanti writes of Salomon
i, known by the nickname Blbl Salomon, with his divine voice, gained the ad
composed a ember uslnde profound mahur beste, and perevs in hseyni and hicaz
is other music teachers were em Tov ikr (18401920) and Hayyim Alazraki(seeSe
Algazi Turkish music. He gave music lessons to single students as well as ensemb
agogues. These classes were announced to the public in Izmir Jewish newspapers. A
nteresting one of these announcements from the standpoint of the Ottoman cultural
e out on January 10, 1905 in the newspaperElNovelista.WiththeheadlineMahurFas
ounced previously the Mahur Fasl is being taught by teachers such asem Tovik
omon Algazi. Our lessons, given individually and as a group have been very popul
le. During the lessons, you can listen the dghfaslperformedby maestroikr.B
dby his audiences.(5) AnnouncementssuchasthesedonotreflectonlytheIzmirJewst
eyalsoshowtheleveloftheirmastery,sufficienttoinstructthepublic. During those y
companies and musicians came to Izmir as well as Istanbul. However in Izmir the
so formed a western style band; its musicians were Jewish children who had recei
ical education.zak also hadbecomeacquaintedwithwesternmusicduringthesameyears.
of the Greek invasion during World War I caused a great depression inIzmirsJew
dwith thesuspicion thattheywerecollaborating with the Greeks, community leaders
eave the country. Unemployment as wellasnewexpectationsdrewAlgazitoIstanbul. Thu
azi and his family moved in 1923 to Istanbul. There he entered the maftirim (ch
halom synagogue in ihane. After a time, he was brought to the Italian synagogu
r its musical activities, and was madedirectorofthesynagoguesmusicalaffairs. Du
Algazi spent in Istanbul, he became one of the foremost personalities in its Jew
playing an active role in Jewish educational institutions. He tried to improve th
etween the community and the leaders of the Republican administration, defending t
t the Jewish community needed to be a part of their new country. Algazi express
he weekly newspaper La Voz Orentale which he established. He became acquainted a
friendships with many masters of Turkish music; and with his knowledge of
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music, literature, history and philosophy, succeeded in acquiring a place for hims
eintellectualsoftherepublic. During this time Algazi sang Turkish music in Dolma
tatrk, who loved Turkishmusic;andprovidingexamplesofTurkishmusicalhistory,provid
ledge. According to one observer, he advised Atatrk concerning the writing of Tu
nd the translation of the Koran in to Turkish. According to Leon Daniel, who no
in Izmir during those years Atatrk on one occasion said to Algazi,Amanlikeyo
te all the optimistic expectations concerning the new order, the 1930s were not
ars for Algazi. The first sign of this was the increasing difficulty in finding
second was Atatrks implementation of a policy of prefering Turks to nonmuslims
sitions. One example of this new practice happened personally to Algazi: Atatrk
Algazis membership in the Radio board of directors. According to the witness Mos
is disappointment at this moved him to emigrate from Turkey. However, Algazis i
t tendencies were also an obstacle to his remaining in Turkey. In 1933, the for
newspaper to abandon the Hebrew alphabet and adopt Latin characters was for Algaz
pelling sign that he could no longer stay. Thus the Turkish period of his life
f Algazis students, cantor and kanun player David Behar, who saw his teacher on
s before he left Turkey, told the writer of this article in 1990 that the maes
y that during that Friday service at the synagogueevenhispowerfulvoicewasmuted
9331935) Even by the early 1930s, zak Algazi had begun establishing ties wi
n Paris, and in 1933 at the invitation of the community, he went to Paris. Dur
days, the Sephardic community provided him with much help. He entered a synagogue
nd also continued educational and community work that he had begun in Turkey. He
lations with intellectuals and highlevel state officials among whom was the Frenc
ter Eduard Herriot. But despite all his efforts, he was unable to secure a plac
lent other than as a cantor. There were during those years several bright intell
h businessmen amongtheleadersofParisSephardiccommunity;itsmusicalactivitieswere
anianborn composer and orchestra conductor Leon Algazi (who was no relation ofz
amily).zak Algazi was unable to attract the attention he desired from this circ
ed, wellhoned individuals. Even in the community newspaper his name was very inf
ioned. His inability to realize his hopes insuchanenvironmentwastodrawhimtoa
NMOTEVIDEO(19351950) In 1935, Algazi began serving as a cantor on high holi
ity Montevideo. The majority of Uruguays Sephardic community were emigrants from
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Izmir, and thus it was not difficult for him to become closeto this community.
ay to visit and check it out, he received an offer to settle there and take a
munity. Hoping that he would find what he wanted in this country, he accepted t
ugh this took him extremely far from his homeland and Europes important Sephardi
und in Uruguay a young community in search of an identity and accepting of his
e quickly became an important person in Montevideo. During this period of his li
h his personality in society as well as his abilities as a cantor; and was see
erinBrazil,ChileandArgentinaaswell. He assisted in the foundation of the Latin
he Zionist movement in Uruguay,thehousingofrefugeesoftheHolocaust,theformationo
Fund and the World Sephardic Federation. In 1938, he became the Uruguayan delegat
South American Zionist Congress in Buenos Aires, and represented the Uruguayan com
he Sephardic Zionist Congress in 1940, also in Buenos Aires. In April of 1942,
fice of vice president at the communitys 1st Regional Meeting. During the same
nted honorary president of the National Fund, Keren Hayesod. Later, appealing to
t Alfredo Baldomir on behalf of Uruguays Jewish community, he requested that Uru
coming to the refugees rescued from the Holocaust. With his help, many Jews foun
ge,andUruguaysantiNazipoliticsstrengthened.Eventoday,Algaziisremembered inUrugu
anefforts. In early 1944 zak Algazi, together with another Sephardic leader, for
ee for the Support of Palestine in Uruguay. The Committees goal was to persuade
upport the Zionist cause. Through his efforts, Algazi was abletoconvincethepoet
i,antiNaziactivistHugaFernandezArtusio, andtheleaderofUruguaysSocialistParty.T
tiveinsupporting the efforts to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. In 1944,
ted Uruguay intheWorldJewishCongressmeetinginNewYorkimmediatelyfollowingtheHolo
e wrote a poem in Hebrew for President Roosevelt on this occasion, which waspub
orkHebrewnewpaperHaDoaralongwithitsEnglish translation. Living in South America
is life,zak Algazi died on March 3, 1950. But the musicianzak Algazi had die
hen he left Turkey. A Seroussi said,Althoughhebecameinvolvedinavarietyofsocie
a,itis clear that the community was unable to f fully appreciate his personalit
iews. Whats more, as none apart from a few individuals in Uruguay were able to
ated position and expertise in Turkish music, his musical life came almost to a
re. Forgotten and far from the musical environment in which he had earned an ou
on, he experienced a profound disappointment.(p.27) HISPERSONALITY zak Algazi l
icult and painful period for Ottoman Jews as well as Jews worldwide. The fall o
al/multifaith Ottoman Empire where they had foundrefugeforfourcenturiesledbotht
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The proEuropean Haskala (enlightenment) movement, which was influential in Turkish

ellectualcircles,wasundergoingagreatideologicalcrisis. Atatrks ideology was foun
nationalism but rather on Turkish nationalism. But the Republican administration wa
ng western cultural values, separating religious and governmental affairs; it had
as to wholly remove religious officials from state affairs. These innovations deep
d the Jews traditional way of life. On the other hand, the Zionist movement wh
ence over Ottoman Jews in the first quarter of the century was increasing the c
he Jewish community. This chaos in the periods political, ideological and cultura
t was reflected in zak Algazis worldview. Edwin Seroussi explainshisideological
ticalandeconomicaldepressionoftheperiod,Algazitriedtoarriveatan impossible ideo
se; on one hand uniting his religious outlook with the goals of Atatrks Turkis
e national longings of Jewry shaped by the Zionistmovement;andontheother,defend
ehavioralboundsofthe Jewish faith. This ideological pastiche found no echo in Tu
tions dragged him to Uruguay, far away from the main centers where the internati
e occurring. Although he was involved in various communal activities in South Ame
rall impression is that his circles in Uruguay insufficiently understood his perso
wledgeandviews.Tothiswemustalsoaddthathisbrilliantmusicallife trulycametoan
ountrywereabletoappreciatehis profound expertise in Turkish music. Finding himsel
nd so distanced from the music of which he was such a master, doubtless dragged
ritual depression.(p.2627). zak Algazi was one of the most outstanding intell
h community of Turkeyeverproduced. In 1938, historianM.D. Gaon said of him,He
ghtened of his coreligionists living in Turkey (Seroussi, p. 13). His broad cult
dent in the books he published in the last years of his life; in his writings
ead and drew upon poets, thinkers and writers such as Spinoza, Moses Mendelssohn,
, Martin Buber, Heinrich Heine and Henry Bergson. At the end of his book, Judai
en in Spanish, he expressis his worldviewandyearningthus: In order for humanit
o be able to live in love and harmony, differences among races, beliefs and cla
forgotten for all eternity; in order to fulfill the great will of God; the sun
e and law will rise on all horizons,andsheditsgenerouslightonallhumanity,and
o cantor and kanun player David Behar, zak Algazi was also a very good preache
nd moved his listeners. With this multifaceted personality, heattainedfamerarelyw
inTurkeysJewishcommunity,hebecamealmost legendary. The legend of Algazi is stil
in Turkeys Jewish community. Eventheyounggenerationshaveheardhisnamefromtheirf
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Algazis literary works consist of religious poetry, newspaper articles and two ed
oks he wrote on Jewish issues. He published his books during the last yearsofh
emsandpoetrycollectionsaresignificantforTurkish music.Everyoneofthesepoemswasw
dtogethertheyform a series of lyrics. Each series carries names of a makam suc
fza" or "szidil. The six poems under the title Bestenigr are lyrics written
n in the same makam; one of the works in the fasl is by the famous Dede Efe
s with Algazis devri kebir perev which he composed on the words of a poem b
l Najara (see Seroussi, p. 29). In other words, in Ottoman Jewish music the pe
mental work, was changed into a song with lyrics. The other poems in the series
urkish composers wrote for various works in the same makam. The Szidil series,
ms, are the lyrics to a famous szidil suite composed of lyrics adapted to two
by Tanbur Ali Efendi; the first poem is again Algazis devrikebir perev compos
. All of the poems were written in a structure fitting the Ottoman Jewish poeti
The meters of the poems are syllabic, basedonthenumberofsyllablesinthelines.T
thereight or 16 syllables; as stressed by Seroussi (p. 29), the useofsyllabic
syllablelinesisaclearlydistinguishingfeatureofTurkishfolkpoetry. After his depar
y, Algazi lost his creativity as a poet as much as he did as amusicians. SO
Before moving on to Algazis most important works, his music, it will be helpful
astandhistoricalbackgroundofOttomanJewishmusic. Based on a blend of Turkish mu
re (makam) + Hebrew lyrics, the Ottoman Jewish musical tradition is believed to
16th century in IstanbulandSalonica,withawellknownpoetnamedSalomonbenMazalTov.
istorian Salomon A Rozanes, Avram Galanti writes: Due to their contact with Anad
the Jews coming from Spain had adopted Arab music and had difficulty in acceptin
. During the reign of Sleyman the Magnificant, a rabbi by the name ofelomo (
apted Turish music to Hebrew religious verse and at the same time to Spanish Je
is continued up untilthepresent.(8) Foremost among those who followed the cours
Ben Mazal Tov was poet Israel Najara (15551625). In an anthology of Najaras ly
e late 16th century are Hebrew poems set to Spanish, Turkish, Greek and Arab me
e pieces are in the rast, dgh, hseyn, buselik, segh, seghrak, nevruzacem,
iz makams. A composer as well, Najara composed also composed pieces in these mak
the practice of setting Hebrew lyrics to Turkish melodies, or writing original wo
ew lyrics, within the rules of Turkish music. After Najara, the Bursa poet Rabbi
d many
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who followed him wrote poems for alreadycomposed works, and arranged these poems
rdingtomakam. Najaradiedin1625,andGansoin1640.ThefamoustraveloguewriterEvliya
d includedsectionsoninstruments and musicians inhisbook dated to 1635 1638,
tion on Jewish instrumentalists. For example, in the section Magicians and Comics
ntertainment ensembles, known as kols. About one of these, the Patakolu kol, h
300 people, all of whom are Jews (...) their instrumentalists in particular are
kolu himself, who gave his name to this kol, was considered precious by the
ember Samarka Kol is completely composed of Jews writes elebi, Since Adam fel
n has seen such singers and musician been seen (11). A Jew named Yako was an
kal (Pan pipes), and another known as Karaka was a wellknown player of tanbulr
st half of the 17th century, these records of Evliya show clearly that the Jews
sh music. Furthermore, the number of Jewish musicians in Istanbul increased greatl
r performers began to emerge from them. Cantemir, who came to Istanbul at the e
ury, referred to a Jewish man by the name of elebikoasoneofhismusicteachers
nturies, the center for music moved from Istanbul to Edirne. Until the recent pa
m of Edirnes Sephardic community was the finest performing ensemble of Ottoman J
th the broadest repertoire. All of the workssungbythemaftirimwerewrittenaccordi
msandusls (meters) of OttomanTurkish music. After being passed down from genera
n over the centuries in the form of manuscripts, they were printed in a book t
ezHaQedem,publishedin1921byIsaacEliahuNavon.Historian Abranam Danon ties the d
ed in the communitys music to the influence of the Mevlevs. Although Mevlev l
ly in Edirne, both oral and written Jewishsourcesindicatedthatfromthe standpoint
as more important a center than Istanbul. Providing the following information abou
e Maftirim, the Encyclopaedia Judaica refers to Danon on the subject of the rela
nJewishmusicandtheMevlevs: EdirnewasatthesametimeacenterofJewishmusic.The
ndedinthe17thcentury.EveryFridaymorning,thisensemblewouldsingworks from a holy
ounterpart to the PersianArabic word eng (harp)inthelocallanguage(14).Manyco
iaandRomania, when in need of a good cantor, would turn to Edirne. The works
le and the fame they earned contributed to Edirnes increasing status as a cente
ic. Aaron B. zak Hamon [authors note: He must be the 18th century composer kn
i Harun,), Abraham Zeman (19th century) and Joseph Danon (1901) may be counted
n composers to come up in Edirne. A. Danon collected and published a large numb
ongsfromtheEdirneregion.DanonsuggestedthattheEdirneJewsmasteryofeastern music
rvishlodgemusic,thestyleofwhichtheytookastheir example.(15)
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With these observations included in his memoirs, singerMoeVtal exhibits in a s

essandmusicalinterchangebetweentheJewsandtheMevlevs: The abovementioned singers
acohen, Salomon and zak Algazi) were greatly influenced by the music of the der
member, when I was a child I would run out of the house every Friday afternoon
mentary school) and go to watch the ceremonies in the dervish lodges and listen
ul melodies. (...) In Izmir, other Jewish music lovers also would come frequently
o listen to the music performed there. Every dervish not only sang well, but al
owledge of the Islamic musical tradition. The dervishesalsoknewthemakamsextremely
ntorslearnedtheirbeautiful melodies,andbroughtwhattheylearnedintooursynagogues.
the book Shirei Israel BeErez HaQedem, this information given on the concert
nlighteningfromthestandpoint of understanding thetypes of compositions that Jewish
from Mevlev music, and the order of performance: Before each makam, the chorus
e) would begin chanting alone. Slowly, in free rhythm and improvising according t
would chant verses from the holy book. But according to the rules of the makam,
he tonic, and finished in the makam of the piece that was to be performed that
ethingattheendoftheperformance.(Seroussi,p.63) From this, we understand that
ical taksim, and generally endedwithoneaswell.Thisarrangementcanbeconsideredan
arrangement of the Mevlev zikrs, the only difference being that the taksim was
atherthaninstrumentally. The maftirims practice of singing works in a different
is also a characteristicofMevlevmusic,inwhichanayininadifferentmakamischante
ebrewlyricstraditionthatbeganwithSalomonBenMazaland Israel Najara has continued
ay. Even in a period where western music, with its bands, orchestras, choruses,
ettas were becoming widespread, it was still this music that was being performed
ues of Istanbul.HereisamemoirfromtheperiodofWorldWarI: During the great war
ls were 150 lira per month, a rabbi had been brought by the congregation of th
aldrm in Galata, who was receiving 300lira per month. Hehad a deep voice. He
ositions of the late Hamamzadesmail Dede, adapting them to the words of the P
ublicanperiod,whenonlywesternmusicwasreceivinganystatesupport,the synagogues, bo
sh musical tradition, were perpetuating their traditions. RaufYektaBeyprovidesrela
his: Here I ask my readers to indulge me as I relate a few of my memories:
go, at the guidance of Moiz Efendi, doorman at the rabbinate, I went to a syno
as present for the service. With their fine voices the cantors chanted a series
kam beyat. Among these one of them
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seemed familiar. With a bit of attention, I realized that they had adapted the
ten by the Turkish composer Dede Efendi, Bir gonca femin yresi vardr cierimde
re performing this masterpiece equally masterfully inHebrew!What was odd wasthat
s, inadaptingthepsalms of David to worksfromtheTurkishsecularrepertoire,sawno
eterennm the interjections or meaningless syllables such as Canm yel lel l
lowedtheversesintheoriginal!(17) Ruen Kam also related a memory in the same
rkish Music Chorus program with explanations of the pieces broadcast in the 1970
o, devoted to our famous Jewish composer Tanbur zaks glizar suite. The memo
terners, I will never forget, forty years ago zak Algaz, who had come to Ist
synagogue on the slope ofihane in Istanbul. There, as far as I can remember,
a in evcr by 18th century composer Mehmed Aa, Gelince hatt muanber o meh
us lyrics.(18) All of these memoirs may give the impression that the Jewish mu
nsists only of secular Turkish musical works. But that would be a mistake, becau
as many Turkish works adapted to Hebrew words as is commonly supposed. According
anun player David Behar, whom I consulted on this subject,thepracticeofputtingH
hcompositionsissomethingthat tookplaceonlywithmuchbelovedworks.Hehimselfhadada
sem ey sanem senden" acemairan beste and Muallim smail Hakk Beys nihavend a
brewlyrics. In 1990, I went for seven or eight weeks in a row to services at
avid Behar works and directs the maftirim chorus. The maftirim sang fasls of
known as kr, beste, ar semai, ark, and ilahi in makams such as dg
hese, by coincidence, I heard Zeki Dedes acemairan beste, "Bin cefa grsem ey
imsmail Hakk Beys nihavend ar semaisi, "Seni hkmi ezel b devrnetmek
ay the great majority of the pieces in the synagogue music repertoire are origin
osed within the makam, usl and beste forms by Jewish composers who were trained
proach to and tastein music. Inpresentday Istanbul, even in Turkey, the most f
tive of Ottoman Jewish music is the ili synagogue and its maftirim, under the
hars finest student, David Sevi.Consistingofsevenoreightcantors,thegroupsings
ste,""semai,"nad"ark"etc.everyFridayafternoon. TheinteractionbetweenOttomanTurk
hemphasizedthusfarhas at times been inverted; that is, Jews have taught music
example, according to Avram Galanti, Rabbi Avram Mandil (the son of the Turkish
Rabbai emoil Mandil), who lived in Istanbul in the late 19th century was a pio
arch in Turkey, and was the teacher of the famous Galata Mevlevhane Sheikh Atau
0) (19). Another wellknown historical
13 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

example is Sultan Selim III, who took tanbur lessons fromzak Fresco Romano, who
" According to a personal communication from David Behar,zak Algaz also gave m
s and especially to women (20). But most interestingof all was that at times,
posers in the common makam, usl and even composition type, to be sung in the
at times able to make the transition into Turkish secular music. These words fro
ic teacher eyh Halim Efendi gives us noteworth clues: As zak was a pious man
at the fourth verse of the bayati perev of a certain piece sung inthesynagogu
itionsofthewordamen.(21) And just as the Jews had grown attached to Turkish
atly enjoyed listening to the performances of the Jews, who had become masters o
.TheIzmirbornAbrahamAtalef,whohadheardAlgaziinthesynagogue,saidthat Mevlevs
and listened enthusiastically (see Seroussi, p. 22). David Behar related that asid
evlevs in the Galata lodge, Zekizade Ahmet Efendi, Muallimsmail Hakk Bey and
to the synagogue to hear Algazi.HealsomentionedthatMnirNurettinSelukhadtravel
order to Algazi and had been very moved by him. And in listening to Algazis r
ain features of his performance style that indicate that Mnir Nurettin Selukhad
him. Hafz KniKaraca is alsoknown togo to synagogues fromtimetotimetolisten
HEUSEOFMAKAMINOTTOMANJEWISHMUSIC Beginning in the second half of the 16th c
Jewish religious musicusedmakams,butsecularandentertainmentmusicalgenresaswell.
s of Ottoman Jewish music were Istanbul, Edirne, Izmir, Salonica and Bursa. Howev
influence reached other cities quite far from the abovementioned centers. For exam
ving in areasof the Ottoman state such as BosniaHerzegovina, Macedonia and Serbi
rved to sing makam music until recently (22). Other sources indicate that this m
ached even farther to cities including Venice and Livorno. One of these relates
Jews living in Venicein1628celebratedaholidaybysingingTurkishsongs(23). Ottoman
s considerable variety in its use of makam. The book Shirei IsraelBeEretxHaQad
s. The makams in the pieces notated by David Behar, which constitute the reperto
emusicnumberaroundforty.Amongthemakamsusedinbothcollectionsare certain makams
ery rarely used in Turkish music today, including argh, araban, arazbar, arazbar
nibur, nhft, tahir, buselikairan, sazkrandpengh. In addition to the maka
wish musicians also adopted the mek tradition which constituted the foundation
education, teaching and performance (24). Instrumental works such as perev, saz s
ksim had simply been set to words; it is clear that this change was due to th
osques, the playing of instrumental music is forbidden. (As the
14 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

synagoguepieces presented here were being published on a record, there was no ha

ngaccompaniedinstrumentally.) Jewish writers and certain information and notes in
wish sources show that fromthe17thcenturyon,theOttomanJewsproducedseveralcompos
esomewhoareverywellknowandwhoseworksarefrequentlyplayed,suchaszak Fresko Ro
Levi Hayat (Msrlbrahim, 18811933) and zak Varon (18841962); as well as oth
s works as well) appear in Turkish sources, including Aharon Hamon (Yahudi Harun,
turies), Rabbi Moe Faro (Haham Musi, 1776), Rabbi Avtalyon (Kk Hoca, 18th.
h.century),ViolinistzakBarki(19th.century),Avram Barzilay (19th. century), Rabbi
(19th. 20th. centuries), Hayyim Alazraki (apHayim,1913),emTovikr(HocaS
lowing composers listed in the Encyclopaeda Judaca mentoned by Avaram Galanti,
roussi are, I believe, little known or completely unknown today: Rabbi Yom Tov D
ond half of the 17th century), zak Amigo (18th century), Rabbi Yehuda Benaroya
i Bohor (19th 20th centuries) and Moiz Kordova 20th century). Al Benaroya and
mentionedbyTurkishnamesaswell,theymusthaveatleastbeenknowninthemusical circle
should also be mentioned among these composers. What happened to Algazis kr in
n evkefza, mye, szidil and bestenigr and the Turkish Air Force march to whic
cs? For some reason, Seroussi didnottouchuponhiscomposerside.EdwinSeroussiwasi
ily inUruguay.Letushopethatonedayhisworkswillemergeintothelightofday. WHA
gazis style, technique and other works through pieces that have been passeddown
tatedcompositions,and78rpmrecords. A few singers in Israel who were visited, mo
r born, sing songs and hymnswhichtheylearnedfromAlgazihimselforfromhisrecords
llectionofmanuscriptsinAlgazispersonallibraryinUruguaycontainspiecesby Jewish c
ir (p 37). The notation seems to match that of Rauf Yekta Bey.Therearealsonot
azi.Abooklet,HseynFasl,which he notated and published in Istanbul in 1925
lowingpieces: 1. Devri Kebir perev: Avram Ariyas; 2. Muhammes Kr: Avtalyon; 3.
am Ariyas; 4. Yrk Semai: Avtalyon, 5. Perev Semai: Aharon Hamona (Dedicatedto
ed that in 1989, the Institute for Jewish Music in Israel made cleanedup copies
ublished them in two cassettes. Like all of his records, these too were recorded
d 1933. Most of these records were released by Columbia, and some of them by t
orite companies. Yorgo Bacanos and the Jewish kanun and oud player Abraham Daniel
to have accompanied Algazi on many of his records. In Mizimrat Zedem (p. 40), S
15 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

that the oud player who accompanied Algazi was Aleko Bacanos. However Aleko Bacan
,thecorrectnameisYorgoBacanos HISRECORDS The 32 records by Algazi that the
ed on cassette include Jewish religious music with Hebrew lyrics, religious melodi
eoSpanish lyrics, Judeo SpanishfolksongsandthesongofZion(nowIsraelsnationalan
s and songs are based on makam. Taking into account the transitions that Algazi
e pieces, we see that he used the makams segh, uak, hseyn, sab, sznk, m
at and nihavend. A few songs were considered alafranka by Turkish Jews, but a
evedtobetakenfromsynagoguesoutsidetheSephardictradition.Onepiece, though it doe
am structure, the style and manner of singing are reminiscentofapieceinmakam.
the synagogue music repertoire of David Behar, he said that the piece belonged t
ed zak, and was a hymn at least 150 years old. It shouldnotbeconsideredimpos
mousTanburzak.But the similarities between this piece and third verse of the
tafa Evendis very well known bayat Mevlev ayin (which begins with the line, "
king.ItispossiblethatTanburzaktookthispiece directly from the bayat Mevlev
this similarity, David Behar noticed that this hymn should be notated not in 6/4
i meter,justasitwasintheayin,andtoldthistotheauthor. Both on the cassettes
tute and the disc published by the Wergo company, none of the Turkish works sun
cluded. This is a deficiency, because Algazi was not only a performer of Ottoman
ut of Ottoman Turkishmusic as well. Including someof the Turkish pieces he reco
,ouraimwastodoawaywiththislack. Ofthethirtytwopiecesonthecassettes,amajor
hat free meter had an important place in Jewish music. The widespread nature of
also made it commonplace in improvisation. Even today, singers of maftirim begin
f a fasl with a lyrical makam, and sometimes add intermediary makams; at th
in sing a lyrical makam, with amin (amen) repeated by the congregation at the
e no. 21 onthisdisk,althoughnotareligiousmelody,finisheswithagazel,oraclosi
erorrecordsAlgazimade,northeircontents.Therecord catalog in Cemal nls book,
blishers, 2004) whows twenty four records of Turkish music; with the inclusion on
hree songs not included in nls catalog, (evkefza ark, evkefza gazel and ac
reases to 27. The number of records in the cassette collection released by the
ish Music was 32, of which 25 were religious, 6 were secular and 1 was Zionist
her complex situation, I was moved to ask the question,
16 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Can we really say that zak Algazi displayed his true mastery in synagogue mus
toirewasofJewishreligiousceremonialmusic? TheanswerIgotwasthis: No,Algaziwas
.True,henevergavealiveconcert,orat least I dont remember it, but well known
e welltodo invited him into their homes. He would attend these gatherings toget
friendsandsingfasls.HewasmostoftenaccompaniedbytheoudistMsrlbrahim.He was
, and also played def (he could play the oud as well). He most often sang wit
did not accept payment; he sang for the enjoyment of it. He became much talked
se private concerts, now a thing of the past, into which he put all his master
pertoire; intoarkinthekr,murabbaandbesteaswellastrks. Let us be a bit
hat Algazi was equally a master of both genres of music. In the Ottoman musical
sicians who, like Algazi, were masters of both their own religious milieu (church
goes) and of Turkish music. Like Zaharya, who is said to have been a cantor in
nbur zak (Izak Fresco Romano) who was a cantor in the synagogue; and composer
an who worked in the Armenian church, zak Algazi also continuedthisoldtradition
r of Algazis Turkish music performances was former lecturer at the Istanbul Coll
Prof. Dr. Tevfik Remzi Kazancgil. Remembering him, Aleddin Yavaa said that at
hat Prof. Kacancgil attended in the Beyazt mansion of bnlemin Mahmut Kemal n
ayat ark, Nice bir aknla feryd edeyim. A few days later, Kazancgil relate
u sang Dede Efendis bayatark that I love so much. I had a friend, the wel
thatpiecebeautifully, butyou also sang it verywell(26). Soon therafter, Yavaa
list training at the obstetrics clinic of the Istanbul College of Medicine where
l was head. Years later, Yavaa said, I ended up in this specialization, which
der, because of Dedes bayatark(27). Another event, which violinist Sadi Il
azi Sayn and other musicians,willgiveamorevividideaofAlgazisknowledgeofreper
sinessman of Izmir, who was a lover of music, invited violinist Sadi Ilay and
o played oud and kanun, to hs home. On the dayof the invitation, the host sa
roduce someone to you, and introduced Algazi to Ilay and his two musician fri
d a hicaz fasl, in order that it would be an easy makam. After a perev of
ew, Algazi went into the first beste. The instrumentalists had never even heard
so, unable to accompany him, just followed as best they could by following the
d not do any more. In the second beste, they found themselves in the same situ
semai but when it came to the songs they could not accompany the singer. Later
azel between the songs, but forgetfully
17 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

stayedonBbwhenhewasgoingtoresolveonA(dg).Atthatmoment,SadiIlaysaid eyv
on that, Algazi went back to Bb, and resolved on A! At the conclusion of the
azi, You are a greatmaster,werejustplayers. Thefirstpartofhismemoirissigni
isgreatrepertoire of Turkish music, and the second portion in that it indicates
ch and makam structure. It also cannot fail to spur the thought: Although there
asterful performances among the records we are publishing here, these cannot fully
nowledgeofhisartandthelevelofhisperformance. BlentAksoy
NOTES: (1)AvramGalanti,TrklerveYahudiler,supplementedsecondedition,TanMatbaas,
. (2)Galanti,TrkHarsveTrkYahudisi,FakltelerMatbaas,Istanbul,1953,s.4546.
usicofR.IssaacAlgazifromTurkey.Thisbookis availablefrom::Renanot,InstituteforJ
geSt.Q.O.B.7167,Jerusalam91071, Israel.TheinformationtakenfromSeroussiisinthi
ahudiler,s.128. (5)RelatedbySeroussi,ibid.,p.17.Originaltextisfromthenewspape
y5, 1905,p.18).OriginaltextinJudeoSpanish. (6)PersonalcommunicationfromDavidBe
iler,s.124. (9)EvliyaelebiSeyahatnamesi,2ndbook,condensedbyZuhuriDanman,Zuhur
969,pl317. (10)Evliyaelebi,ibid.p.307. (11)Evliyaelebi,ibid.p.317. (12)
antemir(Kantemirolu),OsmanlmparatorluununYkselivekTarihi,Vol.III, transla
979,p.242. (14)Thisisclearlyamistake.Thetruewordisnoteng,andinstrument,bu
ainingtheworksofvariouspoets.Whatweunderstandisthatthefoldersoflyrics sungin
5)EncylopaediaJudaica,Volume,KeterPublishingHouseLtd.Damascus,1972,column311. Edi
dtohaveretaineditsimportanceasamusicalcenteruntiltheendoftheSecondWorld War.
edia,therewere2,750JewslivinginEdirnein1948;by1965this numberhadfallento400.
rganizedJewishcommunity.Theeconomic depressionfollowingthewarwasdevastatingtoEdir
nitygraduallybeganmovingto Istanbul,Israelandothercountries.By1969alloftheinst
ityhadclosed,which wasnowonlyabletokeeponesynagogueopenforworship(seecolumn3
klerim,VolumIV,ankrMatbaas,ankr,1934,s. 73.

18 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic


W.A.Mozart (17561791), Abduction from the Seraglio, Threeact opera, K384 ve Pia
dmovement(AllaTurca) Ludwig van Beethoven (17701827), op. 113, Turkish March f
estMussorgsky(18391881),CaptureofKarsSolemnMarch Johannes Brahms (18331897),
rus and Piano, Fragen movement.

As part of the fascination with Eastern culture, the Turkish theme is a source
e area of music as well as other branches of art. Perhaps the first examples o
by Mozart. The most important of these is one of the composersmost beloved ope
heSeraglio, because itssubject, as well as its set and musical themes reflect
tern themes. Naturally, Abduction from the Seraglio, which contains all the char
ozarts musical language, is also important as proof that this great composer of
s influencedbyOttomanculture. This threeact opera takes place in the 16th centu
f Selim Paa. Musicologists say that the period in which this opera was written
erized by the Turkish Trend which was in fashion in Europe in general, and in
sisbasedonhistoricalevents. Mozarts other Turkishthemed piece is the third mo
n Piano Sonata No. 11 (K331300), Turkish March. This section, with its 2/4 me
a reflection of Janissary music through the ears of Mozart. This is good evidenc
ike other Viennese composers of histime, was influenced by the mehtermusicofthe
roundedVienna. Following Mozart was Ludwig van Beethoven (17701827) who, in his
thens (1811, Op. 113), included a Turkish March. Ruins of Athens was written
erman playwright August Friedrich F.von Kotsebue which was debuting in the New G
n Budapest on February 9, 1812. Beethoven wasinspiredbyhisVariationsforPianoin
ittenin1809. In the fourth act of the play, Minerva awakes from a 2000year sl
ins, and now in the hands of the Turks. Following this piece, the Marcia Alla
published in 1822 for fourhands piano was nearly as popular as MozartsTurkishM
r composers of Turkishthemed pieces do not exhibit such clear influence by Turki
sBrahmesandModest Mussorgsky inthe19th century wrote two pieces of note. In hi
ten between 1839 and 1881, Modest
19 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Mussorgsky included a short motif, played by wind instruments, which was reminisce
hmusic.Thismarchisoneofthecomposersrarelyperformedworks. The 19th century com
ss piece Quartet for Chorus and Piano, Opus 64, contains a section, Fragen
hich were inspired by the Turks. In this choral work, set to a text by George
ere is no influenceofTurkishmusic,howeveritshowsthecomposersinterestinthesubj
five pieces we have briefly addressed here, other exmples will emerge. But the f
wn composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms and Mussorgsky produced works with
mes can be considered evidence that European culture was at certain periods influ
ern and consequently, Turkish culture. We can see that among the reasons for thi
hat the East always served as a fascinating source of inspiration to the Old Co
Turkey but civilizations of countries such as Iran, Egypt, India, Japan and China
ave inspired western artists. But the Ottoman Empire, especially during its risea
n Europe, influenced Europeanartistswith its mystery,colorfulness, andmusic;insho
.Whetherthereasonwasthefearofwarorcuriosity,this influence provided an opportu
of pieces such as the ones addressed here.
20 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

MUSICATTHEOTTOMANCOURT (byErsuPekin) In addition to the musicians trained

f, musicians trained outside the palace were sometimes given permanent employment
invited to take partnowandagaininmusicalactivities.Theterm"kmefasil"wasemploy
omposed of court musicians combined with musicians from outside the palace. A goo
his type activity is given by the invitation to Hamamizade IsmailDedeEfenditota
esatcourt.Greatlyimpressedbythesong in buselik makam (mode) beginning "Zlfnded
m" which Hamamizade had composed when still a novice in the Mevlevi dervish lodg
uickly won great popularity in Istanbul, Selim III send Vardakosta Ahmet Agha, on
ccountants, to the lodge to summon Dervish Ismail to the palace. Later, Dede Efe
d go many times between the dervish lodge and the royal court but, altough at
nted mezzinbasi (head mezzin) he was never permanently attached to the court. T
Ottoman Court followed musical activities in Istanbul very closely, that it made
cal progress possible by accepting successful musicians into its own organization
played role in providingthemwithculturalnourishment. Thesamesortofsetupistob
I,whohadagreatlove of Western music and arranged for his daughter Ayse Sultan
ons. On hearing of the fame of Tanburi Cemil Bey, who had become identified wit
lfromthegreatmansionstothestreetmusicians,heinvitedhimtothepalaceso astoat
tion,thetermsState,CourtandSultanconsistedoneintegralwhole as regards both plac
word State suggested the Sultan who represented it, as well as both the residenc
nd the Court as the place from which the state was governed. Whether the "Court
ace or to the otagh (state tent) used by the Sultan when campaign, it remained,
ultan,asymboloftheState.AtthetimeofthefoundationoftheOttomanState,music occu
mong the symbols representing hegemony, the state and rule(beylik).Thebanner,tabl
rsetail)symbolisingruleandhegemony sent to Osman Gazi by Giyaseddin Mesud, the S
Konya, led to the foundationoftheTablAlemMehterleriorOttomanmilitarybands.The
nected with the court consisted of the standardbearers entrustad with the protecti
perial standard (sancak) and of musicians. The mehter would playeverydayintheaf
herthepalaceortheroyaltent,whichever theSultanhappenedtobeatthetime. The pr
r the court during the reign of Murat II, before the transfer of the capital t
edication to Murad II of a work entitled Makasid'lElhan by Maragali Abdlkadir
h of great importance as
21 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

evidenceaftheinteresttakeninmusicbytheOttomanCourt.BookssuchastheRislei Ilm
ah, translated with additions by Safiddin Abdlmumin, Makasid'lElhan, Nekavet'lE
ye Library 3646) written during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror by Abdlaziz,
dlkadir, RisaleiIlm lMusiki(TopkapiSarayMuseumLibrary,a3449),anArabicbookonm
ethullah M'min, Sirvni and dedicated to Mehmet the Conqueror, ehow that Eastern
l sources were used in the formation of a basis of Ottoman musical cultur in t
t might be more accurate to say, ensured an accumulation of knowledge that made
ttoman music to acquireaceratinindividualidentity. TheClassicalPeriod A descripti
cal entertainment at the circumcision festivities held in tentn erected on an isl
itza river at Edirne in 1457 for the princess Bayezit and Mustafa, the sons of
ror, is given by Dursun Bey in his history of the reignof MehmetIIentitledTa
e of the term"knun u padiseh" implies that this type of musical entertainment
nd that music was composed in accordance with this custom.From Dursun Bey's menti
es composed of, instruments such as the ud, sestar, tanbur, rebab and barbut, an
the sestar and barbut, it would appear that this music still displayed a puraly
er and had not yet acquired an Ottoman identity. It is doubtful if the tanbur
e tanbur in use today, while the rebate is certainly not the stringed instrument
ch more likely to be the, striged instrument playedwithaplectrumdescribedbyAhme
omextantdocumentswelearnofthepresenceatthecourtoftheConquerorofanud player
kanun player by the name of Ishak. Among the instruments makers mentioned in a
er dated Rebiylahir 932 (January 1526) (Topkapi Palace Museum Archives D.9306/3)
ura player by the name of Muslihiddin, who had been engaged by the palace at a
ring the reign of Mehmet II. This entry shpws that during the reign of th Conq
mber of musicians and instrument makers empolyed at the court on a dailybasis.F
oryoftime,wealsolearnthatintheceremoniesheld on the occaison of Beyazid II's
er the Mehmet II period, one of great vitality in both science and atr, cushion
n the floor and music performedonthe,engandbarbut.
22 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

MUSICOFAZERBAIJAN (byzeyirHacibeyov) In the history of theory and practice

Azerbaijani music is famous the world over. Urmiyeli Seyfeddin AbdlmminbnYusuf
tury) and MaragalAbdlkadirMaragi(14thcentury). The Azerbaijani musicologist Nevva
son of ual Hac Seyhid Ahmet Karabal, based on the works of the abovementio
formation about the music of the Near Eastern peoples in his book, VuzuhulEram
usical Terms) (19th century). All of these works, sections of which havebeentran
eanlanguagesaswell,suggestthatthemusicalcultures of the Near Eastern peoples re
n the 14th century, and rose to form the building with twelve columns and s
entually spread over an area from Andalusia to China, Africa and the Caucasus. T
ical culture was established by the great scholar and expert on Greek music, Eb
l as EbuAliSina (known in Europe as Avesina), ElKindi and other scholarsandth
ns of this musical palace represent the main mugams, and the six towers,the
a,Buselik,Rast,Irak,Isfahan, Zirefkend, Buzrk, Zengule, Rahavi, Hseyni ve Hicaz.
hnaz, Maya, Selmek,Nevruz,Gerdaniye,Gvet. The socioeconomic and political changes
ce at the end of the 19th century influenced this musical palace, creating dea
ls; in time its columns crumbledandthepalacefelltotheground. Making use of th
d palace music to create makams,, the people of the Near East created their
twelve classical mugams underwent great changes; certain of these, once considered
ently of each other, began to be seen by certain peoples as variations on other
ugams once considered as submakams gained status as independent mugams in and of
us the same mugam came to known by different names and classifieddifferentlybyd
nlythemugamRastwasabletowithstand thedestructiveinfluenceoftimeandevents.Bec
ogicof this mugam, it completely deserves its name Rast, meaning, Correct, Tru
sts considered Rast the mother of all mugams; the mugam Rast has preserved not
le, but its content and tonic as well. The form and fundamentaltoneofRastisth
eNearEast.ThetonicistheG in the minor scale. The note in the minor octave w
son below is shown to correspond even in antiquity to the fundamental of the Ra
anian and European musicologists tell us that according to the Ancient Greeks, th
23 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Theseventonesare: Greek ArabicandPersian 1.MiMoon 1.Neva 2.FaMercury

5.Uak 6.DoJupiter 6.Zirfkend 7.ReSaturn 7.Rahavi The product of a long
sic reached its zenith in the verypositiveconditionsprovidedbySovietrule. When
ientific and theoretical standpoint, Azerbaijan folk musics tasnifs (songs), diring
y rhythmic sections played between the sections of a makam,mahns (anonymous song
andother formsprove to befounded on a clearandconsistent system. Allofthe sci
l hypotheses related toAzerbaijanfolkmusichaveevolvedfromthissystem.
24 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

MUSICTHERAPYAMONGTHETURKS(byAssistantProfessorDr.PinarSomaki) 1.Introduc
c has occupied a major place in the life of humanity. People have mostlyrelied
irgrief,joy,heroism,excitementandlove. Creating a state of trance, music has in
nd at times directed the masses. Music in particular, with its characteristic abi
ntrate the emotions, has been used by many civilizations as a means of reinforci
elings and healingthesick. 2.MusicAmongtheTurks Music among the Turks is as
tself. Some historians and musicologists speak of a Turkish musical tradition exte
at least 6,000 years. For this reason we see fit to examine music and musical
rks in threedifferentareas,inhistoricalorder: 1. CentralAsianTurkicCulture 2. Isl
tion 3. TheSeluksandOttomans 2.1MusicinCentralAsianTurkicCulture CentralAsi
rly6,000years. The evgan of the Mehter band (1134249 B.C.) was known in the
uk and agana; as the kziezye Turecki to the Russians and the Poles, to the Sw
el,andtotheEnglishasthejinglingJohnnie. Varieties of the dmbelek, ddk, an,
k balama typeinstrumentswereusedinthe8thcenturyB.C.Later,instrumentssuchasthe
edinthesufilodges.Laterstillemergedthefingercymbals, mehter cymbals, spoons, an
he 8th century B.C., a Turkish instrument calledthepipa(bipa)wasdiscoveredbythe
gesthisemergedas theoudandthevariousmembersofitsfamily. Inthearea of wind
ed by the Turkssince ancient times. InthebeginningoftheMiddleAgesthemuynuzand
ieand neywerealsousedinthisperiod.Thetulum,orbagpipe,isofMiddleEasternorigi
d.Thep(amouthorgan)wasusedbetweenthe816th centuries. Rhythminstruments:Th
dlaterinstruments known as the mazhar, daire, bendir and zenbez, used at various
erent names.ThedavulistheTurksmostcommoninstrumentformusic,announcementsand si
25 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

The Huns of Asia greatly loved the eng; the yatugan of the early period later
ndkanun. The oldest of the Turkish string instruments is the balama. In the ea
was used,followed by the tanbur, thetarfamily, theurduguandravza(rzva) in t
mafamly(bozok,ark,karadzen). The dividing of an octave into six instead of
five tones in an octave instead of seven is known in the west as pentatonism,
(be fve, ses tone). Pentatonism is observed to have spread from Central Asi
inues in many areas. For example pentatonic elements aretobeencounteredinthevil
zurumandSafranbolu,aswellasin Konya, Cihanbeyli, Nide and Eskiehir. KazakKirgh
n, Yakut and Karaay Turkish music contains completely pentatonic pieces, while Uz
urks of East Turkistan, the Caucasus, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan have semi pentat
. AsCentralAsiancivilizationspreadthroughouttheancientworld,itcontinuedtosurvive
ettled. This cultural trend, increasing with the heavy migrations of the 9th and
s, moved steadily westward along the northern and southern routes aroundthe Black
troducedto the tribesof the ancientworld. Examplesofthiscanbefoundinmanyoldt
herapyinCentralAsianTurkicCulture The kopuz or saz played in the Central Asia
n important instrument in healing, calling of good spirits and banishing of evil
in the Altay plateau and to the north, they were used especially by shamans in
ick and in religious ceremonies. The shaman is a master of the trance which giv
t he has left his body and ascends to the heavens or descends beneath the eart
, he brings spirits under his power and, establishing contact withthedead,demons
shealingtotheill. Later under the influence of Islam, healers known as Baks
ashgar and Kirghiz Turks. During a seance, the baks would artfully combine music
ry and dance in an attempt to heal the sick. The dance he performed in a comp
aveespeciallyhealingpowers. In Uzbekistan as well, though they were not well kno
eople known as KinneYyc, which healed those struck by the evil eye. These
heirtreatmentsinanattempttoexpeldemonsfromapersonssoul. 2.2MusicinIslamicC
re Islam, the Arabs mostly lived in tents, living a nomadic life and raising ca
r this reason their fine arts concentrated in the area of poetry. Later the rel
ic began to emerge. Two forms of music appeared among the Arabs. One of them,
ut to music; the other, tagbir,wasthesingingofprosestylelyrics.Inthiswaysec
26 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

In the beginning of Islam, the people showed resistance to music. The singing of
ll received. The reason for this was that music and song was thought to turn p
d pleasure, lead to the neglect of religious duties and encourage sexual desires.
ophet Mohammed, pleased with those who chanted the Koran beautifully, gradually ch
eoples antimusic views. In the early period of Islam, the Koran was chanted in
w notes. But over time began adorningitwithmelodiescontainingthemusicalcharacter
ands. Gradually, as the heads of state were captured by the lure of music, it
ingandplayinstruments.Inthisway,musicprogressedlittlebylittleand in the Abbasi
gher level. In this period, the famous Turkish Islamic scholar and philosopher Fa
ed music from a theoretical standpoint in his book,KitablMusiki,andprovidedinf
truments. The Turks accepted Islam in the 9th century. This old culture, which b
moving westward in great migrations, blended with other cultures and gave rise to
es of music. Finding an honored place within Turkish Islamic culture, music espec
ped in the palace and lodges, and in the Mehter bands. The main centers for th
the Mevlevihanes and the Palace. From among the Mevlevis and members of other Su
reat composers, and both religious and secular developed and progressed. Within th
order, the folk music traditionthrived. 2.2.1MusicTherapyinIslamicCulture Thr
f Islamic civilization it has been chiefly the mystic sects (Sufis) which have b
th music, used and defended it. The Sufis mention that mentalandnervousdisorders
he great Turkish Islamic scientists and doctors Zekeriya ErRazi (854932), Farabi
Sina(9801037) established scientific principles concerning musical treatment,especial
sychologicaldisorders. In his book, Musikiulkebir, Farabi attempted to set fort
p between music and physics and astronomy. According to Farabi, the effects of t
kishmusiconthesoulwereclassifiedasfollows: 1. Rastmakam:bringsapersonhappines
vimakam:bringsapersontheideaofeternity. 3. Kuekmakam:bringsapersonsadnessand
gsapersonfear. 5. Isfahanmakam:bringsapersonthecapacityofaction,thesenseofsec
ingsapersonpleasureandcontentment. 7. Uakmakam:bringsapersonthefeelingoflaugh
ngsapersonsleep. 9. Sabamakam:bringsapersoncesaret,kuvvet. 10. Buselikmakam:bring
th. 11. Hseynimakam:bringsapersonserenity,ease.
27 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

12. Hicazmakam:bringsapersonhumility. Farabi also outlined the effects of the ma

music according to the times theywereeffective: 1. Rehavimakam:effectiveatpred
m:effectiveatdawn. 3. Rastmakam:effectiveinearlymorning. 4. Buselikmakam:effectiv
5. Zirglemakam:effectivetowardnoon. 6. Uakmakam:effectiveatnoon. 7. Hicazmakam:
noon. 8. Irakmakam:effectiveinlateafternoon. 9. Isfahanmakam:effectiveatdusk. 10.
fectiveintheevening. 11. Bzrkmakam:effectiveinlateevening. 12. Zirefkendmakam:e
imeofsleep. The great Islamic thinker and philosopher Ibn Sina (9801037) wrote
h from Farabis works, and even learned music from him and applied it in his p
tandmosteffectiveoftreatmentsistostrengthenthe mental and spiritual strengths o
ive him more courage to fight illness, create a loving, pleasant environment for
lay the best music for him and surroundhimwithpeoplethatheloves. According to
oour existence.Soundsarranged withina musical order, and in a particular fashion
ep reaching effect on ones soul. Theeffect of sound wasenrichedby mans art.
t changes of pitch would determine a persons mood. What allows us to appreciate
tionisnotoursenseofhearing,butoursenseofperception,whichallowsusto derive va
that composition. For this reason, wellattuned, harmonious tones, and the adherenc
itions and rhythms to principles, can haveacaptivatingeffectonpeople. In conclus
period of Islamic civilization, TurkishMuslim doctors such as ErRazi,Farabiand I
alandpharmacologicalmethods inthe treatment of psychological disorders, and these
plied by both Seluk and Ottoman doctors,werecultivatedupuntilthe18thcentury.
dOttomans ThepentatonisminpreIslamicAsianTurkishmusicbegantochangeunderthein
neightnotescalecameintouse.Thismusicgraduallycametoformthe Seluk music and
i music. In the 13th century, Safiyddin Urmevi emerged as a great Turkish Islam
din studied the Turkish musicalsysteminascientificmanner.
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After Safiyddin, the greatest composer, musical scholar, singer and instrumentalist
efromtheEastwastheteacherAbdlkadirMeragi,wholivedfrom1360to1435. When Mevlan
born1207) came to Anatolia,he also brought instrumentssuchastheney,rebab,eng,
hformthecrux of Mevlevi musical culture. In time other genius composers such as
ntered the arena. As religious motifs gradually began to be replaced by social t
art music and Mevlevi music emerged. Mevlana was especially attracted to instrumen
babandney. As Mevlevi and Turkish classical music continued on the one hand, va
kish folk music such as the trk, uzun hava, atma, bozlak etc. were developin
t Yesevi and the nefes of the Bektashis, accompanied by kopuz andbalama. Hac
e had a role in introducing Mehter music, which had been used in military campa
he Ottoman times, to the Janissaries. The instruments used in this music included
nakkare, kudm, zurna, nefir, nsfiye,zilandzillimaa. Many fine musicians were
n palace, including Murat II, Beyazt II, Murat Iv, Mustafa II, Ahmet III, Selim
During this same period emergedsuchfamousmastersasItri,smailDedeEfendi,HafzPo
de,EminDede,NayiOsmanDede,EbubekirAaandKantemirolu. 2.3.1MusicTherapyAmongt
gh the first serious music therapy was practiced during the Ottoman period, vario
tempts were undertaken in preAnatolian Central Asia by shaman musicians known as
y, there are bakss among the Central Asian Turks, whocontinuetheseactivities(G
n a hospital established in Damascus by a Seluk Turk, engaged in the healing o
ith music. The influence of Ibn Sina continued into the Ottoman period. The Otto
or Musa bin Hamun used musical therapeutic means in the healingoftoothdiseasesa
ogicaldisorders. Hekimba Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi (18th century) was the student
a Efendi, who translated Ibn Sinas famous work,El Kanunfittbbi. In his own
lyuponIbnSinasbook. In his work, Emraz Ruhaniyeyi Negama Musikiye, Hekimb
d which makams were effective in the the treatment of which childhood disease:
iveinthetreatmentofchildhoodmeningitis. IsfahanMakam:clearsthemindandprotectsfr
irefkendMakam:effectiveinthetreatmentofstrokeandbackache,fostersasenseof streng
29 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

paralysisandphlegmaticdiseases. BzrkMakam:Effectiveinthetreatmentofthebrainand
s fatigue. ZirgleMakam:Effectiveinthetreatmentofheartandbraindisease,meningitis
rsoftheliver. HicazMakam:Effectiveinthetreatmentofdiseasesoftheurinarytract.
einthetreatmentofpainsinthehipsandhead,andofeye diseases. UakMakam:Effecti
mnia. HseyniMakam:Effectiveinthetreatmentofliverandheartdisease,siezuresand hi
m:Effectiveinthetreatmentofchildrenwhohavereachedpuberty,painsof thehips,andb
wthatintheTopkapPalacehospital,youngstudentsweretreatedbymusic. Mastermusician
amsshouldnotbeplayedrandomlybut ratherthatatcertaintimesduringtheday,thesemak
ng comfort: 1. Rehavimakam:shortlybeforesunrse 2. Hseynimakam:atdawn. 3. Rast
. Zirglemakam:atnoon. 5. Hicazmakam:inmidafternoon. 6. Irakmakam:inlateaftern
tsunset. 8. Nevamakam:intheevening. 9. Bzrkmakam:inlateevening. 10. Zirefkendm
gh he mentioned what times during the day makams should be listened to, he also
day into four sections and researched when each makam should be sung or listened
s also examined the issue of the effect makams had on different nationalities, a
ship between makams and astrology. According to some Turkish doctors, the followin
re affective on different nationalities: 1. Hseynimakam:Arabs 2. Irakmakam:Irani
:Turks 4. Buselikmakam:mostlyplayedforGreeks In terms of their influence on t
tors determined that various makamsprovokedthefollowingfeelings:
30 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Irakmakam:pleasureandrelish Zirglemakam:sleep Rehavimakam:w

akam:beauty Hicazmakam:humility Nevamakam:bravery Uakmakam:laughter

Eachmakamwasalsoassociatedwithaparticularsignofthezodiac. The old Turkish do

ili Emzice, stated that music was beneficial against all disease and pain, and
is by scholars and scientistsofthetime. 3.ConclusionandRecommendations This pa
music and musical therapy among the Turks from a historical perspective,andexamin
entsinTurkishCivilizationsuptothepresent. Inthelightofthesestudies,thefollowin
eached: 1. The use of music in healing began in extremely ancient times within C
rkic Culture, was practiced by people with a variety of duties, and examplesofi
ay. 2. In the Turkish Islamic world, music therapy activities and especially the
n hospitals first began in the 9th century, and exhibited great advancementsupun
y. 3. It is notable that in music therapy, countries authentic national music is
fferentmakamsandinstrumentsareusefulaccordingtothetype ofdisease. 4. As stated
ic, with a pentatonic origin, a high facility of improvisation and emotion, and
any microtones (komas) has a many faceted capacity for the expression of emotion
ning steadily in importance in psychotherapy. This thought is supported by researc
dinvariouscountries,andbypaperspresentedatthe2ndInternational MusicTherapyandE
osiumheldinIstanbulin1993. Themusictherapyideasandpracticesaddressedinthisarti
nd reevaluatedwithmoderndaytechnology. The relationships between makam and tempera
and astrology could be readdressedwithinmorescientificapproachesandinclinicaltria
erelyasamodeoftherapyforanarrayofdiseases,musikcanalsobevery usefulasaprev
oicesofappropriatemusicalgenresmy have positive effects on people living a stres
style, on factory workers in order to increase productivity, and even on animals,
roduction of products suchasmilkandeggs.
31 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Bibliography: 1. ArslanTerziolu,TrkslamPsikiyatrisininveHastanelerininAvrupaya
ess,Istanbul,1972,p.24 Bahaddingel,TrkKltrTarihineGiri,KltrBakanlPre
avi,SanemPress,Ankara,1978,p.25. 3. MurtazaKorlaeli,bniSinadaMzik,Erciyes
349. 4. NazmiYlmazztuna,TrkMusikisiAnsiklopedisi,MilliEitimPublishingHouse,I
dkYiitba,MusikileTedavi,YelkenPress,Istanbul,1972,p.34. 6. ahinAk,Avrupav
ihiGeliimveUygulamalar, zEitimPress,Konya,1997,pp.48,77,96,109,116,132,1
aviMusikisi,MetinlerPress,Istanbul, 1993. 8. RahmiOruGven,TrkMusikisindeKkl
,1986. RahmiOruGven,TrklerdeveDnyadaMzikleRuhiTedavininTarihesiveGnmz

32 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

MUSIC:AREFLECTIONOFREFINEMENT (byCinenTanrikorur) People are disappointed

nd have become accustomed to end; they want them to maintain the same beauty, f
tement to the end of their lives. They are sorry when they end, because living
s is something we love and are accustomed to. Even young people, or those wit
education take comfort in thinking that death is not an ending but rather a tra
ationoflifeonadifferentplane.Butifcultureendswhathappens then? If the culture
ived loved and become accustomed to for a thousandodd years ends without being
hen? What kind of transition is this, and in what direction? As the end of cul
ll to ever lower levels will eventually when no lower level remains for it t
ness, what sort of continuation is this, and of what, what hopescan it provide?
herthanthosewhowishaculturetodegenerateandrotintonothing? The Chinese founded
ion in our world. Their great thinker Confucius hadseveralthingstosayaboutmusic
has spoiled, then one must judge that many other things have spoiled in that so
mportance he assigned to music suggests that this great this great historical thi
of our own scholars may have been a musicianaswell.Therearenorecordsofhis
ering how definite a measure he considered music to be of a societys ascendance
then even if he was not a practitionerof music, there is no doubt that he was
irit, with a deep concept of the meaning and significance of thisart.Thefamous
ehmetAa,wholivedduringthereign of Selim III, before going on the Hajj, went
professor Arif Efendi, and said I am going on the Hajj, there I will forswear
er playagain.ArifEfendianswered,Playmyboy,play,andafterplaying,playevenonth
m sure that both from the title as well as the opening statements, the reader
d where this article is going, I would still like to say a few words about th
, which is truly a secret of ascendance in our history and a mirror of our cu
; after all Ive neitherthemindnortheknowledgetodoanymore. In his Fazille
lChiz described the Turks thus: It is impossible to consider the Turk apart f
every part of that horse: on his back, in his stomach, in his tail, in his ma
musicis in everypart and every thingoftheTurk:in hislove, hisgrief,his peace
l. Sadeddin Arel proved that with his aphorism, The Turk is born with music, l
ies with music. And whats more, we cant separate ourselves from music even af
chanted at our graves, readings of
33 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

the Koran at various anniversaries of a death, our mevlids, our kandils, our zik
,ourglbanks...rightuptoDayofJudgement. Allright,butwhymusic?Whencetheholiness
ianscalled the sacred science, and which Tanbur Cemil described as the tongue
his question is in the root of the word music, which has gone into all langu
agespokenbytheMuses.Thismeaning, whichbringsoutthemetaphysicalsideoftheartof
why the human science of mathematics, and consequently of theory, is unable to s
the problems of music. Here also is the answer to why, in worship, medicine and
so attached to music, and find such strength in it. Turkish music, whichisessen
uetotheemphasisonlyrics,isfirstandforemosta music of poetry. In the same way
ivan literature, the subject matter of which draws mostly on mystical allegory an
ce, is first and foremostamusicofthetongue. ylesermestemkiidraketmezemdnyan
? hferydn,Fuzl,incidpdrlemi, Kerbelyakilehondisengavgnedr? Iam
er,whatisthewine? Yoursighsandcries,Fuzlcausetheworldtomourn Ifyouareplea
rel? If for a moment we do not consider the meaning, are these words above all
sic,thatis,thelanguageoftheangels? Where are these poets, where is this lan
hich we pass off lightly with the clich Divan literature, which we, stricken
ch minds H.A. Ycel, have neglected to introduce to our youth; which the likes
all to openly denigrate in their books this language, dear children,isnotArab
eneitherArabnorIranianunderstandsit!But atleastfromthetimeoftheSeluksupunti
, whichishelduptoyouasamodel,poorsoulswhohavecollaboratedwithSatanwere b
he symbol of a civilization which treated the mentally ill in University hospital
ayseri and Edirne with the meatof birds, the fragrance of flowers and specially
of music; the language of the magnificenceofanempire. In the mid 19th century,
d evki Bey and continuing to the composers to follow, the taste in lyrics slow
Although Zeki Dede, Tanbri Ali Efendi, Rahmi Bey and S. Ziya Bey tried to mai
al level, they were unable to prevent the singing of pathological emotions that
ddin Pnar, appealed to the customers of the alcoholserving nightclubs. On the s
ics education, TRT which, with the exception of one branch director, never worri
orked with all their might to destroy taste in language before that of music. H
is a song, music and lyrics by Sait Ergen, and
34 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

broadcast constantly sung by M. Milli, that should serve as a lesson: Nikhsz

alarbizi,nemahkemeayrr, DmanlarnerrindenbiziMevlmkayrr. Nikhszdiyorlar
ende,nederlersedesinler. Gnahbizim,sevapbizim, Varsnatlasneller! Noweddingt
odprotectsfromtheevilofourenemies Unmarried,theysay;letthemsayit Itsasin
aywhattheywill Thesinisours,andthegooddeedaswell Andtohellwiththerestoft
disgusting picture: from Lord brahim (Tatlses), who said Kul oldum bir cefkre
ll slave to a tormentor, shes myroseinthegardenoftheworld,)thefalltoKlol
s loss of culture an issue only in the music on the radio and TV, cassettes a
hear the degeneration in the mouths of the muezzins, those who, five times a da
all to prayer] in a tastelessly affected Arabic accent? As this people loses its
nsciousness (that is, its identity), just as secular music imitates the West, rel
is becoming an imitation of the Arabs. However if Arabic music had something to
hey have sent for teachers from us every in every country in which they opened
in the case of honestmusicianslikeM.KmilelHuly,thewriterofthebookKitbuM
s estizetuneletrk (Our maestros the Turks)? But after the West, learning not
wisdom of the east and enriched itself by colonizing others, became accomplished
ose of other religions and debasing them in the name of God. This loathsome gam
umented in the works of 5. Ayverdi, as well as C. Meri, T. Sreyya Srma and
her subject. The Turks have been praised throughout history for the beauty they
illumination, calligraphy, ornamentation, ebru, engraving, carpet weaving). Architectu
e is created in stone, but who was it that nourished,protectedandelevatedtheir
? First was the Mehterhne: since the time of the Huns, the military music sch
ective was to use the booming sound of their foreign and terrifying music, audib
rney distant, to attack the morale of the enemy, destroy hiswilltofightandthus
35 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Next was the Endern: the musical department of the Palace university which, rega
age, religion, or race, took talented youths coming from all parts of theempire
er this was the Mevlevhne: a network of music and fine arts academies, spread
rs of the empire, which with the Koran and Mathnawi, and with the ney, kudm,
lumination and ebru, taught the beauty that makes us human;andtrainedourgreatest
n line were the guilds of the musical profession, and finally, the private mekh
opened in the homes of wellknown composers or in public locales,andgavemusicle
seinterested. The training in the Mehterhne and the Endern of the French spy
f Napoleons wife Josphine, who took the name Nakidil Sultan in the palace, wa
mud II. The Mevlevihnes, along with the other Sufi lodges, were locked in 1923.
ial school of theatre and music, founded in 1914, educationinTurkishmusicwasabo
tchfromMusaSreyya,son of composer Giriftzen sm Bey. Later, in 1934,broadcast
dio wasabolishedbyorderofMinisterofDomesticAffairskrKaya.Inthisway,aswecu
h our own hand, our music inevitably headed towards its demise. Unable to listen
ic on their own radio station, the Turkish people, pleading when going to buy a
io but please let it not play Necip Cell!, turned in desperation to SawtilAr
rabia from Cairo); learned what wavelength Tehran and New Delhi radio was on. An
oors tune vrmu, nnaranam... the musical which launched, if not the first
ame famous. After the mid50s, as you well know, oudist Suat Sayn and other pe
gan their journey to the presentday,andnowmakeyourhairstandonendwiththeirK
uredoesnotdestroyitsown:Itdoesnotpolluteitswater, it does not burn its fores
imals, it doesnt up and uproot a centuriesold plane tree. But mankind? Hostage
ate and selfishness, man uses fire and weapons to destroy, burn and kill. A gra
work of centuries; his music, a monument to enlightenment, breeding, light, and
xtofopeningaroaddemolishesitwiththebulldozerofWesternapery.Aroad? To where?
ightenment, darkness and illbreeding... To what end?Tomakeamonkeyofmen,whofor
d,notonlyasmen, but as gentlemen. A monkey, who has sold his consciousness t
ate.ThatWestwhichwasactuallyanadmirer,evenimitatorofhiscivilizationbefore it w
he great composer Beethovan proudly wrote at the head of someofhispieces, alla
e of Turkishmilitary music, washenot experiencing the hope and trepidation that
mall measure, approach the magnificence of our Mehter bands? When the Yugoslavs s
d, Old Turkish Music in Yugoslavia, made twenty years ago, that the Turks eve
etheynotshowingthecouragetorememberfondlyacivilizationtat we are trying to fo
ng a visit to Turkey in the 1990s, Margaret Thatcher gave a speech before a co
nor. Her opening sentence was
36 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

extremely meaningful: We greatly admire your old culture. What was she trying t
ay, while I was living in Ankara, a taxi driver switched the radio away from T
as over. When I asked himwhy, he said Brother,whats to listen to on TRT? a
ast. How could TRT, putting kemene next to violin, a ney next to a clarinet,
e tanbur under the oud and kanun, and turning it all into a big mixed pickle
iano as well, compete with the violins and rhythmic orchestral music of Arabesk?
steadilylosing its listeners,theRadio, inordertoforce itselfupongarnerapplausef
to applaud whatever it sees, good or bad, has resorted to special entertainment
rge studios. Referred to among the musicians as special torture programs, the o
tween these programs and the nightclubs is that you arent pressured to buy drin
gether now!, femalesingerswhohavemanagedwiththirtysongsovertheirthirtyyearar
ing on stage or at weddings, can at least don their lownecked outfits, snap th
in rings as if dancing, and get the applause of their audience. Then, like th
ies touring Anatolia, began the intercity radio concerttours(whichcontinuestill)
tivejustificationofaclose,live dialog with the listener, these programs get th
h the most superficial, average songs. As if corrupting the alreadypoor taste ev
enough, the endless bus trips day and night, and the nights spent in beach cabi
letsaretrulytorturefortheartists.Butwhatcantheydo?Theyvesigned the TRT agree
fect, well do whatever we want, whenever we want! But even here, there were
ntly wasnt enough to create this warm, close dialog; so the latest invention wa
tea concerts. Here, the Radio sends a few instrumentalists and singers to the h
o play and sing; the hosts get together their darbukas, tambourines and finger c
eentertained.Thisisthenbroadcastasaradioprogram.Ah,youatTRT,in whatothercoun
ngdisplay?EveninUgandaorZambia, is an artist at a state institution sent to t
in him in his house?! Whatwillweseenext...Perhapsalittlefartherdowntheline,t
m the Sulukule groups to the TRT High Commission as a Head Turkish Music Consu
, we turn off the TV as soon as the news is finished. Apart from this, once
hen a friend calls and says turn on suchandsuch a channel, theyre playing yo
ourse missing half of whats been played. Personally,Ivebecomeashamedtoliveina
enobligedto look to such disgusting things for entertainment; where the concepts
d entertainment have become so degenerated. Our forefathers said for the crazy m
oliday. Today, candle in hand, Im looking for that crazy man. Are you overcome
So, wheres it all leading to? Will we need a terrible
37 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

earthquake or a nuclear war, leaving nobody behind, in order to wake up and let
ryandregainourdignityandselfesteem? I realize that, aside from one or two mus
, Ive said nothing encouraging to you. But like the late poet Aziz Sami Bey,
hdad, a mans tongue cannot smile while his heart is crying. The word hasret
oralover,butthelongingthatwesharetogetherisnot for a lover, its for our
an operation, our dear Tahral sent me a poem, Cnn Atei (The Fire of the
the longing for my country, I composed music to it. The poem said, Would that
oses, ablaze and brilliant; the fire of compassion in the sacred valley. In the
lled with longing for those Moseses, who were everywhereuntiltheTanzimat(Official
39)turned our people into mental vegetables. SpeechmadeonJuly1,1994aspartofa
softheRiseofSocieties, heldbytheKubbealtAcademy
38 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic


ndidate,Musicology,JuliusMaximiliansUniversityWrzburg,Institutefor MusicResearchGe
lia, the home of various settled cultures since at least as early as 10. Millen
ch variety of musical instruments in ancient times. Numerous extant musical instru
ell as depictions of different forms, provide us with clues abouttheancientmusic
egion. The evidence shows that a wide range of string, wind and percussion ins
nusedinthecourseofthousandsofyearsinthisland. PercussionInstruments Several
mentsarerichlyrepresentedinarchaeologicalrecords of Anatolia. The oldest among th
t scrapers made of bone and clay rattles. Seeing their relatively simple structur
dern point of view, one may mistake these instruments for ordinary toys. Though
al tools for their initial owners; tools helping them to connect with the nature
nd to communicatewithdeities. Starting from Bronze Age, people made use of metal
ce instruments. Examples of rattles made of metal dating back to 3. Millenium B.
nd in central Anatolia. These instrument type, commonly known as sistrum, appears
ed an important role in religious ceremonies, as suggested by the ornaments proje
ithsignificantsymbolicalmeanings,suchasbirdsandbulls. Another widely used instrum
sion type was cymbals. Sizes of the cymbals used in Anatolia varied from so cal
which were played in pairs, a pair in each hand of the player as we know fro
ent to the bigger ones, the so called clash or hand cymbals, still in use in
estras. Cymbals, known in the region at least since early Bronze Age, have been
iven as burial gifts. Depictions suggest that finger cymbals have provided accompa
ances and hand cymbals were often used in ceremonies
39 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

andprocessions.Othertypesofclappers,probablymostoftenmadeofwood,werealso apart
tarium. Tambourine, still employed in many different forms of music, was also an
t of percussion accompaniment. Depictions of various sizes and forms, such as tam
rwithoutmetaljinglesattachedtotheframeareplentiful. Equally popular were frame
ms of various sizes. Especially the frame drum, an instrument closely associated
ent goddess Cybele, is often to be found in archeological evidence. Cybelecult i
ve transferred to ancient Greece and Rome through Phrygians, and the frame drum
ay an importantroleintheritualsinthesemusicculturestoo. WindInstruments Whi
erial, varying from clay to bone and limestone, could be found in Anatolia since
imes. Some of the clay whistles found in the museums of Turkey have a birdlike
e are hitherto neither visual nor literary depictions found representing the use
es, ritual function of similar instruments in other cultures are known from certa
cological studies. Moreover,theassociationofbirdswithdivineforces,acharacteristic
ures of the region, may suggest a deeper meaning of the bird shaped instruments.
practice of classifying these as toys in museum exhibitions might also need to
fpercussioninstrumentswithsimplephysicalstructures. It is still a debated issue,
n ancient times should be considered as musical instruments, because of their lim
y of producing melodies. Some refer to them as signaling devices, considering the
tory function in hunting, wars and competitions. Nonetheless, horns, played in acc
t of drums, took part in ritual performances as well. Playing techniques were si
f modern brass instruments. To increase the volume, they were sometimes tied toge
and blowntogether. Asidefromthesetworelativelysimplewindinstruments,flutesmadeof
al have been played since thousands of years in the region, as remaining example
eums in Turkey prove. It must have been one of the main melody instruments of
only in ritual context but also during celebrations and for personal entertainment
ind instruments made of cane and wood were used for similar purposes as well; h
st impossible for these vulnerable materials to survive such a long time, hence
nstrument is known. Because of the same reason, there are not any existing mouth
ed instruments, which were widely in use. But depictions of such instruments are
ly showing them being played in pairs, sometimes leading ceremonial procession of
Similar instruments are still to be found in different parts of Turkey,performed
40 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

So called Panflutes may also be seen in several depictions of ancient times, bu

hese depictions in comparison to others, suggest that they were not as broadlyus
uments Hitherto, there has been no extant string instruments excavated in Turkey
enough archaeological and written evidence exhibiting the significance of them. Rel
oorrateofharppresentationsindepictionsfoundintheregion,suggestthat people of A
red these instruments as much as the neighboring culturesofMesopotamia. On the o
erent types of lyres have been among the most essential instruments,atleastbegin
lenniumBC.Numerouspresentationsof lyresdepictnotonlytheadvancedstructureofthein
hecontextsin which they were employed. It is interesting to see lyres of differ
ing played together in certain circumstances; an evidence of a distinction between
strumentstypesandtheirfunctions. String instruments of lutefamily were also widel
h incomparable with the prevalence of these in Ancient Egypt. Form of the lutes
e Hittite reliefsshowsimilaritiestomodernbalamausedinTurkishfolkmusic. As mu
nctions and uses, so do the musical instruments. However, almost all of the surv
evidence and visual depictions concerning the musical instruments are that of reli
als, official ceremonies and festivities. Consequently, our knowledge of the ancien
ments and their uses are limited and hardlyincludetheirroleineverydaylifeofthe
e limits, based on the available evidence, it is possible to see that quite adv
truments emerged notably early in history. Many of the surviving depictions show
of orchestras, consisting of different types of string, percussion and wind inst
er hint of a rather sophisticated music culture. The studies in the area also r
iduality of ancient Anatolian cultures, ratherthanbeingmerelyabsorbentofneighborin
41 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic


history, Turkish state, legal, social, military system, culture, and customs as a
vestigation throughout the centuries,didnotfailtoconsiderTurkishmusiceither.Onec
uropean sources on Turkish music. These sources constitute so extensive a literatu
e researcheronhisownmaynotbeabletoexhaustitwithinhislifetime. European source
g in that, they throw light on the phases of Ottoman music which the historian
t enlightened yet. Obviously, sorting out all the relevant material in these sour
e a significant contribution to the historiography of Ottoman music. The sources
lso revealtheEuropeanreceptionofOttomanmusicthroughthecenturies. Europeansources
hreecategories:writingsof(a)generalhistorians and orientalists; (b) of historians
musicologists; and (c) of travellers and observers. Since the travelogue is a gen
ng from live observation and experience,the products of this literature deserve s
tion. Historians of music and musicologists of the past centuries often worked on
material, and it maybethecasethattheyhadneverheardTurkishmusicplayed.However,
, memoirs, and letters written by European visitors provide observations and clues
kish music of the past centuries was like and how it was received by Europeans.
ns showed interest only in the military music of the Turks. The earliest contact
usic had started as early as the period of the Crusades, but they didnotleave
ewtravelaccountswithmentionofmusicfrom the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. A
t, there was a widespread prejudice in Europe at the time that Islam had prohib
t the Turks ignoredallmusicalgenresexcept militarymusic.Probably, the solesignif
ontribution in the fourteenth century was made by Bertrandon de la Brocquire (c.
veller.BertrandonwasatthecourtofMuradIIinEdirneandlistened to epic songs (Cha
instrels, and "merry", "joyous" and "cheerful"Turkishfolkandpopulartunes. Moreco
ksontheOttomansstartedtoappearinthesixteenthcentury. The observation peculiar t
arked by impressions from the mehter, the janissaryband.Folkmusicandurbanlightm
42 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

painters of the century represented the mehter and the instruments of urban light
e Belon du Mans, a French observer who was in Istanbul between 1547 1554, wrote
e more talented in playing the string instruments than the people of France and
m Belon, the travellers of the century did not receive favourable impressions fro
ey heard in Istanbul. Almost all the observerscomplainedaboutthe"noisy"performanc
dexpressedthat Turkish music, which was in fact the music they heard on the st
rs and the nerves. The fact that the focus was on military music was quite nat
man empire was then at its peak as a military power and Europe was under its
h century. However, this military threat did not prevent Turkish music from havin
on Europe. Many European countries which had hitherto dispensed with military musi
o develop military bands, and others felt it was necessary to improve military m
, English, French, and German military unitssetupmilitarybandswhichresembledthe
s started to take greater interest in Turkish military music in the seventeenth
entury witnessed several travellers who tried to approach Turkish music with an o
itude, or even took pleasure from the performance, which was described as noisy
s of the previous century, was now praised and appreciated by the Italian geogra
rsigli, and the wellknown French orientalistAntoineGalland. In this century one
servers who listened to classical Turkish music, that is, the secular art music
d also Mevlevi music, music of the "Whirling Dervishes". As a matter of fact, t
f the seventeenth century observersisthattheydidnotlimitTurkishmusiconlytomili
ma Mevlevi music composition, by Sieur du Loir, French tradesman and travellerwh
en months in Istanbul in 16391640, and three classical songs, notated by Giovann
do, Venetian Bailo to thePorte in16801684, are the documents of the interest i
roader sense. Probably the most interesting considerations about Ottoman music in
eenth century that can be found in French are writer and folktale collector Cha
aralleles des Ancients et Modernes. In this striking work, three music lovers dis
aspects of Turkish music, not in terms of personal taste but in a more objectiv
an academic interest. What they tried to make clear can be summed up in the fo
Turkish ear is pleased by the natural scale, which is different from the Western
e Orientals are accustomed to the natural scale their ears are more sensitive, t
have more talented performers; the Turks are unaware of consonant sounds, hence h
ed only melodic music which lacks harmonyof several parts; although Turkish music
ble with that of the Europeans, the great variety of Turkish melodies and musica
ay contribute to Western music. The eighteenth century is a period when Europeans
d Turkish music inthe most serious and detailed manner. This century is an era
ical Turkish music flourished and matured. On the other hand, in the same period
sical music had begun to undergo transformations. It is the time ofHaydns, Mozar
43 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

and Beethovens producing compositions. The symphony form was introduced, and percus
truments became more important and their use became more frequent. For instance,
which had hitherto been rarely used, became one of the permanent components of t
new kind of music, which is louder in tone, hence suitable to express stronger
eelings, as opposed to relatively softmusicofthepreviousperiod,i.e.Baroquemusic
rmation. NumerousWesternobserversusedtofindtheMehterperformancetoonoisyandshrill
yoneseesagreatnumberofobserverswhodonotgetirritatedbythe same Mehter. Actual
as an era when "Turkomania" spread throughoutEuropeandwhenPrussia,RussiaandPolan
thentic Mehter bands. This change of attitude may probably be ascribed to the tr
44 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

PRINCEDIMITRIECANTEMIR(16731723) (byNamikSinanTuran) Dimitrie Cant

eni, the son of Constantin Cantemir, governor of Moldavia, which was classified a
d state in the Ottoman administrative system. When his father, coming from a mod
ily, was elected governor by the Moldavian boyars, Cantemir's life entered a new
ing Greek and Latin from the monk Yeremiye Kakavelas, the young Cantemir educated
ilosophy and literature and entered the intelligentsia of the period. When his fi
l endeavor ended in failure (as did his last), he came to Istanbul,wherehewas
ife. Inthiscity,whereheliveduntil1710,hecontinuedhiseducationintheOttomanPala
k Patriarchate. Cantemir clearly achieved a wide circle of acquaintancesduringthis
eachershestudiedwith,someofthefirstto come to mind include philosopher and geo
Arta, his Arabic teacher Nefioglu, and his mathematics and Turkish teacher Esad E
nina. He was known to be very talented in language, and studying the eastern la
earnedthesubtletiesofeasternmusicfromKemaniAhmetEfendi. Thus,Cantemirsoonbecame
alityandasinequanonintheartistic circles of Istanbul. Having participated with
s of the Ottoman forces in the war of Zenta, Cantemir was appointed governor of
war with theRussianswhichbeganin1710. During the course of his governorship, pu
which the political reality wasnotyetripe,hewentintocollaborationwiththeRussian
shing of this dream in Prussia in 1711 set the stage for the dramatic last per
ed on August 21, 1723, a famous man, not only for his political personality tha
euniqueconditionsoftheperiod,butalsoasamanofculture. But what most distinguis
s the fact that he notated many musical pieces, thuscontributing to theknowledge
e.Cantemir's writingson the East reached the second largest reading public after
ul Rycaut on Ottoman history, published in London in 1668. His work, written in
was the first systematic treatise on the Ottoman State. In his work, Incrementa
ta Aulae ot homanicaet, he brought a new approach to the philosophy of history,
ntion to the fact that the rise and fall of states followed a naturalcoursepar
ngs.Thushesubmittedthatstatesexperience aperiodofriseandofdecline.
45 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

As a result of Prince Cantemir's contributions as an Orientalist, the registry fo

hip in the Berlin Academy of Science, for June 11, 1714, read: "Residing in Ist
s,helearnedtheeasternlanguages,wrotepoetryintheTurkish style,composedmusic,and
ezir,andothersofhighrank." Another aspect of the historian Cantemir that inspire
ulture was his passion for eastern music, and the works he produced on the subj
l dictionary titled Historischbiographische der Tonknstler, published in 1790 by
r, he is mentioned by name, an indication of the importance of his works on mu
s musical talent from his father Constantin, who in his spare time played Moldav
n the flute. Dimitrie passed a similar love for music on to his children aswel
r Mariaplayedharpsichord, and hisson Antioche wasasingerinMoscowandcomposedsev
g to what we know today, the first master from whom he learned the basic conce
retan Kakavelas, who was also a composer. His musical talent was not noticed onl
s; he did not escape noticeofanyone hemet. SowhenhevisitedthePolishambassador
tedIas,henoticedthe young Cantemir's musical talent. The fact that in Istanbul,
rn music for fifteen years under Kemani Ahmet is a clear indication of his leve
e subject. Atthesametime,hetooklessonsfromthewellknowncomposerandtanburi,Anje
ed thirtysix pieces, including two pesrevs, eleven saz semais, two aksak semais
hen Sultan Ahmet II appointed him governor of Moldavia, he composed a semai in
icated to the Sultan, and received various presents as a reward. Among the works
antemir is a MevleviayinthatwasperformedbytheGalataMevlevidervishesandwasthes
ring its time. The monk Toderini states that this piece was written by Cantemir
nce of old Turkish literature, in the fashion of examples in the possession of
ador M. Ferriol, in the European notation system. Another musicologist who believe
Cantemir's, Georges Brezaul,arrivedat this conclusion based on pieces he determine
various parts of Moldavia. According to the same writer, the Mevlevi ayin influen
for one of the ballets in Mozart's opera Abduction from the Seraglio. "It appear
came acquainted with the Mevlevi ayin, from F.J. Sulzer, who recorded this ritual
. This view is shared by other Romanian historians. De Ferriol however, considers
ySieurChabert,whowasamasterofmusicandwholaidthefoundationof this art." Actua
untenable, as De Ferriol, who was known to be interested in eastern culture, had
ian Chabert to notate this dervish ayin. Similarly he had asked the painter Vanm
picture, now on exhibit in the Amsterdam National Museum. It is possible that Ca
w De Ferriol, had connections with the French embassy in Istanbul and at the sa
46 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

nts that gave rise to the appearance and spread of our folk songs have been ad
separately from the actual channels oftheirappearance.However,asinotherfolkloric
shavefoundlifein theirownuniqueenvironments,inwhichtheyhavetriedtosurvive.Fol
egional study or folk gatherings (weddings, teaching situations, celebrations, henna
s and mourning ceremonies etc.) must be examined within the chain of eventsthat
rtheirsinging. In studying our folk songs, while paying attention to their conte
orms and genres, and examining them within different classifications, scholars, exp
collectors must not ignore the abovementioned associations as well as another impo
t: This point is the study of our folk songs or folk music with its words. Th
t wrong. But the fact that this manner of study is not wrong doesnotmeanthat
ng. In studying our folk songs, the method followed must also be followed. Howev
g these methods, care must be taken not to separate our folk songs from their
ts, to turn them into abstractions. If possible, these environments should be sub
service of the people and those who love folk music, and especiallytospecialists
ew of this, our folk songs, though they may have been created by an individual,
ver time, become public property and are adopted by a wide public. Thusastheya
asteandemotionsofthesocietywhichcreated them, they are also kept alive within
ith its repertoire of thousands of folksongs, our people sing these songs when a
us assuring their survival andmemoryastheyarepassedfromgenerationtogeneration.
aditions which serve as occasions for the singing of folk songs. Although how an
aditions originated is a matter for another discussion, these generally include th
f of soldiers, henna nights, winter celebrations, weddings,engagements,andothertyp
ngswhichwillbedescribedbelow. Besides perpetuating our traditions, these celebrati
herings are one area in the centuriesold custom of the group playing/singing tr
ves as a source for our folk music and dances, as well as for their performanc
.Althoughnotascommonastheyoncewere,andinsomeareasnolonger take place in the
he old rules, there are still attempts to
47 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

continue these gatherings. Although sharing the same fundamental goal, such gatheri
bit differences according to location, ages of participants, seating arrangementand
jectsoftheconversations. The seating arrangement may be in the order of old to
pprentices, others may be from learned to uneducated, and others yet from master
mateurs. Some of these conversations/gatherings include the reading of and commenta
ks, in others books are read an stories/fairy tales may be told, and in others,
e place at the same time. But they have a common point: they are a venue for
ems and especially of conflicts within the community,andmaysometimesserveasaco
. Quite important in the life of the community, these gatherings originate in ou
nstitutions, our derneks, which have served vital functions since ancient times.Th
rethegroupplaying/singingtraditioncontinuesareruralareas which have not yet lo
l characteristics, are based on an agricultural economy and have not much opened
de world. In some areas, such gatherings are known as Yaren Toplantlar (Gather
turak Alemleri(SittingRevelries). Anatolia is divided into seven regions. Besides
istic differences these seven regions present differences in music, in terms of p
nging techniques. In the study of Turkish folk music, these are known as Region
performance styles. Examples of playing styles are Konya style, Silifke style, Yo
hir styleandKayseristyle.Theyarealsoclassifiedbyregion:Zeybekregion(Aegeanregio
parta,Antalya,BurdurandAfyonprovinces). In order to understand the performance o
ioned styles; and the environments in which they are performed, we must examine
ese environments take shape; in short, the group playing/singing traditions in t
) The Group Musical Tradition, the roots of which extend to the earliest per
ticedindifferentwaysacrosstheregionsofTurkey.Thoughpracticedin essentially the
tradition does display certain differences in form and concept.Thesegatheringsgob
esasinthefollowinglist: ankr,Isparta(Kula),Manisa,Ktahya(Simav):Yarenlik
nbeyandinthecity):Barana Konya,Aksaray,Nide,Nevehir,AkehirandAnkara:Oturak
Amasya:TelTelGecesi Adyaman:DereAzToplants anlurfa:SraGezmesi(SraGec
48 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Artvin,Trabzon:Erfene(Arfana) ISPARTAYAREN Known in Isparta as yarenlik or geze

tly encountered in and around the provinces of Yeneky, Eridir and arkkaraaa
ings are mostly held in the autumn after the harvest has been taken in and the
utback.Thesearealsocalledbabozumuenlikleri(vineyardbreakingfestivities). KULA
n Manisa province, both yarenliks and guild gatherings are held, and the local p
them quite important. In Kula, yarens do not appear as a group singing songs at
her regions, here too they appear as a group of people singing and playing with
tional structures, and most importantly, perpetuating their own traditions. The son
nerally accompanied by balama, darbukaandzillimaa,asetoftongsonwhichseveralc
SINSMAV(KTAHYA) These are not much different than the yarens of ankr. Howe
, alcohol is drunk while in ankr gatherings it is absent. Its form, customs a
t,aswellasitseffectsonsociallife,areasthoseinankr. KEKLGN(ADANA) The
n some provinces as Kna Gecesi, (henna night) is generally held on a Saturday.
lly known as Kekil.Thekekildayiscompletelytherealmofwoman. Onthisday,seve
pscome,singfolksongsand play def (tambourine) until evening. This special day i
y before her wedding.Thereareseveralfolksongswhichthewomensingespeciallyforthe
re filled with songs, one after the other until evening, when the gathering brea
cktotheirvillages. GEZEKALEM(AFYON) In ths region, such gatherings aregenera
nk, and songs with musical accompaniment. As in those in other areas, there are
and attendants are determined beforehand; the party is held at the house of the
says thegezekismine.SuchpartiesaregenerallyheldonSaturdaynights. A gezek has
s two assistants. Those who do not follow the rules are punished, generally with
y gathered in the form of fines is generallyusedtoholdotherparties. The punis
n other ways as well. For example, one who acts in a way unbecoming of his ma
n a purple velvet dress and dance a kek in the center of the room. Folk dan
ks, accompanied bysongsandsaz.Thesingingandplayingfollowsaparticularorder.
49 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

TELTELGECES(AMASYA) Tel tel (lit. stringy) is the name of a local sweet in t

y texture. Asthissweetismadeforthesespecialoccasions,thegatheringsaregenerally
heseevenings,aringisputinsidethesweet,andgoodluckgoesto theonewhogetsit. A
specially loved by women in the region, it is mostly they whoperpetuated.Theysi
;andalsosingmanis(quatrains): Sarkabakkkeni Elebatardikeni Mevlamabukkavut
heyellow squasstemthrustsathorn Mygod,bringtogether Thosewhoarelovelorn LAM
YA) Especially in the Merzifon district of Amasya, these gatherings are held by
to a certain protocol. Young people may not participate; they are strictly the r
le. Preparations are made a week before the gathering is to be held. The celebr
e favorite folk songs of the region, as well as dancing. The singinganddancing
icularorder. DEREAZIGATHERINGS(ADIYAMAN) In this area, the playing of music i
kd of Gypsies (Abdal). Fearful of beingtoldtheyaredoingGypsieswork,youngpeop
ayin obscure places, on the banks of rivers, far away from the community. For
therings are known among young people as dere az toplantlar (river bank gathe
gs generally include alcohol, and are held frequently and certain places chosenfo
gs. KALECMBALEMLER(ANKARA) Kale ii (inside the fortress, referring to
re disciplined dance parties with alcohol, heldtogether withwomen. Although thisc
nger kept up publicly in any active way, Ankara locals occasionally arrange these
in an attempt to keep the tradition alive. In these parties, young people always
r the elders, and the old play host to the young. In other words,thecelebratio
reofmutualrespect. In such celebrations, instruments are played, women dance and
sumed. The gatherings are not held just anywhere; they require corners, dead end
uses withwalls thick enough thatthe sound willnotescape. Theefes and young men
velriesinthefortress,withinthewalls,inwoodenhousesonthe lowerdeadendstreets.
50 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

The walls of these houses were 34 cm thick. The cmb were held in secret. T
atrols might raid the parties, or that the pious and religious fanatics might no
ents to be played, under the pretext that they were ruinous to morals. Not ever
into the parties either the young men who would attend had to be tightlipped,
ught wind of it, he would read them the riot act in the sermon the next day,
ames.Theoldestefesatintheheadcorner,andtheresttooktheirplacesaccordingto age
had its own sitting place and formalities in the room. There were both floor pi
ches. The older people sat on the wall benches either indian style or with kn
s legs at these gatherings was considered extremely shameful. The middle aged sat
illows. The young people had to sit with their legs folded underneath them, and
to rise from their kneesorsitindianstylewithoutspecificpermission. The cmb s
f saz. (3040 years ago, Turkish youth in Ankara played nothing but balama. O
h noblemen were Christian musicians brought to back up the music on oud or kanu
egan with music for listening. In addition to divans and komas (poetic forms),
were played.Later,rhythmic dance piecesbegan, whichincluded pieces suchas Sabahi,
r,MorKoyun,NameGelin,Hdayda,AnkaraKomas,eker,Fndk andZeybek tunes. Later
ung man would start the dancing,withthewomengettinguptodancelater. Good playe
od dancers were always given preference in invitations. Oe of the most important
e gatherings was the finger cymbals, which were held on the thumb and middle fi
als were cast from an alloy which was a combination of an Ottoman 20 piastre c
osing the woman who would play zils, her musicianship, her ability to play well
tthanherbeauty. As for the women, they wanted a good saz player. The gathering
rtistic atmosphere, and the participants exhibited their highest mastery of their
ts and of dance. A good saz player coupled with a good cymbal player made for
nted to leave. Towards the end of the party, a slow, intense bozlak piece would
kalkma havas (getting up piece), in misket tuning. The song sung was Ay doar
ing, come to...). This piece signaled the end of the gathering, whereupon everyon
ietly so as nottoletitbeknowthattherewasacmb. BULGUREKMEADET Bulgur
the harvest season, is a special day that young men wait for excitedly; a day
e. The days following the harvest are occupied by the hard work of boiling and
one of the most importantwinterstaples.
51 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

The bulgur pots are set at night, and the various songs and manis sung are bel
the fires under the cauldrons. During this time, the young men of the village v
tracttheyoungandbeautifulgirlsofthevillage. Atlasttheboiledbulgurisspreadout
ilarfabricinorder to dry. When it is dry, the job of pounding it begins. The
ge and neighboring villages gather, wooden pestles in hand, and begin pounding th
ak, tuk sound from the mortars set the rhythm for the celebrations, in which t
husiastically. Running to the mortars at the calls of the young girls, the boys
s of beating the bulgur. There the flirtatious and suggestive words flow, as wel
ancing. Toptopedipzlfntarama Benikoyupbiryardahaarama DilerimAllahtankro
ieyourhairup,dontcombit Takeme,dontlookforanotherlove IbeseechGodforyout
m Thesesongsaresungwithoriginallyricsandcomposedonthespot.Theyouthsworkup a
r. Afterthebeating comesthejobof removingthechaff. Thisjobisalsothesceneofv
ening comes, everyone gathers together and sets up the mills, and the preparation
e. The young men run to the house where the bulgur is being ground, and listen
s the girls sing as they turn the mills. The celebration starts with reciprocal
int, the girls suggest that the boys sit at the mill, and the flirtation and r
hese celebrations sometimes continueuntildawn. Later, pilaf is made from the grou
d eaten. At this point, the owner of the home,inordertogoadthosegroundthebul
inkzlar Deyinkzlar Pilavpiti Yeyinkzlar Goon,girls Sayit,girls Thepilafis
and the gathering of grapes are done in communal work parties known as imece,me
darity,andattheendoftheharvestisfollowed bycelebrationsandfeasts,atwhichyoung
52 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Girl Asmalardazmvar Benimsendegzmvar Gelbirazckyanma Sanabiriftszmvar

xttomeforabit Ihaveacouplewordsforyou Boy Asmadazmolsun Seninbendegz
es Andletyoureyebeonme Icalledyouandyoudidntcome Letthistimebedifferen
elebration known as the Arifane. How the celebration will be held and who will
ecifically determined. Those who will participate are called the sohbet ahbaplar
on buddies referring to the meeting/conversation nature of such gatherings) the
ad it, the barana ba,andtheplacewherethegatheringwillbeheld,thebaranaorbar
hebarana,whowillserveinthisdutyallwinter.Oneeldertakeson thedutyofpresident.
e orders of the barana ba is called the sohbet avuu (conversation sergeant).
k of the sohbet ahbaplar. The sohbet ahbaplar attach a flower petal or plant
leaf on their heads and breasts. They go to the place where the gathering will
out 50 meters remain, the sohbet ahbaplar begin singing special songs to the ac
pofsazes.Theyapproachthehouse,stoppingeverytwosteps andsingingoneverse.Uponen
e,theysingthissong: Sabahtankavutumbenbirgzele Gzelseninuykularnutumu S
ndm) Inthemorning,Imetwithabeautifulgirl Beautifulgirl,didyouloseyoursleep
? Gracemewithoneofyourroses (Imburning)
53 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Attheheadofthestairs,songsconcludingwithquatrainsaresung: Kma
enyandm) Mylittleone,whereareyoucomingfrom Sadness,youlltakemyheart(Imbu
s,youlltakemyheart(Imburning) Atbaranas,themostbeautifulandlivelysongsofth
reperformed.Afterthesinginganddancing,foodisserved,followedbycoffee. Later,spec
tvme(conversaton/praise)tunesareplayedand sung. Uzunarbatanbaa Keklikse
hbetsenindir Senindir,gereksenindir Uzunarbatanbaa Kekliksekertatanta
etsenindir Senindir,gereksenindir Fromoneendofthelongmarkiet Thepartridge
........paa HestheoneIlove,theoneIrespect Thenextconversationis
gehopsfromrocktorock May.........paahavegoodfortune HestheoneIlove,theone
ours,trulyyours In the sohbet vme, the person who will host the next gather
emony associated with this is performed to the last detail. The conversation (s
so has a court section, in which the guilty are judged and according totheir
54 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

session. The guests are greeted by the kk ahbaplar (small friends) and seen o
eat friends). Although such gatherings most often do not include alcohol, we know
t times it has begun to appear. One of the most importantfeaturesofthebaranai
ermissionofthebarana ba,aguestmaybebroughtalong.Guestsmaynotstayformoretha
he barana, this is kept in strict secrecy, and the conversations are dominated b
pline. The ages of the participants is also important; they are dividedintothree
d,agedandyouth. The sohbet ahbaplar are required to love and respect each othe
quality of an educational institution. Gambling or allowing gambling, lying, drunke
d other such behaviors are considered crimes. The guilty are judged; the judgment
uncedandthepunishmentscarriedout. Thesohbetavuugathersthenecessaryinformationw
esitto the barana ba. At this point witnesses are heard as well. All of the
are carried out in great secrecy. The sohbet evening begins after the last praye
d continues until morning. The barana begins officially when the baranabasays
ngsaresung. Emineminamdibindesesivar Varnbaknbohasndanesivar Biryazmay
ntutalmmorsmbllbalara MyEminesvoiceatthebaseofthepinetree Go,lookands
sle Aman,myEmine,getup,letsgotothemountains Letsfindaplaceintheorchards
gs,karlamatypedancesarealsoperformed.Oneofthesesongs wordsare: Kocakuuny
erelerinvarvayvayvay Nerelerinahnerelerin Harapolmuglgibimemelerin Alla
lvaraman Thegreatbirddancesintheheavens Donthurtafalcoe,hellgiveyounothing
atplaces,ah,whatplaces Yourroselikebreastshavewithered
55 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

Scarletalvar,aman Thereshoneyintheplate,aman Ifshedoesntgiveany,turnand

rities between the conversations at the baranas and the customs of the city brot
ilds. The songs sung at baranas, as well as the dances performed,arequickandli
URDUR) This kind of feast gathering (ziyafet: feast) serves as a sort of comm
hanism, where customs continue and the virtues of love and respect between the o
etuated;inshort,wheretraditionsarekeptalive. These gatherings include traditional
od, the performance of local music and dances,aswellasseveraltraditionalgamesof
efrendship. The first songs sung at the gatherings are generally of the slow ty
zeybeks and songs of exile. Rhythmic songs are mostly sung towards the end of t
omeonegetsuptodance,azeybekisplayed,followedbydancessuch as 9/8 teke zeybei
ances known as dz hava (regulardance)areplayed;thesebringabouttheendofthef
ance were not difficult. However, finding places to hold such revelries was quite
er, because there were many people in the neighbors who would try and prevent s
d raids werenotunheardof.Forthisreason,noplacewasgenerallyconsideredappropriate
ing. Such gatherings were especially held in Bursas Zindankap quarter. The prepa
uring the daytime; the person who was to host the gathering brought drinks, meze
o would serve to the house in preparation for the event. After the last prayer,
ldbegintoarrive. At theparties, peoplesangsongs anddanbced. Thesongsweresungi
erebothlistninganddancesongs performedattheparties.Instrumentsusedincludedsaz,c
AGELENEKLEROROLAKBAHES (BURSA) The Olak Bahesi (Goat Garden) gatherings
ter the evening prayers and continued until dawn. Such parties were usually held
age chamber, gathering room). Different odas had separate customs. The president o
wnasthebayraktar(bannerbearer).Eachodahadseparatetypesof gatherings for summer
ing to tradition, the music and dances were performedinsections.Theinstrumentsus
elekandzillimaa. SOHBETTOPLANTISI,ATEGEZMES(BOLU) Inthisregion,sohbetgathe
ialplacesinthegardensand orchards of the province, district or surrounding villa
erede province
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was considered to be one of the most important of these. Although it is not kn

atheringsbeganinGerede,theyhavealonghistory. ItissaidthatthegatheringsandGere
nggoals: 1.Awaytopassthelongwinternights 2. According to the c
ften possible. For this reason, the permission to out unaccompanied by a parent
ng men entering manhood and the working life; the gatherings were held with the
ese young men new opportunities and the knowledge they would need, to teach them
community, and bring them up as honorable,maturemen.Inthissense,thesohbetmeetin
ciations. A young man who was trained at such gatherings was seen as superior b
one who was expelled from such meetings was looked down upon. Whatever the reaso
, it would be a bad influence on that youths social and economic activities,an
remembersofatradeguild,toformsocialaswellaseconomic ties. THESTRUCTUREOFT
owantedtoholdasohbetwouldchooseanelderwithclout in the community as their he
e baeski (head elder). The baeski would then appoint someone of standing as hi
u carriedouttheordersofthebaeski.Ontheappropriateday,thebaeskiwouldcallthe
onverse about the subjects and make the following decisions: awhichcafesinthema
betmembers)wouldfrequentandwhere theywere, binwhichweekthesohbetwouldbegin c
osehouseitwouldbeheld ehowtheexpenseswouldbecovered After these decisions wer
now practically become brothers, and together with the baeski, they performed the
e. The sohbets were generally held on Saturday, the market day, and throughout t
eti could not go to any cafe other than his own; the cafe became a sort of
astheclubspresident.Atthecafe,everythingwascleanandorderly.Nonoise was accept
ns, comings and goings were observed by the baeski, andnothingescapedhiswatchfu
e, instrumental groups would play, and sing mani/koma. The men would listen to
rom the minstrels, and teach the young men to play and sing. Just as a sohbet
bet drunk, neither could he come to the cafe drunk, or bring friends. Those who
e required to abide by the rules of the sohbet ceremony. The sohbet had its un
.The sohbetis could notgotoasohbetinthesamewaytheymightgotothecafe.Aweek
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and time of the sohbet would be determined, and all the sohbetis gathered at t
yenteredthehouseinthefollowingorder: 1.Baeski 2.Instrumentalists
der, they approached the house and the musicians played the sohbet perevi. The
utside of the house was about the same. Seating wasinahalfcircle,withthebaes
rcle,andtohisright sat the sohbetis according to seniority. The first order of
he baeski to select two people as assistants. Coffee was served, and it was ti
egin. First, the new baeski was chosen. After a short wait for this election w
etaken,theentertainmentbegan. Theentertainmentbeganwithdancing.Thefirstdance,kno
rningdance),wasalivelydanceaccompaniedbysinging.Thedancerswouldprepare themselve
ne,themusiciansatthehead,followedbythesingers, andsingingtherefrainofthesong,
ttheyturned,the hostwouldputastoolinthecenter,onwhichacandlewasburning.The
hestoolandsingthefollowingsong: Sohbetiardanatamanaman Alinin
ininyanarlambasamanaman Alnndakaradamgasamanaman HacYakupsohbetbabasam
npekirikara Karadalistiyorpara Gayrisennbetiara Yemeyizbylesohbeti ek
ebdilwasconfused Thesaeedalsoleftandranoff Wedontacceptsuchasohbet Wedon
ckstamponhisforehead HacYakupistheheadofthesohbet
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Wedontacceptsuchasohbet Wedonttoleratesuchasohbet Alistowelisblack Them

edontacceptsuchasohbet Wedonttoleratesuchasohbet Followingthis,theactualso
esforatimewithdanceand songs,andthenwindsdowntowardtheend,finishingwiththes
rdeenekayoul, alvarbenekbenekayoul, alvarmintanbirrnekayoul Amana
arayaman Kardanbeyazkollarayoul Amanamanbilirmisin Geldesemgelirmisin I
otted,ayboy Heralvarisalooseone,ayboy Amanaman,doyouknow IfIsaycome,
ets,ayaman Herarmswhiterthansnow,ayboy Amanaman,doyouknow IfIsaycome,
therings are held in another of Bolus district, Mudurnu, wheretheyarecalledAte
s).Atfirstheldespeciallybyyoungmen, theylaterbecamecommonamongoldermenaswell.
tgatherings,thistypeofgatheringservedtoeducatetheyoungmenandgive them experien
name for such gatherings is birikme (lit. gathering). Research revealed that the
mes from a special fire lit in the house where these winter gatherings were hel
as divided into threesections: 1.Thosewhohadneverparticipatedinanate,aswella
oyearsandgainedexperience,aretakenin. 2.Inthesecondsection,middleagedmenarea
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Theexpensesaresharedequallybyalltheparticipants,includingthehost.Thisisknown a
thering, held at the end of winter, is called the pabu giyme (wearing of slipp
nts treat each other warmly and address each other asyaren(friend).Thissortofa
ndmoreheartfeltmeaningthan familyties.Thepersonleadingthegatheringisknownasthe
re the first place that trains young men in their passage from their family int
. How to eat in polite society, how to sit, to talk, manners, games, saz playi
te gecesi provides the first education in all these areas. As in other parts o
u as well, these meetings are gradually disappearing,andareonlyheldwithinclosec
dbyfolksongsandmusic) The chief places for celebrations and revelries in ankr
nations such as Karakpr Baheleri, Feslikan, Kale and Tamescit, as well as cel
erlookingthecitysuchasKurana(Kuane),KurbanTepesi and Kayaba, known to the y
n the old days, young men under the age of thirty who didnt know how to take
not cometotheseplaces. Inthisarea,itwasnotonlythemenwhoheldsuchparties;quit
outings to the spring) held by the women by themselves, where they went to the
e quite famous. These outings were made mostly towards the end of summer. Three
xcursion, the women would apply henna, and prepare eight or ten dresses. Two day
ould send meat, rice, sugar, flour and other ingredients to the garden where the
turday, before sunrise, thewomen would go singing tothe gardens, the richfamilie
e othersonfoot.Thegardenownerswouldmeettheguestsandtakethemtothegarden. Afte
a while, they would eat, and then everyone would put on theirdancingclothes,get
hehelisa,astyleofhalaydance. stanbuldabirkuyuvar indetatlsuyuv
etwater Everybeautyhasherways HelisaHelisa (Thisisrepeatedseveraltimes)
t such celebrations. As thedancinggirlwasperforming,thedancerswouldformacircle
nce and play def in the center of the circle. The singing and dancing go on u
l, and then after a short break, continue until evening; then everyone
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returns home. Besides this type of party and sohbet, there are also the ankr
imesofthecitybrotherhoods. ANKIRIYARENSOHBET(ANKIRI) Before explaining the
irst examine the historical development of the sohbet, the institutions on which
d its various related forms. Historical development of the yaren: The history of
ets extends back to the18thcenturyAnatolianAhilik(brotherhood)institution.Thisorg
vedasa unionoftradesmenandartisansfromthe18thtothe20thcenturies. TheAhilikwa
demployeesfortheguilds/artisanfoundations in the towns and villages, and provid
ience. There are various views as to the origin of this organization. Western or
ieve it stems from the Ftuvvet which developed among the Arabs, and others that
pendentlyamongtheTurksofAnatolia. Duringthe13thcentury,inordertotraintheyoung
ydayasa trade institution, and at night held sohbet gatherings. In other words,
d learn the skills of their trade during the day, and at night would learn spi
ls citizenship, and how to control their actions. The ahilik was the single inst
eyoungmenwouldbeaccountablethroughouttheirlives. Duringtimeswhentherewasastron
rotherhood,institutions founded by people of high standing in order to put people
ght track and lend support to national feelings later continued among the people
ms during times of peace. In such times, it tended towards functions such as ma
nd order, and developing sound personalities. Thus as an extension of the yaren,
brotherhood into practice. Ftvvet and Ahilik are not religious orders but rather
ntertwined with religious/moral and socioeconomicprinciples. Although it may often
hat the yaren appeared in conjunction with Ahilik in Anatolia, the more common v
institution is an extension of the culture which arrived in Anatolia along with
from Central Asia. In yaren sohbets, the terms ba aa (head lord) and kk
entioned. These names are a part of the yaren sohbets; let us take a look at
ksweremadeupof24clans.Thekhanofkhanswasamemberofoneclan, the chieftain of
r.The other22 clanseachhad their own chieftains.Everycelebrationwasheldatthet
n. The gathering at the khan of khans tent was more splendid then the others.
kut, there were mountains of meat and lakes of kumiss, minstrels would come and
he clans and lineages would celebrate. The khans of those days served as the ba
s he did not depart from justice and righteousness, the baaa ruled over everyt
ting. The second in commandatthemeetingwasthekkbaaa
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The ankr sohbet is a unique institution, completely different from the cem of
he oturak of Konya, the cmb of Ankara, or other folk celebrations and gatheri
n expression of the tendency of the Turkish soul towardsthefineartsandbeauty.
bet:Atthebeginningofeachautumn,agroupofsevenoreight eldersformsintheneighbor
upisformedofpeople of the same standing. The yarens are held in the village c
y, in yaren houses. At the gathering one person in the aforementioned group sa
h this year, This year let us have a yaren, or This year let us hold a s
hatyearsyarenarechosen. The great and small baaas are elected at these gathe
ion, the election day is decided upon, and the assent of the candidates is conf
ll participate changes according to the size of the village or neighborhood. Gene
al number is around 30, but in the villages it may be 3040. At the first mee
a preliminary discussion is held concerning the activities which will be carried
to be served throughout the year. The job of hiring musicians and the avu is
ple are generally paid for their work, and are not considered members. Those who
are not allowed to participate in theseeveninggatherings,norareguestsaccepted. R
ions of the sohbet room, and the structure of the sohbet: The rules and traditi
the sohbet room form the basis of the sohbet itself. Although theserules have c
ver the years,certainpartsofthem are practiced intact. The discipline, entertainm
ance which characterize the sohbetshavebeenadoptedbythemembersandsurvivedtothe
o complaints on this point. In this way, the sohbets have become an inseperable
The first to enter the sohbet room are the mucians; they enter without any spec
mony. The musicians sit in the avus ahniin (the seat of the king) section.
the room, as corner near the door is set aside for the musicians. When the mus
hey play the entrance perev, following which the avu notifies the kk baa
his has Islamic connotations; any time the Prophet Mohammed entered a house or r
hhisrightfoot. After the kk baaa enters the room, he sits in a place set
to the entrance. Then the avu asks permission from the kk baaa for the y
ved,hegoesouttoinvitethemin.They enteronebyone,orinpairs,thoughtheymaysome
ey have all entered, a long greeting ceremony follows. After the greeting ceremon
ens sit in silence and the peerev continues. Before the instrumental section, th
(Eveninghascome) are sung,followed by othersongssuch as zmn All Pullu Ta
dn and Sabahn Seher Vaktinde. This is followed by coffee. After the coffee, th
few of the yarens who have good voices turn towards the baaa, kneel,andsinga
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, there is absolutely no drinking of rak, dancing girls or other intemperance;
itely and participates in the sohbet. Powerful friendships are formed in these so
astounding degree of respect and sincerity appears among the yarens. Sohbets also
Arap Verme Merasimi (GivingoftheArabceremony).Thisceremonyisanagreementinits
veningbreaksup,theArapVermeMerisimiisconductedbeforetheperson who will hostnex
onis known asthegveyi (bridegroom).The one who isnext inorderis called thes
w thekk baaa and the sad sits beside him. The good singers in the yare
eforethebaaa,andsing: Fakirigeldidivane Elindegldanedane Yarenbaizink
mcemalingster Yarenlersohbetinister aamafiyetolsun Sohbetinmbarekolsun
esthetitleofyarenba Drinkmylord,toyourhealth Mayyoursohbetbeblessed On
ty Theyarenswantyourconversation Drinkmylord,toyourhealth Mayyoursohbetbeb
omebeforethekkbaaaandinaspecialmakam,sing: Evlerininnimir Gnlerdo
lavniinedeve aamafiyetolsun Sohbetinmbarekolsun Bahelerdeerikolmasn
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Evinizrkolmasn aamafiyetolsun Sohbetinmbarekolsun Infrontofyourhou

otsofoil Drinkmylord,toyourhealth Mayyoursohbetbeblessed Infrontofyourho
elintothepilav(?) Drinkmylord,toyourhealth Mayyoursohbetbeblessed Letthere
eage Letyourhousenotbespoiled Drinkmylord,toyourhealth Mayyoursohbetbebles
REMONY After the meal, coffee and dances to aid digestion comes the Arap verme
the gathering disperses, the yaren who will host the next weeks gathering are g
megiventothezillimaa(smallcymbalsontongs) and the tef (tambourinelike frame
s. These go to and stay with whoever is hosting the meeting. The avu puts a
nd the musicians play the Arap Verme Havas. At this point, the yarens drink
or five yarens with good voices get up and go before the byk baaa. The yar
fhimisatraywiththezillimaaand tefonit.AtthispointtheGivingoftheArabso
iven to the new hosts. Another song is sung which contains wish for blessingsup
s at the yaren sohbet: The dancing is an important part of the sohbets; they h
s go by pleasantly. From this standpoint, one of the things that makes the yare
tive is the dancing. For this reason, the yaren sohbets are characterized as an
ntertainment and dancing. Repeated and danced for years, the yaren dances have pr
r traditional characteristics, and occur as dancesspecificallyassociatedwiththesem
great variety of dances are performed at the yaren. These can be divided into t
es andentertainment dances. Onegroup,known asyelpk, aredances performed with cl
he rhythm of the instrumental accompaniment. The other dances feature skill, deftn
verness. Dances such as Tura, Yzk and ldrpareveryoftendancedatthesohbets
ts cross legged. In other words, the requirement to site for hours in the same
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no longer applies. The main dances performed at sohbets include the Yzk, Tura,
isadances. SOHBET(ANKIRI) The sohbet is a moral and social gathering held w
nd within a strict discipline, which emphasizes manners and appropriate behavior.
t AhilikwasareligiousorderbasedonFtuvvet.ItwasaconditionofeveryAhihistable
sandwelcoming),andtheeye,tongueand loins were closed (he abstained from lust,
rality). Inspired by these principles, participants in the sohbet worked to inspir
therly thoughts inpeople, be generousand welcomingandlivewith goodmorals.Those
nding the sohbets were called yaran (friends). For a yaran, it was shameful to
haseafterwomen. Sohbets were institutions of good behavior, and fathers held them
m for the training of their sons in good breeding and behavior. At the sohbets,
rnedmannersandpropriety.Thisproverbisstillrepeatedinankr: Thesonlearnsthew
irllearnsfromhermothertosetthetable. Thesohbetofankrhasauniqueandorigina
i Cem, the oturak of Konya, the cmb of Ankara or the other entertainment gat
reates a variant of the typical Anaolian entertainment gatherings and addsuniquev
utofthesegatherings. First and foremost, the ankr sohbets are held in a spec
d according to traditional home architectural plans. The ceiling is decorated; the
hly adorned. The particapants come to the sohbet clean and wearing their best cl
rt of the room is beautiful and clean. To the left and right of the burning h
pillows are placed, here the baaas sit. The first to enter the room are the
t, the yarans begin to come, and they play the ulhacolu Perevi. The playing
time. At the end of the seating ceremony, the saz begin playing in a particular
ngs sung atsohbeteveningsincludeAhYineAkamOldu,YzmnAllPulluTaVar,Evle
ktinde Grebilsem Yarimi,GirdimYarinBahesineandKalkGidelimKarataaYokuaandother
sts begin to arrive, the music changes according to the status of the guests. F
rts with a fasl inSabahor Hseyni, and after agazelsung by one who knows th
Divan, Koma, Mstezat, Semai, Kerem and Kesik Kerem. The most interesing part of
ving of the Arab procedure. In the sohbet, the Arab is the name given to th
remain throughout the week with whoever hosts the gathering. The avu stands in
on a tall candlestick. They come before the byk baaa. The musical group, com
larinet, a violin, a def, zilli maa and woodenspoons,beginsplayingandsinginga
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Fakirigeldimeydana Elindegldanedane Yaranbaizinkime Fakiricametothecenter

ispermissionto? Theyaranscomebeforethekkbaaaandsitintheorderinwhichthey
estickissetinthemiddle.Theneveryonesingstogether totheonewhowilltaketheArab
uac Aamafiyetolsun Sohbetinmbarekolsun Hajji,hajji,mydearhajji Onyourhead,
eet,itsendisbitter Mylordtoyourhealth Mayyoursohbetbeblessed The coffee is
is told, drink, my lord, but it is not given immediately. At last it is give
ntain the admonishments that the sohbet is heavy and difficult. Here it is advis
attention to preparing excellentfood. This is followed by another song admonishing
good careof theArap.Coffeesaredrunk,andthenewhostisadvisedwithsayingssuchas
a. Gotothemarket,dontbybitteroil Forkadayfintheevening,andhalvahatnight,
ade to dance, following which all the guests, includingthemusicians,getupandlea
meonewhohascommitted an offense, courts are held for the guilty. After the cour
ks a cup of coffee.Iftheywant,theymaydancehelisa.Theygetupandformacircle,
oghether: stanbuldabirkuyuvar ekerdentatlsuyuvar Hergzelinbirhuyuvar Helis
se eftaliverseHelisa. InIstanbulthereisawell Itswaterissweeterthansugar Ever
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Letherheartburn Lethercomeintomyarms Letmetouchherbreasts Helisa. Other vers

rds eilin kavaklar (bend down, poplars) come, everyone bows down; and upon the
stand up straight), they all stand up again. At the words szln engiler (fl
their hands in the air and turn, and the sohbet comes to a close. Until the r
nd dancing were not only performed at sohbets and weddings. During the summer pe
excursions to such places as the Karakpr gardens, Feslikan, Kale, Tamescit Kur
yaba and Savakba, sing old songs anddancethelocaldances. Here it was not o
o these places and sing koma and bozlak; women also went to the gardens. Dress
othes and jewelry, young women and brides would join hands, form a circle and d
FOOTNOTES: TEZCAN,Mahmut;SosyalDeimeSrecindeankrYarenSohbetleri.Ankara1989
uptaTrkmenOymaklar.Cilt1,s267. YNETKEN;Halil Bedii; Ktahya ve Afyonda Mzi
atrmalar Dergisi,Cilt4,Say89. CAL,MehmetBARAN,Sleyman;llHalkMziimiz
araNotlarvencelemeleri.(zelAriv) BalkesirlYll1973,s178179. A.g.e
rsa1955,s217218. A.g.e. BolulYll1973,SohbetToplantlar,s263. NAHT,
.379. YNETKEN,HalilBedii,;ankrdaSohbet,Der

67 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

profession for many years, I would like to express my gratitude to the club dir
zed this meeting, and my joy at the close attention showed by our enlightened y
ether in national cultureandartsmovements. I believe that one who examines the
folk music with a special interest and understanding will, agree that just as in
folklore, this issue should be approachedwithinamultidisciplinarymethodology. We k
ements which distinguish a nation such as history, folklore, literature, music, la
anguage, though they may be distinct in a very real sense, are also interrelated
usic,isoneofthelinksinthischain. Itismyopinionthatthecentralsubjectsoffolk
ue andscientificconceptsshouldbethefollowing: Thequestionofwhatfolkmusicis; It
cters; Itsmodalstructures,metricsystemsandinstrumentations; Itsconnectionswithan
eneralmusicologyandmusicalmovements; Its structure in relation to makam formation
r/minor forms of western music,especiallyasconceivedwithinTurkishmusicasawhole;
dicdegrees; Variations, and local and regional characteristics according to the f
ents that affect the singing of folk songs, which constitute a performance style
elves; Societalstructureandsystem; Theeffectsoffakefolksongsandradio,recording
tsspreadthroughoutthecountryandappearanceofvariants; Solo/groupperformancetraditi
tionofvarietiesasexpressionsofmensandwomensfeelings; Typesofinstruments/dances
; To make possible the study of the spread of old instruments focusing strictly
nalforms. ;and
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Determination of changes coming about as a result of cultural relationships and i

dtheadditionofnewtraditionstoold. Such general information will broaden our und
subject. But of course its not possible to address all these subjects within su
f time. So withinthetimelimitshereIlltrytopresentsomeofmyviewswithinthecon
e a folk music which exhibits certain differences from both our art music as we
musical genres. This music, with in its own values, contains important expression
tions. In addition, beyond simply an entertainment tradition, thismusicshouldbead
olkartwhichhasemergedwithitsownunique andrealisticunderstanding. In the first
hing and collecting folk songs, the following basic elementsshouldbeadheredto: 1
ingthesingingoffolksongs; 2. Folkpoetrywhichrelatesevents; 3. Rhythmicstructure;
ucture;and 5. Elementsofpolyphony. Especially in its instrumental system, sequentia
fourth and fifths which comeaboutwiththeblendingofAD,AEtuningsareoneofthe
ements of Turkish folk music. We also know that another characteristic of Turkish
ts,thedrone,isanimportantconceptinthepolyphonicmusical movementsofthewest.In
ment,therearebibliographical sources which provide information on the place of fo
w this source was drawn upon over the ates, and especially about the influence
movements (French musicologist Pierr Aubry, in his book, Essai dune Bibliographie
Populaire, 1905, and research on folk songs of the Balkans by the same author).
ture of Turkish music does not coincide with western technique, polyphonicTurkish
reatedwithinatechniqueallitsown. Here, in view of what I have outlined above,
lain some critical points: Thefifthdegreeoffolkmusicscalesisgenerallyarrangedac
ntervals. However, the half tones of the minor scales are more developed, and ar
dtoournationalstructureandcharacter. In conclusion, we can say that insofar as
yphony in Turkish music isanecessity,itisanextremelycriticalissue.Itisanecess
rry of activity in the area of arrangement. Types of arrangements in which instr
layfromdifferenttonesbutthelyricsaresunginamonodicstylearenotthings that can
ns of new changes in our music. In the harmonization and choral arrangement of
monic use of the melodies main intervals should be tried. For example, it is q
the pedal tones of the Black Sea kemene and a balama ensemble in the describe
, especially in Greece, instruments related to our balama called bouzouki and ta
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used in similar polyphonic musical applications and their pedal tones especially a
rredtothechorus. If you enjoy a struggle, this is above all else a struggle i
ertainly work for us to do in the trends towards polyphonic and even electronic
orkshouldbecarriedoutwithinanapproachwhichconformstoourownnationaland cultural
ture. In order to exhibit our taste and approach in the form ofcurrentvalues,w
tantplaceofthoughtandfeeling,aswell asmeaningandexpression. TURKEYSMUSICALLI
NTURY In his memoirs, Tantix, a German sound technician who came to Istanbul in
ophone records, went beyond telling about the recordings he was trying to make i
h his excellent observation skills and detailed accounts, he attempted to bring t
reader the societal and social conditions of the country.Notsatisfiedwithsimplym
sinEminn,theGermantechnician wished to record all sectors of society, and esp
n. However he was unable even to see Turkish womens faces, let alone record th
o see from afar the astonished wide eyes of the wives of unprejudiced, cultured
nt from cities such as Paris, Vienna and Leipzig. The only womens voiceshewas
elightastheylistenedtohisrecords. During that period, Sultan Abdlhamid II was
e, and it was the 24thyearofhislong,oppressiverule,knownasthesdibdat(despoti
s of positive venture upon his ascent to the throne in 1876, Abdlhamid II anno
ional Monarchy and for the first time, formed a parliament. Soon afterwards howev
r a draconian rule and became one of the most interesting,inscrutablerulersinOt
ing destroyed morale completely with his handling of the interminable Ottoman Russ
he sultan shut himself up in Yldz Palace, and began ruling the country with a
oia. He allowed no photographs to be taken of him and forbade this with officia
ny photographers were traveling to all parts of the country in the name of the
tures of military units, army command posts and state authorities, and assembling
he Sultan. This was just one of the interesting methods developedby Abdlhamid I
tep outside the palace but attempted to rule the country single handedly down to
tail. He was afraid of his brother Mehmed Read because of his blue eyes, which
,andkepthimawayfromthePalace;butprovided support for stateoftheart printing
un literary movement. In order to achieve cultural accord between East and West,
e magazine La Revue Orientale, but use any manner of pretexts to send writers
ile. A lover of art, he had Necip Paa, who dedicated marches to him,
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interredinSultanMahmudstombwithamagnificentceremony.Hewouldwatchopera and thea

one in the palace and distribute medals and ranks to the players. In 1901, when
cus performed in Istanbul, he forbade the flying of balloons in Istanbul for fea
planning his assassination by flying over the palace; and he had no interest in
ght that was being followed the worldover.Informersreportsreachedthepalaceinse
ents, toreturntothepeopleasevenstricter,moreoppressivemeasures.Thenaturalresult
period was that as the people become more interested in clothes, jewelry and ent
e new fashions were regarded with suspicion by the palace:in1989,withthepretext
fthePalacecouldmoreeasily carry out their evil deeds under the cover of head
hador), these items of clothing were forbidden. Gendarmes waited on bridges, sciss
, on the prowl for covered women, and would cut their chadors. These then were
he Devri Hamidi (reign of Abdlhamid) Istanbul of 1900 which the GermanTantix
ow, the German technician most likely made his first gramophone recordings during
n front of Yeni Cami (The New Mosque in Eminn). Actually we know that the
, the phonograph, was seen in Istanbul ten to twelve years after Edison invented
et Rasim Bey published the book Bedayii Kefiyat vehtirat Beerriyeden Fonog
), which he translated from the French and expanded with his own views and thou
ok, he introduced the phonograph to the Turks, and a few years later made it i
ble item in Istanbul. Before the gramophone and 78s,many artists (including Tambur
, Hafz Air, Hafz Osman and Hafz Sami) recorded their music with this device.
t last long; due to its technical insufficiency it did not reproduce sounds in
nd did not become widespread. Its limited use also kept it from becoming popular
entioned in his memoirs, multinational foreign companies, seeing Istanbul as a ma
e,begantoinvestintheIstanbulmarketsin1900. Meanwhile Emil Berliner had worked
op a new voice recording device, which he called the Gramophone and released o
ue to certain legal problems in America, where he lived, he was unable to secur
ewinvention.Finallytiringoftheendlesslegalstruggle, Berliner at least decidedto
rope, and established a company in London. His brother went to Hannover, Germany,
p the companys first record factory. Berliner then sent people far and wide, fr
. Making recordings in these countries the technicians gathered information on the
ical tastes and traditions. What they were doing was a sort of market research
arch guided the companys later projects. In time, with the participation in the
ompaniessuchasGramophoneRecord,GramophoneConcertRecord,MonarchRecord and Disque p
e, the main company, The Gramophone and Typewrite and Sister Comapny gained str
a respected institution throughout the northern hemisphere and in Europe in partic
10 the company changed its name,andadoptingthatfamouslogowiththedog,becameHis
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From 1900 on, the company began sending technicians to the major centers of Euro
luding Athens, Bombay, Cairo and Istanbul. W. Sinkler Derby, who came to Istanbul
ound 167 18cm records, the first every to be recorded in Constantinople (Istanbul
ow which company Tantix was working for when he came to Istanbul, or what the
ings was, we must consider the first Istanbul recordings to be those by W. Si
commercial records came onto the market in 1903; we have no sound information as
e recordings was first. All we know is that the first commercial recordings were
annover factory. A letter sent from Germany to company headquarters in London dat
00 mentions Turkish records and gives some information aboutthemtoheadquarters.
se recordings, which were made on portable equipment, were sent to the factories
hey were printed, and then distributed to Istanbul and other Ottoman countries. T
tant characteristic of these first recordings was that the diverse structure of O
re was reflected almost exactly on the records. On these records it is possible
xamples from the many different peoples, large and small, which made up the popu
pire. The musical trends of the period, the favorite genres, and this diversity,
hin a clearly commercial approach, makes the Turkish 78 repertoire one of the m
dcolorfulcollectionsonearth. THECONSTITUTIONALMONARCHYANDONWARD From its found
adily gaining strength, the Committee of Union and Progressbegantodirectitseff
.Afterincreasingoppression,Sultan Abdhamid found himself in a chaotic situation
er foreseen and was forcedtoannouncethe2ndConstitutionalMonarchy.Thedaysleading
08 the day on which the members of Parliament were elected, were marked by cont
strikes and uprising. Free from oppression, students and soldiers flooded the stre
interrupted strikes and incidents of violence reached their peak with the March
ssassination attempt against the sultan on April 13, 1909. A reactionary uprising
quelled by an army dispatched from Edirnetobringthingsundercontrol.Suspectedinh
iththisuprising, Abdlhamid was deposed and was succeeded by Mehmed Read V. Kno
t,the2ndConstitutionalMonarchyopenedthewayformanypositive trends, up until the
le person in comparison with his older brother, SultanRead quicklygainedpublicf
eoftheCommitteeofUnionand Progress in government administration gave the Sultan
n Read went out among the people, and became involved with social events. Strug
ad of freedom, Mehmed Read one by one eliminated the oppression and prohibitions
gn. For example, one month after ascending to the throne,SultanReadhearrangedb
sofIstanbul. In the area of music, the enthusiasm of the Constitutional Monarchy
hiefly in marches. Composers such as Zati Bey, Muallim smail Hakk Bey, and Ley
omposed marches full of praise for Sultan Abdlhamid, now
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were now composing marches for freedom and the Constitutional Monarchy. Sultan Re
with the traditionand held a march composition contest in his name. Public conc
proliferating military bands were another interesting innovationofSultanReadsreig
e Company, which added these marches into its record inventory, thrived between 1
its most successful period. Its director Ahmetkr Bey was also to personally r
rds, which spoke of freedom and harshly criticizedtheadministrationofAbdlhamid.
doperettas,aswellas Greek and Armenian records, and is especially noteworthy for
of artists from Izmir and Salonica. Another noteworthy company was the Americanba
ne Concert Record. The Odeon company also released many marches during this perio
eticulous policy made records of many of the artists of the period. In 191112,
thers, Istanbul representatives of the Zonophone and Odeon companies, established T
rst record factory in Feriky, where theetat Han stands today. The company prod
and Orfeos label. This enterprise,whichhadgreatartistic and commercialsuccessdesp
arand 1st World War years, would thrive until 1925, when it sold its factory t
enthal Brothers were the founders of Turkish record making, contracting with many
anding artists of the period, foremost among whom was Tanbur0 Cemil Bey, as wel
, Arap Mehmet, Hanende brahim and Tamburac Osman Pehlivan. With their wellestab
ding of repertoire, this companys part in the training of many artists and assu
of many kindsofmusictothepresentshouldnotbeunderestimated. MUSICAL GENRES AT
Y AND THE FIRST FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH If we examine the periods musical tastes a
ing from those of the Palace and its circles, we approximately the following sce
rest in polyphonic music which began during the Tanzimat period has continued to
palace ensembles, which included the western Mzkai Hmayun and also gave educat
, showed an Ottoman traditional as well as a Western side. Musical ensembles org
ned in the western fashion spread throughout Ottoman lands from Salonica to Alepp
ensemble, Mizikai Hmayun, matured andgainedexpertise.Theforeignconductor period
ojects under the leadership of conductors who wrote compositions and were masters
truments, and made records (1904). Another are of interest for the Sultan and th
ereoperettas. Underthe effectoftheItalian operettas whichappeared on Istanbul st
th century, the Turkish operetta tradition began, to spread and become popular by
any musical theatre companies, composed chieflyofArmenianmusicians.Begunin1875by
he Turkishoperetta traditionisbestrepresentedbyplayssuchasArifinHilesi,Kse
ithwithuhaciyansfamousplayLeblebiciHorhor. This operetta, staged many times b
nies, also had the distinction
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of being the most performed play, which for the first time went on foreign tour
bici Horhor were recorded by a variety of different companies. It was theFavori
hesongsfromLeblebiciHorhorrecordedbytheIzmir tenor Ovannes Efendi and Benliyen,
eir survival to the present. The Canto is an important part of another theatrica
uat. This type of improvisational comic theatre has its source in the Italian co
egan to be commonplace in Istanbul after the 1850s. The independent songs they u
n audience and entertain them between scenes were called Kanto (Canto). From the
at plays became widespread on the stages of Istanbul. The great masters of this
an Efendi, Nait and Dmbll collaborated especially with Armenian and Greek arti
tos in their p lays. Peruz, who was considered the creator of the Canto, and c
lowed in his path including yryenamram, Virjin, Agavni, Anjel, Man, Amelya and
g in the Direkleraras and Galata Theatres, brought about the golden age of the
hedespoticruleofAbdlhamid,thepeopleofIstanbulfilledthetheatres in an attempt
es and attended many types of plays, from Karagz toOrtaoyun. Intheentertainmen
eraras, skdar and Kadiky, which had many theatres, the most important musical
ea of the Turkish music genres known by names such as ncesaz, Ahenk and alg.
, Keman Tahsin Efendi played with his ensemble in Galata, in the Abdrrezzak T
the Kudili meadows. Keman Tatyos and his friends performed in the Fevziye Coffe
he Yeiltumba in Aksaray and the Osmaniye Coffeehouse in Vezneciler. The Keman S
vfik incesaz groupperformedinGksu. Under the name Ahenk, Keman Akribas Evendi
eerhouse, Keman Anim Evendi played in the Klburnu Nightclub in Fener, and an e
nbothTurkishandArabicplayedattheBykGazinoatthequay. Tatyos ensemble playe
d Ud Msrl brahim Efendi played at the panayir (saints day festivals) in th
nMaryinGksu. As is clear from the abovementioned groups, Ottoman citizens of G
ewish origin had an indisputably important place in the music scene. Turkish musi
not to play in the commercial milieu, preferring to participate in musical gather
between themselves, or to remain in the area of religious and Sufi music. These
lm of minority musicians who were free of religious or social oppression. It is
hat while the first 78s featured only the most famous maleartistsoftheperiodsu
,HafzSami,HafzOsman and ehab, and meddahs such as Sururi and Aki, nonMusli
Armenians and Jews and Roma also had the courage to participate and make records
tswerenorkandKarakaEfendi,Pepron,amramandPeruz Hanm, The Roma musicians Nas
d the zurna master skdarlArapMehmet.
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These pioneers in Turkish recording history were soon to be followed by many oth
wedtheinitiativetoenterthestudioandrecord. As concerns traditional genres, they
d than other types and thus we do not have sufficient material to get a good
ords contain examples of the mani, semai and destan, genre of folk literatu
lumbac (frefghter) cafes and coffeehouses. The manisinging tradition in particul
etulumbaccafesandtheirclientele. Known to have originated in Salonica, the mani
he realm of Turkish tulumbacs; we know that Greek tulumbac teams in Arnavutky,
rtulu)andengelkyalsosangmanianddestan.Duringthesameperiodwealsosee the wid
an folk version of mani. There are countless examples of the mans sung in ak
male and female gatherings, andantiphonallyinvillagecelebrations.Stronglyinfluencin
anGreekmusicover time, the mani became amane and mane, and came to compri
etiko music. With a strong interest and affinity for entertainment and music, Gre
held an important place in the musical life of Istanbul and Anatolia,especiallyi
nmentmusic. Dance music genres such as kasap havas, sirto and iftetelli (hasap
etelli) were especially popular with and performed by Greek musicians. In the ear
especially in Izmir, the Estudiantina groups were very much in demand. Due to th
ure of Izmir, these groups created a genre reminiscent of Italian music, accompan
ments such as mandolin and guitar. The Favorite and Odeon companies included many
a groups among their first recordings. At the same time these groups also played
e music of the region. It was perfectly natural that Armenian, Greek and Roma
ated in the early period 78s, because in large cities and especially in Istanbul
ers fromthesegroupsthatdirectedthecourseofmusic.ItiswellknownthattheArmenian,
esformedthecornerstoneofOttomanmusic.Inadditionto these minorities, who produc
erpieces, the Roma are known for their popular musical practice. However among
ry important musiciansaswell. Nassib Hanm was a Roma musician who participated
t 78 recordings as early as 1903. But one of the true stars of the 78 era wa
d one of the great masters in the history of zurna performance, Arap Mehmet ma
vas, kek havas and taksim as well as accompanying artists like Glistaninpie
zel. The fact that Arap Mehmet became an extremely accomplished Istanbul artist i
dication that folk music was common in this province at the beginning of the ce
iod, in which there was not yet a strict distinction between genres, the zurna,
trument in Istanbul folk music, had been used for hundreds of years in the Meht
ands). This instrument, which together with a pair of naara formed the orchestra
nd other types of theatre, was in the coming years replaced bytheclarinet, know
ata. The trendof playing music on local folk instruments was abandoned in the
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songs began to be played on alaturka instruments. Folk instruments were belittle

nd players of the alaturka instruments, a product of urban culture, became the l
olk music performance. This practice lasted from the early 1900s until the 1950s,
o ensembles returned to the use of local instruments for the performance of folk
oring it to its original form, recreated a regional atmosphere in the music. Her
alama played the chief role, and thus began the trend of adapting every type
the balama. To summarize, in the first 78 recordings preserved many of folk mu
either within the Ottoman Empire or in close association with it, from Albaniant
eCircassians,LazandKurds. The centers of religious and mystic music were the te
) and the Mevlevihnes. The Mevlevihnes in particular served for many years as
layed a major role in the training of a great many artists. Among the important
shedTurkishmusicatthebeginningofthecenturywastheBektashi traditionwhichespecial
umentalmusic. It is a great pity that the mystical tradition is insufficiently r
hese first recordings;records ofmysticaland religiousmusic number very fewand we
adein the Republican period. Thus the voices of the great performers from that
bletoustoday. THEWORLDWARIYEARS AfterfightingformanyyearsintheBalkanWars,
, and even sent military bands to the front. Growing discouraged in the anakkal
icians were saved by Sultan Read, called back as elite soldiers not easily tra
opment of this period was the founding of the Darl Elhan,whichcouldbeconsider
rvatory,andtheNationalOpera, establishedin1915.PlayswrittenbyMusahipzadeCelalwer
sers such as Kaptanzade Ali Rza, Muallim smail Hakk Bey and Leon Hancyan in
music tradition, breaking the tradition of the operettas being performed by minori
. Musical societies active in various quarters of Istanbul assumed an important r
ining of many vocalists and instrumentalists; the fruitsoftheseeffortsonlybegant
licanperiod. The nearly ten year interval between World War I and the Turkish W
was a time in which foreign companies with the exception of Odeon showed l
. Only the Orfeon factory, a domestic enterprise, was able to produce records. T
hese difficulties the Blumenthal Brothers released many reprints of Tambur Cemil
gs, as well as records by artists including Hafz Osman, Hafz ir, Hanende br
rac Osman Pehlivan, SafinazHanm,KarakaEfendi,HaimEfendi,DerviAbullahEfendiand
IC Above all else, the Republic needed to define itself. In order to become the
ountry which was its goal, it was inevitable that it would make use of art. Th
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important innovation of this film was that, with the permission of Mustafa Kemal
an played a role. Instead of being played by a nonMuslim actress as was the c
ys made thus far, the role of the Turkish girl in the film was played by Bedi
eachers College, which opened in the new capitol Ankara on September 1, 1924, b
ith the goal of teaching the Republicangenerationstotrainteachersofwesternpolyph
stteachers in this school were the members of the former Mzkai Hmayun, which
nkara and taken on a new name, Riyaseti Cumhur Musiki Heyeti (Music Ensemble
Istanbul, the Darl*Elhan continued teaching both Turkish and Western music. In 1
e Turkish tradition was officially banned,polyphonicwesternmusicwassponsoredbythe
rtwasgiven onMarch26,1927,the100thanniversaryofBeethovensdeath. Emerging toget
c, the ability to make sound recordings with a microphone (1925) was a turning
oduction. This innovation, which considerably improved recording techniques and prod
n, opened the way for many foreign companies to enter Istanbuls market within a
bia bought the Orfeon factory, His Masters Voice laid the foundations for Turkey
actoryinYeilky,whileatthesametimecompaniessuchasPolydor,PatheandOdeon reprod
European factories and served to build up a very rich inventory of 78s inveryl
positive development,aswellastheability of Turkish women to freely take acting
go onstage, music of many different genres began to be recorded, from operettas
el and ark. During this period of transformation, the His Masters Voice, Colum
ies recorded hundreds of 78s from 19261930. It was during those years that Turk
s began to record their voices on 78. The first female artists to record were
s, which were becoming more and more common during those years. A singer named
e prima donna of the operetta Sreyya, and became the first woman to make a
orded inthesameyearswereNebileHanm,MakbuleEnverHanmandNeziheHanm. DARLE
ent in Turkeys changing musical tastes were the Alafranga and Rumca (Greek)
uction companies operating in the country. Many types of world music, and classic
lar, began to enter Turkey by this route and came into demand. This brought dan
go, foxtrot and charleston intofashion.In 1932 thefirst tango withTurkish lyrics
by Seyyan Hanm.Withthis tangoby NecipCelalbegan theeraofTurkish tangos. Inth
ers such as Fehmi Ege and Necdet Kytrk reached their zenith, and within this
go singers such as Birsen Hanm, brahim zgr, CelalnceandecaattinTanyerli. A
hetimewastheoperetta.Wellknownfrom performancesattheIstanbulehirTiyatrosuown
assuch as Saat, Lks Hayat, Deli Dolu and HavaCva were recorded and simil
77 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

onto the stages Istanbul. This trend pioneered the beginning of musical films in
aaswell. The indisputable position of the gramophone in everyday life elevated m
ame. Deniz Kz Eftalya, Yesari Asm Arsoy, Lale and Nerkis, Mzeyyen Senar and
tarswhoshonebetween1930and1940. WORLDWARII The dark years of war between 1
easons for the increased popularity and spread of the radio. Waiting in long lin
ons in hand for bread, sugar and fuel oil, and spending the nights in mandatory
e gathered around the radio to try and learn what was happening. This introvert
tswereplantingpotatoesandJerusalemartichokesin their school gardens to contribute
ction, was naturally one in which national sentiments came to the forefront. Thes
ies set the stage for the rise offolkmusic.AnkaraRadiohadbeenbroadcastinglong
to extend radio broadcasts throughout the country, Istanbul radio had been making
al broadcasts for many years and, gaining strength and frequency of programmingin
gtheseyearsthattheYurttanSesler(Soundsofthe Homeland) program, which drew upo
ng efforts and presented them to the public, gained public favor. Many artists,
which were Mnir Nurettin and Hafz Burhan, tried to answer this need and made
. One of the outstanding events during this period in the area of Turkish music
of the Istanbul Conservatory, with the condition that it would provideatheoreti
utinstrumentaleducation. In the area of folk music the situation was somewhat d
ups emerged: one which was attempting to conduct the cultural revolution of the
c and present the voice of the people to the public within a contemporary inter
other which was trying to present the elements of folk music to the public verb
dio. Meanwhile, regardless of all else, the people themselves were continuing thei
alpractices,whichtheycontinuetoday. Performersofartmusic, in ordertogainabroad
,begandrawingfrom folk music, the voice of the masses. During this period many
rded folk type pieces for the first time ever, and some composers, openly displa
rationforthevastwealthofmotifsandrhythmsoffolkmusic,composedsongsina folkson
,thegreatestwasundoubtedlySadettinKaynak. However it happened, the developments l
how clearly how important a culturalelementfolkmusicis. Turkey did not actually
I, but was heavily influenced by world events. In addition, the period was the
al events such as the change to a multiparty democracy. Steadily rising as if e
n of years of neglect, folk music came to dominate all other genres in the 78
le other developmentswere taking placein the realm ofart music: Film music,espe
tian cinema, was being recreated, with Turkish lyrics, especially by Sadettin
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Kaynak, and being presented to the public in regular concerts by Mnir NurettinS
ices were in the midst of their golden age in Turkish art music: Safiye Ayla,
sandPerihanAltndaSzen.Amongnewartists, women such as Sabite Tur, Suzan Gven
Yldrm; and male artists including Necmi Rza, Zeki Mren and Abdullah Yce wer
n. As for the composers of the period, the most popular and sought after were
adettin Kaynak, Osman Nihat Akn, Sadi llay, Cevdet ala, Fehmi Tokay,Suphi Zi
miAtl,YesariAsmArsoy and Refik Fersan were now considered to be the masters,
heard on the radio, in concerts and on records. In folk music, the new names w
latyal Fahri, k Veysel, Zaral Halil, Mukim Tahir, Kel Hamza, Nizipli Deli Me
and Bayram Arac. Though most of the artists mentioned here participated in radio
e public was better acquainted with them through the78stheyhadrecorded. MIDCE
witch from a single to a multiparty system took place in the middle of the c
emocraticPartygovernmentwastosendsoldiersto Korea. It was with great ceremonies
army, which had not fought for 30 years, wentforthefirsttime toaforeign war.
asmanymore to follow, Turkey was trying to open its doors and participate in w
icalgenres,andjazzinparticular,begantoinfluenceTurkishculture.The1950salso saw
ock and Roll epidemic in Turkey. Young people especially followed the trends in
of music through the radio and records; written for dancing and not only for li
nres were even more influential and began surpassing traditional forms. Though the
owed a more preservationist line than the commercial market, it also tried to ke
hange in the record and market. Concerts in thean Sinema given every Sunday by
pal Conservatory Performing Ensemble had their following, and kept art and folk m
he most outstanding ascent during this period was that of Zeki Mren who, former
artist, began going onstage in cinemas and concert halls. He wasmetwithanenthus
emainedunmatchedformanyyearsand hisrecordsweresnappedupassoonastheywerereleas
rywasundergoingaheavymigrationfromthevillagestothe cities,andthereinterpretatio
ureandpresentationofthatculturevia modern communication methods was creating an
d music; a sort of subculture. Led by Zeki Mren, some artists made great chan
pt tothisdemand. From the standpoint of sound equipment, the 50s and 60s were
, marking the end of the rule of records. First the advent of the 33, 16 and
chwascumbersomebothtoproduceandtolistento.The45rpm, which began to be produce
196364, had the special feature of being playable even in taxis and private aut
lyestablished Grafson
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and Columbia companies were making 78s as well as 45s. But this did not last f
tionof78sendedin1965. The last produced 78s were dominated by such top selling
nd Mzeyyen Senar.Some of the others included Sabite Tur, Suzan Yakar, Suzan Gve
r, Alaeddin Yavaa, Aliye Akkl, Neriman Tfeki, Neet Erta, ZekeriyaBozda,M
ANGE One of the major events of the 1970s was the entry of the Anatolian Ak
ocietys voice, the aks were goaded into action by the political upheavalsonth
lyinfluentialeconomiccrisesontheother. Hundreds of records of a socialist natu
e first leaders of this ak trend, whose songs were almost all of a protest
uch as Feyzullah nar, Ali Sultan, Ali Kzltu, Nesimi imen, Muhlis Akarsu and
ics followed a mostly leftist trend, were accompanied as well by aks from Kars
hese, the foremost names include Murat obanolu,eref Talova and k Reyhan.
artists of the ak type began being referred to as local artists or local
ntheircourse,theirdefinitionsandconceptsincreasinglyblended. TheAnadoluPoptrende
roductofthe1960s.Inthe60s,youthhad focuseditsattentionchieflyonwesternpopmusi
entionof excluding or ignoring Turkish culture, could be considered a time of s
d of this period emerged the Anadolu pop trend, which took off in the 1970s
larity. The chief causes for the emergency of this genre were the acquaintance w
ic and a turn towards folk culture. The blend of these cultures gave birth to
usic. Chief among the producers and performers of this music were such artists a
dem Buri, anar Yurdatapan, Esin Afar, Hmeyra, Fikret Kzlok, Cem Karaca, Ersen
Atilla zdemirolu, Bar Mano and Edip Akbayram. An important characteristicofth
sidestheelementofsoloist/singer,a considerablenumberofensembleswhoperformedgroup
ne. The Moollar, Modern Folk ls, Dadalar, Siluetler, Kaygszlar, Dnm, Ku
rkestras were some of the foremost names of the period. In its period, Anadolu
, and went down in Turkish musical history as a major trend; but in the 1980s
radually began to wane fromthemusicalworld. ...ANDARABESK The products of the
ch took root in the 1970s, can be considered a turning point in Turkish musical
besk began a new period in which all valuesystemshadbeguntobeoverturned,andit
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The two important events which would leave their mark on the 1970s were the gaz
) and the audiocassette. With cassettes, the stars which had been made famous by
could now enter homes, schools and tea gardens. This same period saw the emergen
magazines which lent significant support to andemphasizedthissector,anddependedup
irculation. The 1980 are remembered as the years when television replaced the gaz
ough there was only one channel, television became a place where music of all s
d, and many famous people could appear on one program. One of the noteworthy de
g these years was that the Ministry of Culture began to establishTurkishmusicch
l StateChorus,asthefirstandforemostof these ensembles became known and loved w
certs and television programs. This was a new step by the State Turkish Music C
ch had begun for the purposes of education. At this school, which was establishe
duced its first graduates in early 1980, has now trained many outstanding instrum
d singers, and its universitylevel education has continued uninterrupteduptothep
e death of Mnir Nurettin Seluk in the early 80s, a new era began: different
defined; artists such as Mnir Nurettin, who was a composer, singer and choral c
ow be counted on the fingers of one hand. The noteworthy composers of this peri
ddin Yavaa, Yusuf Nalkesen, Avni Anl, Selahattin li, Muzaffer lkar, smail B
er. Among the star female stage, radio and choral singers of the 80s and 90s w
Sipahi, Nevin Demirdven, Mlkiye Toper, Nee Can, Behiye Aksoy, Meral Uurlu and
names were Mustafa Sayaar, Ahmet zhan and Recep Birgit. The two foremost singe
ecular music were Kani Karaca and Bekir Stk Sezgin. The foremost instrumentalist
rty years are Ney: Niyazi Sayn and Aka Gndz Kutbay; Tambur: Ercment Batanay
t Orhon andhsan zgen; clarinet: Mustafa Kandral and Barbaros Erkse; Oud: Sel
orur; Kanun: Cneyt Kosal, andetal. The situation infolk musicwasas follows: Y
liticalduringthe 70s, was left outside politics following the September 12 (1980)
p, but still saw folk music as a means of salvation. The Folk Education Centers
, associations and foundations which were active in the areas of folk music and
th hangouts. There was a steadily increasing interest in the balama, and even t
eachers who participated in courses at private music schools were unable to meet
was in this period that groups led by Arif Sa and including such artists as M
Muhlis Akarsu released a series of cassettes under the name Muhabbet. Greeted
these albums led the same artists to make their own albums and some even left
he radio. Private schools begun by these same artists began training student; and
mmercial musicians of the 90s were products of these schools. The 80s were also
tistswhohadbeeninvolvedinfolkmusicformanyyearsattained star status. Some of t
ale,zzet Altnmee,brahim Tatlses and
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Selahattin Alpay. Some of these artists, most of whom were from East and Southea
ld laterturntowards arabesk and releasealbums containing bothfolkand arabesk son
read of this style and its continued popularity today is a noteworthyphenomenono
The 1990s and the years following are characterized by the emergence of experime
extension of globalism, the expression of a changing world, this factor has tru
use by the countries which dominate the world market. In these days, where popul
ulture is experiencing its golden age, the most attention worthy phenomenon is
te new musicbyusingfolksongsinanywaydesired.Thisattitude,whichinasensehas
rs of the Republic, has continued, with changes and variations during every perio
ent. In summary, it is the idea of drawing on folk music tocreateanew,nation
82 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

ges in views and thoughts concerning the fine arts have emerged, and consequently
aste as well. This is an inevitable social change. Even the concept of morality
ety alive is affected by these changes; behaviors which were formerly unacceptable
shameful may today beconsideredperfectlyacceptable. The century from 18831983 was
ese changes whipped society like a storm. During these 100 years, Turkish Music
re of this change, both positively and negatively. Here we will analyze these ch
, without judgment. a) Thefirst area wewillexamine isthat ofTurkish musictheor
in the 9th10th centuries, Safiyddin Urmevi n the 13th century, Meragal Abdlka
centuries and later, Kantemirolu in the 17th18th centuries were drawn to the st
ic theory and produced works on the subject. However the few of their works whi
o the present day fail to givesatisfactoryanswerstotodaysneeds. During the tim
bove, three Sufi lodge members, eyh Celleddin Efendi, eyh Atullah Efendi and
vendi studied pieces from thepast.Feelingtheneedtofillthegapsintheknowledgeof
passed on the knowledge they had acquired to their able followers Rauf Yekta Bey
and Szeyin Sdeddin Arel. Setting out with this knowledge, these valuable scholar
emely valuable works and laid the foundations for todays understandingofTurkishm
r Rauf Yekta Beys disciplined and productive collaboration with the physicist Sl
zgiandUzdilekexaminedtheirwork,whichexaminedmusicandphysics togetherinthelight
tributionsofZekiDedeZdeHafzAhmed Efendi during this 100year period must also
also remember the methods which considered argah (Arel, Ezgi, Uzdilek), Rast (Abd
Hseyni(Kemallerici)asthemainscalesofTurkishmusic. Despitethemanyresearchersco
sictheory,nomethodhas yet emerged which has surpassed the work of Arel, Ezgi a
ight on somestillunansweredissues.Afewexamplesofpublicationsontheoryinclude:
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Dr. Suphi Ezgis, 5volume Amel ve Nazar Trk Musikisi (Theoretical and Practi
etween1935and1953; Hseyin Sadeddin Arels Trk Muskisi Nazariyat Dersleri (Les
ory),acollectionofhisnotespublishedbyhiststudents(1968); EkremKaradenizs1965pub
siNazariyeveEsaslar(TurkishMusicTheoryandFundamentals), Kemallericis, Besteci
nisi (Turkish Music and its HarmonyfromaCompositionPerspective),publishedin1970;
atMzii(TurkishandWesternMusic)publishedin1973; ZekiYlmazsTrkMuskisiDers
973; Ahmet Selim Teymurs 3volume Trk Musikisi (Turkish Music) published in 19
hmudolus Bizim Geleneksel Mziimiz (Our Traditional Music), publishedin1980. T
rs has seen publications other than theoretical works. We can categorizethesepubl
lows: a)Biographies b)CollectionsofLyrics(Antholgies,Journals) c)PublishedNotation
ntMethods e)TurkishMusicDictionaries f)Magazines g)Memoirs h)CollectionsofCompos
sofReligiousMusic j)Encyclopedias k)OtherPublications a) We cannot say that any
le work has been written in the area of Turkish Music Biographies. Over the cen
onados have emerged and published unreliable and subjective treatises consisting mo
earsay. A great portion of these writers have been people far from the art rath
y involved; and are thus responsible for our inability to arrive at a desired l
tyonthissubject. Duringthelastcentury,aloverofmusicbythenameofMustafaRona,w
ut a teacher, published a work, Elli Yllk Trk Musikisi (Fifty Years of Turk
oduct of long, patient and arduous research. Its last volume,YirminciYzylTrk
yTurkishMusic),printedthree times from 195571, includes lyrics obtained in perso
omposer, and biographicalwritingsonthesecomposers.In1970,thisdiligentresearchpass
rofthelarynx. Thoughoneoftheforemostbiographersofthisperiod,bnlEminMahmudK
ical work entitled Ho Sad, he did not live to complete it, only writing as
ction. After his passing, Avni Aktu,
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relying on the wealth of notes the author left behind as well as on his own k
ompletedthework. Dr. Suphi Ezgi, in his 5volume work Amel ve Nazar Trk Mus
cal information and examples, also provided biographical information on classicalTu
iccomposers. In 1967, Tambur Sdun Akst in his 500 Yllk Trk Musikisi Antol
sh Music), provided biographies of related composers of Turkish music. BakiShaEd
ervedTurkishradioinvariouscapacities,publisheda book in 1962 entitled nl Trk
sh Composers), composed ofmemoires. Mesut Cemil Beys Tambur Cemil Bey and Vec
r Ethem Efendioccupyanimportantplaceamongbiographicalworks. smail Baha Srelsan
rovides valuable biographical informationintheareaofTurkishmusic. In the area of
e must also not forget the works, published in various magazines, of historian Y
the truly valuable researchers of our times. We also gratefully remember the late
ri Yenign, whose biographical articleshavebeenpublishedinmusicaljournalsformany
e writers mentioned here are other writers who have shown interest in this area.
than conducting archival research, these writers have mostly reliedupontheabovemen
s. Our composer and teacher Sadeddin Kaynak compiled a massive amount of notes,
ng, exhaustive and meticulous research, for his work, Trk Musikisi Bestekrlar,
y has never been printed. I personally witnessed the collection of these notes,
e the various notebooks containing them are, and what state they are in. The wo
ils of composers about whom we know very little, such as Itri and Zaharya, and
ke it to be published. It is also appropriate to mention the valuable work by
ni, who servedIzmirRadioformanyyears,andgavemuchbiographicalinformationonhisra
he last 100 years, Lyric Collections have received much interest, and this intere
ise at times to many publications in the area of compiled lyrics. Here I would
enotableexamples. OftheLyricCollectionstype,thefollowingareworthyofnote: The
in 1984 and the twovolume Faikl sar printed in 1881 are significant contrib
cs, the Him Bey collectionalsodealswithTurkishmusictheory.BestokreyhEthemEf
i, was first published in 1890. Other collections that appearedduringtheperiod,
uas,bypianistMimarEsatEfendi,1895; GdayRuhCebKitab,bycomposerAliGalp
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Hnende,AhmedAvniKonuk,1899; SermayeiZevk,consistingoftheworksofevkiBey,1
888; VariousbookletscontainingthecollectedworksofevkiBey,1889; AhenaiTarab,Z
ndRehberiHnendegn,1904,MisakEfendi; thetwosectionMecmuaiElhanbyUdCevdet
ookofLyricsbyerifli,19491950; the twovolume Gfte Kitab published in 194
Yllk Trk Musikisi, which also provided biographical information on composers,19
nansYirminciYzylTrkMusikisi,1971; thetwovolumearkGfteleri,byMuharrem
wovolumeGfteKitabbyEthemRuhingr,1981;and thetwovolumeGfteKitabbyS
sted above; however these are insufficient attemptsbyunspecializedenthusiasts. c)
llections of notation have been published within this 100year period as well.We
ogroups,givenhereinchronologicalorder: 1)PrivateWorks A collection of 400 songs
Bey,evki Bey and Rfat Bey, notated by Muallim Hac Emin Efendi (19451907) an
he Matbaai Osmani. Although this collection was printed ten years before the 100
essedhere,Isawfittoincludeitasitisanexemplarypublicationwithinthesubject at
shed in 1895 by composer Ali Galib Trkkan, consistingof72issuesofinstrumentalw
; Osmanl Musiki Dosyas, publshed between 19101914 by Ud Sami Bey; one piec
leksiyonu, consisting of 21 volumes, published between 1920 and 1925 by OnnikZad
kmlekiyanEfendi; In1920 also, TevkikKutmani, and laterhissonskenderKutmanip
orarycomposersinseries,aswellassomecollectionsofFasls; Bimen en published his
20. Leyla Saz pieces were also publishedinthesamemanner. Acollection,HzzamFa
62printerMuharremTa,withthehelpofCneytOrhonandZiyaAkyiit,printed Rastan
Avni Anl published a series which contained biographical information and original
recent period composers. The Kubbe
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Alt Institute of Music, with the help of Yusuf mrl, published a series, Tr
ealsosomecomposerswhopublishedtheirownautobiographiesandnotation; amongthemareK
nlandErolSayan. IntheareaofReligiousMusic,thefollowingworksareworthyofnote:
ins collected and published in book form by Sadeddin Hepen, Yusufmrls4volum
l, eyhRenEfendiscollectionofilahis. Dr. Ali Kemal Belviranls 1975 work,
rief theoreticalinformationandilahis. 2)PublicationsoftheIstanbulMunicipalConserva
rofficialinstitutions: a) A book by Rauf Yekta bey containing 180 rare works, w
tant place in todays classical choral repertoire. Also by Rauf Yekta bey is Te
er ve Mevlevi Ayinlerini. This work was based on the works of Zeki Dede and
past 100 years we also see several instrument methods written as private attempts
aszUdrenmek,1910;aswellaslveliUdMuallimi in1924 ZiyaSantur,SanturMe
mi Keman, 1913; Trk Musikisi Keman Metodu, 1921. FahriKopuz,Oudmethoud,Na
,UdMedodu. UdKadrienalar,UdMetodu KanunismailenalarKanunMetodu.
vatory. Other miscellaneous instrument methods were written during this time by pe
utnotprinted. In 1976, upon the opening of the State Conservatory for Turkish M
of instrumentmethodsbecomemoredisciplinedandscientific.Amongtheproductsofthis de
utlu Toruns Ud Metodu, Nevzad Smers Kanun Metodu, and Hurid Ungays Kudm
rhons asyet unpublished 4 Tell Kemene Metodu is finished. Late in this peri
isUdMetodu,whichisverywellwrittenfromthestandpointof techniqueandinformation.
y of Turkish Music, titled Musikistilhat, was published in 1893 byteacheran
composer Avni Anl was publshing his Trk Musikisi Szl in consecutivevolumes
elastcentury,themusicalmagazinesalsohave animportantplace.Herearesomeofthei
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Duringthebeginningofthecentury,NikogosAaandhisbrotherAgopTacyan, publishedth
n. During 1919 1920, eyh Mehmed Baha Pars published eighteen volumes of Ale
ys. In 1933, Mildan Niyazi Ayomak published his Nota Musiki Mecmuasn. In th
eferredtowithdifferentstrangenames. In 1947, Burhaneddin kte and Fikret Kutlu
s of Trk MusiksiDergisi. In 1948, Laika Karabey published Musiki Mecmuas
kish Music Conservatory. Responsible for the publication of this magazineforalong
yprovidedagoodexampleofservicethrough the press. Musiki Mecmuas continued for
icult conditions, becauseoftheeffortsofEthemRuhingr Avni Anls Musiki veN
m 1969 to 1972 and again beginningfrom1983,providedavaluableservicetothemusic
i, published from 1978 1979 by Sayl Doanay, served asthevoiceofamateurmusi
ertain culture and arts magazines, mostly devoted to Turkish music, such as Kk
d to Turkish music in some daily newspapers served and continue to make both po
ve contributions accordingtothewritersstrength,culture,musicalknowledgeandtaste.
ical publications, insufficient attention has been given to memoirs, with only a
appearing here and there in the magazines listed above as well asindailynewspap
efulstepinthisdirectionwithhisAnlar veBelgelerleMusikiSzl.
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gulu) INTRODUCTION ConceptsDefinitions: The concept of globalizaiton has gained
n from todays social scientists, who interpret and define it in various ways. G
ization is defined as the compressionoftheworldandtheincreasingperceptionofit
read of both the wests infrastructural as well as superstructural influrance thro
d. Despite the allencompassing nature and importance of the subject and the as
n of the processes of change in a theoretical context in the west, here it is
pt. Two factors play an influential role in the definition and explanation of gl
he first is, in a worldwide context, the the increase buying and selling, exch
ility worldwide and the second is the rapid change and diversification emerging
l/cultural process. Consequently, globalization theories tend to follow one of two
approaches. The first of these contains the view that analyzes globalization as a
a distinct beginning and end. This view also includes the approach which sees it
the spread of western modernity . The second approach contains the idea that glo
heterogeneous, intercultural process. A different and more interesting approach than
is that of glocalization. This definition examines the relationship betweenlocal
seswiththedimensionsoftimeandspace. Withthecultural,socialandeconomicordersar
ionofchange theoneunchangingfactoflifewefindourselvesinaneverfasterpaced
ral orders are directly related to political and economic orders, thisisaninevit
etinoftodaysglobalizationtrendswithinacultural context. The direct affect on n
ltures of the practices which determinethestructuralchangesoftheworldseconomica
sarepart ofthisnaturalresult. The fact that music, as a cultural event, is an
hip with the various strataofsocietyandat the sametime a branch of science, r
on with
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social, political and economic realms. In this context, the relationship betwee nt
hrinking with the help of todays technological developments, and music, is importa
ntsofview: 1)Music is an industry. Both music itself (whatever the genre), as
ed products (cassettes, CDs, appliances, instruments) have become goods which are
oughtandsold. 2)Cultural diffusion. Many cultures are taking part in this markit
introductionandconsequentlyspreadingtheirculture. We know that cultural events
times complement economic and ideological approaches. As an element of culture, mu
vehicle for politico ideolotical inference as well as one of the economic market
products. Another notable point is that local sound cultures suddenly find themsel
this process. Local cultures and their musics, which are inevitably a part ofglo
e quickly adapting to an inevitable process of change with concepts such as mod
ersalization. The speed of cultural change among peoples who find themselves in
balization is more active along with the culturesnaturalchangeisprogressing
ition to what cultural change inevitably brings, what it also takes away is prov
mong peoples. Especially peoples who are beginning to implement new social transfo
ojects, valuing one group of cultural elements more, are bringing an ideological
e subject; so that in the cultural change area of Turkeys project of societal
e area of music in particular has been charged with a very important function.
ogical as well as a technical viewpoint, what kind of interactions music (folk m
thin such a process of transformation and change, and in relation to global even
subject in need of discussion. Especially in the case of Turkey, the type of mu
Folk Music though from the standpoint of its local elements it exists as an
considered one of the branch of art that has most obviouslybeenaffectedbyglobal
uentlysocialchange. In this paper then, taking account of all of this theoretica
nd in the context of globalization and social change, I will attempt to treat t
ures, searches for identity, the importance of style and change in Turkish folk
torical standpoint. Actually, though they appear to be independent of each other,
style and identity are closely related concepts. The infrastructure that will dete
relationship will be explained, sometimes in terms of the social sciences terms,a
ermsofthemusicitself.. IdentityinTurkishFolkMusic Toportrayamusicalidentityr
lanalysisofthemusic,butalso an examination of its social positions, the layers
it lives and is perpetuated.Firstofall,itwillbehelpfultostatejustwhatisunder
h Folk Music, (TFM) because Turkish Folk Music is a musical term that is oft
ght about about it. Whether in urban or village society and/or individuals, and
ing or governed groups, Turkish folk music is
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understoodasmusicalexpressionsofvillageculture.Theconcept,whichemergedyears befor
equated with todays term trk (folk song), immediately following the design of
te project (1920s). This was a period in which the most important projects towar
n of Turkey were underway. One of the most obvious problems to appear during t
ion is that of the search by people, groups or societies of an official nati
esult of mankinds consciousness as a national/societal entity. In contrast to thi
ing in traditional small societies certainly have/had their own identities; but ha
ssues of identity . Nation States, which appeared as an extension of modernizatio
d in an effort to imbue their own nation, composedoftraditionalsocietiesinsearc
thaNationalIdentity. One of the most obvious elements of the concept of nati
. To the extent that there is a direct relationship between culture and national
ural activities also play an important role in the formation of a nation/nation
seofculturetomakehistoricalreferences,andexploitingthesevaluesinthesearchfor a
ndispensablevehiclesofofficialideologies(StatePolitic). TheTurkishNationStatemod
nsofwhichwerelaidintheearly1900s, clearly stated in 1923 that the identity of
blic would be formed bymakingreferencestoAsianandAnatolianhistory.Withinthisne
h the statement that The foundation of the Turkish Republic is culture, music
uable and meaningful place. Wanting tobuild its new identity on its own culture
eology was of course obliged to define those cultural elementsthatwereitsown.
tantdutyintheformationof the new Turkish identity. Which music would reflect ou
ty? The answer tothisquestionisgivenbyZiyaGkalp:Folkmusic. Shortly before t
hts, people such as M. Fuat Kprl, Mahmud Ragb Gazimihal, Yusuf Ziya Demirci
tood the importance of folk music, and started work on the subject . It was no
dthattheTurkishRepublicwasfoundedonapopulistpolitic,andintheareof art,would
truth, some composers had been able to produce new folk musicinspired works year
velopment. That is, the Republic of that period had a musical politic which clai
d move from the local to the national, and from there, to the universal. During
sternization, modernization and nationalization movements were conducted in para
was gaining an increasingly important position in all these movements. At the sam
gnificance of the efforts to tie our origins to Asia, active in the stating o
ssignedincreasingimportance,aswellasourAsianrootsintherealmof music. Devoting
is first book to the music of the Asian Turkic peoples, which he expressed in
litic of the Russian Turks, MahmudRagbGazimihal,clearlyshowshowimportantthissu
ojects such as the Turkish History Thesis and the Sun Language Theory, the
roots chiefly with Asia but also at times with Anatolia and
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Mesopotamia in the searches for identity, gained new dimension. In this context,
o prove that our musical identity is Asian were linked to another very importa
he pentatonic traces present in Turkish melodies. Composed of five tones with no
called a pentatonic scale, this arrangement of tones can be called the first a
icaltechnical approachtothepitchsystemofTurkishmusic.AhmedAdnanSaygun,inhis193
ical Society, which was later developed and published as a treatise, Pentatonism
ic,hestatesthefollowing: 1. In the musicaljourney of mankind,pentatonism is not
l races haveincommon.Ithasacompletelyracialquality. 2. Pentatonismisthestampof
hereverpentatonismispresent: 4. a)thepeoplelivingthereareTurks 5. b)Turks, found
ion in those places in ancient times left their influenceonthelocalpeople. 6. T
onismisCentralAsia,thehomelandoftheTurks. 7. Itsdirectionsofdiffusionarethoseo
isons of various pentatonic characters will provide us with very important results
parisons will make it possible for us to determine theoriginsofTurkswhoarelivi
d. Actually long before the abovementioned report and treatise were published, in
Ragb Gazimihal explained his very interesting ideas on this subject with a melod
imself . The same writer, in a treatise he published in 1936 , dealt withthis
idedstatingviewsasassertiveasthoseofSaygun. The issue of pentatonism, a reflect
s for identity in the first period despite the fact that these projects were
by those who first lead the projects are still referred to even today by som
ns of the searchforidentity. Despite all the abovementioned searches, and whatev
cture of Turkish music, the idea of manipulating it according towestern technique
by the timeshasneverbeenabandoned.Whileasearchforrootsisunderwayononehand,we
n the direction of achieving a modern musical environment in keeping with our w
t is safe to say that this view, which in the beginning even excluded Turkish
s now given way to a more moderate view which emphasizes the common demoninator
for musical identity are now bearing their first fruits. Folk songs, arranged pol
, are being broadcast on the radio; and composers are writing original works ins
sic. By the 1940s, western technique and style had been adopted by various peopl
ons, and even come to be applied in many areas. However from an economic and s
he 1940s were the beginning of a painful period for Turkey and the world at la
urkey did not abandon its leaps in music culture. Orchestras, conservatories and
ns continued operating uninterrupted. Folk music pieces arranged polyphonically were
performed by orchestras and chorusus, while at the same time the radio was reach
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throughspecialradioprogramsconsistingentirelyoffolkartists.Duringthesameperiod t
stry,whichhadnotbeenidlesincethe1900s,wasreleasinghundreds of 78s featuring l
trels). This sector, operating completely according to the market economy, and hav
comfortable uncontrolled realm of activity, manipulated local music within market
and presented it to the people . The emerging influence of western musical techn
sic, as well as the takeover of the music sector by mostly western recording co
to certain new ideas in the musical world. This new movement, providing for the
local styles and national identity, was represented officially by the Yurttan Ses
the Homeland) program, and personally by Musaffer Sarszen. TechniqueandStylein
Turkish folk music terminology, the word style (tavr) refers to local manners
ng. Those who work in the field of folk music have not arrived at a single co
ning the fundamental principles of the concept of style. Many artists and speci
rent views on the subject . The music performed by Anatolian people today wha
gins of the performers show certain similarities in terms of technique. This s
l systems, rhythms and instruments gives way to diversity in the playing and sin
s. There are many reasons for this. The variation in playing and singing styles
tyle very important. However the elements that nourish and form style are techni
ey are musical elements such as tonal structure, instruments, meter (rhythm) etc.,
gree that they determine the style of a melody. The longstanding emphasis on the
nes the stylistic features of Turkish folk music from a geographical standpoint h
ed other elements able to affect style. This being the case in Turkish folk mus
s used by composers who make use of folk melodies and compose works with a wes
(tempered and twelvetonesystems)havegivenrisetothewidespreadopinionthatTurkish
s element of style. First emerging in the early 1940s, this ideological movement
hat Turkish folk music must be applied in a different way, conducted its work
s. Setting forth the logic of Yurttan Sesler in an interview, one of the lead
uzaffer Sarszen referred to the abovementioned technical elements in explaining t
e of style in the performanceoffolkmusic: The folk music classes at the Radio
h an unimaginably difficult and tiring effort; because to be able to sing the f
try in a way that does them justice, one needs to know the regional characteris
ys melodies. Just as this is difficult to understand, the ability to perform is
playing very subtly and carefully. There are great differences in style between t
entregions.TheUrfasingingstylehasaverydifferentcharacterfromthatof the Black
yle song from a piece from Kastamonu, a tune from Erzurum from a zeybek from M
dance tune and a song from
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Rumeli. Allhave very different characters in terms of makam, rhythm and style. I
erformed according to their particular forms, the piece loses its color, and beco
e. The initial support for this new project by Sarszen came from people with
Nedim Tor, Mesut Cemil (Tel) andzettin Turulbay, or people in close associat
lly it cannot be said that these supporters of Yurttan Sesler were all of one
e years also, Ahmet Adnan Sygun composing hisYunusEmreOrotario(1942),createdan
hemakam(modal) music structure of the east, the pentatonic scale, and certain lo
to his piece. However this was still a piece written with western technique and
erged was clearly within a western form. The same holds true for the folk song
polyphonically. In his concept of Yurttan Sesler, Muzaffer Sarszen did not want
to the western musical approach; he intendedtoformaspecialperformingensemblewh
ocalstyles and unique technical characteristics of Turkish folk music. Along with
ical details, Sarszen expressed his Yurttan Sesler Ideology and Turkish musical
urnedhiscreationintoaninstitution: The broadcast of folk songs, which the Radio
ently and performed successfully,isnotonlyaboutprovidingapleasanttimeforthelist
g an idea about our folk song types. Yurttan Seslers foremost goal is to unite
e a single feeling throughout our country. It hardly needs explaining any more t
working for Yurttan Sesler are creating an entirely new kind of fortress, and ev
rn agents of destruction will not be able to knock the tiniest piecefromit.
ferent peoples, the style of Turkish folk music, passed down from generation to
especially today still palpable in local folk tunes. Yurttan Sesler put forth a
ort to broadcast these local styles countrywide, and realize its fundamental goal
e entire country in a single feeling. From the moment of its inception, Yurttan
criticism; critics charged that it always highlighted the Turkish identity and ig
ical practices of other groups, monotonized local playing and singing styles, a
cal instrumentsbyformingaccompanyinggroupsdominatedbysaz. Despiteallthesecritici
erheldfasttolocalstyles(whichhighlightedthe Turkish identity), and at the same
maintain the western view, at least in form. Though the goal of creating a ch
ish folk music was not plainly stated in those days, this intent became clear
e larger instrumental groups and choruses which had their start in the 1970s h
ced by a different and more advanced approach. No longer useing the name Yurt
us Turkish folk music groups are active within the body of Turkish Radio and
s of Turkish folk music ensembles/choruses, working in a more contemporary appro
e but still based on the original Yurttan Sesler concept, work within various co
icial institutions. Some of todays TRT Turkish folk music ensembles, as well as
les mentioned
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above have a very different technical and stylistic approach from that of Yurttan
y extension, a different perspective on performance. In contrast with the local s
formance of the early period, todays ensembles have adopted the fundamentalelemen
ryTurkishfolkmusic,composedofasynthesis of local style and western techniques.
metrically opposed in the early period, locally produced modern Turkish music and
Turkish folk music today are practically underoing a synthesis. To what extent th
enon is a manifestation of our western characteristics and to what extent it dis
e national tastes is a matter of discussion. Social and cultural change, speeded
ts, make it necessary to deal with local style and techniques, national identity,
on, and by extension, the concept of universality as a single whole. These conce
seriously questioned in the early period (19201940) and middle period (19401970),
bject of much serious thought in the recent (post 1970) period. And especially,
stress and difficulties of everyday life which are part of the processes of uni
d have caused a rise in populistattitudesinculturalpolitics.Therecentgreatdeve
tions technology have relegated matters such as cultural values, national music, a
yles and techniques to secondary importance. Along with this, groups trying to pr
ok out for all these values have suffered serious difficulties in their search f
on in their education efforts. For example, in the recently founded Voice Departm
te Conservatory, which also teaches Turkish folk music, training is given by teac
the Italian school. The question of whether students/artists trained here are r
tion in voice; or, being subjected to a stylistic revision unawares in Turk
ern school of singing has thus far remained unanswered. In addition, it is well
i Trk (Azerbaijan folk song) repertoire,which has rapidly developed and spread
being used ideologically by certain groups. The view that the polyphonic and nat
zerbaijani music should be applied to Turkish folk musicaswellwasacommonopinio
ommunityduringthose years. In the context of the socialeconomicpolitical developm
rld (globalization), this practice, based on the idea of a peoples inclusion in
elscloserandwhichcarriesanationalcharacteristicdoesnothaveasmany supporters
s because the transference of imported models with the exception of dictatorial
ind an effective realm of cultural application. In the context of Turkish folk m
e chain of events discussed thus far can be said to be a musical conflict with
n/localization dilemma of western modernity. It is the natural result that this s
uld reflect eitherpositivelyornegativelyonmusicaltechniqueandcharacteristicsof
eprovidedinformationrelatingtothesearchforidentityandlocalstylesin the music (
of formal institutions, and perceptions of their technical characteristics. But the
cond element of all these subjects, which acts independently of official views an
ver cut its ties with the outside world: Turkishfolkmusicinthecommercialmarket.
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Sincetheearly1900s,startingoutwith78s,thenmovingonto45and33rpmrecordsin the
eltoreel, cartridges, cassettes and CD technology, the music market began turning
owards folk music, and from the 1960s on this activity saw a significant increas
rst period, certain aks and local artists recorded their voices and thus set t
cal exchanged between peoples. Thesocialtransformationofthe1950sandthesocietalop
0salsohad their influence on Turkeys musical culture. In this period, aks (an
ddressed social issues, sometimes in severe tones. Certain views such as adapting
ulfilling the needs of the times were instrumental in preparing the aks to be
emporary musical approaches. These artists, at first performing their deyi with n
eir saz, later adopted background arrangements known in Turkish as alt yap (li
ally with mostly electronic instruments supporting the basic melody. Local folk mu
re no different in this respect. In addition, migration, one of the social issue
rved to speed up the change in music. The mass migrations in Southern and South
in particular caused people to break from their own music. Later however, this s
d a new aspect; it led to a mutual exchange of music between groups of people.
onomic problems, political instability, made meaningless the musical politic which
e had expended such effort to create. In this stage, music began to be determin
inner dynamics of the music market (in todays terms, market conditions). The lib
fist and humanist thoughts which began to emerge in the world during the 1960s
ed in Turkeys musical environment. In this period, mostly dominated by music gro
he custom when drawing from folk tunes, to add the word Anadolu(Anatolia)toth
op. There were now two fundamental groups in the folk music practice of this p
re the musical practice founded on the control principle of TRT radio stations,
ted Turkish identity and heeded local styles; and on the other wascommercialfolk
edcompletelyaccordingtomarketdemands.... The musical style whch the music market
cted/imposed was always influenced and dominated by technology. The channel record
udio environment system which became common in the 1980s brought together musicia
aw each other in a single recording. This situation made the knowledge of musica
escapable requirement. This was also a time in which technically advanced increase
s. Playing balama from sheet music had become a priveleged status. Many charac
tyle became lost within this whole; moderntechnologywasgraduallydoingawaywiththe
anceoflocal style. Market conditions looked at ideology and consequently the sear
ty that characterized the first period as a stodgy way of thinking. Concepts s
c, contemporary folk music and modern folk music were now talked about by m
global activity following the rising market values have now taken music under its
he resulting music is being launched
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as a contemporary interpretation of folk music. Now music produced in this styl

ysomesectionsofsociety. Conclusion: Today, in addition to the abstract reality
s is underway in which it is beingassociatedwithsocialphenomenasuchaspolitics,
tisawell known fact that global and national ideologies and economies have take
cundertheirinfluence.Itcouldbesaidthattheideologyofglobalizationdealswith musi
se;andinthebroadsenseasanecessaryelementfor thebroadeningoftheglobalcultural
his approach, formulated as the globalization of culture and the nationalization
zation of the local is the fundamental goal of the globalizationideology.Theass
oachwithmusichasnearlya100year history; and almost all the statements within t
ionship are made within an ideological context rather than about the technical ch
cs of music or itsabstractualizedreality. This state of affairs is most influent
tures and consequently local music. Differentiatingundertheinfluenceofglobalization
equentsocialchangeon theonehand,anddigginginitshealsagainstchangeintheeffort
tity on the other, local music is not being sufficiently addresed by todays folk
y; and thus presents a conceptual gap. In fact, the issue of insufficiently addr
echnique,styleand identityin Turkishfolkmusic isclear.However, these concepts mu
in relationship to each other; and this brings with it theproblemofmethod. Obl
nevitable reality of globalization within Turkeys musical world. Thus the most ap
thods will be to interpret it correctly and distinguish the subtle difference bet
atural change; and conceive of/examinetheinnerdynamicsofmusicinbothaconcretean
Bibliography: ASLANOLU,A.Rana,Kent,KimlikveKreselleme,EzgiKitabevi,Bursa2000
deTrkHalkMziiAratrmalar,Folklor/Edebiyat,1999/1, S.17,s.99128. TrkiyedeM
elBOZDOANReatKASABA,stanbul1998,Trk TarihVakfYurtYaynlar:55 AL,Filiz,M
aynlar. MARDNerif,TrkModernlemesi,stanbul1995,letiimYaynlar. SARIBAY,
n1995,S.33, s.4852. KILIBAY,MehmetAli,Kimlik:BirTasnifSorunu,TrkiyeGnl

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an state had various areas of contact with European culture.Oneoftheseareasism
eashortaccountoftheOttomans acquaintance with western music from the 14th cent
ughout the 19th century, their experience with western musical education. The arti
so introducebooksonwesternmusicwritteninTurkish. The Ottomans acquaintance with
considered to have first begin five centuries ago in 1543, when an orchestra was
of France to play for Suleyman the Magnificent. Later in 1562, Esma Sultans con
d a ballet in Atmeydan. English Queen Elizabeth I ( 1595) sent an organ as a
lomon Schweigger (1622), a German priest who came to Istanbul in 1576, was the
ce played by the Mehter band1 During the reign of Selim III ( 1807), thefirst
pkap Palace2. In his memoirsMelling tellsof two daughters of an ambassador danc
e of Selim III3. The great composers Mozart, Beethoven and J. Bishop composed Tu
and the French envoy M. deFerriolwroteapolyphonicarrangementofaMevleviAyin. Du
mud II (18081839) the abolishment of the Mehter band and its replacement by a
d the first official entrance of western music into the Ottoman Empire. In 1828,
poser Giuseppe Donizetti was appointed conductorofthepalacebandbyMahmudII4.TheM
ficial beginningofwesternmusicaleducation.Thisconservatorywasfoundedbeforethosein
sels, Munich, London, Moscow and Chicago, and Donizetti taught here for 28 years.
dents was the Turkish western music composer Necip Paa ( 1847).In1847aswell,t
erFranzLiszt5performedaconcert in Istanbul, and composed pieces for sultans Abd
id II. His composition for Abdlmecid was a variation on Donizettis Mecidiye Mar
gian composer and violinist Henri Vieuxtemps (1881) came to Istanbul. The Ottoman
ecid I (reign: 18391862), Abdlaziz (reign: 18611876) and Vahdeddin (19181922) a
rn musical training. Among the European composers who wrote compositions for Ottom
were Henri Vieuxtemps, Louis Ardati, Louis Deffes, Dr. Barrachin and Josef Geiger
id I); Milan F. Lucca
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and O. Guatelli (for Abdlaziz), and Joseph Sulzer, T. Xanthopoulos, Johannes Heye
ans,P.Dussap,GeorgesC.Nicolaides,HendiSailfandier,LouisdeHirschfeld, D.Mozatti,F
id,GeorgesAlaimbi,IreneComendinger,CharlesDAlpino,O. Guatelli,FranzLiszt,AlfredK
aniandmanymoreforSultanAbdlhamid II7.ManymajornonTurkishcomposerswroteTurkish
he conductor of the Muzkayi Hmayun was Angelo Mariani8. The Italian composer C
as in the Ottoman palace from 1855 on. In 1899 he wasappointedconductoroftheM
edbyNecipPaa)by Abdlhamid II, where he served until his death. Some of the
by Guatelli include Mehmed Zati, Mehmed Emin, Mehmed Ali, Mustafa Safvet, Paz Os
azm Bey and Zeki Bey. After 1880 the Paristrained Spanish composer DArenda (Ar
ellis assistant at the Muzkayi Hmayun, and later replaced him. In time the n
upport western musical education. In Haim Beys book, Turkish counterparts for we
erms were given9. However his work had nothing do to with western musical theory
urkishmusictheoryandagoodsourceonTurkishlyrics. The first known western music
ritten by Hseyin Remzi (Hxeyin Remzi, Usuli Nota, 1875). A lieutenant commander
, and nicknamed evliya (saint) for his fine morals, Hseyin Remzi wrote this w
urpose of theoretical education. In addition, this work recommended the adoptionof
altermsinsteadoftheItaliantermswhichhadenteredTurkish via musical education. Be
works on western music theory written duringtheOttomanperiodinthe19thcentury,an
HseyinRemzi,UsuliNota(1875) 2. MehmedEmin,NotaMuallimi(1886) 3. MustafaSafvet,
yatMusiki(1890 4. Kazm Bey, Muallim, Musiki: ark Ve Garb Musikisinin Diyez Ve
5. MehmetZati,KtphaneiMusikidenNazariyatMusiki(1899) 6. MehmedCemil,MkemmelTa
NotationMethod)(Istanbul1292/1875,22p.) This was the first book on western music
ttoman empire. The book is actuallyPrincipeselementairesdemusiquebytheFrenchCo
exis de Garaude (1852). Hseyin Remzi said that, feeling the lack of a book on
slated this book10. The book begins with a short history of western musical nota
by subject headings on the staff, ledger lines, value and strength of notes, typ
t symbols, dots, dotted notes, rhythm, 2/4 time signatures, sharps, flats, major,
s, the diatonic scale, the chromatic scale, values, ties, and octaves. The work
use of Turkish counterparts for westernmusicalterms. 2 MEHMED EMN (1907), NOTA
ation) (Istanbul 1302/1886,70p.) Known as Muallim (Teacher), Hac (one who ha
d Notac (The Notator), Mehmed Emin was born in Istanbul in 1845. He entered
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Hmayun and learned western music. A merchant who made the pilgrimage to Mecca,
own as The Notator because he published the notation for nearly four hundred T
s rearranged polyphonically by his teacher C. Guatelli Paa. He died in 1907 in
min Efendi invented the makam NevedainTurkishmusic. At the beginning of Nota
otation and music teacher Leon Hanciyan and composer Sermezziniehriyari, in whi
opinion of Rfat Beys book (Nota Muallimi, p. 25). The book is divided into t
ons: 1. Thesevennotesandanexplanationoftheirsharpsandflats 2. Staffs 3. Explana
tnotesonthestaff 4. Writingthenotesonstaffpaper 5. Readingnotation 6. Theconne
dmusic,meters 7. 2/4and4/4meters. 8. Thedivisionofquarternotesintofourandthe4
ffourquarternotesintoeight 10. Thedivisionoffourquarternotesintosixteen 11. The
ernotesintothirtytwo 12. Thedivisionoffourquarternotesintosixtyfour 13. Explana
4. Thetiesymbol 15. Aboutsharpsandflats 16. Restsandtheirtypes 17. Gracenotesand
peatsign 19. Useofthetrebleandbasscleff 20. Alafranga and alaturca meters, funda
akams: rast, dgah, buselik, krdi, segah, buselik, argah, hicaz, yegah, neva, ac
ndthesubsidiarymakams,Alaturkameters. 3MUSTAFASAFVET(ATABNEN.1939),SOLFEJYAHU
eoryofMusic)(Istanbul1306,120p.MahmudBeyPress.) Mustafa Safvet was a general a
Muzka Hmayun, appointed to conduct the Palace orchestra at the time of the S
narchy. He studied western music with C. Guatelli Paa, and took piano and compo
om composer Theodore Dubois in Paris. After returning to his country, he concentr
al education. In his book called Solfege, written during the reign of Abdlhami
states that he was one of the lieutenant commandersintheMuskaiHmayun. Inthe
eworkdoesnotdealexhaustivelywithmusic,but rather only with the huruf hecesi
olfej, or the notation system. He states in his book that he has preferred to
erms, and thatalthoughthereislittledifferencebetweenthemandtheItaliantermsthat
100 ArticleaboutTurkishmusic

since entered Turkish, the use of the French terms is preferable. Not including
ookconsistsoffivechaptersdividedintosubsections: I. . Staff, 2. types of kle,
e measure, 4. value, 5. rests, 6. symbols placedbeforethenote,7.triad,8.ties
.ifre, 3. simple and complex measures, 4. beats within the measure, 5. relation
le and complex measures, 6. 5, 7 and 9beat measures,7.rhythm,8.tempi,9.poin
le, 2. Flats and Sharps, 3. Diatonic and Chromatic, 4. Intervals, 5. Double inte
ntervals, 6. Qualities of intervals, 7. Intervals, continued, 8. inversion. IV. 1.
2. Degree in the scale, 3. The tetrachord, 4. Enchainement, 5. Armure, armatured
ment,7.Flatted armur,8. Modes, 9.Thecreationof minor, 10. Relative scale, 11.
tinued 12. Chromatic scale, 13, anharmonic scale,14.Modulation,15.Transposition. V
y principles for musical practice: 1. The phrase, 2. Accentuation, 3. Nuance, 4.
aments,abbreviation. 4 KAZIM BEY (UZ, 1943), MUSK: CZ 1: ARK VE GARB MUSK
ents of Music 1: On the Sharps and Flats of Eastern andWesternMusic)(Istanbul1
y, the son of kodral Mustafa Efendi, was born in 1871. In 1890, after gradua
rphans, he went to work for the accounting section of the Telegraph and Post. H
to the Muzkai Hmayun because of the book he wrote, Musiki Istlahlar (Music
t of C. Guatelli Paa.IntheAnkaraPreparatorySchoolheworkedasateacherofTurkish
,andashorttimelaterbecameaninspectorfortheMinistryofEducation. His last post
hool for Orphans. His teacher of Turkish music was Zekai Dede, with whom he stu
Continuing in the Bahariye Mevlevihane, he learned Mevlevi ayin. He composed Ilahi
nd a Mevlevi ayin in the makam Sultani Yegah11. He is also said to have had a
nted, as well as a musical work titled Hayatl Ervah ((bnlemin, Ho Sada, 2
ames law, Kazm Bey took the last name Uz. He died in Suadiye in 1943, and wa
tery. Muallim Kazm Uzs Talimi Musiki or Musiki Istlahlar (Istanbul 1310/198
onary of musicaltermswritteninTurkey.GltekinOransaraylaterexpandeditandtranscri
atin alphabet (Ankara 1964; Yeil, Musiki Mecmuas, p. 222, p. 170). The same pi
nto Arabic by Ibrahim Dakuki (E. Kazm, elIstlahatul musikiyye,tr.IbrahimedDaku
This short work shared a bit of Kazm Beys knowledge of musical theory; dealing
ames of the notes in eastern and western music, taksim, makam, sharps andflats.
. 1951), KTPHANE MUSKDEN NAZARYATI MUSK (TheoriesofMusicfromtheLibrary
metZatiBeyenteredtheMuzkayHmayunattheageofnine,duringthereignof Sultan A
arinet and piano, studying western music
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with C. Guatelli and Turkish music with Hac Arif Bey. In 1880, he became the
sh musician Aranda Paa, who had come to Istanbul. In 1900 he was a major, and
nel in 1907, he was demoted a rank in 1908. He remained in this position until
teach music in high schools. He took the last name Arca. He composed marches an
oth western style as well as in Turkish makams. (Gazimihal, pp. 123126; ztuna,
copiedthework titledKtbhaneiMusikiden FenniAheng,(TheScenceofHarmony from
y H. Robert and translated bybrahim Edhem; this copy is now in the Istanbul U
. Robert, Ktbhanei Musikiden Fenni Aheng, tr. brahim Edhem, transcribed by Me
ipt, 386 p., 1317/1899,Lib.,Nr.4403). 1 Aksoy, pp. 29, 286. Aksoys writing
omposers notated by Europeantravelersofthe15th19thcenturies. 2 Seventil,p.15,Al
Melling,VoyagepittoresquedeConstantinople. 4 A. Bacollawroteashortexamination
fe:LaMusique en Turquieet QuelqueTraitsBiographiques sur G.DonizettiPasha, Istan
shtranslation: Aksoy,p.208216. 5 Forabiography,seeKerman,index,GrontPalisca,pp
6 ngrp.89115.ThisvariationwasrecordedonCDbyVedatKosal.Kosal...nceMzik Ha
tforAbdlhamidII:Istanbul UnverstyLibrary,,YldzSarayDocument,No.86/781.125,fo
eircompositionsareinYldzSarayDefteriNo.86. 8 The compositions he wrote for
re in the Istanbul UniversityLibrary,YldzSarayDefterleri,No.86. 9 HaimBey,H
uliNOta,p.3. 11 One of his bestes was on Sultan Vahdeddins poem, Gazeli H
yun, First National Turkology Congress, p. 106; ztuna, Trk MusikisiAnsiklopedisi
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