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GlossaryofIslam
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ThefollowinglistconsistsofnotableconceptsthatarederivedfrombothIslamicandArabtradition,whichareexpressedaswordsinthe
Arabiclanguage.Themainpurposeofthislististodisambiguatemultiplespellings,tomakenoteofspellingsnolongerinuseforthese
concepts,todefinetheconceptinoneortwolines,tomakeiteasyforonetofindandpindownspecificconcepts,andtoprovideaguideto
uniqueconceptsofIslamallinoneplace.
SeparatingconceptsinIslamfromconceptsspecifictoArabculture,orfromthelanguageitself,canbedifficult.ManyArabicconceptshave
anArabicsecularmeaningaswellasanIslamicmeaning.Oneexampleistheconceptofdawah.Arabic,likealllanguages,containswords
whosemeaningsdifferacrossvariouscontexts.ThewordIslamisitselfagoodexample.
Arabiciswritteninitsownalphabet,withletters,symbols,andorthographicconventionsthatdonothaveexactequivalentsintheLatin
alphabet(seeArabicalphabet).ThefollowinglistcontainstransliterationsofArabictermsandphrasesvariationsexist,e.g.dininsteadof
deenandaqidahinsteadofaqeedah.MostitemsinthelistalsocontaintheiractualArabicspelling.

Contents:Top09ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A
Abd()(formale)Amah()(forfemale)
servant,worshipper,slave.MuslimsconsiderthemselvesservantsandslavesofGod.CommonMuslimnamessuchasAbdullah
(ServantofGod),AbdulMalik(SlaveoftheKing),AbdurRahmn(SlaveofthemostBeneficent),AbdusSalm(SlaveofPeace),all
refertonamesofAllah.
Adab()
Traditionallydescribesgoodmanners,asinetiquette.Forexample,beingcourteousisgoodadab.However,thetermcanbeusedvery
broadly,andthepropertranslationwouldbe"theproperwaytogoaboutsomething,"asintheexample,dbalQitl,or,"TheProper
WaysofFightinginWar,"(QitlinArabicmeansmortalcombat)inwhichtheword"etiquette"doesnotbefitthecontext.Asecondary
meaningofAdabis"literature".
Adhn()
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calltosalat(prayer),sometimesalternativelyspelledandpronouncedAzan,AthanandAdhan.
Adl()
justice,especiallydistributivejustice:social,economic,political,environmental.
AH()
AnnoHegiraeTheIslamiccalendarstartscountingyearsstartingfromthetimewhenMuhammadhadtoleaveMeccaandgotoMedina,
aneventknownastheHijra.ThefirstdayofthefirstIslamicyearis1Muarram1(AH)andcorrespondsto16July622(CE).
Aad()
literally"one."Islamically,ahadmeansOneAlone,unique,nonelikeGod.AlWahidisoneofthenamesofGod.
Akm()
rulingsandordersoftheQu'ranandSunnah.Fivekindsoforders:Wajib,Mustahab,Muharram,Makruh,andHalal.Singularukm.
AhlalBayt()
membersofMuhammad'sHousehold.AlsoknownamongShiaastheMamn()(infalliblesspirituallypure).
AhlalFatrah()
peoplewholiveinignoranceoftheteachingsofarevealedreligion,butaccordingtothe"Fitra",the"NaturalReligion"innatetohuman
natureascreatedbyGod.
AhlalKitb()
"PeopleoftheBook",orfollowersofpreIslamicmonotheisticreligionswithsomeformofscripturebelievedtobeofdivineorigin
whichwerementionedinQuran:Jews,Christians.
khirah()
hereafteroreternallife
Akhlq()
Thepracticeofvirtue.Morals.
AlIkhl()Sincerity
Genuinenessinreligiousbeliefs.
AlBirr(
)
PietyandrighteousnessandeveryactofobediencetoAllah.
lamn()
Literally"worlds",humankind,jinn,angelsandallthatexists
alayhissalm()
"Peacebeuponhim"Thisexpressionnormallyfollowsafternamingaprophet(otherthanMuhammad),oroneofthenobleAngels(i.e.
Jibreel[Gabriel],Mikaeel[Michael],etc.)
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alamdulillh()
"PraisebetoGod!"Qur'anicexclamationandalsosamemeaningashallelujah.
Allh()
TheArabicnameofGod.

Allhumma(

)
"OGod."
AllhuAkbar()
"AllahistheGreatest."Islamicexpression.
lim(
)
Onewhoknows.Ascholar(inanyfieldofknowledge)ascientist(whoknowsscience)oratheologian(whoknowsreligion)similarto
Japanesesensei,"teacher".
Amnah()
thetrust.Ofallcreation,onlyhumanbeings&jinnscarrythe"trust",whichisfreewill.
mn()
Amen.
AmrulMuminn()
InsomecountrieslikeMorocco,aAmrulMuminnorCommanderofthefaithfulisthereligiouschief.
minah()
Muhammad'smother.AminahfellsickanddiedinAbwa,nearMadina(thenYathrib)whenMuhammadwassixyearsold.
AlAmrBi'lMarf()
Islamicdoctrineofenjoiningright.ThereexistsinIslamthe(obligatory)principleofencouragingotherpeopletodotherightthing.
Anfl()
Spoilsofwar.(SeeSratalAnfl(8:1))([)1]
Anr()
"Helpers."TheMuslimconvertsatMedinawhohelpedtheMuslimsfromMeccaaftertheHijrah.
Aqdah()
Articleoffaith,tenet,creed,ordogma.
Aqqah()
Islamicpracticeofshavingtheheadofthenewbornmaleandcontributingtheweightinsilverforcharityaswellas2lambs.Onelamb
isslaughteredforababygirl.
Aql()
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Intelligence,intellect,mind,understanding
Arknsingularrukn(/)
Thefiverukn"pillars"ofIslam.(Seerukn)
A.S.(Alayhissalm)()
ThisacronymevokesablessingandisappendedtothenamesoftheprophetswhocamebeforeMuhammad.Itwillalsobeappliedto
themothersofthoseprophets.Whenfollowingawoman'sname,thefeminineformisAlayhassalm.
Al()(pl.ul)
Root,origin,sourceprinciple.
aslimtaslam(

)
"SubmittoIslam"(Seedawah)
AsmAllhalusn()
ListofGod's99names.Accordingtoahadith,theonewhoenumeratesthemallwillenterParadise.
Ar()
Thethirdsalatprayer.Thetimeofthedaybeforesunsetandafternoon.alsomeans"era".
Air()
Thebridgebycrossingwhichitisdetermined(judged)whetherapersonwouldgotoheavenorhell.HowapersoncrossestheSirat
dependsonwhattheyhavedoneintheirlifeandwhattheyhavebelievedin.
alAsharatuMubashsharunbilJannahorjustAsharatuMubashsharah(Arabic
or
,translit.:AsharatulmubashshirnorAsharatulmubashshirnabilJannah):Thetencompanionsof

Muhammadwhowerepromisedparadise(onlyinSunniIslam)
shr()
TenthdayofthemonthofMuharram.ItisthedayGodsavedMosesandthechildrenofIsraelfromthePharaoh.Thegrandsonofthe
prophetMuhammad,ImamHussaynsacrificedhislifealongwith72ofhiscompanionsonthesanddunesofKarbala.SunniScholars
recommendedtofastduringthisday.TotheShias,itisalsoadayonwhichtheymournthedeathofthethirdShiaImam,Husaynibn
Ali,alongwithhisfamilyandcompanions,whowerekilledinthefamousbattleinKarbala.Theycryandweepandorganize
lamentatingprogrammeswheretheynotonlylearnhowtoliveaproperIslamiclifeandimprovetheirSpiritualSelfbutalsocryatthe
endoftheritualtoshowtheirtrueloveandfaithtowardsimamHussayn.
AsSalmuAlaykum()
TheIslamicgreetingliterally"Peacebeuponyou"Inaddition,waRamatullhiwaBaraktuhu()means"andthe
MercyofGodandHisblessing".TheresponsetothisgreetingiswaAlaykumasSalmwaRamatullhiwaBaraktuhu(
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)"AndonyoubethePeaceandMercyofGodandHisBlessing".
Astaghfirallh()
"IseekforgivenessfromGod."Islamicexpression.
Audhubillah(Adhubillh)
"IseekrefugeinGod".ThisisaparaphraseonthebeginningsofthetwolastsurasintheQur'an.
Awliy()
Friends,protectors,helpers,caretaker,maintainer.(singular:wali)
Awrah()
Thepartsofthebody,maleorfemale,mustbecoveredinpublicbutnotbetweenspouses,suchas,bodypartsmustbeconcealedofa
womanbeforenonrelatedmen.(nonrelatedmenmeansshecanmarrythosemenlawfully).
yah(),pluralyt()
Asign.Morespecifically,averseintheQur'an.
yatullh(,alsospelledAyatollah)
SignofGodTitlegiventohighlyrankedreligiousscholarsinSh'iasect.

B
Baia()
SeeBay'ah
Baatil()
seeBil
Baitullh(baytullh)
Amosque,literally"houseofGod".SpecificallymeanstheKa'abaatMakkah(Mecca).
Barakah()
aformofblessing.
BrakAllhuFkum()
mayAllahblessyouresponsetoexpressionofthanks.
Barzakh()
Barrier.UsedintheQur'antodescribethebarrierbetweensweetandsaltywater.Intheology,theonewaybarrierbetweenthemortal
realmandthespiritworldwhichthedeceasedsoulcrossesandwaitsforqiyamahjudgment.
Bashar()
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humankind,mankind,man,human(s),etc.
Barah()
Insight,discernment,perceptivity,deepknowledge.SometimesusedbySufistodenotetheabilitytodirectlyperceiveatranscendental
Truth.
Bil()
void
Bin()
Theinteriororhiddenmeaning.Apersonwhodevoteshimselftostudyingsuchhiddenmeaningsisabatini.
B.B.H.N.()
BlessedbeHisNameacronymforS.A.W.S.SeeP.B.U.H(PeaceBeUponHim).
Bidah()
Innovationinreligion,i.e.inventingnewmethodsofworship.BadBidahsinIslamareconsideredadeviationandaserioussinby
manyMuslims.
Bidahsayyiah()
InquiryprohibitedinIslam.
Bismillhirramnirrami()
"InthenameofAllah,theMostGracious,theMostMerciful".[2]
Burda()
Ingeneralterms,itmeansa"cloak"or"outergarment".Specificreferenceistothe"burda"oftheProphetMuammad(seeQadaal
Burda).
Bayah()
anoathofallegiancetoaleader,traditionallytheCaliphorImam.

C
Caliph(
)khalfah
literallysuccessorreferstothesuccessoroftheProphetMuhammad,therulerofanIslamictheocracy.

D
Dahri()
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atheistfromtherootaddahrmeaningtime.InIslam,atheistsareseenasthosewhothinkthattimeonlydestroys,hencethetermad
dahriyyahfortheconceptofatheism.
Dajjl(
)
anIslamicfiguresimilartotheAntichristmeans"liar"or"deceiver".
alll()
goingastray.
DralAhd()
theOttomanEmpire'srelationshipwithitsChristiantributarystates.
DralAmn()
meanshouseofsafetyreferstostatusofaMuslimlivinginsomeoftheWesternworld.
Draddawa()
aregionwhereIslamhasrecentlybeenintroduced.
Dralarb()
meanshouseofwarreferstoareasoutsideMuslimruleatwarwithMuslimstates.
DralIslm()
theabode,orland,ofIslam.
DralKufr()
meansdomainofdisbeliefthetermoriginallyreferstotheQuraishdominatedsocietyofMeccabetweenProphetMohammed's
(s.a.w.s.)flighttoMedina(theHijra)andthecity'sconquest.
Draul()
domainofagreement
Drashshahda()
SeeDaralAmn
Dard()
blessing
Dawah()
thecalltoIslam,proselytizing.
Darw()
aninitiateoftheSufiPath,onewhopracticesSufism
Dhikr()
AdevotionalpracticewherebythenameofGodisrepeatedinarhythmicalmanner.RemembranceofGodspiritualexerciseMuslims
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believethattheprimaryfunctionofprophetsistoremindpeopleofGod.
Dhimmi(
)(pl.dhimam)
"protectedperson"JewsandChristians(andsometimesothers,[3]suchasBuddhists,Sikhs,Hindus,andZoroastrians),livinginan
IslamicstatewhomustpayspecialtaxesandwhoserighttopracticetheirreligionissubjecttostrictcontrolunderIslamiclaw.
Dhuhr()(uhr)
thesecondobligatorydailyprayer.
Dn()
(literally'religion')thewayoflifebasedonIslamicrevelationthesumtotalofaMuslim'sfaithandpractice.Dnisoftenusedtomean
thefaithandreligionofIslam.
Diyyah()
"bloodmoney",recompenseforlossofalife.
Du()
personalprayer,supplication
Dunya()
ThephysicalUniverse,asopposedtotheHereaftersometimesspelledDunia.

E
EidalFitr()
MarkstheendofRamadan,theIslamicholymonthoffasting(sawm).

F
Fajarah()(alsofujjr(
))
Wickedevildoers.Pluralof"fjir"().
Fajr()
dawn,earlymorning,andthemorningprayer.Thetimeofthedaywhenthereislightinthehorizonbeforesunrise.
Fal()
deliverance,salvation,wellbeing.
Falsafah()
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"philosophy"ThemethodsandcontentofGreekphilosophywhichwerebroughtintoIslam.ApersonwhotriestointerpretIslam
throughrationalistphilosophywascalledafaylasuf(),"philosopher".
Fan'()
Sufitermmeaningextinctiontodietothislifewhilealive.HavingnoexistenceoutsideofGod.
Faqh(()pl.fuqah)()
OnewhohasadeepunderstandingofIslam,itslaws,andjurisprudence.(seefiqh)
AlFaraj()
thereturnoftheShiaMahdi
Far(),pluralfur()
areligiousduty,oranobligatoryaction:praying5timesadayisfardNeglectingafardwillresultinapunishmentinthehereafter.(See
wajib)
Farain()
obligatoryoneveryindividualMuslimtoaidinanywayhecan.
Farkifyah()
anobligationontheMuslimcommunityasawhole,fromwhichsomearefreedifotherstakeitupsuchasforjihad.
Fsid()
corrupt,invalid/violable(inIslamicfinance)
Fsiq()
anyonewhohasviolatedIslamiclawusuallyreferstoonewhosecharacterhasbeencorrupted(plural"fsiqn").
Ftia()
theshort,openingsuraoftheQur'an,whichbegins"InthenameofGod,theMerciful,theCompassionate.PraisebetoGod,theLordof
theWorlds..."ThesewordsholdanimportantplaceinMuslimliturgiesandformsthecoreofthesalat.
Fatw()
legalopinionofan(alim)bindingonhimandonthosewhofollowhistaqlid
FAmnallh()
"IntheprotectionofGod".Saidwhenapersondeparts.
Fiqh()
jurisprudencebuiltaroundtheshariahbycustom(alurf).Literallymeans"deepunderstanding",referstounderstandingtheIslamic
laws.(seefaqih)
Fsablallh()
forthesakeofAllahcommonIslamicexpressionforperformingactssuchascharityorJihadandfor'qatlu'(fightinginmortalcombat
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forthesakeofAllah)
Fitna(pl.fitan)()
trialortribulationalsoreferstoanyperiodofdisorder,suchasacivilwar,ortheperiodoftimebeforetheendoftheworldoranycivil
strife.
Firah()
innatedispositiontowardsvirtue,knowledge,andbeauty.Muslimsbelieveeverychildisbornwithfitrah.
Furqn()
thecriterion(ofrightandwrong,trueandfalse)forexample,theQur'anasfurqan.
Fuwaysiqah()
vermin,evilfromtherootfasaqameaningtodeviatefromtherightway

G
Ghafara()
(verbinpasttense)toforgive,tocoverup(sins).AcharacteristicofGod.
Ghaflah()
heedlessness,forgetfulnessofGod,indifference
Ghayb()
theunseen,unknown.
Ghanmah()
spoilsofwar,booty.
Ghasbi()
possessedunlawfully
Ghzi()
(archaic)roughly,"raider":aholywarrioramujahid
Ghusl()
fullablutionofthewholebody(seewudu).Ghusljanabaisthemandatoryshowerafterhavingsexualdischarge.

H
adathakbar()
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majorritualimpuritywhichrequiresNiyyatforcleaning.
adathaghar()
minorritualimpurity

Hdhminfalrabb(

Qur'anicexpressionandphrasemeaningThisisbytheGraceofmyLord.
Hd()
aguide,onewhoguidesAMuslimnameforGodisTheGuide,orAlHadi.
adth(adth)pluralahdth
literally"speech"recordedsayingortraditionoftheProphetMuhammadvalidatedbyisnadwithsirathesecomprisethesunnahand
revealshariah
adthmashhr()
Wellknownhadithahadithwhichreportedbyone,two,ormoreCompanionsfromtheProphetsorfromanotherCompanion,buthas
laterbecomewellknownandtransmittedbyanindefinitenumberofpeopleduringthefirstandsecondgenerationofMuslims.
fi()
someonewhoknowstheQur'anbyheart.Literaltranslation=memorizerorProtector.
Haid|ai()
menstruation
)pluralujjj(
jj(
)andajj()
Pilgrim,onewhohasmadetheHajj.
ajj(
)andijjah(pluralsijjt(
)andijaj())
pilgrimagetoMecca.SunnisregardthisasthefifthPillarofIslam.SeeDhualHijjah.
ajjatTamattu()
performingUmrahduringtheHajjseason,andontheDayofTarwiahapilgrimgetsintothestateofIhramforHajj.Beforemaking
Umrah,approachtheMiqatanddeclaretheintention.Endbysacrificingananimal.
ajjalQirn()
AtMiqat,declareintentiontoperformbothHajjand'Umrahtogether.AfterthrowingtheJamrahofAl'Aqabah,andgettinghairshaved
orcutthattakeoffhisIhramgarmentsandsacrificeanimal.
ajjalIfrd()
AtMiqat,declareintentionforHajjonly.MaintainIhramgarmentsuptotheDayofSacrifice.Noofferingisrequiredfromhim.
kim()
aruler'sorgovernor'stitleinsomeMuslimstates,ajudge.SeeAhkam.
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kimya()
sovereignty,governance.
all()
lawful,permitted,good,beneficial,praiseworthy,honourable.(Seemustahabb,mandub)
alaqah()
AgatheringormeetingfortheprimarypurposeoflearningaboutIslam.
alq()
Shavingofthehead,particularlyassociatedwithpilgrimagetoMecca[4]
anf()
preIslamicnonJewishornonChristianmonotheists.Plural:unaf'().
)
aqq(
truth,reality,right,righteousness.AlHaqqisoneof99namesofGod.
arm()
sinful
aram()
sanctuary.
asan()
Good,beautiful,admirable.Alsoacategorizationofahadith'sauthenticityas"acceptable".(othercategorizationsincludeauthenticand
fabricated).
Hawa()(pl.ahw())
Vainoregotisticaldesireindividualpassionimpulsiveness.
Hidyah()
guidancefromGod.
ijb()
literally"cover".Itdescribesthecoveringofthebodyforthepurposesofmodestyanddignitybroadly,aprescribedsystemofattitudes
andbehaviourregardingmodestyanddignity.(Seeabayah,alamira,burqa,chador,jilbab,khimar,milfeh,niqab,purdah,shayla)
Hijra()
Muhammadandhisfollowers'emigrationfromMeccatoMedina.Literally,"migration".Thisholidaymarksthebeginningofthe
MuslimNewYearonthefirstdayofthemonthofMuharram.SeeRabi'alawwalandabbreviationAH.
ikmah()
Literallythismeans"wisdom"andreferstothehighestpossiblelevelofunderstandingattainablebyaMuslim.Inparticular,itrefersto
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theilluminative,mysticalsortofwisdomthataGnosticorSufimightattain.
Hill()
Crescentmoon.
ima()
wildernessreserve,protectedforest,grazingcommonsaconceptofstewardship
izb()
Onehalfofajuz',orroughly1/60thoftheQur'an
Hud()
Guidance.
Hudna()
Truce.Ceasefire(oftentemporary)
udd()(sing.hadd)
Literally,limitsorboundaries.UsuallyreferstolimitsplacedbyAllahonmanpenaltiesoftheIslamiclaw(sharia)forparticularcrimes
describedintheQur'anintoxication,theft,rebellion,adulteryandfornication,falseaccusationofadultery,andapostasy.(Seeta'zeer)
ukm()
rulingintheQur'anorSunnah.AlsospelledHukum.
r(ryapl.ryt)
beautifulandpureyoungmenandwomenthatMuslimsbelieveinhabitParadise,orHeaven.

I
Ibdah()
submission,worship,butnotlimitedtoritual:allexpressionsofservitudetoAllah,includingthepursuitofknowledge,livingapious
life,helping,charity,andhumility,canbeconsideredibadah.
Ibls()
ajinnbanishedtoHellforhisarroganceanddisobedienceakaSatan:HeistheequivalentofLucifer.
Id()
festivalorcelebration.AlternativelytransliteratedEid.
IdulAdha()
"theFestivalofSacrifice."ThefourdaycelebrationstartingonthetenthdayofDhulHijja.
IdulFitr()
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"theFestivalofFitr(Breakingthefast)."AreligiousfestivalthatmarkstheendofthefastofRamadan.
Ifr()
amealeatenbyMuslimsbreakingtheirfastaftersunsetduringthemonthofRamadan.
Irm()
stateofconsecrationforhajj.Includesdressandorprayer.
Isn()
perfectioninworship,suchthatMuslimstrytoworshipGodasiftheyseeHim,andalthoughtheycannotseeHim,theyundoubtedly
believeHeisconstantlywatchingoverthem.
Itiy()
AlsoAhwat.APrecaution,eitherobligatoryoroptional.[5]
Itiymustaabb()

Apreferredprecaution.[5]
Itiywjib()
Anobligatoryprecaution.[5]
Ijz()
miracle,thecharacteroftheQur'aninbothformandcontent.
Ijzah()
acertificateauthorizingonetotransmitasubjectortextofIslamicknowledge
Ijm'()
theconsensusofeithertheummah(orjusttheulema)oneoffourbasesofIslamicLaw.Moregenerally,politicalconsensusitself.
Shi'asubstituteobediencetotheImamoppositeofikhtilaf
Ijtihd()
DuringtheearlytimesofIslam,thepossibilityoffindinganewsolutiontoajuridicalproblem.Hasnotbeenallowedinconservative
IslamsincetheMiddleAges.However,LiberalmovementswithinIslamgenerallyarguethatanyMuslimcanperformijtihad,giventhat
Islamhasnogenerallyacceptedclericalhierarchyorbureaucraticorganization.Theoppositeofijtihadistaqlid(),Arabicfor
"imitation".
Ikhtilf()
disagreementamongthemadhhabs(scholars)ofareligiousprincipleoppositeofijma.
Ikrm()
honouring,hospitality,generosityDhuljalaaliwalikraamisoneofthe99namesofAllah.
Ikrh()
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mentalorphysicalforce.
Ilh()
deity,agodincludinggodsworshipedbypolytheists.
Ilm()
allvarietiesofknowledge,usuallyasynonymforscience
Imm()
literally,leadere.g.amanwholeadsacommunityorleadstheprayertheShi'asectusethetermonlyasatitleforoneofthetwelve
AllahappointedsuccessorsofProphetMuhammad.
Immah()orimamate
successorshipofProphetMuhammadandtheleadershipofmankind.
Imn()
personalfaith


Innalilhiwainnailaihirjin(

ToAllahwebelongandtoHimisourreturnsaidtomourners
Infq()
thehabitualinclinationtogiveratherthantakeinlifethebasisforcharity
Injl()
ArabictermfortheholybookcalledTheGospelsaidtohavebeengiventoJesus,whoisknownasIsainArabicMuslimsbelievethe
holybookhasbeenlostandtheNewTestamentgospels(Matthew,Mark,Luke,andJohn)arenotthewordofAllah,onlyChristian
storiesaboutJesus.
Inshallh()
"IfGodwills"Inshallahis"resigned,accepting,neutral,passive.Itisneitheroptimisticnorpessimistic."[1]
(http://www.theamericanscholar.org/inshallah/)[2](http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/inshallah)
Iqmah()
thesecondcalltoprayer.Similartotheazhan.
Irtidd()
apostasy(seemurtadd).Alsoriddah
s()
Jesus'IsaibnMaryam(English:JesussonofMary),(amatronymicsincehehadnobiologicalfather).TheQur'anassertsthatAllah
hasnosonsandtherefore,'IsaisnotthesonofAllah.Muslimshonor'Isaasanabiandrasul.
Ish'()
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nightthefifthsalatprayer
Il()
"reform".Thistermmaymeanverydifferentthings,dependingonthecontext.WhenusedinreferencetoreformofIslam,itmaymean
modernism,suchasthatproposedbyMuhammadAbduhorSalafiliteralism,suchasthatpreachedbyMuhammadNasiruddinal
Albani[6]
Islm ()
"submissiontoGod".TheArabicrootwordforIslammeanssubmission,obedience,peace,andpurity.
Isnd()
chainoftransmittersofanygivenhadith
Isr()
thenightjourneyduringwhichMuhammad(
)issaidtohavevisitedHeaven.Seemiraj.
Istighfr()
requestingforgiveness
Istidah()
vaginalbleedingexceptHaidandNifas
Istil()
publicinterestasourceofIslamicLaw.
Istishhd()
martyrdom.
Ithm()
Negativerewardforbaddeedsthatistalliedonqiyamah(judgmentday.)Oppositeofthawab.
Itikf()
seclusioninthemasjidforthepurposeofworshipusuallyperformedduringthelast10daysofRamadan.
Itmmalhujjah()
clarificationoftruthinitsultimateform.

J
Jiz()
Thatwhichisallowedorpermissible.Asarule,everythingthatisnotprohibitedisallowed.(Seehalal,mustahabb,mandub)
Jahannam()
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theHellfireHell
Jhilyyah(
)
thetimeofignorancebeforeIslamwasrealized.Describespolytheisticreligions.
Jahl()
ignorance,foolishness.
Jalsasitting
Jmiah()
"gathering"i.e.auniversity,amosque,ormoregenerally,acommunityorassociation.
Janbah()
Astateofspiritualimpuritythatoccurduetosexualintercourseorejaculationandnecessitatesmajorritualablution(ghusl),
Janzah()
Funeral.altalJanzahisafuneralprayer.
Jannah()
Paradise,Heaven,theGarden
Jazkallhukhayran(
)

"MayGodrewardyouwithgood."Islamicexpressionofgratitude.
Jihd()
struggle.AnyearneststrivinginthewayofGod,involvingpersonal,physical,forrighteousnessandagainstwrongdoing
Jihdaaghr()
Offensivejihaddeclaredbycaliph.
Jihdaalab()
Offensivejihad.
Jihdaddafa()
Defensivejihad.
Jihdbilml()
Financialjihad.
Jihdbissaif()
literally'strugglebythesword'holywar.
Jilbb()
(pl.jalabib)along,flowing,garmentwornbysomeasamoreconservativemeansoffulfillmentofsartorialhijab.(Seealso:abaya.
burka,chador)

Jinn()
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Aninvisiblebeingoffire
Jizya()
AtaxspecifiedintheKoran(9:29)tobepaidbynonMuslimmaleslivingunderMuslimpoliticalcontrol.
Juhud
Todeny.Jaahid(thedenier).Disbeliefoutofrejection.Whentherecomestothemthatwhichthey[should]haverecognized,theyrefuse
tobelievein(kafaru)it.(2:89)Accordingly,juhudincludesrejection(kufrattaktheeb)andresistance(kufral'inaad)
Jumuah()
Fridayprayer
Junub()
anuncleanstateofbodyasinbreakingWudu
Juz()
oneofthirtypartsoftheQur'an

K
Kabah()
cubehousethecubeshapedbuilding,i.e.,inMeccatowardwhichMuslimspray.
Kfir(kfirsing.
kuffrpl.)
fromthewordkafara,"tohide."Thosewhodeliberatelyhidethetruthunbelievers,truthconcealersonewhoisungrateful.Plural:
Kfirn.Extremecareoughttobetakenwiththisword,asitiswas(andis)occasionallymisusedasanoffensivetermforblackpeople
bywhiteSouthAfricans.
Kalm()(ilmalkalm)
Literally,"words"or"speech,"andreferringtooration.Thenameappliedtothedisciplineofphilosophyandtheologyconcerned
specificallywiththenatureoffaith,determinismandfreedom,andthenatureofthedivineattributes.
Khair()
Everykindofgood
Khalfah()
Caliph,moregenerally,oneperformingthedutiesofkhilafa.
Khall()
devotedfriend
Khalq()
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Creationtheactofmeasuringdetermining,estimatingandcalculating.Khalqisthenounformoftheverbkhalaqa(seebara,
sawwara).
Alkhliq()
TheCreator,Allah.
Khamr()
Intoxicant,wine.
Khatb()
thespeakerattheFridayMuslimprayer,orJumu'ahprayer.
Khatm()
CompleterecitationoftheQur'an.
Kharj()
alandtax.
Khayr
goodness.Seebirr(righteousness)Seeqist(equity)See'adl(equilibriumandjustice)Seehaqq(truthandright)Seema'ruf(knownand
approved)Seetaqwa(piety.)
khilf()
Controversy,dispute,discord.
Khilfah()
Man'strusteeshipandstewardshipofEarthMostbasictheoryoftheCaliphateFloraandfaunaassacredtrustAccountabilitytoGod
forharmstonature,failuretoactivelycareandmaintain.ThreespecificwaysinwhichkhalifaismanifestedinMuslimpracticearethe
creationofharamtoprotectwater,himatoprotectotherspecies(includingthoseusefultoman),andbyresistinginfideldominationover
Muslimlands,injihad.
alkhulafarrshidn()
fourfirstcaliphs,believedbymostMuslimstobemostrighteousrulersinhistory

Khimr()(pl.khumur(

)orakhmirah(
))
headcovering(Q.24:31).
Khitn()
Malecircumcision.
Khuluq(

)pl.akhlq()
ethics
Khush()
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humility,devotion,concentration(especiallyinprayer).
Khubah()
thesermonatJumu'ahprayer.
Kibr(

)
pride,arrogance
Kibar(

)
oldage
Kitb()
bookTheQurnisoftenreferredtoas"AlKitb"(TheBook).
Kufr()
Unbelief,infidelity,blasphemyalsohubris.SeeKafirandKuffar
Kufralukm()
Disbelieffromjudgment.
KufralInd()
Disbeliefoutofstubbornness
KufralInkr()
Disbeliefoutofarroganceandpride.
KufralIstibdl()
DisbeliefbecauseoftryingtosubstituteAllaah'sLaws.
KufralIstill()
DisbeliefoutoftryingtomakeHARAMintoHALAL.
KufrulIstihzaha
Disbeliefduetomockeryandderision
Kufraljahl()
Disbelieffromnotbeingawareofornotunderstanding.
Kufraljuhud()
Disbelieffromobstinacyafterbeingpresentedwithtruth.
KufranNifq()
Disbeliefoutofhypocrisy.
KufralIr()
Disbeliefduetoavoidance.
Kun()
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God'scommandtotheuniverse,'Be!'issufficienttocreateit.

Lilhaillllh(

"ThereisnogodbutGod."ThemostimportantexpressioninIslam.ItispartofthefirstpillarofIslam.Alsoisthemessageofallthe
Prophets,suchasAbraham,Moses,JesusandMuhammad.
)
Labbaykallhumma(

God,Iobeyyou(saidduringhajj)
Laghw()
Dirty,false,evilvaintalk
Lanah()
Curse,execration,orimprecation.
LaylatalQadr()
theNightofPower,towardstheendofRamadan,whenMuhammadreceivedthefirstrevelationoftheQur'an.

M
Madrasah()
school,university
Maghrib()
thefourthdailysalatprayer
Mahdi()
"aguide".MorespecificallyalMahdi(theguide)isafigurewhowillappearwithProphetJesusbeforetheendoftime,whenGod
allowsit,tobringworldpeace,orderandjustice,afterithasbeenovercomewithinjusticeandaggression.
Mahdraddamm()
hewhosebloodmustbewasted
Maram()
arelativeoftheoppositegenderusuallydescribedasbeing"withintheforbiddenlimits"abetterdescriptionis"withintheprotected
limits".meansrelativeswhoonecanappearbeforewithoutobservinghijabandwhoonecannotmarry.
Makrh()
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Means"detested",thoughnotharaam(forbidden)somethingthatisdislikedoroffensive.IfapersoncommitstheMakruh,hedoesnot
accumulateithimbutavoidingtheMakhruhisrewardedwiththawab.
Malikah()
angels(Sing.Malak).Itwasoneofthesemala'ika,Jibril(Gabriel)whodeliveredAllah'srevelationtoMuhammad.
Mmalakataymnukum()
one'srightfulspouse(literally:whatyourrighthandspossess)
Mansik()
therulesspecifyingtherequirementsofalegallyvalidhajj
Mandb()
commendableorrecommended.Failuretodoitwouldnotbeasin.(Seehalalmustahabb)
Manhaj()
themethodologybywhichtruthisreached[7]
Manskh()
Thatwhichisabrogated.ThedoctrineofalNasikhwalMansukh(abrogation)ofcertainpartsoftheQur'anicrevelationbyothers.The
principleismentionedintheQur'an(2:106)seenaskh
Manzil()
oneofsevenequalpartsoftheQur'an
Marf()
consensusofthecommunity
Maqid()sing.maqid()
goalsorpurposessuchasthepurposesofIslamiclaw
Mali()sing.malaah()
publicinterests
Mshallh()
Allahhaswilledit
Mas()
the(Biblical)Messiah,JesusChrist
Masjid()pl.masjid,
placeofprayermosque
Masjidalarm()
themosquesurroundingtheKabahinMecca.
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Madhhab()
pl.Madhhib()schoolofreligiousjurisprudence,schoolofthoughtMawaliormawala():NonArabMuslims
Mawl[mawlan(])[pl.mawlin(
])
protectorormaster
Mawln()
anArabicwordliterallymeaning"ourlord"or"ourmaster".Itisusedmostlyasatitleprecedingthenameofarespectedreligious
leader,inparticulargraduatesofreligiousinstitutions.ThetermissometimesusedtorefertoRumi.
Maulvi()
anhonorificIslamicreligioustitleoften,butnotexclusively,giventoMuslimreligiousscholarsorUlemaprecedingtheirnames.
Maulvigenerallymeansanyreligiousclericorteacher
Mecca(
Makkah)
theholiestcityinIslam
Medina(Madnah)
"city"MedinatunNabimeans"theCityoftheProphet."SeeHijra(Islam)
Mi'd()
theResurrectionGodwillresurrectallofhumankindtobejudged.Shi'asregardthisasthefifthPillarofIslam.
Mirb()
anicheinthewallofallmosques,indicatingthedirectionofprayer
Millah(
)

InArabic,millahmeans"religion,"butithasonlybeenusedtorefertoreligionsotherthanIslam,whichisdin.
Millet
(seeMillah)(Turkishwordalsomeaninganation,community,orapeople).InanIslamicstate,"AhlalKitab"maycontinuetopractice
theirformerreligioninasemiautonomouscommunitytermedthemillet.
Minaret()
atowerbuiltontoamosquefromthetopofwhichthecalltoprayerismade
Minbar()
araisedpulpitinthemosquewheretheImamstandstodeliversermons
Minhaj()
methodology,e.g.methods,rules,system,procedures.
Mqt()
intendedplace
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Mirj()
theAscensiontotheSevenHeavensduringtheNightJourneySeealso:isra
Muadhdhin()
apersonwhoperformsthecalltoprayer
Muhadt()
treaties
Muawwidhatayn()
surasAlFalaqandanNas,the"Surahsofrefuge",shouldbesaidtorelievesuffering(alsoprotectfromBlackMagic)
Mub()
literallypermissibleneitherforbiddennorcommended.Neutral.(Seehalal)
Mubaligh()
personwhorecitesQur'an
Muft()
anIslamicscholarwhoisaninterpreterorexpounderofIslamiclaw(Sharia),capableofissuingfataawa(pluralof"fatwa").
Muajabah()
womanwhowearshijab(politeformofhijabi).
Muhakkamat
unequivocalversesofQur'an.(Seemutashabehat.)
Muribah()
apersonwhowageswaragainstGod
Muammadunraslallh(
)
"MuhammadisthemessengerofGod."ThisstatementisthesecondpartofthefirstpillarofIslam.Thisisthesecondmostimportant
statementinIslam.
Mufsid()
evildoerapersonwhowagesjihad(war)notinaccordancewiththeQur'an.Pluralmufsideen.
Musin()
apersonwhoperformsgooddeed.Pluralmuhsineen.OppositeofMufsidun.
Muhjirn()
ThefirstMuslimsthataccompaniedMuhammadwhenhetraveledtoMedina.
Muhariq()
heretic.
Mujhid()
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afighterforIslam.PluralMujhidn().
Mujtahid()
ascholarwhousesreasonforthepurposeofforminganopinionormakingarulingonareligiousissue.Plural:Mujtahidun.
Mullah()
areIslamicclergy.Ideally,theyshouldhavestudiedtheQur'an,Islamictraditions(hadith),andIslamiclaw(fiqh).
Mumin()
AMuslimwhoobservesthecommandmentsoftheQur'an.
Munfiq()
hypocrite.Plural:Munafiqun
Muntaqabah()pl.muntaqabt()
womanwhowearsniqab
Murbaah()
atypeofshariacompliantmortgage(seeIjara)
Murshid()
aSufiteacher
Murtadd()femaleapostateisMurtaddah
apostate(seeirtidadseemahduraddamm.)
Muaf()
acopy,codexorredactionoftheQur'an.
Mushrik(()pl.mushrikn)()
OnewhoassociatesothersinworshipwithGodapolytheist.
Muslim()
afollowerofthereligionofIslam.OnewhosubmitstheirwilltoAllah(God)
Mustaabb()

commendableorrecommended.(Seehalal,mandub)
Mutah()
literallyenjoymentcompensationpaidtoadivorcedwomanwhenusedinthephrasenikalmutah()itreferstotemporary
marriage.
Mutashbiht()
equivocalversesofQur'an.(SeeMuhakkamat.)
Mutaaibn(
)
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fanatics
Muawwa()pluralmuawwan(
)

religiousmanincertainregions,avolunteerteacher
Muawwan()()(singularmuawwa)

Religiouspolice.
Mutawtir()
"agreedupon"usedtodescribehadiththatwerenarratedbymanywitnessesthroughdifferentnarrationchains(isnads)leadingbackto
Muhammad

N
Nab()
literally,prophets.IntheIslamiccontext,aNabiisamansentbyGodtogiveguidancetoman,butnotgivenscripture.TheProphet
AbrahamwasaNabi.ThisisincontrasttoRasul,orMessenger.Plural:Anbiya.See:Rasul.
Nafs()
soul,thelowerself,theego/id
Nfilah()
Anoptional,supererogatorypracticeofworship,incontrasttofarida
Najsah()
Impurity
Njis()
impure
NakrandMunkar()
twomalaikahwhotestthefaithofthedeadintheirgraves
Naa()
advice
Naskh()
ThedoctrineofalNasikhwalMansukh(abrogation)ofcertainpartsoftheQur'anicrevelationbyothers.Theprincipleismentionedin
theQur'an(2:106)seemansukh.

Na()
aknown,clearlegalinjunction
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Nifs()
thebleedingafterchildbirth(seeHaid)
Nifq()
falsehooddishonestyhypocrisy
Nik()
thematrimonialcontractbetweenabrideandbridegroomwithinIslamicmarriage
Niqb()
veilcoveringtheface
Niyyah()
intention
Nubwwah()

prophethood.Shi'asregardthisasthethirdPillarofIslam.
Nukrah
agreatmunkarprohibited,evil,dreadfulthing.
Nr()
light.Muslimsbelieveangelswerecreatedfromlightandjinnfromfire.

P
P.B.U.H.
anacronymthatstandsfor"peacebeuponhim"ablessingwhichisaffixedtoMuhammad'snamewheneveritiswritten.Insomecircles
andEnglishwritings,SufisregardPBUHtosignify"PeaceandBlessingsUponHim"(theRasulorMessengerofAllah).Thesearethe
primaryEnglishexplicationsoftheP.B.U.H.acronym.TheArabicversionisS.A.W.
Prophet
ApersonwhohashadmessagesfromAllah.(seenabi).

Q
Qadhf()
falseimputationofunchastityspecificallypunishedbysharia.
Qadar()
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predestination.
Q()
judgeofIslamicLaw
Qalb()
Heart
Qiblah()
thedirectionMuslimsfaceduringprayer
Qitlfsablallh()
fightinthecauseofAllah.
Qiymah()
resurrectionreturnofthedeadfortheDayofJudgment
Qi()
equitableretributionafineformurderiftheheirsforgivetheperpetrator.(Seehudud,tazeer)
Qiym()
tostand,apositionofsalatprayer
Qiys()
analogyfoundationoflegalreasoningandthusfiqh
Quds()
classificationofahadiththatarebelievedtobenarratedbyMuhammadfromGod.
Qurbah()
closenesstoGod.TermisassociatedwithSufism.
Qurn()
ThewordQur'anmeansrecitation.MuslimsbelievetheQur'an(Koran)tobetheliteralwordofGodandtheculminationofGod's
revelationtomankind,revealedtoprophetMuhammadintheyearAD610inthecaveHirabytheangelJibril.

R
Rabb()

Lord,Sustainer,Cherisher,Master.
R.A.,raiyallhuanhu()
MayAllahbepleasedwithhim.Variantsareanh(her)andanhum(them).
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Ramn()
MercifulArRahman()means"TheMostMerciful"
Ram()
compassionateArRahim()means"TheMostCompassionate"asintheBasmala
Rajm()
thepracticeofstoning
Rakah()
oneunitofIslamicprayer,orSalat.Eachdailyprayerismadeupofadifferentnumberofraka'ah.
Raman()
monthoffastingwhentheQur'anwasfirstrevealed
Rshidn()
Sunnisconsiderthefirstfourcaliphsasthe"orthodox"or"rightlyguided"caliphs.TheywereAbuBakr,'Umar,'Uthmanand'Ali.
Rasl()
messengerUnlikeprophets(Nabi),messengersaregivenscripture.Moses(as),David(as),Jesus(as)andMohammed(as)are
consideredmessengers.Allmessengersareconsideredprophets,butnotallprophetsaregivenscripture.See:Nabi.
Riba()
interest,thechargingandpayingofwhichisforbiddenbytheQur'an
Ribat
GuardingMuslimsfrominfidels
Riddah()
apostasy,inwhichapersonabandonsIslamforanotherfaithornofaithatall.
Rislah(

literally,messageorletter.Usedbothincommonparlanceformailcorrespondences,andinreligiouscontextasdivinemessage.
R()
spiritthedivinebreathwhichGodblewintotheclayofAdam.
Rukn()pluralArkn()
meanswhatisinevitable.OneofthefivepillarsofIslam.(Seefard,wajib)
Ruk()
thebowingperformedduringsalat.

S
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Sabb(

)
blasphemy:insultingGod(sabbAllah)orMuhammad(sabbarraslorsabbannab).
abr()
patience,endurance,selfrestraint
adaqah()
charityvoluntaryalmsabovetheamountforzakat.
abah()(sing.ib)()
companionsofMuhammad.AlistofthebestknownCompanionscanbefoundatListofcompanionsofMuhammad.
()
"Soundinisnad."Atechnicalattributeappliedtothe"isnad"ofahadith.
Saknah()
divine"tranquility"or"peace"whichdescendsuponapersonwhentheQur'anisrecited.
Salaf()
(righteous)predecessors/ancestors.InIslam,SalafisgenerallyusedtorefertothefirstthreegenerationsofMuslims.Anyonewhodied
afterthisisoneofthekhalafor"latterdayMuslims".
alt()sala(t)
anyoneofthedailyfiveobligatoryprayers.SunnisregardthisasthesecondPillarofIslam
SalaatalIstikharah
Prayerforguidanceisdoneinconjunctionwithtworakaahsofsupererogatoryprayer.
Salm()
peace(seesulh)
Sallallahualayhiwasallam()
"MayAllahblesshimandgranthimpeace."TheexpressionshouldbeusedafterstatingProphetMuhammad'sname.Seeabbreviation:
S.A.W.orS.A.W.S.alsoP.B.U.H.
amad()
eternal,absoluteMuslimsbelieveAllahis"TheEternal."
Salsabl()
ariverinheaven(alfirdaus)
Sawa
awakening,revival
S.A.W.(orS.A.W.S.)
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Sallallahualayhiwasallam().SeeP.B.U.H.
awm(
)
fastingduringthemonthofRamadhan.ThewordsawmisderivedfromSyriacsawmo.
Sayyid(
)
(ineverydayusage,equivalentto'Mr.')adescendantofarelativeofMuhammad,usuallyviaHusayn.
Sema
refertosomeoftheceremoniesusedbyvarioussufiorders
Shahdah()
Thetestimonyoffaith:LailahaillaAllah.Muhammadunrasulullah.("ThereisnogodbutAllah.Muhammadisthemessengerof
Allah.").SunnisregardthisasthefirstPillarofIslam.AlsomaybeusedasasynonymforthetermIstish'hdmeaningmartyrdom.
Shahd()pl.shuhad()
witness,martyr.Usuallyreferstoapersonkilledwhilstfightingin"jihdfsablAllh"(jihadforthesakeofAllah).Oftenusedin
moderntimesfordeathsinapoliticalcause(includingvictimsofsoldiers,deathsinbattle,etcetera)whichareviewedbysomeMuslims
asaspiritualcausenotjustapoliticalcause.ButtherealmeaningofJihadistodefendIslaminanywaythus,itcouldbeinan
economicwayorcouldrefertofightingfortherightsoftheoppressedorthebelieversmostoftenitreferstomasteringone'sown
inclinationforevilandshirk.
Shaykh()
aspiritualmaster,Muslimclergy
Sharah()
"thepathtoawateringhole"theeternalethicalcodeandmoralcodebasedontheQur'anandSunnahbasisoffiqh
Sharf()
atitlebestoweduponthedescendantsofMuhammadthroughHasan,sonofhisdaughterFatimaZahraandsoninlawAliibnAbiTalib
Shayn()
Satan,theDevilalsoknownasIblis
Shah()
AbranchofIslamwhobelieveinImamAliandhissons(HassanandHussayn)ascustodiansofIslambythewilloftheProphet
Mohammed.
Shirk()
idolatrypolytheismthesinofbelievinginanydivinityexceptGodandofassociatingothergodswithGod.
Shr()
consultation
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Majlisashshr()
advisorycouncilinaCaliphate
SidratalMuntaha()
alotustreethatmarkstheendoftheseventhheaven,theboundarywherenocreationcanpass.
Srah()
lifeorbiographyoftheProphetMuhammadhismoralexamplewithhadiththiscomprisesthesunnah
airalmustaqm()
theStraightPath
SubahSadiq
truedawn
Subnahuwatala(()abbreviatedS.W.T.)
expressionusedfollowingwrittennameorvocalizationofAllahinArabicmeaninghighlypraisedandglorifiedisHe.
Subnallh()
"GlorytoGod"thisphraseisoftenusedwhenpraisingGodorexclaimingaweatHisattributes,bounties,orcreation.
f()
aMuslimmysticSee:Sufism(tasawwuf).
Sur()
themealeatenbyfastingMuslimsjustbeforedawn.
Sujd()
kneelingdown,apositionofsalat.
ukk()
bondthatgeneratesrevenuefromsales,profits,orleasesratherthaninterest.
ul()
Aconditionofpeace,anarmistice,ortreaty.Itisrelatedtothewordmulaah()whichmeanspeace,conciliation,or
compromise.
Sunnah(
)orsunnatanNab(
)
the"path"or"example"oftheProphetMuhammad,i.e.,whattheProphetdidorsaidoragreedtoduringhislife.Heisconsideredby
Muslimstobethebesthumanmoralexample,thebestmantofollow.
Sunni(
)
thelargestdenominationofIslam.ThewordSunnicomesfromthewordSunnah(Arabic:),whichmeansthewordsandactionsor
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exampleoftheIslamicProphetMuhammad.
Srah()
chaptertheQur'aniscomposedof114suras

T
Tala()
Almighty
Tbin()|
followersoftheabah
Tafsr()
exegesis,particularlysuchcommentaryontheQur'an
ght()(taghout)
originallyAramaic,meaning"falsegod"alsotyranny.
Tahajjud(
)
optional(supererogatory),latenight(predawn)prayer
ahrah()
purificationfromritualimpuritiesbymeansofwuduorghusl
hir()
pure,rituallyclean
Tahll()
Utteringtheformulaoffaith:"Lilhaillllh",(i.e."ThereisnogodbutGod")
Tank()
'Tahnik'isanIslamicceremonyoftouchingthelipsofanewbornbabywithhoney,sweetjuiceorpresseddates.
Tarf()
corruption,forgery.MuslimsbelievetheBibleScriptureswerecorruptedbuttheQur'anisinitsoriginalform.
Tajdd()
topurifyandreformsocietyinordertomoveittowardgreaterequityandjustice,literallymeaningtomakenewinpresenttense
Tajdf()
blasphemy
Tajwd()
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aspecialmannerofrecitingtheQur'anaccordingtoprescribedrulesofpronunciationandintonation.
Takful()
BasedonshariaIslamiclaw,itisaformofmutualinsurance.Seeretakaful.
Takbr()
aproclamationofthegreatnessofAllahaMusliminvocation.
Takfr()
declarationofindividualorgroupofpreviouslyconsideredMuslimaskaffir.
Takhrj()
Thescienceofhadithextractionandauthentication,includingvalidationofchainsoftransmittersofahadithbythisscience'sscholars
andgradinghadithvalidity.
Takweeni()
Ontological
alq()
divorce
Taqdr()
fate,predestination
Taqld()
tofollowthescholarlyopinionofoneofthefourImamsofIslamicJurisprudence.
Taqyyah(
)
aprinciplethatoneisallowedtohidehistruebeliefsincertaincircumstancesortolietosavehimselfofbeingkilledorharmedorto
furtherthecauseofIslam.
Taqwa()
righteousnessgoodnessPiety:TaqwaistakenfromtheverbeIttaqua,whichmeansAvoiding,FearingthepunishmentfromAllahfor
committingsins.ItispietyobtainedbyfearingthepunishmentofAllah.
Tarw()
extraprayersinRamadanaftertheIshaprayer.

Tarkb(

)
thestudyofArabicgrammarissuedfromtheQur'an
arqah()
aMuslimreligiousorder,particularlyaSufiorder
Tartl()
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slow,meditativerecitationoftheQur'an
Taawwuf()orSufism

Tasb()
Utteringtheformula:"SubhanAllah",i.e.(GlorybetoAllah)
Tashkl()
vocalizationofArabictextbymeansofdiacriticalmarks.AnintegralpartoftheArabicwritingsystem.Literallymeaningtoformor
arrange
Taslm()
salutationattheendofprayer
Tabr()
ShiaAshuraceremonyofselfflagellationbyhittingheadwithsword.
Tawakkul()
totalrelianceonAllah.
Tawassul(
)
askingAllahAlmightythroughthemediumandintercessionofanotherperson.
awf()
circumambulatingtheKa'bahduringHajj.
Tawfiq()
Divinehelpingettingtothepurposetoonewhodeserves.
Tawbah()
repentance
Tawd()
monotheismaffirmationoftheOnenessofAllah.MuslimsregardthisasthefirstpartofthePillarofIslam,thesecondpartisaccepting
Muhammadasrasoul(messenger).TheoppositeofTawheedisshirk
Tawrh()
theTorahasrevealedtoMusa(Moses.)
ayyib(

)
allthatisgoodasregardsthings,deeds,beliefs,persons,foods,etc.Means"pure."TheShahaddathistayyib.
Tazr()
DiscretionarypunishmentasentenceorpunishmentwhosemeasureisnotfixedbytheShari'ah.(Seehudud,qisas)
Tazkyah()
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PurificationoftheSoul.
Thawb()
Rewardforgooddeedsthatistalliedonqiyamah(judgmentday.)Oppositeofithim.
Tilwah()
ritualrecitationofpassagesoftheQur'an.
umannah()
stateofmotionlessness,calm

U
Ubdyah()
worship
Uyah()
sacrifice
Ulam()orulema
theleadersofIslamicsociety,includingteachers,Imamsandjudges.Singularalim.
Ummah(

)orumma
(literally'nation')theglobalcommunityofallMuslimbelievers
Umrah()
thelesserpilgrimageperformedinMecca.Unlikehajj,umrahcanbeperformedthroughouttheyear.
Uqbah()
thebranchofshariathatdealswithpunishment.(Seehudud,qisas,tazeer)
Urf()
customofagivensociety,leadingtochangeinthefiqh
Ul(
)(sing.al)()
Principles,origins.
UlalFiqh()
thestudyoftheoriginsandpracticeofIslamicjurisprudence(fiqh)

W
Waalaykumassalm()
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Wa'AlaykumasSalaam!,meaning"anduponyoubepeace".(seeAsSalamuAlaykum)
Waft()
death.(Barahwafat)MuhammadwasbornonthetwelfthdayofRabiulAwwal,thethirdmonthoftheMuslimyear.Hisdeath
anniversaryalsofallsonthesameday,theword'barah'standingforthetwelvedaysofMuhammad'ssickness.
Wadatalwujd()
"unityofbeing".PhilosophicaltermusedbysomeSufis.Relatedtofanaa
Way()
revelationorinspirationofGodtoHisprophetsforallhumankind
Wahn()
literalmeaningis"weakness"or"feebleness".Accordingtoonehadith,[8]theProphetexplaineditas"loveoftheworldanddislikeof
death"
Wjib()
obligatoryormandatoryseefard
Wal()
friend,protector,guardian,supporter,helper
Waqf()
Anendowmentofmoneyorproperty:thereturnoryieldistypicallydedicatedtowardacertainend,forexample,tothemaintenanceof
thepoor,afamily,avillage,oramosque.Plural:awqaf
Warrq()

traditionalscribe,publisher,printer,notaryandbookcopier
Wasa()
themiddleway,justlybalanced,avoidingextremes,moderation
Waslah()
themeansbywhichoneachievesnearnesstoAllah(seetawassul)
Witr()
avoluntary,optionalnightprayerofoddnumbersrakaats.
Wu()
ablutionforritualpurificationfromminorimpuritiesbeforesalat(seeghusl)

Y
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YAllh()
O,God!
YaRaslAllh()
O,MessengerofGod!.TermusedbycompanionswheninteractingwithProphetMohammad.
YajjwaMajj()
GogandMagog
Yaqn()
certainty,thatwhichiscertain
YaramukAllh()
"MayGodhavemercyonyou",saidwhensomeonesneezesthesameas"(God)blessyou"inEnglish
AllhYaramuhu(),fem.yaramuh()
"MayGodhavemercyofhis/hersoul",(saidwhensomeonedies)
YawmadDn()
DayofReckoning,Awe
YawmalGhaab()
DayofRage,Wrath
YawmalQiymah()
"DayoftheResurrection"DayofJudgement

Z
Zabr()
thePsalmsrevealedtoKingDaoud(David)

Zaba(Dhabah)(

)seedhabiha
Islamicmethodofslaughteringananimal.Usingasharpknifetheanimal'swindpipe,throatandbloodvesselsoftheneckaresevered
withoutcuttingthespinalcordtoensurethatthebloodisthoroughlydrainedbeforeremovingthehead.Seehalal
hir()
Exteriormeaning
Zaidi()
IslamicsubsectofShi'ah,popularlyfoundinYemen,withsimilaritiestoSunni
Zakt(),AlMl
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tax,alms,titheasaMuslimdutySunnisregardthisasthefourthPillarofIslam.NeithercharitynorderivedfromIslamiceconomics,
butareligiousdutyandsocialobligation.
ZaktalFir()
CharitygivenattheendofRamadan.
limn()
polytheists,wrongdoers,andunjust.
Zandaqa()
heresy
Zin(,)
sexualactivityoutsideofmarriage(coveringtheEnglishwordsadulteryandfornication)
Zindq()
heretic,atheist
Zulfiqar(Dhulfiqr)()
SwordofAli,presentedtohimbyMuhammad

Notes
Arabicwordsarecreatedfromthreeletter"roots"whichconveyabasicidea.Forexample,ktbconveystheideaofwriting.Addition
ofotherlettersbefore,between,andaftertherootlettersproducesmanyassociatedwords:notonly"write"butalso"book","office",
"library",and"author".TheabstractconsonantalrootforIslamisslm.
SomeIslamicconceptsareusuallyreferredtoinPersianorTurkic.Thosearetypicallyoflateroriginthantheconceptslistedherefor
completenessitmaybebesttolistPersiantermsandthoseuniquetoShi'aontheirownpage,likewiseTurkictermsandthoseuniqueto
theOttomanperiodontheirownpage,astheseareculturallyverydistinct.
Theword"crusade"inEnglishisusuallytranslatedinArabicas"amlahalbyah"whichmeansliterally"campaignofCrossholders"
(orclosetothatmeaning).InArabictextitis""andthesecondwordcomesfrom"alb"whichmeans"cross."
TheversesintheQur'anthatChristiansusuallyrefertoasjihdverseshavethephrase"Qitlfsablallh"(fightingforthesakeof
Allah).

Seealso
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99NamesofGod
ListofEnglishwordsofArabicorigin
ListofChristiantermsinArabic
ProphetsofIslam
Islamiceschatology
HistoryofIslam

References
1. SratalAnfl(http://corpus.quran.com/wordbyword.jsp?chapter=8&verse=1)corpus.quran.com
2. FirstlineinQurn(http://www.searchtruth.com/chapter_display.php?chapter=1&translator=2)
3. USCMSACompendiumofMuslimTexts(http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/053.sbt.html#004.053.384)
4. BakriH.S.AlAzzam.CertainTermsRelatingtoIslamicObservances:TheirMeaningswithReferencetoThreeTranslationsoftheQurananda
TranslationofHadith(http://books.google.com/books?id=lceqd9FKhsAC&pg=PA247).UniversalPublishers.p.247.ISBN9781599426686.
5. "TheIslamicglossary:Anexplanationofnames,termsandSymbols"(http://www.alislam.org/about/resources/glossary.html).Retrieved20071206.
6. HabibAliJifrionShaykhalButi(http://marifah.net/forums/index.php?showtopic=6815&#entry28132)Marifahforum
7. QuintanWiktorowicz.RadicalIslamrising:MuslimextremismintheWest.Rowman&Littlefield,2005.ISBN0742536416,ISBN97807425
36418.Pg18(http://books.google.com/books?
id=QSE_I47TtiwC&pg=PA18&dq=manhaj+methodology&hl=en&ei=MsIsTZX3BaCInAeXn5DpDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ve
d=0CDQQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=manhaj%20methodology&f=false)
8. hadithaboutwahn(http://www.searchtruth.com/searchHadith.php?
keyword=wahn&translator=3&search=1&book=&start=0&records_display=10&search_word=all)searchtruth.com

Furtherreading
SuzanneHaneef,WhatEveryoneShouldKnowaboutIslamandMuslims,(KaziPublications,Chicago),popularintroduction
MuzaffarHaleem,TheSunisRisingIntheWest,(AmanaPublications,Beltsville,MD1999).
ZiauddinSardar,MuhammadforBeginners,IconBooks,1994,somesloppiness,fromverymodernSufipointofview.
HansWehr,ADictionaryofModernWrittenArabic(SpokenLanguageServices,Ithaca,NY,1976).ed.J.MiltonCowan.ISBN0
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879500018.
IslamintheWorldbyMaliseRuthven(GantraPublications,2006)ISBN1862079064

Externallinks
[3](http://www.daadlanguage.com/index.php)freeexpressionswithaudio
VoicedDictionaryofIslamicandArabicKeyWords(http://majalla.org/souaiaia/ethics/dictionary/)
GlossaryofIslamicterms(http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/politics/glossaryofislamic
terms/2011/06/07/AGwm2oQH_story.html?nl_headlines)
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glossary_of_Islam&oldid=644240400"
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