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Problems

Introduction to
Well Testing

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April 2000

Problems

Exercise 1
Introduction to Well Testing
List 4 Objectives of Well Testing
List 4 objectives of well testing. List as many as possible without
referring to the notes.
1.

2.

3.

4.

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April 2000

Problems

Exercise 2
Introduction to Well Testing
Define Variables Used In Well Testing
Define, give the units for, and name a common source for each of
the following variables used in well testing. Complete as much of
this exercise as possible before referring to the notes.
1. Porosity
2. Water saturation
3. Total compressibility
4. Oil compressibility
5. Formation volume factor
6. Viscosity
7. Wellbore radius
8. Net pay thickness
9. Permeability

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April 2000

Problems

Exercise 3
Introduction to Well Testing
Calculate Compressibility for Undersaturated
Oil Reservoir
Calculate total compressibility for the following situation. Assume
solution gas/oil ratios do not include stock tank vent gas.
Undersaturated oil reservoir (above the bubblepoint)
Sw

= 17%, TDS = 18 wt %, oil gravity = 27API,

Rso

= 530 scf/STB, gas gravity = 0.85, Tf = 185F,

= 3500 psi, cf = 3.610-6 psi-1

Tsep = 75F, p sep = 115 psia


From fluid properties correlations,
pb

= 2803 psi

co

= 1.158 x 10-5 psi-1

cw

= 2.277 x 10-6 psi-1

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April 2000

Problems

Exercise 4
Introduction to Well Testing
Calculate Compressibility for Saturated
Oil Reservoir
Calculate total compressibility for the following situation. Assume
solution gas/oil ratios do not include stock tank vent gas.
Saturated oil reservoir (below the original bubblepoint)
Sw = 17%, Sg = 5%, TDS = 18 wt %, oil gravity = 27API,
Rso = 530 scf/STB, gas gravity = 0.85, Tf = 185F,
p = 2000 psi, cf = 3.610-6 psi-1
Tsep = 75F, p sep = 115 psia

From fluid properties correlations,

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pb

2803 psi

co

1.429 x 10-4 psi-1

cg

5.251 x 10-4 psi-1

cw =

4.995 x 10-6 psi-1

April 2000

Problems

Exercise 5
Introduction to Well Testing
Calculate Compressibility for Low-Pressure,
High-Permeability Gas Reservoir
Calculate total compressibility for the following situation. Assume a dry
gas.
Low-pressure, high-permeability gas reservoir
Sw = 20%, gas gravity = 0.74, Tf = 125F, p = 125 psi,
cf = 3.610-6 psi-1, cw = 4 x 10-6 psi [Tf is outside range of
correlations]

From fluid properties correlations,


cg

cw =

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8.144 x 10-3 psi-1


4x10-6 psi-1

April 2000

Problems

Exercise 6
Introduction to Well Testing
Calculate Compressibility for
High-Pressure, Low-Permeability
Gas Reservoir
Calculate total compressibility for the following situation. Assume a
dry gas.
High pressure, low permeability gas reservoir
Sw = 35%, TDS = 22 wt %, gas gravity = 0.67, Tf = 270F,
p = 5,000 psi, cf = 2010-6 psi-1

From fluid properties correlations,


cg

= 1.447 x 10-4 psi-1

cw = 3.512 x10-6 psi-1

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April 2000

Problems

Radial Flow and


Radius of Investigation

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April 2000

Problems

Exercise 1
Radial Flow and Radius of Investigation
Factors That Affect Radius of Investigation
Without looking at the notes, choose the correct response to complete each
statement. Check your answers by referring to the radius of investigation
equation.
A) increases
B) decreases
C) does not affect
1. Increasing viscosity __________________ the radius of investigation.
2. Increasing permeability __________________ the radius of investigation.
3. Increasing formation volume factor __________________ the radius of
investigation.
4. Increasing test time __________________ the radius of investigation.
5. Increasing production rate __________________ the radius of
investigation.
6. Increasing net pay thickness __________________ the radius of
investigation.
7. Increasing porosity __________________ the radius of investigation.
8. Increasing total compressibility __________________ the radius of
investigation.

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April 2000

Problems

10

Exercise 2
Radial Flow and Radius of Investigation
Calculate Radius of Investigation for an
Undersaturated Oil Reservoir
Calculate the time required to reach a radius of investigation of 745 feet
for the following situation. Use the data and results from Exercise 3 in the
section Introduction to Well Testing, with the following additional
information.
Undersaturated oil reservoir (above the bubblepoint)

0.17

1.06 cp

ct

1.36x10-5 psi-1

ko

250 md

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April 2000

Problems

11

Exercise 3
Radial Flow and Radius of Investigation
Calculate Radius of Investigation for a
Saturated Oil Reservoir
Calculate the time required to reach a radius of investigation of 745
feet for the following situation. Use the data and results from Exercise
4 in the section Introduction to Well Testing, with the following
additional information.
Saturated oil reservoir (below the original bubblepoint)

0.17

1.185 cp

ct

1.42 x 10-4 psi-1

kro

0.8

250 md (absolute permeability)

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April 2000

Problems

12

Exercise 4
Radial Flow and Radius of Investigation
Calculate Radius of Investigation for a
Low-Pressure, High-Permeability
Gas Reservoir
Calculate the time required to reach a radius of investigation of
745 feet for the following situation. Use the data and results from
Exercise 5 in the section Introduction to Well testing, with the
following additional information.
Low-pressure, high-permeability gas reservoir

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0.12

0.01151 cp

ct

6.52 x 10-3 psi-1

100 md

April 2000

Problems

13

Exercise 5
Radial Flow and Radius of Investigation
Calculate Radius of Investigation for a
High-Pressure, Low-Permeability
Gas Reservoir
Calculate the time required to reach a radius of investigation of 745
feet for the following situation. Use the data and results from
Exercise 5 in the previous section, with the following additional
information.
High-pressure, low-permeability gas reservoir

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0.04

0.02514 cp

ct

1.151 x 10-4 psi-1

0.08

April 2000

Problems

14

Characterizing
Damage and Stimulation

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April 2000

Problems

15

Exercise 1
Damage and Skin Factor Calculations
1. Calculate the additional pressure drop due to skin for a well
producing at 2,000 STB/D. Oil formation volume factor is 1.07
RB/STB, viscosity is 19 cp, permeability is 5400 md, net pay
thickness is 175 ft, skin factor is 11, and porosity is 1.2%.

2. Calculate the flow efficiency for the well in Problem 1, if the


average reservoir pressure is 1,800 psi and the flowing
bottomhole pressure is 1,600 psi.

3. Calculate the apparent wellbore radius for the well in Problem


1, if the bit diameter is 8 in.

4. Calculate the new skin factor if we create a 100-ft fracture in


the reservoir in Problem 1.

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April 2000

Problems

16

Semilog Analysis for


Oil Wells

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April 2000

Problems

17

Exercise 1
Determining permeability and skin factor
from a constant-rate flow test

The data summarized below were recorded during a pressure


drawdown test from an oil well. Estimate the effective
permeability to oil and the skin factor using the graphical analysis
technique for a constant-rate flow test.
q

= 250 STB/D

pi

= 4,412 psia

= 46 ft

= 12%

rw

= 0.365 ft

= 1.136 RB/STB

ct

= 17 x 10-6 psi-1

= 0.8 cp

Pressure Drawdown Test Data for Exercise 1


t
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
15

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pwf
3510.3
3492.7
3480.1
3462.4
3449.9
3440.2
3432.2
3422.5

t
18
24
30
36
48
60
72

pwf
3414.5
3402.0
3392.3
3384.3
3371.8
3362.1
3354.1

April 2000

Problems

18

Exercise 1
3600

Pressure, psi

3550

3500

3450

3400

3350

3300
1

10

100

Time, hrs

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April 2000

Problems

19

Exercise 2
Determining permeability and reservoir
pressure from buildup tests

A pressure buildup test was conducted on a well early in the life


of an oil reservoir having the properties summarized below. The
well was produced at a constant rate of 80 STB/D for 999 hours
prior to being shut in. Determine the effective permeability to oil,
the original reservoir pressure, and skin factor.
m
rw

= 2.95 cp
= 0.25 ft

ct = 15 x 10-6 psi-1
h = 32 ft

= 15%

B = 1.25 RB/STB

= 80 STB/D

tp = 999 hrs

pwf = 1847.8 psia

t
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
15

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HTR

Pressure Buildup Test Data


pws
t
HTR
2615.1
18
2623.9
24
2630.1
30
2638.9
36
2645.1
48
2649.9
60
2653.8
72
2658.6

pws
2662.5
2668.6
2673.3
2677.1
2683.1
2687.7
2691.4

April 2000

Problems

20

Exercise 2
2800

Pressure, psi

2750

2700

2650

2600

2550

2500
1000

100

10

Horner Time Ratio

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April 2000

Problems

21

Wellbore Storage

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April 2000

Problems

22

Exercise 1
Calculate WBS Coefficient For Single-Phase Liquid
Calculate the wellbore volume and WBS coefficient for a wellbore
filled with a single phase liquid. The well is 2600 ft deep and has 6
5/8, 24 lb/ft casing (5.921 ID). The bottomhole pressure is 1,690
psi. If the well is filled with water (cw = 4 x 10-6 psi-1) what is the
wellbore storage coefficient?

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April 2000

Problems

23

Exercise 2
Calculate WBS Coefficient For Rising Liquid Level
Calculate the cross-sectional area and wellbore storage
coefficient for a wellbore with a rising liquid level. The well is
2600 ft deep and has 6 5/8, 24 lb/ft casing (5.921 ID). the
bottomhole pressure is 750 psi. If the well has a column of water
of density 1.04 g/cm3, in it, what is the wellbore storage
coefficient?

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April 2000

Problems

24

Exercise 3
Calculate WBS Coefficient for Single-Phase Gas
A wellbore is filled with a single-phase gas. the well has 7200 ft
of 2 7/8 tubing (2.441 ID) and 375 ft of 6 5/8, 24 lb/ft casing
(5.921 ID). the average temperature in the wellbore is 155F,
and the average pressure is 2,775 psia. If the wellbore is filled
with gas having 0.77 gas gravity and 0.2% CO2, what is the WBS
coefficient?

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April 2000

Problems

25

Manual Log-log Analysis

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April 2000

Problems

26

Exercise 1
Pressure change, derivative, psi

1000

100

10

1
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Equivalent time, hr

Given the following data, analyze the data in the


log-log graph above.
q = 50 STB/D
h = 25 ft
Bo = 1.099 RB/STB

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= 27.6 %

rw = 0.36 ft

ct = 9.4 x 106 psi1

= 5.28 cp

April 2000

Problems

27

Exercise 2
Adjusted pressure change, derivative, psi

10000

1000

100

10
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Adjusted equivalent time, hr

Given the following data, analyze the data in the


log-log graph above.
qg = 5108 Mscf/D
h = 4.4 ft
Bgi = 0.781 RB/Mscf

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= 10 %
cti = 1.66 x 104 psi1

rw = 0.33 ft

gi = 0.0214 cp

April 2000

Problems

28

Exercise 3
Pressure change, derivative, psi

10000

1000

100

10
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Equivalent time, hr

Given the following data, analyze the data in the


log-log graph above.
q = 1200 STB/D
h = 26 ft
Bo = 1.52 RB/Mscf

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= 21.6 %

rw = 0.22 ft

ct = 16.6 x 106 psi1

= 0.29 cp

April 2000

Problems

29

Exercise 4
Adjusted pressure change, derivative, psi

10000

1000

100

10
0.1

10

100

1000

10000

Adjusted equivalent time, hr

Given the following data, analyze the data in the


log-log graph above.
qg = 380 Mscf/D
h = 6 ft
Bgi = 0.744 RB/Mscf

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= 18 %
cti = 1.24 x 104 psi1

rw = 0.3 ft

gi = 0.024 cp

April 2000

Problems

30

Flow Regimes and


the Diagnostic Plot

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April 2000

Problems

31

Exercise 1
Flow Regimes and the Diagnostic Plot
FLOWREGM.WTD (Diagnostic Plot)
1000

Adjusted pressure change, psi

100

10

0.1

0.01
0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

1000

10000

Radial equivalent adjusted time, hr

Identify as many flow regimes as possible.

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April 2000