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PIA Press Release

Thursday, August 11, 2011


Rise in reported TB cases in CV due to public awareness to seek
consultation

by Fayette C. Rien
CEBU CITY, August 11 (PIA) -- The Department of Health (DOH-7) projected a five (5)
percent increase in tuberculosis cases in Central Visayas every quarter this year but
considered it as positive development saying that this could be due to public
awareness to seek early detection. The DOH has recently embarked on a massive
advocacy drive on TB prevention.
DOH-7 Nurse Coordinator of the National TB Program Jocelyn Tabotabo said a five
percent increase every quarter would mean new 50 TB cases for the past three
months.
"Consistent education campaign to the public to seek early medical consultation for
chronic cough and its partnership with the private hospitals and physicians bore
positive fruit as reflected in more reporting of new TB cases which can then be
treated immediately," Tabotabo explained.
In 2010, the DOH-7 recorded 12,032 TB cases the bulk of which come from Cebu
Province with 3,897 cases. Bohol followed with 2,157 cases while Negros Oriental had
1,954 TB cases and Siquijor with 175 reported cases.
The Cebu Province data excluded the cases in Cebu City which recorded 1,881 TB
cases followed by Mandaue City with 1,077 cases and lastly, Lapulapu City with 891
cases, this is learned.
TB is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality rate in Central Visayas but
in the national level, TB ranks sixth in leading cause of illness and deaths, Tabotabo
declared.
Tabotabo said that apart from their regular education and information campaign on
TB, they have also partnered with private physicians and hospitals for case detection
rate.
For private physicians, Tabotabo said they asked them to refer positive TB cases to
rural health units or barangay health centers because the government provides free
medicines for TB treatment.
But for private hospitals which have partnered with the DOH-7 in a program dubbed
Private-Public Mixed DOTS, these hospitals establish own TB unit where they
provide free consultation and complete drug regimen courtesy of the DOH-7, this is
said.
Tabotabo advised people with cough for more than two weeks to seek early medical
consultation in their nearest barangay health center because TB is treatable. Other
manifestations of the disease include fever, chest and back pain, hemoptysis and
sudden weight loss. (PIA-Cebu/mbcn/fcr)

CHAPITER III
METHODOLOGY
3 0 Introduction
This chapter explains methods and instruments used to collect, analyze and to test
the hypothesis the use of accounting ratios guides management as an effective tool
in decision making.(Kenneth R. HOOVER, 1988: 33) says the scientific method is the
method that seeks to test thoughts against reality in a disciplined manner with each
step in the process made explicit. This section covers the methods that the
researcher is going to use to obtain the necessary data to achieve the objective and
to come up with a suitable conclusion.
3 1 Research Design
Research design refers to outline, plan or strategy specifying the procedure to be
used in investigating the research problem. (Christensen, 1991: 269). In the due
course the researcher collects relevant data needed to test the researcher
hypothesis. The design of the study is analytical in nature.
3 1 1 The analytical research
According to (Jill and Roger Hussey, 1997: 11) the analytical research design is
continuation of the descriptive research. The researcher goes beyond merely
describing the characteristics to analyzing and explaining why and how it is
happening. Thus, this research aims to understand the use of accounting ratios by
measuring causal relation among them in decision making.
In this study the researcher adopted a case study approach, where by AMAZI YA
HUYE was particularly chosen. According to (CHRISTENSEN, 1991: 92), a case study is
an intensive description and analysis of single individual, organization or event,
based on information obtained from a variety of sources. It is in this regard AMAZI YA
HUYE was chosen because the researcher was interested in manufacturing
enterprises.
3 2 Population of the Study
As (Grinnell and Williams, 1990: 118), put it that, a population can be defined as the
totality of persons or objects with which a study is concerned. The population was
comprised sorely the staff managers and accountant of AMAZI YA HUYE, financial
statements and other records available of the 5 year period, which are from 20032007.
Table 3 1 Total population of Management and Accounting departments of AMAZI YA
HUYE Description Population Sample selected Technique used Basic for
selection
Managers 2 1 Universa The selection of the population was based on the role Total 9
Accountants l
of each personnel plays in decision
6
43
making
Cashier 3 2
Source: Primary data
3 3 Sources of Data

Data source refers to any material consulted or used in the due course of the study.
Both the primary and secondary data were used in the study.
3 3 1 Primary Data
As put forward by (HAGOOD and PRICE, 1952: 20) if a person or agency that has
published data has earlier been collected or supervised the collection of data, the
publication is called a primary source. (Audrey et al, 1989: 57) adds that primary
sources come straight from people or workers you are researching and therefore the
most direct kind of information you can
collect. That is the reason why primary data were first hand gathered by the
researcher himself as a result of the researcher's investigation.
3 3 2 Secondary Data
Roth further states that these are one step removed from the original and are often
an examination of a study someone else has made on a subject or an evaluation of
commentary, or summary of primary materials, journal articles, critical reviews are
the most common secondary sources.
The secondary sources of data for this study included financial statements, company
records, internet publications, library books and memoires.
3 4 Data Collection Techniques
Documentary review (library, internet search and financial statement) was used to
collect secondary data while primary data was obtained through interview guide
3 4 1 Documentary Review
A number of documents available in the library, on the internet, memoires and
financial statements of the company chosen as a case study, were consulted for the
purpose of obtaining secondary information relevant to the subject matter.
3 4 2 Document Analysis
(Paige Wilson, 1989:3) stated that a document analysis is a system which formally
acknowledges the sources consulted for researcher. The document review was
based on the consultation of the company's annual reports, journal and other
documents. The researcher used the balance sheets and income statements of the
five year period to analyze, interpret and comment on different types of accounting
ratios. The advantage of this method is that the researcher got useful information
about the company's financial health which would be difficult to acquire using other
instruments
3 4 3 Interview Guide
This technique involves exchange of ideas between the interviewer (researcher) and
the interviewee (managers) to get the opinion of the interviewee on the use of
accounting ratios in decision making. During the course of interview, notes were
taken after asking questions on any information relevant to the study by the
interviewer.
3 4 4 Sample size and selection
According to (William G. Cochran, 1997: 126) a sample is a part of population which is
deliberately selected for the purpose of investigation. For our case study, the sample
size is 6 people. The researcher selected two respondents from the top management
and four from financial executives. The researcher chooses them because they are
only respondents who can provide relevant information concerning the use of
accounting ratios n decision making (AMAZI YA HUYE as the case of the study).
3 5 Sampling technique
The sampling technique that the researcher will use in this study is universal
sampling. According to (Richard & Margaret, 1990: 125) Universal sampling refers to
the selection of sample where not all the people in the population have the same

profitability of being included in the sample and each one of them, the probability of
being selected is unknown.
The researcher preferred to use universal sampling technique to select respondents
from the top management and finance department because they are the ones who
may provide the useful information to test the hypothesis of this research.
3 6 Data processing and analysis
(Nachimias D. and Nichimias C., 1976: 143) argue that data processing and analysis
involves the transformation of data gathered from the field into a systematic
categories and the transformation of these categories into codes to enable
quantitative analysis and tabulation; the data collected was classified into a
meaningful manner for easy interpretation and understanding.
This involves preparing data collected into some useful, clear and understandable
data. The whole exercise involved calculations of different types of ratios to analyze,
liquidity, debt, efficiency, sales and profitability, compute the trend analysis and the
multiple discriminant analysis for the secondary sources.
While for the first hand information the researcher has summarized the recorded
interview (discussion).
3 7 Study limitations
Some limitations were encountered during the process of data collection; however
salutation were sought in order to make the findings of the study available as
planned. The following are the limitations that were encountered:
Financial constraints as funds provided by the National University for the research
were delayed.
Access to the financial statements of companies in Rwanda is not easy
Solutions to the above limitations:
The researcher has to borrow funds from friends and ask support to his family
members in order to accomplish the research in time
A letter of authorization from the university was used by the researcher as evidence
to the management staff of AMAZI YA HUYE to prove that the research is conducted
for the academic purpose

TB cases in Phl declining WHO

By Sheila Crisostomo (The Philippine Star) | Updated April 28, 2013 - 12:00am
MANILA, Philippines - The number of tuberculosis cases in the Philippines and three
other countries in Western Pacific has declined in the last 21 years, boosting the regions
efforts to meet the target to halve TB epidemic by 2015.
The World Health Organization (WHO) noted in its Global Tuberculosis Report 2012 that
the number of TB cases in the Philippines, China, Cambodia and Vietnam had been going
down from 1990 to 2011.
These four countries accounted for 93 percent of TB cases in the Western Pacific region,
and are also among the 22 high-burden countries for TB epidemic, which accounted for
more than 80 percent of global cases.
Since 1990, Cambodia has seen a 59 percent decrease in TB deaths and a 51 percent
decrease in the number of people with TB. Over the same period, Chinas TB deaths
decreased by 81 percent, while the number of Chinese with TB decreased by 52 percent,
the report said.
In the Philippines, TB deaths went down by 49 percent while the number of Filipinos
with TB decreased by 52 percent.
In Vietnam, the number of deaths decreased by 27 percent while the number of
Vietnamese who contracted the disease declined by 20 percent since 1990.
WHO said that Western Pacific is on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal
(MDG) target as cases also decreased in the region from an estimated 21 per 100,000 of
population in 1990 to 6.9 per 100,000 of population in 2011.
During the same period, the number of people with TB had gone down from 255 per
100,000 of population to 138 per 100,000 of population.
The number of new TB cases, on the other hand, decreased from 159 per 100,000 of
population in 1990 to 92 per 100,000 of population in 2011.
These milestones validate the strong efforts made by governments and dedicated health
workers with consistent technical support from WHO, said WHO regional director for
Western Pacific Shin Young-soo.

Shin added that the governments diligence, dedication and proficiency have saved
millions of lives.
But he cautioned against complacency, emphasizing that countries need to strengthen
their health systems to prevent the development and spread of TB, especially multidrugresistant TB (MDR-TB).
The report also highlights the success of Cambodia. Twenty years ago, the country had
one of the worlds highest TB rates and a health system weakened by decades of conflict
and economic hardship.
Over the past decade, universal access to TB care through primary health centers has
halved the number of new cases and helped Cambodia meet global targets for detection
and treatment, the report said.
At the core of Cambodias approach was the WHO-recommended Directly Observed
Therapy-Short Course (DOTS) strategy, with its emphasis on supporting TB patients as
they follow a six-month treatment regimen.
The strategy is a five-component package comprising political commitment, diagnosis
using sputum smear microscopy, a regular supply of first-line anti-TB drugs, short-course
chemotherapy, and a system for recording the number of cases detected by national TB
control programs and the outcomes of treatment.
The report also shows that between 1995 and 2011, 51 million people worldwide were
successfully treated for TB in countries that had adopted this strategy. This saved 20
million lives.
But the report emphasized that MDR-TB continues to be a threat to efforts to control TB.
MDR-TB is TB that does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most
powerful tuberculosis drugs. The primary cause of multidrug resistance is
mismanagement of TB treatment, the report pointed out.
Most people with TB are cured by strictly following a six-month drug regimen with
support and supervision. But inappropriate or incorrect use of antimicrobial drugs, or use
of ineffective formulations of drugs, can cause drug resistance.
Each year, more MDR-TB cases are being reported. In the region, an estimated 68,000
people were afflicted with MDR-TB in 2011, the report showed.
TB is an infectious bacterial disease that most commonly affects the lungs. It is
transmitted from person to person via droplets from the throat and lungs of people with
the active respiratory disease.

In healthy individuals, infection often causes no symptoms, since the persons immune
system acts to wall off the bacteria.
The symptoms of active TB of the lungs are coughing, sometimes with sputum or blood,
chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.

Pharmacists work towards stopping the spread


of Tuberculosis
World TB Day, 24 March 2009, is about celebrating the lives and stories of people
affected by TB: women, men and children who have taken TB treatment; pharmacists;
nurses; doctors; researchers; community workers--anyone who has contributed towards
the global fight against TB. (Read more about World TB Day 2009 and about the Stop TB
Partnership here )
Throught affected areas pharmacists have played an integral role in educating patients on
the disease and more importantly how to curb its spread. FIP is pleased to bring you an
article contributed by Manjiri Gharat and Tim Rennie on pharmacists' work in treating
and stopping tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis and the Role of Pharmacists

Tuberculosis
and the
Role of
Pharmacists
Tuberculosis (TB) today
remains an epidemic in much of the world, causing the deaths of several million people
each year, mostly in the developing countries. Twenty-two countries, mostly in South
East Asia and Africa, account for 80% of the TB cases in the world. Moreover, TB cases
are on the rise in many developed countries too, largely owing to migration and social
deprivation - a known predisposer to TB.
If TB disease is detected early and fully treated, people with the disease quickly become
non-infectious and usually cured. Resistance to antituberculous drugs - including
multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) - HIVassociated TB, and weak health systems are major challenges in healthcare.
Pharmacies seem to be globally ubiquitous. It would be pertinent to seize this valuable
resource worldwide in terms of what the pharmacy profession can offer to the patient. For
example, a service to provide Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) of TB in community

pharmacies is currently being implemented across North East London (UK) and in
Mumbai (India). This initiative aims to provide health expert led TB care that is more
convenient for patients where adherence is a challenge. It is also an excellent example of
public-private mix activity strengthening national TB control programmes. Benefits
include: expert medicines care and support, walk-in' centre convenience, and greater
patient choice. If TB is to be eradicated globally, greater efforts need to be directed
towards identifying and treating TB infection as well as swifter diagnosis of TB disease
to reduce the spread. This may be achieved with a concerted effort by community sector
involvement including pharmacists. Pharmacies are often the first port of call and can
play important role in TB control and eradication.
Pharmacists have a role in following capacity:
Creating awareness
1 Create awareness among all consumers about TB; distribution of TB information fact
cards/leaflets in local language
2 Display of posters about TB at prominent place in or outside of pharmacy; TB
awareness campaigns can be organized around World TB Day, 24th March each year, if
possible throughout the year
3 Creating awareness among the patients about access to care including free diagnosis
treatment facility
Case detection of pulmonary symptomatic cases and latent TB infection (LTBI):
1 Clinical suspicion - symptoms observation - and encouraging referral for efficient
diagnosis, education and advise regarding the spread of TB
2 Organising sputum test (microscopy) centres and Mantoux testing
Monitoring of treatment and supportive care:
1 Targeted and specific counselling on various aspects of treatment such as dosage
instructions, importance of treatment completion, side effects of drugs, nutrition during
TB, follow up with physician
2 Treatment monitoring to improve patient compliance (adherence) by keeping patient
records, telephonic or personal follow up
3 Monitoring of body weight on regular basis and keeping records
Participating in TB Control
as DOTS provider:
1 Active participation in
Governmental TB control
programme by becoming
DOTS provider after the
required training
2 Provision of DOTS
medicines, counselling, supportive care and monitoring at pharmacy
3 Maintaining documentation required for DOTS and rigorous follow-up in instances of
patient default from treatment

4 Continued communication with nearby Government centres/health posts through whom


patient was directed to Pharmacy
In order to perform the roles above, pharmacists will require training to ensure that they
are proficient in recognising symptoms of TB as well as side effects of TB medications,
diagnosis and treatment of TB, identification and referral of TB/LTBI patients where
necessary, and familiarity with the wider Government programmes and relevant
guidelines.
Pharmacy associations in different countries - especially those with a high burden of TB should take a lead in collaborating with Government TB authorities and organise training
programmes to motivate pharmacists for this socio-professional activity. Positive
experiences in Mumbai and London indicate that there is great potential for pharmacist
roles and, if integrated into TB control programmes, could make a significant
contribution to achieving the millennium development goals for TB control.
Author contacts:
Manjiri S Gharat,Hon.Secretary,Community Pharmacy Division, Indian Pharmaceutical
Association, Mumbai
Email :symghar@yahoo.com
Timothy Rennie, Research Fellow, FIPCC, School of Pharmacy
Email: timothy.rennie@pharmacy.ac.uk