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3.1 Meliputi kegiatan apa sajakah dalam setiap tahapan tersebut?

Sebutkan
rincian kegiatan pada setiap tahapan dan carilah pembanding rincian
kegiatan pada setiap kegiatan dari referensi lain.

Sumber : Modul Praktikum Manajemen Penelitian Sosek


Cara garis besar, terdapat 4 (empat) tahapan dalam kegiatan penelitian;

yaitu penetapan: (1) topik penelitian, (2) rancangan (design) penelitian, (3)
pelaksanaan (do) penelitian, dan (4) gambaran hasil penelitian. Sistematika
keseluruhan tahapan suatu penelitian kualitatif dan kuantitatif disajikan pada
Gambar 2. Pada pendekatan kuantitatif, keempat tahapan tersebut secara rinci
disajikan pada tersebut. Dari skema tesebut dapat diketahui kedudukan/posisi dari
literature review.

Dengan memperhatikan kotak define your research, terdapat sedikit


perbedaan tahapan dalam menyusun permasalahan peneliti antara pendekatan
kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Untuk penelitian kualitatif, perumusan masalah,

penyusunan kerangka konseptual, maupun pembuatan preposisi tidak harus salah


satu muncul
interaktif.

mendahului

Saling

yang

menajamkan

lainnya.

Mekanismenya

lebih

bersifat

dan menyempurnakan rumusan.

Peneliti

umumnya sepakat, bahwa kerja penelitian bermula dari masalah yang hendak
dipecahkan. Masalah tersebut memiliki rentangan dari yang samar sampai
pada

proposisi

yang merupakan

kesimpulan

sementara.

masalah

yang

disusun, bukan dari deduksi suatu perilaku sosial yang diverifikasi dari dunia
nyata, atas dasar asumsi a priori. Pada penelitian pendekatan kualitatif, tahapan
Design your research, do your research, dan describe your research tampak
secara

simultan

atau

berimpitan. Sedangkan pada pendekatan kuantitatif,

keempat blok tampak berurutan.

Sumber : Tull, D.S. and D.I. Hawkins. 1993. Marketing Research:


Measurement and Method. Sixth Edition. Macmillan Publishing
Company, New York
Step 1: Define The Research Problem
Specify the information required to help react to the management
problem. Research problem definition involves four interrelated steps:
1. Management problem/opportunity clarification
2. Situation analyses
3. Model development
4. Specification of information requirments
Step 2: Estimate the value of the information to be provided the research
Using either jugdement or the expected value approach, estimate the value
of information with varying levels of accuracy.

Sumber: Baker, T.L. 1988. Doing Social Research. McGraw-Hill Book


Company. Singapore.
Stage 1: Define the Research Topic
In your proposal the research topic should be posed in such a way
that it is clearly grounded in the general social field relevant to it. In short,
topics must be grounded in some already-known factual information
which in used introduce the topic and from which the research question
will stem.
Stage 2: Find Out What Is Known About The Topic
The beginning of this chapter has suggested ways for you ti
immers your self in material relevant to the topic you want to study. Social
research topics are usually embedded in so many different kinds of
materials that the researcher must be careful to select the best material to
examine. While everyone goes down some blind allys, you need to keep
the central meaning of your topic in mind to guideyou through your search
of the literature in the field. It is also important to examine different types
of materials where relevant; quantitative data interpretations, studies using
various methods.
For the research proposal, you should refer to the most salient
findings you have uncovered which seem to raise significant questions or
which offer suggestions for avenues for you to follow your project. You
must be able to draw out these findings from the studies in which they are
embedded and summarize them succinctly in such a way that someone
unfamiliar with the study can easily graps their meaning and importance.
To help you to do this, you should look at the background literature review
section which generally come at the beginning of published research
articles. Most of these reviews are very condensed, they extract a few
salient points from numerous studies, summarizing them in a way that is
relevant to the study in question.
Stage 3: Clarify Concepts and Their Measurement
The precise meaning you attach to these concepts must be found or
defised, and then an appropriate way to measure concepts must be found
or devise.

In the proposal, a clear definition of the main concepts must be


given. The general question of measurement should be discussed so that it
is clear that the potential problems in measuring the concepts have been
thoroughly thought out. These include two critical issues: validity, that is,
wheter the measurement of a concept in fact produces a result that truly
represent what the concepst is supposed to mean, and reability, that is
whether the measurement would lead to consistent enough outcomes, were
it to be repeated, that one could have some confidence in result.
Stage 4: Establish an Appropriate Data Collection Method
For the proposal, you must describe how you will collect data and
which source of available data you will actually use. Issues of access to the
data are importantto discuss. After all, you must be able to get the data you
propose. If an anticipate problema in securing the desire data, these
problems should be discuss and possible alternate source of data might be
suggested. Most studies have one central type of method to be used (a
survey and experiment) though they may also draw on a few other data
sources to widen their scope.
You must also plan how you are going to analyze the data. Do you
intend to compare woman with man, to contrast one drug rehabilitation
program with another, to explore the difference between length of time
spent in a shopping mal by the average shopper on terms of wheater it is a
covered or out-of-door mall? Such intention require that the planned
contrast be set into the sampling design. Will you have comparable
samples of woman and man, which drug programs you will study, and
what shopping malls should be selected?
Stage 5: Consider the Purpose, Value, and Ethics of the Study
Once the topic, the background, the clarification of concepts, and
the major methods of data collection have been presented, it is time to
address the purpose, velue, and ethics of the study. In this book, discussion
of these kinds of questions was deliberately presented early, before the
discussion of concepts, measuremet, or types of methods. This was done to
help you think through how you would justify your study in terms of both
is rationale and the ethical issues involved can be discussed. Remember

that the rationale for doing the project will be accomplished only if the
study is done well. By showing that you have devised a plan to study your
topic that looks plausible and seems feasible, you reinforce the sense that
the purpose will be achieved. The value of the project lies on only in what
it alone will produce, but also in how it may add to or challenge other
research in the area.
The ethical issues are often confronted in the data collection stage,
for examples, in maintaining the confidentiality of the data, in gaining
access to the field, and in avoiding deception as to the role of the
researcher. If these will be major isuues in your study, they should be
addressed.
Stage 6: Operationalize Cocepts and Design the Reasearch Instrument
This refers to the nuts and bolts of the study. In a survey, the
questionnaire or interview schedule is the operasionalization of the
independent variable is the actual stimulus. in field studies, this process of
operationalizing occurs rather differently. It often must wait until the field
notes have been gathered.
Concepts are sometimes better measured using more than one
indicator of the concept. In a survey, how the concepts are operationalized
in the questionnaire will determine what will be produced from the survey.
If the concepst are poorly operationalized, the best national sample and the
fanciest statistical routines will not make something useful of the data. In
the proposal, the actual way that the concepts will be operationalized
should be spelled out. If a survey is to be carried out, it is usually
appended to a proposal. In addition, the critical questions that measure the
most important concepts in the study should be discussed and their level of
adequacy addressed.
Stage 7: Select a Sample of Subjects to Study
The selection process for deciding what or whom you will study
rest on a large body of thought about the nature of sampling.When
probability samples are used, it is possible to determine haow
representative your sample is off all the other out there (the population)
who might have gotten into your study. Sampling plans may be very
complex or quite straightforward. When the rules probability are not

followed and you merely select a sample of subject who seem to fulfill the
needs of your study, you have a non-probability sample. For many studies,
such a sample is sufficient; and for some, it is the best that can be
achieved. Whatever the design of your sample, it needs to be explained in
detail in your proposal. It should be so precise that someone else could
generate a similar sample by following your procedures.
Stage 8: Collect the Data
Each form of the data collection has its special concerns which
need to be considered fully before doing the study. This is why prestesting
is so valuable, because it helps you to find and address potential problems
before they enter your study and cause bigger problems.
For the proposal, the plans for collecting data should be described
carefully. In a field project, it is more difficult to be precise, and you may
need to make changes once the field is entered. Nevertheless it is better to
have a clear plan can that be altered as you go along than only some vague
ideas that subsequently you cannot be sure you have followed. For an
experiment, data collection procedures can usually described very
precisely. This is also true of a survey. Mail surveys tend to have multiple
stages in the data collection procedure to increase the response rate. If you
are using already available data, you need to describe at this stage how you
will obtain the data.
Stage 9: Process the Data
Once the data are collected, they must be put into a form which
will enable them to be analyzed, if they are quantifiable data, you usually
have to prepare them for the computer. In the proposal, a concise statement
may be included to address this subject. It may describe what type of
computer ficilities are at the disposal of the research, what possible
sources of assistance are available. And what efforts are being made to
increase accuracy in the handling of the data.
Stage 10: Analyze The Data
How you plan to analyze the data must be thought through
carefully while the study is being desaigned. Its true that once the data are
collected, there may be some changes in these plans. The proposal should
indicate the anlyses planned; it may suggest that some analytic strategies

will depend on how earlier ones turn out. In a field study, only very
preliminary plans will problaby be possible.
Stage 11: Present The Result
For research projects which are funded, final reports must be
written. Most social research projects become

the basist for articles, books,

chapters in books, or unpublished papers offered at professional meetings. A


single study may lead to many and varied types of publications and presentations.